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Sample records for cattle age determination

  1. Morphological study of bacterial pneumonia of feedlot cattle: Determination of age of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    1989-01-01

    Lungs from 48 feedlot cattle that had died from bacterial pneumonia were examined grossly and microscopically. Criteria based on microscopic lesions were adopted to age these pneumonias. In 38 cases, pneumonic lesions were of relatively uniform age throughout the affected tissue. In eight other cases, the presence of older lesions confined to one or two lobes suggested a previous episode of pneumonia. The aging criteria adopted were in agreement with the duration of the observed clinical signs in 26 cases. In 13 other cases, the pneumonia was estimated to be of longer duration than suggested by the history, whereas in the remaining nine cases, it was estimated to be more recent. Areas of tan discoloration of the parenchyma surrounded by white or yellow borders were considered the best areas to examine microscopically since they offered the best chances of revealing necrosis and fibrosis, the main lesions used to age the pneumonia. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423236

  2. Age-dependent patterns of bovine tuberculosis in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important livestock disease, seriously impacting cattle industries in both industrialised and pre-industrialised countries. Like TB in other mammals, infection is life long and, if undiagnosed, may progress to disease years after exposure. The risk of disease in humans is highly age-dependent, however in cattle, age-dependent risks have yet to be quantified, largely due to insufficient data and limited diagnostics. Here, we estimate age-specific reactor rates in Great Britain by combining herd-level testing data with spatial movement data from the Cattle Tracing System (CTS). Using a catalytic model, we find strong age dependencies in infection risk and that the probability of detecting infection increases with age. Between 2004 and 2009, infection incidence in cattle fluctuated around 1%. Age-specific incidence increased monotonically until 24–36 months, with cattle aged between 12 and 36 months experiencing the highest rates of infection. Beef and dairy cattle under 24 months experienced similar infection risks, however major differences occurred in older ages. The average reproductive number in cattle was greater than 1 for the years 2004–2009. These methods reveal a consistent pattern of BTB rates with age, across different population structures and testing patterns. The results provide practical insights into BTB epidemiology and control, suggesting that targeting a mass control programme at cattle between 12 and 36 months could be beneficial. PMID:24131703

  3. Age-dependent patterns of bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Conlan, Andrew J K; Mitchell, Andy P; Blackwell, Ruth; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Wood, James L N

    2013-10-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important livestock disease, seriously impacting cattle industries in both industrialised and pre-industrialised countries. Like TB in other mammals, infection is life long and, if undiagnosed, may progress to disease years after exposure. The risk of disease in humans is highly age-dependent, however in cattle, age-dependent risks have yet to be quantified, largely due to insufficient data and limited diagnostics. Here, we estimate age-specific reactor rates in Great Britain by combining herd-level testing data with spatial movement data from the Cattle Tracing System (CTS). Using a catalytic model, we find strong age dependencies in infection risk and that the probability of detecting infection increases with age. Between 2004 and 2009, infection incidence in cattle fluctuated around 1%. Age-specific incidence increased monotonically until 24-36 months, with cattle aged between 12 and 36 months experiencing the highest rates of infection. Beef and dairy cattle under 24 months experienced similar infection risks, however major differences occurred in older ages. The average reproductive number in cattle was greater than 1 for the years 2004-2009. These methods reveal a consistent pattern of BTB rates with age, across different population structures and testing patterns. The results provide practical insights into BTB epidemiology and control, suggesting that targeting a mass control programme at cattle between 12 and 36 months could be beneficial.

  4. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score.

    PubMed

    Raines, C R; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Knock, R C

    2008-12-01

    This research explores the relationship between generally accepted and alternative cattle age-prediction methods and chronological age. Cattle (n = 386) of documented ages ranging from 370 to 1,115 d of age were used. Dentition (DEN), USDA maturity score (MS), lens weight (LW), and lens total N (LN) content were used as possible predictors of age. Correlations with age were determined: LW (r = 0.77); DEN (r = 0.74); LN (r = 0.71); and MS (r = 0.64). Stepwise backward regression was used to generate an age prediction equation: Age (mo) = -21.79 + 17.23(LW, g) + 0.038(DEN). By this equation, 38% of cattle age were verified as age. Independent measures verified the following percentages of cattle as age: LW (20.2%), MS (11.0%), DEN (9.6%), and LN (8.7%). The DEN verified that 87.6% were verified as <30 mo old, and LW verified 81.6% of cattle as <30 mo old. A separate group of cattle (n = 18) ranging in age from 1 to 12 yr were evaluated for lens properties, for which LW (R(2) = 0.91) and LN (R(2) = 0.92) were highly correlated with age. The LW and DEN were the best predictors of age for cattle 13- to 37-mo-old and yielded the most accurate age prediction when used in combination (R(2) = 0.67).

  5. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  6. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  7. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  8. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  9. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  10. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  11. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  12. Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

    2010-12-01

    Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources.

  13. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  14. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  15. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  16. Effect of cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity on lung respiratory lesions and liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...

  17. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Seraina; Juillerat, Valerie; Doherr, Marcus G; Haase, Bianca; Polak, Miroslaw; Ehrensperger, Felix; Leeb, Tosso; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Background The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical BSE (C-type) in biochemical properties of the pathological prion protein. Depending on the molecular mass and the degree of glycosylation of its proteinase K resistant core fragment (PrPres), mainly determined in samples derived from the medulla oblongata, these atypical cases are currently classified into low (L)-type or high (H)-type BSE. In the present study we address the question to what extent such atypical BSE cases are part of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland. Results To this end we analyzed the biochemical PrPres type by Western blot in a total of 33 BSE cases in cattle with a minimum age of eight years, targeting up to ten different brain regions. Our work confirmed H-type BSE in a zebu but classified all other cases as C-type BSE; indicating a very low incidence of H- and L-type BSE in Switzerland. It was documented for the first time that the biochemical PrPres type was consistent across different brain regions of aging animals with C-type and H-type BSE, i.e. independent of the neuroanatomical structure investigated. Conclusion Taken together this study provides further characteristics of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland and generates new baseline data for the definition of C- and H-type BSE phenotypes, thereby underpinning the notion that they indeed represent distinct prion disease entities. PMID:19470160

  18. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  19. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  20. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C

    2011-07-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

  1. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  2. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights, scrotal circumference, and testicular volume measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silva, J A V; Sesana, R C; Sesana, J C; Junqueira, J B; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-04-01

    Data from 129,575 Nellore cattle born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to the Jacarezinho cattle-raising farm, were used to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference measured at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12), and 18 (SC18) mo of age and testicular volume measured at the same ages (TV9, TV12, and TV18) and to determine their correlation with weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW), to provide information for the definition of selection criteria in beef cattle. Estimates of (co)variance components were calculated by the REML method applying an animal model in single- and multiple-trait analysis. The following heritability estimates and their respective SE were obtained for WW, YW, SC9, SC12, SC18, TV9, TV12, and TV18: 0.33 +/- 0.02, 0.37 +/- 0.03, 0.29 +/- 0.03, 0.39 +/- 0.04, 0.42 +/- 0.03, 0.19 +/- 0.04, 0.26 +/- 0.05, and 0.39 +/- 0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation between WW and YW was positive and high (0.80 +/- 0.04), indicating that these traits are mainly determined by the same genes. Genetic correlations between the growth traits and scrotal circumference measures were positive and of low to moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.38 +/- 0.04. On the other hand, increased genetic associations were estimated between scrotal circumference and testicular volume at different ages (0.61 +/- 0.04 to 0.86 +/- 0.04). Selection for greater scrotal circumference in males should result in greater WW, YW, and testicular volume. In conclusion, in view of the difficulty in measuring testicular volume, there is no need to change the selection criterion from scrotal circumference to testicular volume in genetic breeding programs of Zebu breeds.

  4. Effect of sex, age and genetics on crossover interference in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Li, Jinquan; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Crossovers generated by homologous recombination ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. Crossover interference results in chiasmata being more evenly distributed along chromosomes, but the mechanism underlying crossover interference remains elusive. Based on large pedigrees of Holstein and Jersey cattle with genotype data, we extracted three-generation families, including 147,327 male and 71,687 female meioses in Holstein, and 108,163 male and 37,008 female meioses in Jersey, respectively. We identified crossovers in these meioses and fitted the Housworth-Stahl “interference-escape” model to study crossover interference patterns in the cattle genome. Our result reveals that the degree of crossover interference is stronger in females than in males. We found evidence for inter-chromosomal variation in the level of crossover interference, with smaller chromosomes exhibiting stronger interference. In addition, crossover interference levels decreased with maternal age. Finally, sex-specific GWAS analyses identified one locus near the NEK9 gene on chromosome 10 to have a significant effect on crossover interference levels. This locus has been previously associated with recombination rate in cattle. Collectively, this large-scale analysis provided a comprehensive description of crossover interference across chromosome, sex and age groups, identified associated candidate genes, and produced useful insights into the mechanism of crossover interference. PMID:27892966

  5. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4–8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3–4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort. PMID:26336086

  6. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4-8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3-4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort.

  7. Transfer of aged Pu to cattle grazing on a contaminated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Engel, D.W.; Smith, D.D.; Shinn, J.H.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Eisele, G.R.

    1988-03-01

    Estimates are obtained of the fraction of ingested or inhaled 239+240Pu transferred to blood and tissues of a reproducing herd of beef cattle, individuals of which grazed within fenced enclosures for up to 1064 d under natural conditions with no supplemental feeding at an arid site contaminated 16 y previously with Pu oxide. The estimated (geometric mean (GM)) fraction of Pu transferred from the gastrointestinal tract to blood serum was about 5 x 10(-6) (geometric standard error (GSE) = 1.4) with an approximate upper bound of about 2 x 10(-5). These results are in reasonable agreement with the value of 1 x 10(-5) recommended for human radiation protection purposes by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for insoluble Pu oxides that are free of very small particles. Also, results from a laboratory study by Stanley (St75), in which large doses of /sup 238/Pu were orally administered daily to dairy cattle for 19 consecutive days, suggest that aged 239+240Pu at this arid grazing site may not be more biologically available to blood serum than fresh 239+240Pu oxide. The estimated fractions of 239+240Pu transferred from blood serum to tissues of adult grazing cattle were: femur (3.2 X 10(-2), 1.8; GM, GSE), vertebra (1.4 X 10(-1), 1.6), liver (2.3 X 10(-1), 2.0), muscle (1.3 X 10(-1), 1.9), female gonads (7.9 X 10(-5), 1.5), and kidney (1.4 X 10(-3), 1.7). The blood-to-tissue fractional transfers for cattle initially exposed in utero were greater than those exposed only as adults by a factor of about 4 for femur (statistically significant) and of about 2 for other tissues (not significant). The estimated (GM) fraction of inhaled Pu initially deposited in the pulmonary lung was 0.34 (GSE = 1.3) for adults and 0.15 (GSE = 1.3) for cattle initially exposed in utero (a statistically significant difference).

  8. The IGF1 pathway genes and their association with age of puberty in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Li, Yutao; Collis, Eliza; Zhang, Yuandan; Hawken, Rachel J

    2013-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (somatomedin C) (IGF1) influences gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons during puberty, and GnRH release guides pubertal development. Therefore, genes of the IGF1 pathway are biological candidates for the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting age of puberty. In a genome-wide association study, genotyped heifers were Tropical Composite (TCOMP, n = 866) or Brahman (BRAH, n = 843), with observation of age at first corpus luteum defining puberty. We examined SNPs in or near genes of the IGF1 pathway and report seven genes associated with age at puberty in cattle: IGF1R, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, PERK (HUGO symbol EIF2AK3), PIK3R1, GSK3B and IRS1. SNPs in the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) showed the most promising associations: two SNPs were associated with puberty in TCOMP (P < 0.05) and one in BRAH (P = 0.00009). This last SNP explained 2% of the genetic variation (R(2) = 2.04%) for age of puberty in BRAH. Hence, IGF1R was examined further. Additional SNPs were genotyped, and haplotypes were analysed. To test more SNPs in this gene, four new SNPs from dbSNP were selected and genotyped. Single SNP and haploytpe analysis revealed associations with age of puberty in both breeds. There were two haplotypes of 12 IGF1R SNPs associated with puberty in BRAH (P < 0.05) and one in TCOMP (P < 0.05). One haplotype of two SNPs was associated (P < 0.01) with puberty in BRAH, but not in TCOMP. In conclusion, the IGF1 pathway appeared more relevant for age of puberty in Brahman cattle, and IGF1R showed higher significance when compared with other genes from the pathway.

  9. Atypical BSE (BASE) Transmitted from Asymptomatic Aging Cattle to a Primate

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Casalone, Cristina; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Freire, Sophie; Marcé, Dominique; Auvré, Frédéric; Ruchoux, Marie-Magdeleine; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore; Salès, Nicole; Caramelli, Maria; Leboulch, Philippe; Brown, Paul; Lasmézas, Corinne I.; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) results from foodborne transmission of prions from slaughtered cattle with classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (cBSE). Atypical forms of BSE, which remain mostly asymptomatic in aging cattle, were recently identified at slaughterhouses throughout Europe and North America, raising a question about human susceptibility to these new prion strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Brain homogenates from cattle with classical BSE and atypical (BASE) infections were inoculated intracerebrally into cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis), a non-human primate model previously demonstrated to be susceptible to the original strain of cBSE. The resulting diseases were compared in terms of clinical signs, histology and biochemistry of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres). The single monkey infected with BASE had a shorter survival, and a different clinical evolution, histopathology, and prion protein (PrPres) pattern than was observed for either classical BSE or vCJD-inoculated animals. Also, the biochemical signature of PrPres in the BASE-inoculated animal was found to have a higher proteinase K sensitivity of the octa-repeat region. We found the same biochemical signature in three of four human patients with sporadic CJD and an MM type 2 PrP genotype who lived in the same country as the infected bovine. Conclusion/Significance Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products. PMID:18714385

  10. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss.

  11. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low

  12. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  13. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa A; Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D; van Paridon, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age-abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60-90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997-2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6-24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0-1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10-16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

  14. Growth rate and changes of the somatotropic axis in beef cattle administered exogenous bovine somatotropin beginning at two hundred, two hundred fifty, and three hundred days of age.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, B T; Govoni, K E; Hoagland, T A; Zinn, S A

    2007-11-01

    To determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment beginning at 3 ages on the growth rate and components of the somatotropic axis, 40 beef cattle (200 +/- 21 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (10 animals/treatment). Three of the treatment groups received bST (33 mug/kg of BW) daily beginning at 200, 250, or 300 d of age until all animals reached 400 d of age; the fourth group served as controls (0 bST). Animals were housed in pens (5 animals per pen; 2 pens per treatment) and fed a diet formulated for an ADG of 1.2 kg/d. Feed intake (per pen) was measured daily, and BW was determined weekly. Blood samples (10 mL) and ultrasound measurements were collected at 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 d of age. Serum concentrations of ST and IGF-I were determined by RIA and IGFBP-2 and -3 by ligand blot procedures. Overall, cattle gained 284.0 +/- 14.7 kg of BW with a treatment x week interaction (P < 0.01), such that during the treatment period ADG was 11.6, 8.7, and 15.8% greater (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with bST beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d, respectively, relative to controls during the same time frame. Average DMI was 13.6% less (P < 0.05) in bST-treated cattle than in controls. Increases in ADG coupled with a reduction in DMI resulted in 11.7, 14.0, and 26.4% increases (P < 0.01) in the efficiency of gain (G:F) in bST-treated cattle beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d of age, respectively, compared with contemporary controls. Backfat thickness increased (P < 0.05) over time, but the magnitude of the increase was less in the bST-treated cattle (treatment x week interaction; P < 0.05). Area of the LM increased (P < 0.05) over time but was similar across treatment groups. Serum concentrations of ST, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 increased (P < 0.05), whereas IGFBP-2 decreased (P < 0.05) over time. The changes in the components of somatotropic axis were more pronounced in bST-treated cattle compared with controls, with the greatest magnitude of response

  15. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-11-27

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  16. Determination and correlation of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs and cattle from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, G. Félix; Morales, S. Elizabeth; MartÍnez, M. José; Trigo, J. Francisco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and to compare through an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the presence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in city and farm dogs, as well as in farm cows, and the relationship among them. The correlation between anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm dogs and cattle was also assessed. The research was conducted in the dairy region of Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in farm dogs (n = 14) (51%) when compared to those from the city (n = 6) (20%) (P < 0.05), suggesting that farm dogs have a higher risk of exposure to the parasite. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between males (n = 11) (39%) and females (n = 9) (33%) (P > 0.05). The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm cattle was significantly higher in farms with dogs (n = 158) (58%) when compared to those with no dogs (n = 43) (35%) (P < 0.05). These results suggest the possible transmission of the parasite from dogs to cattle. PMID:12760481

  17. Determination and correlation of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs and cattle from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G Félix; Morales, S Elizabeth; Martínez, M Jóse; Trigo, J Francisco

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and to compare through an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the presence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in city and farm dogs, as well as in farm cows, and the relationship among them. The correlation between anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm dogs and cattle was also assessed. The research was conducted in the dairy region of Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in farm dogs (n = 14) (51%) when compared to those from the city (n = 6) (20%) (P < 0.05), suggesting that farm dogs have a higher risk of exposure to the parasite. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between males (n = 11) (39%) and females (n = 9) (33%) (P > 0.05). The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm cattle was significantly higher in farms with dogs (n = 158) (58%) when compared to those with no dogs (n = 43) (35%) (P < 0.05). These results suggest the possible transmission of the parasite from dogs to cattle.

  18. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  19. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed.

  20. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  1. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  2. A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 mo of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence mic...

  3. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court.

  4. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  5. Random regression models on Legendre polynomials to estimate genetic parameters for weights from birth to adult age in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Alencar, M M

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects, and subsequently, to derive relevant genetic parameters for growth traits in Canchim cattle. Data comprised 49,011 weight records on 2435 females from birth to adult age. The model of analysis included fixed effects of contemporary groups (year and month of birth and at weighing) and age of dam as quadratic covariable. Mean trends were taken into account by a cubic regression on orthogonal polynomials of animal age. Residual variances were allowed to vary and were modelled by a step function with 1, 4 or 11 classes based on animal's age. The model fitting four classes of residual variances was the best. A total of 12 random regression models from second to seventh order were used to model direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects. The model with direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects fitted by quadric, cubic, quintic and linear Legendre polynomials, respectively, was the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability obtained by multi-trait (seven traits) and random regression models were very similar. Selection for higher weight at any age, especially after weaning, will produce an increase in mature cow weight. The possibility to modify the growth curve in Canchim cattle to obtain animals with rapid growth at early ages and moderate to low mature cow weight is limited.

  6. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  7. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  8. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  9. A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves

    PubMed Central

    Parul, Singh; Bist, Basanti; Sharma, Barkha; Jain, Udit; Yadav, Janardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. Materials and Methods: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The VTEC isolates were observed for the enterohemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar (wSBA). Results: A total of 177 presumptive E. coli were isolated from 216 calf fecal samples revealing an overall prevalence of E. coli to be 81.94%. A total of 32 (14.81%) isolates were detected as VTEC through mPCR. The prevalence of verotoxin genes vt1, vt2, and combination of vt1+vt2 in the VTEC isolates was found to be 12 (37.5%), 14 (43.75%), and 6 (18.75%), respectively. Other virulent genes eaeA and hlyA were found in 6 and 11 VTEC strains with prevalence values of 18.75% and 34.37%, respectively. A total of 13 different O serogroups were revealed in serotyping of 32 VTEC isolates. Out of 32 VTEC strains, only 26 (81.25%) were enterohemolytic on wSBA as they produced the characteristic small, turbid zone of hemolysis around the streaking line. Although enterohemolysin production has been attributed to the presence of hlyA gene, only 11 of 26 enterohemolysin producing VTEC were found to be harboring the hlyA gene (11/26) 42.03%. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there might be an association between the presence of verotoxin genes and enterohemolysin production in VTEC group of E. coli. PMID:27651684

  10. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  11. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  12. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  13. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1.

  14. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  15. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  16. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  17. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  18. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  19. Cattle fetal sex determination by polymerase chain reaction using DNA isolated from maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, A S; Silva, D C; Costa, E O A; De M-Jr, P; da Silva, C C; Silva, D M; da Cruz, A D

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of fetal cells/DNA in the maternal plasma of pregnant cows to determine the sex of the fetus. Plasma was harvested from 35 cows of mixed genotype at different stages of pregnancy ranging from 5 to 35 weeks. A male calf and a heifer calf provided the control samples. Fetal sex was determined by amplification of Y-specific sequences. For the 35 cows, the fetal sex predicted by this technique was in accordance with the sex of the calf at birth in 88.6% of cases. The agreement between predicted and observed fetal sex was less for cows with a gestational length of 35-48 days (63.6%). Regression analysis showed that there was a strong relationship between the probability of correctly predicting fetal sex and the stage of gestation. It was estimated that the test performed at 43.8 days post fertilization would have 95% accuracy, increasing to 99% accuracy for testing at 48.4 days and 99.9% accuracy for tests at 55.0 days or later. It was concluded that PCR analysis of fetal cells in maternal plasma can be used to predict successfully the sex of the fetus in cattle.

  20. Species and age determination of central nervous system tissue by fatty acid patterns.

    PubMed

    Griessbach, Maria; Hartmann, Franziska; Massag, Nicole; Baumann, Daniela; Krex, Christian; Biedermann, Wolfgang; Truyen, Uwe; Lücker, Ernst

    2008-01-25

    The banning of specified risk materials (SRMs) from food chain is one of the most important measures to protect the consumer against any exposition with the agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In order to control the SRM-ban, suitable methods for the detection of SRMs have to be developed. In this study homogenized samples of central nervous system (CNS) tissue from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=38) and pig (n=40) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis was focused on the identification of fatty acid ratios for species differentiation and age estimation. We found a novel fatty acid ratio (C24:1(n-9)/(n-7))/(2OH-C24:1(n-9)/(n-7) for species differentiation. For the first time, we used multivariate analysis for species differentiation, based on fatty acid ratios. It showed an excellent predictive ability (Q_(cum)(2))Q_(cum)(2)=0.842. For age estimation in cattle CNS we discovered a novel fatty acid ratio 2OH-C25:0/2OH-C24:1(n-7). The ratio is strongly correlated with age (coefficient of correlation (r)=0.935, Spearman-Rho). The corresponding regression analysis which allows the prediction of age by this ratio was acceptable (coefficient of determination (R(2))=0.831).

  1. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in montane meadows.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Susan K; Lind, Amy J; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H; Roche, Leslie M; Frost, William E; Grasso, Rob L; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  2. Use of multivariate analyses for determining heat tolerance in Brazilian cattle.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Paludo, Giane Regina; Bianchini, Eliandra; Corrêa, Patricia Spoto

    2011-03-01

    Adaptability can be evaluated by the ability of an animal to adjust to environmental conditions and is especially important in extreme weather conditions such as that found in tropical Brazil. A multivariate analysis using physical and physiological traits in exotic (Nellore and Holstein) and naturalized (Junqueira, Curraleira, Mocho Nacional, Crioula Lageana, and Pantaneira) cattle breeds was carried out in the Federal District of Brazil to test and determine which traits are important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress as well as the ability of these traits and statistical techniques to separate the breeds studied. Both physical and physiological traits were measured on three occasions and included body measurements, skin and hair thickness, hair number and length, pigmentation, sweat gland area as well as heart and breathing rates, rectal temperature, sweating rate, and blood parameters. The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses, including cluster, discriminate, and canonical procedures. The tree diagram showed clear distances between the groups studied, and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups. Coat traits explained little variation in physiological parameters. The traits which had higher discriminatory power included packed cell volume, shoulder height, mean corpuscular volume, body length, and heart girth. Morphological and physiological traits were able to discriminate between the breeds tested, with blood and size traits being the most important. More than 80% of animals of all breeds were correctly classified in their genetic group.

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  4. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  5. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  6. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  7. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  8. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  9. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... Spirits § 19.348 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot shall be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the lot. (Sec. 201, Pub. L....

  10. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  11. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  12. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  13. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  14. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  15. Determining ammonia emissions from a cattle feedlot with an inverse dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inverse-dispersion technique is used to calculate ammonia (NH3) gas emissions from a cattle feedlot. The technique relies on a simple backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model to relate atmospheric NH3 concentration to the emission rate Qbls. Because the wind and the source configurat...

  16. Aging and endothelin: determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Since the beginning of the 20th century human life expectancy has doubled to more than 80 years, and growth and aging of the world population now represent major challenges for healthcare providers, political decision makers, and societies. Cellular senescence is associated with a general, pro-inflammatory state, which represents the common denominator between aging and chronic diseases and their progression. Approaches to interfere with these changes and to allow healthy aging involve modulation of the cellular activity of modifiable molecular mediators (MMMs), such as signaling molecules and growth factors. ET-1 - the biologically predominant member of the endothelin peptide family - is an endothelial cell-derived peptide with a wide variety of developmental and physiological functions, which include embryogenesis, nociception, and natriuresis. In addition, ET-1 is a cytokine-like, multifunctional peptide with pro-inflammatory, mitogenic, and vasoconstrictor properties. If produced in excess amounts ET-1 promotes disease - mainly via activation of its ETA receptor. Because of its multiple disease-promoting functions ET-1 represents an ideal target MMM. Preclinical studies targeting either activity or production of ET-1 - utilizing ERAs, ARBs, or ACEIs, respectively - have demonstrated that partial regression of aging-associated changes in vasculature and kidney is possible. In this article I will review the molecular regulation of ET-1 and its role in the physiology of vascular homeostasis, aging, and cellular senescence. The clinical implications of activators of ET-1 overproduction, modalities for delaying or reversing aging-related cellular changes, as well as interventions to promote healthy aging and early disease prevention - particularly physical activity - are discussed.

  17. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  18. Determinants of muscle and bone aging

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, E; Litwic, A; Cooper, C; Dennison, E

    2015-01-01

    Loss of bone and muscle with advancing age represent a huge threat to loss of independence in later life. Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. Sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle mass and function, may add to fracture risk by increasing falls risk. In the context of muscle aging, it is important to remember that it is not just a decline in muscle mass which contributes to the deterioration of muscle function. Other factors underpinning muscle quality come into play, including muscle composition, aerobic capacity and metabolism, fatty infiltration, insulin resistance, fibrosis and neural activation. Genetic, developmental, endocrine and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, smoking and poor diet have dual effects on both muscle and bone mass in later life and these will be reviewed here. These include poor nutrition, lack of physical activity and cigarette smoking, comorbidities or medication use. Recent work has highlighted a possible role for the early environment. Inflammaging is an exciting emerging research field that is likely to prove relevant to future work, including interventions designed to retard to reverse bone and muscle loss with age. PMID:25820482

  19. Foetal age determination and development in elephants

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Drews, Barbara; Gaeth, Ann P; Goeritz, Frank; Hermes, Robert; Schmitt, Dennis; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Streich, Wolf Juergen; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown–rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85–90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation. PMID:17164195

  20. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  1. [Therapeutic efficacy of buparvaquone (buparvon) in cattle with theileriosis].

    PubMed

    Saruhan, Bariş; Paşa, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of buparvaquone (Buparvon, ALKE, Istanbul) in the treatment of theileriosis in cattle. The causative agent T. annulata causes direct and indirect gross economical loss in Turkey. Theileriosis was microscopically diagnosed by determining the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes in thin blood smears stained with Giemsa stain. Buparvaquone was administered intramuscularly to the cattle with theileriosis using a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Clinical and laboratory examinations in cattle with theileriosis were carried out before and on the first, third and seventh days after treatment. As a result, it was concluded that a single deep intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg buparvaquone was effective in the treatment of cattle which are naturally infected with T. annulata. However, further studies are needed using control groups of the same breed and age including suitable numbers of naturally infected and experimentally infected cattle.

  2. Characterization of fecal microbiota from a Salmonella endemic cattle herd as determined by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Scupham, Alexandra J; Bearson, Shawn M D; Carlson, Steve A

    2009-05-12

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is composed of complex communities. For all species examined thus far, culture and molecular analyses show that these communities are highly diverse and individuals harbor unique consortia. The objective of the current work was to examine inter-individual diversity of cattle fecal microbiota and determine whether Salmonella shedding status correlated with community richness or evenness parameters. Using a ribosomal gene array-based approach, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of ribosomal genes (OFRG), we analyzed 1440 16S genes from 19 fecal samples obtained from a cattle herd with a history of salmonellosis. Identified bacteria belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (53%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Proteobacteria (17%). Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene clones revealed that Spirochaetes and Verrucomicrobia were also present in the feces. The majority of Firmicutes present in the feces belonged to the order Clostridiales, which was verified via dot blot analysis. beta-Proteobacteria represented 1.5% of the bacterial community as determined by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis of the 16S libraries from the 19 animals indicated very high levels of species richness and evenness, such that individual libraries represented unique populations. Finally, this study did not identify species that prevented Salmonella colonization or resulted from Salmonella colonization.

  3. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index. PMID:21734821

  4. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-04-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

  5. Lead-alpha age determinations of granitic rocks from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Jaffe, H.W.; Waring, C.L.

    1957-01-01

    Lead-alpha activity age determinations were made on zircon from seven granitic rocks of central and southeastern Alaska. The results of the age determinations indicate two periods of igneous intrusion, one about 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, and another about 53 million years ago, during the early part of the Tertiary. The individual ages determined on zircon from 2 rocks from southeastern Alaska and 1 from east-central Alaska gave results of 90, 100, and 96 million years; those determined on 4 rocks from central Alaska gave results of 47, 56, 58, and 51 million years.

  6. Thelazia rhodesii infection on cattle in Kupang district.

    PubMed

    Djungu, D F L; Retnani, E B; Ridwan, Y

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, the intensity, infection, clinical sign, to identify species and to investigate associated risk factors of thelaziosis in cattle in Kupang district, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. A total of 385 head of cattle were randomly selected from 96 farms in three subdistricts of Kupang District and observed for thelaziosis. The nematode present in the eye of cattle were collected with a forcep after administering local anesthesia (10% Xylocaine). The potential risk factors related to age of cattle, human resources and farm management were obtained by interviewing the farmers. Logistic regression was applied to analyze related risk factor of thelaziosis. The result showed that of the total 385 cattle observed, 23 (5.96%) were infected by Thelazia spp., of which 22 cattle showed apparent clinical signs namely excessive lacrimation and conjunctivitis that led to keratoconjunctivitis, while one cattle showed ulceration. A total of 357 worms (157 males and 210 female) were collected from 23 infected cattle with the mean number of worms in infected cattle being 32.92 ± 21.03. Observations on morphological characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) helped to identify the nematode species as Thelazia rhodesii. The infection was more prevalent in older cattle (≥ 6-12 month old) than calves (0-6 month old) (P<0.05). Significant risk factors of animal husbandry practices affecting the prevalence of thelaziosis in cattle were anthelmintic treatment, grazing management, barn cleaning, and manure management. Our results highlight that significant risk factors of the disease should be considered in designing strategic control programs for thelaziosis.

  7. Immunochemical determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in cattle hair: a strategy to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Fátima; Pinacho, Daniel G; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

    2014-08-15

    Enrofloxacin (ERFX) is a synthetic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone (FQ) family, which is commonly administered in veterinary medicine. ERFX and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), have been reported to accumulate in hair of treated animals. Therefore, hair analysis is an attractive non-invasive alternative to control misuse of such antibiotic and to ensure food safety by preventing such food derived products arrive to the consumer. In this context, an immunochemical analytical protocol has been established to detect ERFX and CPFX residues in cattle hair samples. Unpigmented and pigmented hair were collected from ERFX-treated and non-treated calves, and the aqueous NH4OH extracts were directly analyzed by ELISA, being possible to achieve limits of detection in the range of 10-30 μg kg(-1). A good concordance between HPLC and ELISA measurements was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of the immunochemical procedure reported here to rapidly screen and quantitate FQ residues in hair samples.

  8. Effect of freezing prior to aging on myoglobin redox forms and CIE color of beef from Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina Naves; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; de Miranda Gomide, Lúcio Alberto; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing prior to wet aging on the color of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle meat. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis muscle were subjected to two treatments: conventional aging (0, 7, 14 and 21days); and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging. Freezing promoted (P<0.05) formation of metmyoglobin during aging, especially in Nellore beef. Frozen meats showed (P<0.05) lower lightness (L*) values and higher redness (a*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) values at the first day of storage, deteriorating quickly with aging time. The color of the Nellore meat was less (P<0.05) stable to freezing, being lighter, yellower and less red than Angus meat. The results suggest that color stability in vacuum-packed beef is reduced by freezing prior to aging and that reduction depends on the animal breed.

  9. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Aider les cliniciens à attribuer un âge gestationnel en fonction des résultats de la biométrie échographique. Issues : Déterminer si la datation par échographie offre une évaluation plus précise de l’âge gestationnel que la datation en fonction des dernières règles avec ou sans recours à l’échographie. Offrir, aux praticiens et aux chercheurs du domaine des soins de maternité, des lignes directrices factuelles en matière d’attribution de l’âge gestationnel. Identifier les paramètres biométriques échographiques qui sont de fiabilité supérieure lorsque l’âge gestationnel est incertain. Déterminer la rentabilité de l’évaluation de l’âge gestationnel par échographie. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE et The Cochrane Library en 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « gestational age », « ultrasound biometry » et « ultrasound dating »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles rédigés en anglais. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de dates. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’au 31 juillet 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé pr

  10. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  11. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  12. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants.

    PubMed

    Aka, P Sema; Canturk, Nergis; Dagalp, Rukiye; Yagan, Murat

    2009-01-30

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses and infants by examining metric tooth development of central incisors in deceased fetuses and infants. Five dimensions of 76 maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured: mesio-distal (MD), bucco-lingual (BL), crown height (CH), crown thickness (CT), and root height (RH). The results showed that 44.45+/-0-2 weeks is a sectional time for age calculations, which corresponds to 40 weeks from conception plus 4 to 5 weeks after birth. Four ATA entitled age formulas are derived to give the relation of age with tooth dimensions before and after 44.45 weeks [ATA is the special name given to the honor of the great Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)]. Age estimation can be calculated from these formulas with an accuracy of the age +/-0-2 weeks. Also, calcification time can be determined from ATA formulas. In conclusion, the age of fetuses and infants can be assessed by the measurements of a single central incisor. According to this research, when estimating age during identification studies, forensic researchers must take into consideration the period of embryonic human growth and development.

  13. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases.

  14. Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages are presented in the form of computer printouts. Decay constants, analytical expressions for the functions evaluated, and the precision of the calculations are briefly discussed.

  15. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  16. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were co...

  17. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  18. Changes in taste compounds, breaking properties, and sensory attributes during dry aging of beef from Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Tsuyuki, Risako; Kato, Kenichi; Egusa, Ai; Ogoshi, Hiro; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the quality of highly marbled beef during dry aging for 60days after slaughter showed that the changes in some qualities differed from those of conventional meat. The tenderness of these meats did not change during aging for 50days but then gradually increased until day 60. The juiciness of these meats, as determined by sensory evaluation, did not change during aging for 60days, except for a decrease on day 20. The umami intensity of these meats in the sensory evaluation and the value calculated by Glu and IMP quantification were highest on day 40. This high umami intensity was induced by the synergistic effect of umami compounds such as Glu and IMP. These results for tenderness, juiciness, umami intensity, and flavor intensity suggested that the best duration of dry aging for highly marbled beef was 40days.

  19. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Véronique; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Fontenille, Didier; Durand, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of

  20. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Saskatchewan cattle: characterization of isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, antibiotic resistance profiles, and pathogenicity determinants.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Korber, Darren R

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 associated with feedlot cattle in Saskatchewan was determined in a 10-month longitudinal study (3 feedlots) and a point prevalence study (20 feedlots). The prevalence of E. coli O157 at the three different sites in the horizontal study varied from 2.5 to 45%. The point prevalence of E. coli O157 among Saskatchewan cattle from 20 different feedlots ranged from 0% to a high of 57%. A statistically significant (P = 0.003) positive correlation was determined to exist between the density of cattle and the E. coli O157 prevalence rate. A significant correlation (P = 0.006) was also found between the E. coli O157 percent prevalence and the number of cattle housed/capacity ratio. All 194 E. coli O157 isolates obtained were highly virulent, and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis revealed that the isolates grouped into 39 different E. coli O157 subtypes, most of which were indigenous to specific feedlots. Two of the most predominant subtypes were detected in 11 different feedlots and formed distinct clusters in two geographic regions in the province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the E. coli O157 isolates revealed that 10 were multidrug resistant and that 73 and 5 were resistant to sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, respectively.

  1. Dose determination of the persistent activity of moxidectin long-acting injectable formulations against various nematode species in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, T A; Williams, J C; Smith, L L; Tucker, C; Loyacano, A F; Derosa, A; Peterson, P; Bruer, D J; Delay, R L

    2006-04-30

    The effectiveness, safety and production-enhancing benefit (improved weight gains) of moxidectin long-acting injection given subcutaneously in the ear at the rates of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg bw were evaluated in three studies under common protocol. The only adverse reaction to treatment was a mild (<2 tablespoons in volume), and for the most part transient (<28 days for the treatment rate of 1.0mg/kg bw) injection site swelling as noted in a minority of the animals (12.2% of the animals treated at the rate of 1.0mg/kg bw). Regardless of study site, post-treatment interval or dose rate, average daily gains were improved over control cattle by approximately 33%. Reductions in strongyle EPG counts relative to controls were > or = 90% for all dose rates of moxidectin for a post-treatment period of 42 days (Wisconsin), 84 days (Arkansas) and 140 days (Louisiana). In Arkansas and Louisiana, the majority (>80%) of post-treatment strongyle eggs, as determined by coproculture, were Cooperia spp. As determined by sequential necropsies, periods of continuous, post-treatment protection (> or = 90% efficacy in at least two out of three studies) for moxidectin long-acting injection given at the rate of 1.0 mg/kg bw were 90 days (adult Haemonchus spp.), 120 days (Dictyocaulus viviparus and adult Ostertagia and Oesophagostomum) and 150 days (Ostertagia spp. EL4).

  2. Age at first marriage in Nepal: differentials and determinants.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Tika Ram

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the differentials and determinants of female age at first marriage in rural Nepal. The life table technique was employed to calculate median age at marriage. The proportional hazard model was used to study the effect of various socioeconomic variables, and to identify the magnitude and significance of their effects on the timing of first marriage. The data were taken from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts in rural Nepal. Both married and unmarried females of marriageable age were included in the survey. Median age at marriage was about 17 years for data from only married females, whereas it was about 18 years for data from married as well as unmarried females of marriageable age. Median age at marriage was about 16 years for uneducated females and 19 years for females educated up to intermediate or higher level. The analysis underestimates the median age at marriage for married females, probably due to right censoring. The risk of getting married early decreased gradually with increasing year-of-birth cohort. The risk of early marriage was higher among females of high socioeconomic status compared with those of low socioeconomic status. Females engaged in service married earlier than those engaged in household work. High socioeconomic status families are motivated, for religious and prestige reasons, to get their daughters married at an early age, preferably before menarche. Thus, education, occupation and age at menarche are the most powerful factors in deciding the timing of first marriage in Nepal.

  3. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  4. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near infrared (1.51-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ˜0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  5. Age at first marriage in Viet Nam: patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H M

    1997-06-01

    "Using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey, this article examines the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage. It shows that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage. It identifies regional variations and discusses the significant impact of warfare on the country's age patterns of marriage. It concludes by bringing out the implications of the study for policy purposes." The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.

  6. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  7. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; APOGEE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40 %. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the prior on the SFH, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of a model SFH from the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model shows a clear relation between age and [α/M] at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we construct a full age probability distribution function and determine ages for individual stars. The age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~ 0.5 dex spread in metallicity. For stars with ages > 1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  8. Age determination of asylum seekers and alleged people smugglers.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Ranson, David

    2012-12-01

    This column discusses the issues encountered when courts attempt to determine if an individual who has no reliable age at birth documentation has reached adulthood, or is still a legal minor. This issue has recently received a high level of public interest due to the wrongful imprisonment in Australian adult prisons of Indonesian minors accused of people smuggling following the determination, subsequently shown to be incorrect, that they were adults. The discussion explains current deficits existing in the science of age estimation with reference to the recent Australia Human Rights Commission "Inquiry into the Treatment of Individuals Suspected of People Smuggling Who Say That They are Children". Future research possibilities in the science of age estimation which may help to resolve many of the issues are explored.

  9. DETERMINING AGES OF APOGEE GIANTS WITH KNOWN DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Holtzman, Jon; Bovy, Jo; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-20

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near infrared (1.51–1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass–age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age–[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age–metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ∼0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  10. [A new method of determining ages: chronological classification].

    PubMed

    Gubry, P

    1983-01-01

    Two methods of determining ages, the historical calendar method and the classification method, are compared using data for Chad from the UDEAC-TCHAD demographic survey. Complementary processing shows that the classification method is more accurate for those born in villages, while the historical method is more accurate for those born elsewhere. (summary in ENG)

  11. Impact of asteroseismology on improving stellar ages determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High precision photometry as performed by the CoRoT and Kepler satellites on-board instruments has allowed to detect stellar oscillations over the whole HR diagram. Oscillation frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles, themselves tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state of stars. Seismic diagnostics performed on stellar internal structure models allow to infer the age and mass of oscillating stars. The accuracy and precision of the age determination depend both on the goodness of the observational parameters (seismic and classical) and on our ability to model a given star properly. They therefore suffer from any misunderstanding of the physical processes at work inside stars (as microscopic physics, transport processes...). In this paper, we recall some seismic diagnostics of stellar age and we illustrate their efficiency in age-dating the CoRoT target HD 52265.

  12. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  13. Hsp72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Berg, Peer; Loeschcke, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily considered as being intracellular, this study identified the presence of Hsp72 in plasma from female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Plasma samples were collected from the same animals at different ages and on different days after calving and accordingly divided into 5 age classes. The age classes were calves less than 235 days of age, young heifers between 235 and 305 days of age, older heifers between 305 and 560 days of age, cows early in lactation, and cows later in lactation. For a subsample of animals within each age class, replicate plasma samples were collected from 1 to 7 days apart to test whether the Hsp72 concentration levels are repeatable on this shorter timescale. Hsp72 was observed in plasma samples from animals of all 5 age classes. For animals with blood samples taken a few days apart, the repeatability (within age class) of the Hsp72 concentration was 0.52 +/- 0.06. Age and days from calving significantly affected the Hsp72 concentration level. The highest Hsp72 level was observed in older heifers (305-560 days of age). The repeatability of Hsp72 concentrations across age classes within animal was 0.22 +/- 0.06. High environmental sensitivity and negative genetic associations between production and health traits in this high-producing breed have been documented earlier. Hsp72 is believed to be strictly stress inducible, and the finding of Hsp72 in plasma indicates that even apparently healthy individuals may experience extrinsic or intrinsic stress (or both).

  14. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  15. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  16. Simple visual assay for determination of Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin neutralizing antibody titers in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, M J; Confer, A W; Kreps, J A

    1985-01-01

    A simple visual assay is described for determining the capacity of bovine serum to neutralize the cytotoxin produced by Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. The test was reproducible from day to day with different target cell populations and cytotoxin preparations. Cytotoxin neutralization titers obtained by the visual assay were comparable to those determined by the trypan blue exclusion and 51Cr-release methods. The visual assay was used to measure neutralization titers of bovine sera obtained from vaccination experiments and fractions of purified serum obtained by gel filtration. The major advantages of the visual assay over other assays are that it is rapid, inexpensive, and does not use radioisotopes. It also does not require specialized equipment, making it adaptable to most laboratories. Images PMID:3905853

  17. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  18. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  19. A determination and comparison of urease activity in feces and fresh manure from pig and cattle in relation to ammonia production and pH changes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production.

  20. Effects of age of cattle, turning technology and compost environment on disappearance of bone from mortality compost.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Hao, X; Xu, S; McAllister, T A; Larney, F; Leonard, J J

    2009-10-01

    As residual bones in mortality compost negatively impact subsequent tillage, two studies were performed. For the first study, windrows of mature cattle or calves were placed on a base of barley straw and covered with beef manure. Windrows were divided into two sections and turned at 3-month intervals. Approximately 5000 kg of finished compost per windrow was passed through a 6mm trommel screen, with bones collected and weighed. Bone weight was 0.66% of mature cattle compost and 0.38% of calf compost on a dry matter basis, but did not differ after adjustment for weights of compost ingredients. In a subsequent study, four windrows were constructed containing mortalities, straw and beef manure (STATC) or straw, manure and slaughter waste (STATW). Also, straw, beef manure and slaughter waste was added to an 850 L rolling drum composter (DRUMW). Fresh bovine long-bones from calves were collected, weighed and embedded in the compost. Bones were retrieved and weighed when windrows were turned, or with DRUMW, after 8 weeks. Temperatures achieved followed the order STATW>STATC>DRUMW (p<0.05). Rate of bone disappearance followed a pattern identical to temperature, with the weight of bones in STATW declining by 53.7% during 7 weeks of composting. For STATC, temperatures were uniform over three composting periods, but bone disappearance was improved (p<0.05) when compost dry matter was lower (46%), as compared to 58%. Using a ratio of five parts manure to one part mortalities, results of this study demonstrated that residual bone was <1% of cured cattle compost and may be reduced by maintaining a high compost temperature and moisture content.

  1. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. Aims: To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. Settings and Design: A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Materials and Methods: 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Statistical Analysis: Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results: Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Conclusion: Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE. PMID:28123278

  2. Risk factors for Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle in the United Kingdom: A farm-level case-control study and assessment of the role of movement history, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (P<0.001; 95% CI: 3.3-5.52) more

  3. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution.

  4. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-05-18

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  5. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K.; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  6. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  7. Towards global age-friendly cities: determining urban features that promote active aging.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more "age-friendly," the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities". In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings; transportation; housing; social participation; respect and social inclusion; civic participation and employment; communication and information; and community support and health services. In 33 cities, partners conducted 158 focus groups with persons aged 60 years and older from lower- and middle-income areas of a locally defined geographic area (n = 1,485). Additional focus groups were held in most sites with caregivers of older persons (n = 250 caregivers) and with service providers from the public, voluntary, and commercial sectors (n = 515). No systematic differences in focus group themes were noted between cities in developed and developing countries, although the positive, age-friendly features were more numerous in cities in developed countries. Physical accessibility, service proximity, security, affordability, and inclusiveness were important characteristics everywhere. Based on the recurring issues, a set of core features of an age-friendly city was identified. The Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities" released by WHO serve as reference for other communities to assess their age readiness and plan change.

  8. Virulence Gene Profiles and Clonal Relationships of Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates from Feedlot Cattle as Determined by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rump, Lydia V.; Cao, Guojie; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized mainly into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) O26, carrying a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and mostly causing mild diarrhea, and Shiga-toxigenic (STEC) O26, which carries the Shiga toxin (STX) gene (stx), responsible for more severe outcomes. stx-negative O26 strains can be further split into two groups. One O26 group differs significantly from O26 EHEC, while the other O26 EHEC-like group shows all the characteristics of EHEC O26 except production of STX. In order to determine the different populations of O26 E. coli present in U.S. cattle, we sequenced 42 O26:H11 strains isolated from feedlot cattle and compared them to 37 O26:H11 genomes available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that O26:H11/H− strains in U.S. cattle were highly diverse. Most strains were sequence type 29 (ST29). By wgMLST, two clear lineages could be distinguished among cattle strains. Lineage 1 consisted of O26:H11 EHEC-like strains (ST29) (4 strains) and O26:H11 EHEC strains (ST21) (2 strains), and lineage 2 (36 strains) consisted of O26:H11 EPEC strains (ST29). Overall, our analysis showed U.S. cattle carried pathogenic (ST21; stx1+ ehxA+ toxB+) and also potentially pathogenic (ST29; ehxA+ toxB+) O26:H11 E. coli strains. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that 70% of the cattle strains carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. Our results showed that whole-genome sequence analysis is a robust and valid approach to identify and genetically characterize E. coli O26:H11, which is of importance for food safety and public health. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) carrying LEE, causing mild diarrhea, and

  9. Hierarchical Bayesian inference on genetic and non-genetic components of partial efficiencies determining feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle feed efficiency (FE) can be defined as the ability to convert DMI into milk energy (MILKE) and maintenance or metabolic body weight (MBW). In other words, DMI is conditional on MILKE and MBW (DMI|MILKE,MBW). These partial regressions or partial efficiencies (PE) of DMI on MILKE and MBW ...

  10. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves ‘cognitive reserve,’ or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of ‘metabolic reserve’, where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings, and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging. PMID:22045480

  11. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  12. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  13. Age and sex determination of the Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Simon, John C.; Pratt, Thane K.; Baker, Paul E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We determined the best plumage and morphometric variables for ageing and sexing the Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on east Maui, Hawaii, by examining and measuring 30 museum specimens and 71 live birds captured in mist nets. Juvenal plumage was identified by the presence of pale-tipped wing bars on the middle and greater coverts, grayish olive dorsal plumage, and dingy white underparts and superciliaries. Birds undergoing first prebasic molt retained the juvenal remiges, rectrices, and wing coverts. Birds in first basic plumage possessed juvenal wing bars and a dull juvenal-like plumage. Subsequent molts were complete, and adults lacked wing bars. Adult males had bright yellow plumage on the cheeks, throat, and superciliaries, as did 27% of adult females. All other adult females had less yellow in the underparts. The dorsal plumage of adult females was more variable than adult males and was either yellow-olive like the males or grayish olive. Adult males had longer wing, bill, tail, and tarsometatarsus and greater mass than adult females. Virtually all males and females could be distinguished by wing length. Morphometrics of immature birds were significantly smaller than for adult males. Only immature male wing chord was significantly larger than that of adult females. Although it was difficult to distinguish between immatures and some adult females based on plumage coloration or measurements, a cut-off point of 70.4 mm for wing chord separated 91% of females from 93% of males, regardless of age.

  14. Vru (Sub0144) controls expression of proven and putative virulence determinants and alters the ability of Streptococcus uberis to cause disease in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Sharon A.; Ward, Philip N.; Watson, Michael; Field, Terence R.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation and control of gene expression in response to differing environmental stimuli is crucial for successful pathogen adaptation and persistence. The regulatory gene vru of Streptococcus uberis encodes a stand-alone response regulator with similarity to the Mga of group A Streptococcus. Mga controls expression of a number of important virulence determinants. Experimental intramammary challenge of dairy cattle with a mutant of S. uberis carrying an inactivating lesion in vru showed reduced ability to colonize the mammary gland and an inability to induce clinical signs of mastitis compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of transcriptional differences of gene expression in the mutant, determined by microarray analysis, identified a number of coding sequences with altered expression in the absence of Vru. These consisted of known and putative virulence determinants, including Lbp (Sub0145), SclB (Sub1095), PauA (Sub1785) and hasA (Sub1696). PMID:22383474

  15. [Evaluation of cervical vertebrae for determination of skeletal age].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, M; Leonardi, R; Zaborra, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship among cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal, dental and chronological ages were assessed by the Authors in lateral cephalometric, hand and orthopantomographic x-rays on 72 italian young subjects from 10 to 15 years of age. Statistically significant correlations were found between cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal age both in males and females, while vertebrae age was correlated with dental and chronological ages only in the females.

  16. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  17. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA) play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: NH4+-N (C:N) ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters. PMID:26648921

  18. Exploratory trial to determine the efficacy of the PYthon and the PYthon Magnum slow-release insecticide ear tags for the control of midges (Culicoides spp.), attacking sheep and cattle and flies attacking cattle.

    PubMed

    Goosen, H; de Vries, P J T; Fletcher, M G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic action of the chemical combination zeta-cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide, administered by means of slow-release insecticide-impregnated ear tags, against biting midges (Culicoides spp) attacking sheep and against midges, horn flies (Haematobia irritant), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), and houseflies (Musca domestica) attacking cattle. Treated sheep and cattle were protected 100 percent against blood-feeding midges for two months and there was a clear reduction in the number of midges collected from treated animals. Three days after the ear tags were attached to cattle, the number of horn flies on the cattle was reduced to practically zero and remained at a low level until the end of the trial (day 85). There was also a strong reduction in the numbers of stable flies and houseflies counted.

  19. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  20. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  1. Detection of Schistosoma spindale ova and associated risk factors among Malaysian cattle through coprological survey.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tiong Kai; Low, Van Lun; Lee, Soo Ching; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee; Ngui, Romano; Bathmanaban, Premaalatha; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Sharma, Reuben Sunil Kumar; Jaafar, Tariq; Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2015-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Schistosoma spindale ova and its associated risk factors in Malaysian cattle through a coprological survey. A total of 266 rectal fecal samples were collected from six farms in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall infection rate of S. spindale was 6% (16 of 266). Schistosoma spindale infection was observed in two farms, with a prevalence of 5.4% and 51.9%, respectively. This trematode was more likely to co-occur with other gastro-intestinal parasites (i.e., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., strongyle, Eimeria spp. and Entamoeba spp.). Chi-square analysis revealed that female cattle are less likely to get S. spindale infection as compared to male cattle (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.08-1.06; p < 0.05), and cattle weighing lower than 200 kg, were significantly at higher risk than those higher than 200 kg (OR = 5; 95% CI = 1.07-24.79; p < 0.05) to the infection. Multivariate analysis confirmed that among the cattle in Malaysia, the age (cattle with two year old and higher: OR = 21; 95% CI = 2.48-179.44; p < 0.05) and weight (weighing 200 kg and lower: OR = 17; 95% CI = 3.38-87.19; p < 0.05) were risk factors for S. spindale infection among Malaysian cattle.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon Bieneusi Infections in Naturally Infected Dairy Cattle from Birth to Two Years of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi species/genotypes. It is crucial to know which species and/or genotypes are actually present ...

  3. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all steers received the same high-starch diet. In EWS steers the expression of PPARG, other adipogenic (CEBPA, ZFP423) and lipogenic (THRSP, SREBF1, INSIG1) activators, and several enzymes (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, PCK1, DGAT2) that participate in the process of IMF increased gradually to a peak between 96 and 167 days on treatment. Steers in NW did not achieve similar expression levels even by 222 days on treatment, suggesting a blunted response even when fed a high-starch diet after weaning. High-starch feeding at an early age (EWS) triggers precocious and sustained adipogenesis, resulting in greater marbling. PMID:24516329

  4. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    , and catastrophically disrupt, the saturnian moons. Finally, we present crater counts on the satellites from two different groups. Many of the heavily cratered terrains appear to be nearly saturated, so it is difficult to infer the provenance of the impactors from crater counts alone. More large craters have been found on Iapetus than on any other satellite. Enceladus displays an enormous range of surface ages, ranging from the old mid-latitude plains to the extremely young South Polar Terrain. Cassini images provide some evidence for the reality of Population II. Most of the observed craters may have formed in one or more cataclysms, but more work is needed to determine the roles of heliocentric and planetocentric bodies in creating the craters.

  5. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method in multiple reaction monitoring mode to determine 17alpha-ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair without previous digestion.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, S; Lolo, M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2007-11-14

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for determination of ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair. Hair samples were pulverized with a cryogenic mill followed by a simple extraction with acetonitrile. A dansyl derivatization procedure to improve ethynylestradiol detection was used before the LC-MS/MS analysis in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using alpha-estradiol as an internal standard. The method was validated following the latest EU guidelines using blank hair samples spiked at 2 ng g(-1). The detection capability (CCbeta) was less than 2 ng g(-1), and the decision limit (CCalpha) was 1 ng g(-1). Incurred samples obtained 56 days after cow treatment with ethynylestradiol were analyzed, and the presence of ethynylestradiol in the hair was confirmed in all cases.

  6. Epigenetic Determinants of Healthy and Diseased Brain Aging and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    S., Akbarian; S., Beeri M.; V., Haroutunian

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of normal and diseased brain aging and cognition will have a significant public health impact, given that the oldest-old persons over 85 years of age represent the fastest growing segment in the population in developed countries, with over 30 million new cases of dementia predicted to occur world-wide each year by 2040. Dysregulation of gene expression, and more generally, genome organization and function, is thought to contribute to age-related declines in cognition. Remarkably, nearly all neuronal nuclei that reside in an aged brain had permanently exited from the cell cycle during prenatal development, and DNA methylation and histone modifications and other molecular constituents of the epigenome are likely to play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal health and function throughout the entire lifespan. Here, we provide an overview on age-related changes in the brain’s chromatin structures, highlight potential epigenetic drug targets for cognitive decline and age-related neurodegenerative disease and discuss opportunities and challenges when studying ‘epigenetic biomarkers’ in aging research. PMID:23571692

  7. An independent method for determining the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Hansen, C. J.; Liebert, James; Van Horn, H. M.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-01-01

    An age of 9.3 + or - 2.0 Gyr is derived for the Galactic disk on the basis of comparisons between the sudden drop in the observed luminosity distribution and theoretical evolutionary white dwarf models and allowance for a mean prewhite-dwarf lifetime of 0.3 Gyr. To obtain the age of the universe, the time between the big bang and the first appearance of stars in the Galactic disk is added. The age of the universe is estimated to be 10.3 + or - 2.2 Gyr.

  8. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( < 0.05) basal concentrations of HSP27, Cryab, and HSP70 in the LT than cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  9. Genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among gestation length, birth weight, growth traits and age at first calving in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, R M; Brinks, J S

    1982-09-01

    Data on the Red Angus, Angus and Hereford herds of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa, collected from 1968 to 1976, were analyzed for relationships among gestation length, birth weight, prenatal gain (birth weight adjusted for gestation length), growth traits and age at first calving. A total of 5,691 calf records, 1,783 listing gestation length, were included in the study. Paternal half-sib analyses and least-squares procedures were used to compute heritability estimates and genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations among growth traits, including prenatal gain, were high in all cases. Heritability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .36 and .43, respectively, for bull calves and .37 and .35 for heifer calves. Genetic correlations between these traits were .25 and .22 for bull and heifer calves, respectively. Gestation length was negatively correlated (genetically) with all growth traits except birth weight. This result suggests that faster growing fetuses may trigger parturition earlier than average. Age at first calving was negatively correlated (genetically) with growth traits, indicating a favorable relationship between growth and early reproduction. Analysis of several selection indexes combining either birth weight and yearling weight or gestation length and yearling weight indicated that continued response to selection for growth without excessive increase in birth weight is feasible. Selection for growth and moderate birth weight would be more effective than selection for growth and shorter gestation, suggesting that the former method would both shorten gestation and alter the growth curve. Repeatability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .20 and .22, respectively. Maternal effects accounted for approximately 10% of the variation in each trait.

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  11. BioAge: Toward A Multi-Determined, Mechanistic Account of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Correne A.; Tuokko, Holly A.; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. PMID:25278166

  12. Age of dam and sex of calf adjustments and genetic parameters for gestation length in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H

    2006-01-01

    To estimate adjustment factors and genetic parameters for gestation length (GES), AI and calving date records (n = 40,356) were extracted from the Canadian Charolais Association field database. The average time from AI to calving date was 285.2 d (SD = 4.49 d) and ranged from 274 to 296 d. Fixed effects were sex of calf, age of dam (2, 3, 4, 5 to 10, > or = 11 yr), and gestation contemporary group (year of birth x herd of origin). Variance components were estimated using REML and 4 animal models (n = 84,332) containing from 0 to 3 random maternal effects. Model 1 (M1) contained only direct genetic effects. Model 2 (M2) was G1 plus maternal genetic effects with the direct x maternal genetic covariance constrained to zero, and model 3 (M3) was G2 without the covariance constraint. Model 4 (M4) extended G3 to include a random maternal permanent environmental effect. Direct heritability estimates were high and similar among all models (0.61 to 0.64), and maternal heritability estimates were low, ranging from 0.01 (M2) to 0.09 (M3). Likelihood ratio tests and parameter estimates suggested that M4 was the most appropriate (P < 0.05) model. With M4, phenotypic variance (18.35 d2) was partitioned into direct and maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental components (hd2 = 0.64 +/- 0.04, hm2 = 0.07 +/- 0.01, r(d,m) = -0.37 +/- 0.06, and c2 = 0.03 +/- 0.01, respectively). Linear contrasts were used to estimate that bull calves gestated 1.26 d longer (P < 0.02) than heifers, and adjustments to a mature equivalent (5 to 10 yr old) age of dam were 1.49 (P < 0.01), 0.56 (P < 0.01), 0.33 (P < 0.01), and -0.24 (P < 0.14) d for GES records of calves born to 2-, 3-, 4-, and > or = 11-yr-old cows, respectively. Bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters for GES with birth and adjusted 205-d weaning weights, and postweaning gain. Direct GES was positively correlated with direct birth weight (BWT; 0.34 +/- 0.04) but negatively correlated with maternal

  13. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  14. Shelf life determination of an epoxy resin by accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the study reported were to first define the rate and mode of degradation of an epoxy resin at two storage conditions, 4.4/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, by means of a thermally accelerated aging experiment. Then, samples which had been aged the equivalent of at least 10 years at each storage condition would be tested for conformance to the material specifications. The study's results demonstrate that the commercial resin could be acquired and stored for the required 10 to 11 years without concern over degradation. The expected changes at the two storage temperatures have been defined. Aged resin samples are shown to yield an acceptable product. Sufficient data exist to predict the changes in viscosity and epoxide equivalent of the resin at any other storage temperature of interest. (LEW)

  15. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  16. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age TABLE I-10—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-14—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-13—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-12— Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  1. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  2. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Dubyak, George R.; Berger, Nathan A.; Hanson, Richard W.; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging. PMID:26631730

  3. Determination of GHG and ammonia emissions from stored dairy cattle slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber.

    PubMed

    Minato, Keiko; Kouda, Yasuyuki; Yamakawa, Masaaki; Hara, Satoshi; Tamura, Tadashi; Osada, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a system for measuring emissions from stored slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber. CH(4) , CO(2) , N(2) O and NH(3) emitted from the storage tank of a dairy cattle farm in eastern Hokkaido were measured during summer 2008 (7/16-8/6), fall 2008 (10/2-10/26), spring 2009 (6/2-6/21) and winter 2009 (3/11). Average daily gas emission rates in summer, fall and spring were, respectively, 54.8, 54.2 and 34.3 g/m(2) for CH(4) ; 602, 274 and 254 g/m(2) for CO(2) ; 55.4, 68.2 and trace mg/m(2) for N(2) O; and 0.55, 0.73 and 0.46 g/m(2) for NH(3) . CH(4) , CO(2) and NH(3) emission rates during the brief measurement period in winter were reduced to 1/4, 1/23 and 1/2, respectively, of summer emission rate levels. All gas emissions showed diurnal fluctuation and were greatest during the daytime, when the ambient temperature rose. CH(4) , NH(3) and CO(2) emissions increased significantly during the daytime, and the daily emission (in grams) of each gas was positively correlated with maximum daily temperature. According to the combined spring, summer and fall measurements, the CH(4) , N(2) O and NH(3) annual emission factors were 1.42% (g CH(4) /g volatile solids), 0.02% (g N(2) O-N/g total N) and 0.43% (g NH(3) -N/g total N), respectively.

  4. Effects of monolaurin on ruminal methanogens and selected bacterial species from cattle, as determined with the rumen simulation technique.

    PubMed

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Meile, Leo; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2011-10-01

    Before being able to implement effective ruminal methane mitigation strategies via feed supplementation, the assessment of side effects on ruminal fermentation and rumen microbial populations is indispensable. In this respect we investigated the effects of monolaurin, a methane-mitigating lipid, on methanogens and important carbohydrate-degrading bacteria present in ruminal fluid of dairy cattle in continuous culture employing the rumen simulation technique. In six experimental runs, each lasting for 10 days, four diets with different carbohydrate composition, based on hay, maize, wheat and a maize-wheat mixture, either remained non-supplemented or were supplemented with monolaurin and incubated in a ruminal-fluid buffer mixture. Incubation liquid samples from days 6 to 10 of incubation were analyzed with relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes to assess monolaurin-induced shifts in specific rumen microbial populations in relation to the corresponding non-supplemented diets. Monolaurin completely inhibited Fibrobacter succinogenes in all diets while the response of the other cellulolytic bacteria varied in dependence of the diet. Megasphaera elsdenii remained unaffected by monolaurin in the two diets containing maize, but was slightly stimulated by monolaurin with the wheat and largely with the hay diet. The supply of monolaurin suppressed Methanomicrobiales below the detection limit with all diets, whereas relative 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Methanobacteriales increased by 7-fold with monolaurin in case of the hay diet. Total Archaea were decreased by up to over 90%, but this was significant only for the wheat containing diets. Thus, monolaurin exerted variable effects mediated by unknown mechanisms on important ruminal microbes involved in carbohydrate degradation, along with its suppression of methane formation. The applicability of monolaurin for methane mitigation in ruminants thus depends on the extent to which adverse

  5. Obesity and aging: determinants of endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    Endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. After the discovery of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) by Robert F. Furchgott in 1980 it soon became clear that endothelial cells also release vasoactive factors distinct from nitric oxide (NO) namely, endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCF) as well as hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF). Vasoactive factors derived from endothelial cells include NO/EDRF, reactive oxygen species, endothelins and angiotensins which have either EDRF or EDCF functions, cyclooxygenase-derived EDCFs and EDRFs, and EDHFs. Endothelial factors are formed by enzymes such as NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, converting enyzmes, NADPH oxidases, and epoxigenases, among others, and participate in the regulation of vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions; however, their abnormal regulation due to endothelial cell dysfunction contributes to disease processes such as atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and renal disease. Because of recent changes in world demographics and the declining health status of the world's population, both aging and obesity as independent risk factors for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke, will continue to increase in the years to come. Obesity and associated conditions such as arterial hypertension and diabetes are now also some of the primary health concerns among children and adolescents. The similarities of pathomechanisms activated in obesity and aging suggest that obesity--at least in the vasculature--can be considered to have effects consistent with accelerated, "premature" aging. Pathomechanisms as well as the clinical issues of obesity- and aging-associated vascular changes important for atherosclerosis development and prevention are discussed.

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  7. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  8. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    ) distance to the spectral centroid of a calibration population of 796 faecal samples collected throughout 2 years in four herds. Seasonal trends in pasture quality and responses to management practices were identified adequately and H<3.0 for 98% of faecal samples collected. We conclude that the development of FNIRS equations with confined animals is not only unexpensive and ethically acceptable, but their predictions are also sufficiently accurate to monitor dietary composition (but not intake) of beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

  9. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  10. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  11. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P J

    2007-09-01

    Heat stress causes large reductions in fertility in lactating dairy cows. The magnitude and geographical extent of this problem is increasing because improvements in milk yield have made it more difficult for cows to regulate body temperature during warm weather. There have been efforts to improve fertility during heat stress by exploiting determinants of oocyte and embryonic responses to elevated temperature. Among these determinants are genotype, stage of development, and presence of cytoprotective molecules in the reproductive tract. One effective strategy for increasing pregnancy rate during heat stress is to use embryo transfer to bypass effects of elevated temperature on the oocyte and early embryo. Pregnancy success to embryo transfer in the summer can be further improved by exposure of embryos to insulin-like growth factor-I during culture before transfer. Among the cytoprotective molecules that have been examined for enhancing fertility during heat stress are bovine somatotropin and various antioxidants. To date, an effective method for delivery of these molecules to increase fertility during heat stress has not been identified. Genes in cattle exist for regulation of body temperature and for cellular resistance to elevated temperature. Although largely unidentified, the existence of these genes offers the possibility for their incorporation into dairy breeds through crossbreeding or on an individual-gene basis. In summary, physiological or genetic manipulation of the cow to improve embryonic resistance to elevated temperature is a promising approach for enhancing fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  12. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  13. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Groom, Rosemary J.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i) counting cementum annuli (ii) pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height) (iv) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio) (v) tooth weight and (vi) skull measurements (length, width and height). A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6–24 months; 25–60 months and > 60 months), with a McFadden’s Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  14. Age Determination of Six Intermediate-Age Small Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters with HST/ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S., III; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Harbeck, Daniel; Koch, Andreas; Kayser, Andrea; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-10-01

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend ~3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of ~0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 (~50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 (~67 kpc), have a relative distance of ~17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern part of the SMC, while the youngest (NGC 419

  15. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  16. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection.

    PubMed

    Arzt, Jonathan; Pacheco, Juan M; Smoliga, George R; Tucker, Meghan T; Bishop, Elizabeth; Pauszek, Steven J; Hartwig, Ethan J; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2014-03-01

    Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV-Mut). After aerosolization of FMDV-WT, primary infection sites had significantly greater quantities of FMDV, viral RNA, and type I/III interferon (IFN) activity compared to corresponding tissues from cattle infected with FMDV-Mut. Additionally, FMDV-WT-infected cattle had marked induction of systemic IFN activity in serum. In contrast, FMDV-Mut aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest systemic IFN response nor had viremia. Interestingly, IEL inoculation of FMDV-Mut in cattle restored the virulent phenotype and systemic IFN response. These data indicate that the attenuated phenotype in cattle is associated with decreased replicative efficiency, reflected by decreased innate response. However, attenuation is abrogated by bypassing the common primary infection sites, inducing accelerated viral replication at the inoculation site.

  18. Geo-structural mapping and age determinations of Rembrandt basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Sabrina; Massironi, Matteo; Martellato, Elena; Giacomini, Lorenza; Cremonese, Gabriele; Rothery, David; Prockter, Louise M.

    During its second and thirds flybys MESSENGER imaged a new large and well-preserved basin called Rembrandt Basin (Watters et al., 2009) in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Rembrandt is partially filled by volcanic overlay and is crossed by a marked lobate scarp with some similarities to another prominent mercurian lobate scarp, Beagle Rupes. In attempt to reveal Rembrandt Basin evolution, we mapped its geological units inferring -where possible -their stratigraphic relationships. In addition, we performed crater counts on several of these units and derived age estimates by applying Model Production Function (MPF) absolute-model chronology (Marchi et al., 2009). Since Rembrandt basin (in contrast to other well-seen basins) displays evidence of global-scale in addition to basin-localized deformation (Watters et al. 2009), it is characterized by different tectonic features that in some cases may be controlled by rheological layering within the crust. We attempted to map the contractional and extensional local patterns and the global tectonic features. Notably, the pronounced scarp transecting a 60 km crater near the edge of Rembrandt's inner ring and other structural features in the surrounding regions suggest a linked fault system. The apparent bow shape of this feature could be compared with Beagle Rupes, and similarly may imply special conditions of weakness inside the crust (Rothery and Massironi, 2010). Ref. Watters, T. R., Head, J. W., Solomon, S. C., Robinson, M. S., Chapman, C. R., Denevi, B. W., Fassett, C. I., Murchie, S. L., and Strom, R. G., 2009. Evolution of the Rembrandt Impact Basin on Mercury. Science, 324 , 618-621. Marchi, S., Mottola, S., Cremonese, G., Massironi, M., and Martellato, E., 2009. A new Chronology for the Moon and Mercury. Astronomical Journal, 137 , 4936-4948. Rothery, D. A. and Massironi, M., 2010. Beagle Rupes -evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere. Icarus (In Press).

  19. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  20. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-11—Selection of Retirement Rate Category If participant reaches URA in year— Participant's retirement rate category is— Low 1 if...

  1. Shocked monazite chronometry: integrating microstructural and in situ isotopic age data for determining precise impact ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Timmons M.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Tohver, Eric; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Pearce, Mark A.; Reddy, Steven M.

    2017-03-01

    Monazite is a robust geochronometer and occurs in a wide range of rock types. Monazite also records shock deformation from meteorite impact but the effects of impact-related microstructures on the U-Th-Pb systematics remain poorly constrained. We have, therefore, analyzed shock-deformed monazite grains from the central uplift of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa, and impact melt from the Araguainha impact structure, Brazil, using electron backscatter diffraction, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Crystallographic orientation mapping of monazite grains from both impact structures reveals a similar combination of crystal-plastic deformation features, including shock twins, planar deformation bands and neoblasts. Shock twins were documented in up to four different orientations within individual monazite grains, occurring as compound and/or type one twins in (001), (100), ( 10bar{1} ), {110}, { 212 }, and type two (irrational) twin planes with rational shear directions in [0bar{1}bar{1}] and [bar{1}bar{1}0]. SIMS U-Th-Pb analyses of the plastically deformed parent domains reveal discordant age arrays, where discordance scales with increasing plastic strain. The correlation between discordance and strain is likely a result of the formation of fast diffusion pathways during the shock event. Neoblasts in granular monazite domains are strain-free, having grown during the impact events via consumption of strained parent grains. Neoblastic monazite from the Inlandsee leucogranofels at Vredefort records a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2010 ± 15 Ma (2 σ, n = 9), consistent with previous impact age estimates of 2020 Ma. Neoblastic monazite from Araguainha impact melt yield a Concordia age of 259 ± 5 Ma (2 σ, n = 7), which is consistent with previous impact age estimates of 255 ± 3 Ma. Our results demonstrate that targeting discrete microstructural domains in shocked monazite, as identified through orientation mapping, for in

  2. Factors affecting the infectivity of lymphocytes from cattle with bovine leukosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B A; Schultz, R D

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 13 bovine leukosis virus infected cattle and inoculated subcutaneously into 29 recipient adult steers to determine (a) the number of mononuclear cells (equivalent amount of blood) necessary to cause infection and (b) factors influencing infectivity of mononuclear cells from bovine leukosis virus-infected animals. A total of 55 inoculations were made. Inoculation of 1 X 10(4), 2 X 10(4) and 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells caused seroconversion in 12%, 57% and 62% of steers, respectively. No infections occurred with 1 X 10(3) or 2 X 10(3) mononuclear cells. Cattle infected for longer than 24 months and those animals greater than three years of age were more likely to cause infection with 1 to 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells than were cattle infected for less than 24 months or animals less than three years of age. Lymphocytes from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis caused more infections when 1 X 10(4) or 2 X 10(4) mononuclear cells were inoculated, than did lymphocytes from nonpersistent lymphocytosis cattle; however, both groups were equally infectious when 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells were inoculated. No differences were found in infectivity of experimentally vs naturally exposed animals. PMID:6095977

  3. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  4. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle.

  5. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability.

  6. Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lucas; Eckard, Laura; Epperson, William B; Long, Li-Ping; Smith, David; Huston, Carla; Genova, Suzanne; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-12-01

    A new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, influenza D virus (IDV), was first reported in swine in the Midwest region of the United States. This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggested that IDV has been circulating in the Mississippi cattle populations since at least 2004. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the evolution and epidemiology of IDV in the bovine population.

  7. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) infections in Korean native cattle.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Eun-Yong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of a disease with parapox-like symptoms was reported in South Korea in April 2012. Three of 45 Korean native cattle, age 20-24 months, were affected. Parapoxviruses were detected and identified by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To determine the genetic characteristics of the Korean strains, the sequence of the major envelope protein (B2L) was determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus strains were closely related to not only isolates from Japan, but also isolates from Germany, Sudan and the United states. This is the first report on an outbreak and the molecular characterization of BPSV in Korea.

  8. A comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages.

    PubMed

    Green, S A; Jenkins, S J; Clark, P A

    1982-10-01

    The biuret total protein method and a bromcresol green (BCG) albumin method were used on the Abbott ABA-100 chemistry analyzer to assay serum proteins in clinically normal cattle, sheep, ponies, pigs, and ducks. Total proteins were also read on a refractometer and mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed. Globulins and A/G ratios were calculated from the chemical method and the results compared with the electrophoretic method. Total protein, albumin and A/G ratios in the ponies, sheep and older cattle were in agreement between the two methods. The younger cattle and all the pigs had higher albumin levels and A/G ratios with the chemical BCG method. Ducks had slightly higher albumin values and A/G ratios with the electrophoretic method and the presence of pre-albumin was detected. Typical mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoretic patterns are presented which show the excellent separation using these membranes. Means and range for normal animals are given and changes of proteins with age are discussed.

  9. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  10. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  11. Clenbuterol determination in calf hair by UPLC-MS-MS: case report of a fraudulent use for cattle growth.

    PubMed

    Salquèbre, Guillaume; Bresson, Marie; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent; Kintz, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    A method for clenbuterol determination in hair has been developed. Hair specimens collected from two calves were decontaminated using hot water followed by methylene chloride. Hair was cut into small pieces, and 100 mg was incubated in 1 mL 0.1M hydrochloric acid overnight at 45 degrees C in the presence of 1 ng acebutolol used as internal standard. After neutralization with 1 mL 0.1M NaOH, 2 mL of bicarbonate buffer (pH 8.6) were added and the preparation was then purified using solid-phase extraction with an Isolute C18 column. Methanolic eluent was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted with 50 microL methanol. A 5-microL portion was injected onto an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 x 50 mm, 1.7 microm) and separation was achieved using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was done on a Waters Micromass Quattro Micro API triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ionization was achieved using electrospray in positive mode. Clenbuterol was identified by two transitions (m/z 277.1 > 203.2 and m/z 277.1 > 132.1). Quantitation was performed with the most intensive transition (m/z 277.1 > 203.2) versus the internal standard monitored using the transition (m/z 337.3 > 116.1). When compared with gas chromatography methods that are generally used for the determination of beta-adrenergics, the major advantages of this method were the sensitivity, a shorter run time, and the absence of a derivatization step. The analysis of two hair samples from calves suspected of drug administration showed low clenbuterol concentrations at 3.6 and 4.8 pg/mg.

  12. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  13. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  14. Methodology for concurrent determination of urea kinetics and the capture of recycled urea nitrogen by ruminal microbes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C

    2009-03-01

    We measured the incorporation of recycled urea-nitrogen (N) by ruminal microbes, using five ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (237 kg) fed low-quality grass hay (47 g crude protein/kg dry matter (DM)). Three received 1 kg/day of soybean meal (SBM) and two received no supplemental protein (control). The experiment was 15 days long. Background enrichments of 15N were measured on day 9 and continuous jugular infusion of 0.12 g/day [15N15N]urea began on day 10. Daily samples of urine, feces, ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta from days 10 through 14 were used to determine plateaus in 15N enrichment. Duodenal and bacterial samples collected on day 15 were used to measure duodenal N flows. Bacterial N flow was calculated as duodenal N flow multiplied by duodenal 15N enrichment divided by bacterial 15N enrichment. Bacterial N from recycled urea-N was calculated as bacterial N flow multiplied by bacterial 15N enrichment divided by urinary urea 15N enrichment. Urinary enrichment of [15N15N]urea plateaued within 24 h, whereas 14N15N urea plateaued within 48 h of [15N15N]urea infusion. Bacteria reached a plateau in 15N enrichment within 24 h and duodenal samples within 48 h. Urea production was 17.6 g of urea-N/day for control and 78.0 g/day for SBM. Gut entry was 0.99 g of urea-N/g of urea-N produced for control and 0.87 g/g for SBM. Incorporation of recycled N into microbial N was 9.0 g of N/day for control and 23.0 g/day for SBM. Recycled urea-N accounted for 0.33 g of N/g of microbial N at the duodenum for control and 0.27 g/g for SBM. Our methods allowed measurement of incorporation of recycled urea-N into ruminal microbial N.

  15. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan.

  16. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  17. Molecular diagnosis of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale in cattle blood samples from Nigeria using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Elelu, Nusirat; Ferrolho, Joana; Couto, Joana; Domingos, Ana; Eisler, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are some of the most important animal health and management problems in Africa, including Nigeria. This study aims to determine the prevalence of an important TBD, anaplasmosis, in a North-central region of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from cattle and stored on Whatman FTA(®) cards. Information on village, age and sex associated with each cattle was also recorded. The packed red blood cell volume (PCV) for each blood sample was determined. After DNA extraction, pathogen presence was evaluated by TaqMan(®) based qPCR of which 75.9 % of the cattle tested positive for Anaplasma marginale. Statistical analysis revealed that the presence of A. marginale infection differed significantly between cattle age groups. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of this pathogen between the sexes or among cattle grouped by PCV level. Finally, using a highly sensitive molecular method our pioneer study contributes to the improvement of the current knowledge regarding tick-borne pathogens that seriously affect animal health in specific areas of Nigeria.

  18. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  19. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections.

  20. Determination of Genetic Structure and Signatures of Selection in Three Strains of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu, Boran and Friesian Cattle by Genome-Wide SNP Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Msalya, George; Kim, Eui-Soo; Laisser, Emmanuel L. K.; Kipanyula, Maulilio J.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 90 percent of cattle in Tanzania belong to the indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSZ) population which has been classified into 12 strains based on historical evidence, morphological characteristics, and geographic distribution. However, specific genetic information of each TSZ population has been lacking and has caused difficulties in designing programs such as selection, crossbreeding, breed improvement or conservation. This study was designed to evaluate the genetic structure, assess genetic relationships, and to identify signatures of selection among cattle of Tanzania with the main goal of understanding genetic relationship, variation and uniqueness among them. Methodology/Principal findings The Illumina Bos indicus SNP 80K BeadChip was used to genotype genome wide SNPs in 168 DNA samples obtained from three strains of TSZ cattle namely Maasai, Tarime and Sukuma as well as two comparative breeds; Boran and Friesian. Population structure and signatures of selection were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), admixture analysis, pairwise distances (FST), integrated haplotype score (iHS), identical by state (IBS) and runs of homozygosity (ROH). There was a low level of inbreeding (F~0.01) in the TSZ population compared to the Boran and Friesian breeds. The analyses of FST, IBS and admixture identified no considerable differentiation between TSZ trains. Importantly, common ancestry in Boran and TSZ were revealed based on admixture and IBD, implying gene flow between two populations. In addition, Friesian ancestry was found in Boran. A few common significant iHS were detected, which may reflect influence of recent selection in each breed or strain. Conclusions Population admixture and selection signatures could be applied to develop conservation plan of TSZ cattle as well as future breeding programs in East African cattle. PMID:28129396

  1. Age of an Indonesian Fossil Tooth Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, JS

    2004-04-07

    The first fossil hominid tooth recovered during 1999 excavations from the Cisanca River region in West Java, Indonesia, was associated with a series of bovid teeth from a single individual that was recovered 190 cm beneath the hominid tooth. The age of the fossil bovid teeth was determined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis as part of an effort to bracket the age of the hominid tooth. The EPR-derived age of the bovid teeth is (5.16 {+-} 2.01) x 10{sup 5} years. However, the age estimate reported here is likely an underestimate of the actual age of deposition since evidence of heating was detected in the EPR spectra of the bovid teeth, and the heating may have caused a decrease in the intensity of EPR components on which the age calculation is based.

  2. Physiological age of ixodid ticks: aspects of its determination and application.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, I

    1995-11-01

    This review analyzes 30 yr of data concerning physiological age of ixodid ticks. The level and state of nutritional reserves in unfed ticks has been proposed as an index of tick physiological age. The dynamics of the use of these substances reflect tick aging. Thus, physiological age of ixodid ticks is determined by estimating the irreversible changes caused by natural vital activity in the body of unfed ticks, which inevitably raises the probability of tick death. The 4 age groups used in most studies correspond to different periods in the life of unfed ticks: the postmolting development, the commencement of active life (= questing activity), the midperiod of active life, and the final period of active life. The aging of adult ixodid ticks has been studied in natural populations and laboratory colonies of different species belonging to several genera. The dynamics of age composition through the activity season observed in adult Ixodes persulcatus, I. ricinus, and Dermacentor reticulatus from field populations correlated well with the known data on the life history of these species. Physiological age was successfully used as an indicator of the patterns of tick activization (= beginning of questing activity). Tick susceptibility to acaricides was shown to increase with tick aging. The success of maintenance, reproduction, and transmission of pathogens was found to be strongly influenced by tick physiological age. The physiological age can provide information about the present physiological status of an individual tick or a group of ticks and, on this basis, predictions can be made (for example, life expectancy, degree of response to certain factors). The physiological age does not give reliable information about the past life of ticks, in particular their calendar age. In this respect, the meaning of the physiological age of ixodid ticks corresponds to the biological (physiological, functional) age of animals, as used in gerontology, and differs from the

  3. Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M

    2009-01-01

    The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (p<0.05)). Sero-prevalence in feedlot calves was significantly lower with only one sero-positive calf out of 256 (0.4%, CI95%=0-2.2%). Sero-prevalence among dairy cattle was 2.7% (CI95%=2-3.6%) with location of up to 3km from FMD outbreaks in multiple farms and location of up to 5km from the nearest border standing out as significant (p<0.05) risk factors for sero-positivity. The extremely low sero-prevalence of FMD in feedlot cattle and the significant association of infection in beef cattle with previous outbreaks suggest absence of virus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation

  5. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  10. Age determination of ballpoint pen ink by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.5 years. It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e.g., within a few days, to a constant level, which can be too fast for casework. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed.

  11. [Risk of Echinococcus granulosus becoming endemic in Dutch cattle].

    PubMed

    Berends, I M G A; Holzhauer, M; van der Giessen, J W B; van Schaik, G

    2009-02-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is rare in The Netherlands and most human patients originate from southern Europe and Africa, where E. granulosus is still endemic in sheep, cattle, and pigs. Since the accession of some south-eastern European countries to the European Union, a large number of cattle have been imported from this area, according to national import data. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of re-introduction of E. granulosus in The Netherlands via the import of cattle from these endemic areas. The number of infected imported cattle was determined by correcting the number of imported cattle with the national animal prevalence of E. granulosus in the country of origin. In 2007, the number of imported E. granulosus-infected cattle varied from 0 (Cyprus) to 4,934 (Romania, accounting for 90% of all positive cattle). The likelihood of detecting E. granulosus at slaughter is low--we assumed, based on confirmed cases, that only 10% of infected cattle will be detected during visual inspection at slaughter. In 2007, 542 infected cattle were probably culled in The Netherlands (assuming that cattle younger than 3 months were not infected). Since the lungs and livers of cattle approved for human consumption may be processed into dog food, there is a risk that dogs that eat E. granulosus-containing dog food may become infected and in turn infect humans. On the basis of a model that assumed that only cattle older than 3 months at the moment of importation were a risk, 23 dogs may have been exposed to E. granulosus in 2007. To reduce the risk of importing E. granulosus, measures should be taken, such as declaring the lungs and livers of Romanian cattle unfit for human consumption and banning the use of infected raw lung and liver in dog food.

  12. Determination of age at death using combined morphology and histology of the femur

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, C. D. L.; STEIN, M. S.; FEIK, S. A.; WARK, J. D.; CLEMENT, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is characterised by age-related morphological and histological changes. We have previously established an automated method of recording bone morphometry and histology from entire transverse sections of cortical bone. Our aim was to determine whether data acquired using this automated system were useful in the prediction of age. Ninety-six specimens of human femoral middiaphysis were studied from subjects aged 21–92 y. Equations predicting specimen age were constructed using macroscopic data (total subperiosteal area (TSPA), periosteal perimeter (PP), endosteal perimeter (EP), cortical bone area (CA) and moments of area) and microscopic data (the number, size and diversity of pores and intracortical porosity) together with sex, height and weight. Both TSPA and PP were independent predictors of age but the number of pores was not a significant predictor of age in any equation. The age predicted by these equations was inaccurate by more than 8 y in over half the subjects. We conclude that we could not predict age at a clinically acceptable level using data from our automated system. This most likely reflects an insensitivity to regional age-related changes in bone histology because we recorded data from each entire cortex. Automated bone measurement according to cortical region might be more useful in the prediction of age. The inclusion of TSPA together with PP as independent predictors of age raises the possibility that a future measure of periosteal shape at the femoral diaphysis could also be helpful in the prediction of age. The accuracy reached with the relatively simple methods described here is sufficient to encourage the development of image-analysis systems for the automatic detection of more complex features. PMID:10853968

  13. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  14. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States--Effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2015-04-01

    Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached.

  15. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  16. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  17. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang’s index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%). High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5%) and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species. PMID:28225825

  18. Hubble Space Telescope observations determine the age of some of the oldest stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-05-01

    Globular clusters like NGC 6752 are compact, spherically shaped collections of several hundred thousand stars which orbit our galaxy. Virtually all of the stars in these clusters began their lives at the time of the formation of our galaxy. Astronomers therefore believe that globular clusters contain the oldest sample of stars that we can easily study and that an accurate determination of the ages of such stars would also define the age of our own galaxy since its formation. The age of our galaxy, in turn, sets a firm lower limit on the age of the Universe. Obtaining accurate ages of stars in globular clusters has previously been hindered by the inability to determine accurate distances to these clusters. Using the Wide Field and Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, a team of astronomers in Italy, the US and Canada obtained long exposure images of NGC 6752 in April 1995. These sharp images allowed them to detect and measure the brightness and color of a number of faint white dwarf stars in the cluster. With dwarfs are the condensed cores of stars that have reached the final stage of their lives as stars. They represent the stellar remains of the more massive stars in NGC 6752 which have completed their evolution. By comparing the apparent brightness and color of these stars with a sample of white dwarfs in the neighborhood of the Sun which have known distances, the team determined the distance to NGC 6752 to be 13,300 light years with an uncertainty of less than 5%. This distance provides an accurate measure of the luminosity of the brightest stars in NGC 67523 that are still burning hydrogen at their center. In turn, the knowledge of this luminosity allows to estimate the time elapsed since the formation of the stars in the cluster, hence the cluster age. This leads rather directly to an age of 15 billion years with a 10% uncertainty. Using current estimates of the time interval between the Big Bang and the era of galaxy formation gives 16-17 billion

  19. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  20. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410.426 Section 410.426 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- )...

  1. Late Na+ current and protracted electrical recovery are critical determinants of the aging myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Sergio; Sorrentino, Andrea; Borghetti, Giulia; Cannata, Antonio; Meo, Marianna; Zhou, Yu; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Pasqualini, Francesco; O'Malley, Heather; Sundman, Mark; Tsigkas, Nikolaos; Zhang, Eric; Arranto, Christian; Mangiaracina, Chiara; Isobe, Kazuya; Sena, Brena F.; Kim, Junghyun; Goichberg, Polina; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Isom, Lori L.; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The aging myopathy manifests itself with diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction. We raised the possibility that, in a mouse model of physiological aging, defects in electromechanical properties of cardiomyocytes are important determinants of the diastolic characteristics of the myocardium, independently from changes in structural composition of the muscle and collagen framework. Here we show that an increase in the late Na+ current (INaL) in aging cardiomyocytes prolongs the action potential (AP) and influences temporal kinetics of Ca2+ cycling and contractility. These alterations increase force development and passive tension. Inhibition of INaL shortens the AP and corrects dynamics of Ca2+ transient, cell contraction and relaxation. Similarly, repolarization and diastolic tension of the senescent myocardium are partly restored. Thus, INaL offers inotropic support, but negatively interferes with cellular and ventricular compliance, providing a new perspective of the biology of myocardial aging and the aetiology of the defective cardiac performance in the elderly. PMID:26541940

  2. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Seo, Kangmoon

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cemento- enamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ(2) = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats.

  3. [Determination of writing age of blue ballpoint pen inks by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Fan; Li, Xin-Qian; Xu, Ying-Jian; Wang, Jing-Han; Wang, Yan-Ji

    2006-09-01

    As it is a frequently encountered problem in the laboratory of forensic science nowadays to distinguish whether the questioned documents, such as deeds, contracts, and receipts, written in ballpoint pen inks are true or not, and identify the writing age of them, it is very essential to establish a simple, sensitive and accurate method to examine the similarities and differences of the ballpoint pen inks and identify the writing age. The present paper introduces a technique that allows identifying the kind and the writing age of the blue ballpoint pen inks. The technique is based on using a high performance liquid chromatographic method for distinguishing the similarities and differences in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks and determining changes in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks developed with age, and these changes can be evaluated by the ratio of peak areas.

  4. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Jabalpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Marskole, Priyanka; Verma, Yamini; Dixit, Alok Kumar; Swamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The presence of helminths eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were detected using standard qualitative and quantitative methods. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts. Results: Out of 120 cattle and buffaloes examined, 73.33% were found positive for eggs of one or more species of GI parasite. The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in cattle (75%) as compared to that of buffaloes (70.45%), but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). Sex wise prevalence of GI parasites was higher in males as compared to that of females, but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). The animals above 2 years of age were more affected by GI parasites as compared to animals of 6 months - 2 years of age, but the age wise differences were nonsignificant (p>0.05). Single parasitic infections were more common than mixed infections. The monthly prevalence of GI parasites in cattle and buffaloes were highest in the month of September (81.81%) and least in December (61.11%). The eggs/oocysts per gram in most of the animals, was in the range of 201-300. Conclusion: GI parasites are problem in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The prevalence rate of GI parasites varied with month. The burden of parasitic infection was moderate in most animals warranting treatment. PMID:27956771

  5. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  6. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  7. Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Dabak, Murat; Kizil, Omer

    2010-11-01

    As thiamine status of ruminants is adversely affected by rumen acidity, this study investigated whether or not thiamine deficiency occurs in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet. Fifty 1- to 2-year-old feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet (75% barley) for at least 3 mo (high concentrate diet group) and 15 healthy feedlot cattle of similar ages (control group) that were fed a low concentrate diet (30% barley) were used. Rumen fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis and their pH was determined with a portable pH meter. Blood samples taken from all animals from a jugular vein were used to determine erythrocyte transketolase enzyme activity, and hence thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect. Odor and mean pH values of ruminal fluid samples from the high concentrate diet and control group were acidic (pH 5.3) and aromatic (pH 6.1), respectively. The mean TPP effect % in the high concentrate diet group (47.2 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than in the control group (19.53 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001). The study provides evidence of a TPP effect in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet.

  8. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  9. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  10. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  11. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  12. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination....

  13. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis” 2 or “Supplemental Test Procedures for the Diagnosis...

  14. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification.

  15. Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A; Wockner, Leesa F; Birrell, Geoff W; Norris, Emma L; Kienzle, Vivian J; Sikulu, Maggy T; Ryan, Peter A; Gorman, Jeffery J; Kay, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  16. Impact of cattle congregation sites on soil nutrients and soil compaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the impact of grazing cattle on the changes in soil quality around and beneath cattle congregation sites (mineral feeders, water troughs, and shades). Baseline soil samples around and beneath three congregations sites in established (>10 yr) grazed beef cattle pastures at the U...

  17. Cattle congregation sites do not appear to impact soil nutrients build-up

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the impact of grazing cattle on the changes in soil quality around and beneath cattle congregation sites (mineral feeders, water troughs, and shades). Baseline soil samples around and beneath three congregations sites in established (>10 year) grazed beef cattle pastures at the...

  18. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  19. Airborne SAR determination of relative ages of Walker Valley moraines, eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, A.; Isacks, B.; Bloom, A.; Fielding, E.; Mcmurry, D.

    1991-01-01

    A regional study of the distribution and elevations of Pleistocene moraines in the Andes requires a method of determining relative age from space. One of our primary objectives is to establish the relative chronology of major climatic events responsible for glaciation in the Andes and other regions that are difficult to access on the ground and where suitable material for absolute age determination is lacking. The sensitivity of radar to surface roughness makes it possible to develop a remotely-based relative dating technique for landforms for which surface age and roughness can be correlated. We are developing such a technique with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the eastern Sierra Nevada where independent evidence is available for the ages and physical characteristics of moraines. The Sierra Nevada moraines are similar in form and environmental setting to Andean moraines that we have targeted for study during the pending Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission. SAR imagery is used to differentiate the ages of five moraine sequences of Walker Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  20. Determinants of VO2 max decline with aging: an integrated perspective.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Hepple, Russell T

    2008-02-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the capacity for physical activity. Central to this decline is a reduction in the maximal rate of oxygen utilization, or VO2 max. This critical perspective examines the roles played by the factors that determine the rate of muscle oxygen delivery versus those that determine the utilization of oxygen by muscle as a means of probing the reasons for VO2 max decline with aging. Reductions in muscle oxygen delivery, principally due to reduced cardiac output and perhaps also a maldistribution of cardiac output, appear to play the dominant role up until late middle age. On the other hand, there is a decline in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with aging, due in part to mitochondrial dysfunction, which appears to play a particularly important role in extreme old age (senescence) where skeletal muscle VO2 max is observed to decline by approximately 50% even under conditions of similar oxygen delivery as young adult muscle. It is noteworthy that at least the structural aspects of the capillary bed do not appear to be reduced in a manner that would compromise the capacity for muscle oxygen diffusion even in senescence.

  1. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  2. Accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound in determining gestational age in first trimester pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient reported menstrual history, physician clinical evaluation, and ultrasonography are used to determine gestational age in the pregnant female. Previous studies have shown that pregnancy dating by last menstrual period (LMP) and physical examination findings can be inaccurate. An ultrasound performed in the radiology department is considered the standard for determining an accurate gestational age. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound as an estimation of gestational age (EDUGA) as compared to the radiology department standard. Methods A prospective convenience sample of ED patients presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy (based upon self-reported LMP) regardless of their presenting complaint were enrolled. EDUGA was compared to gestational age estimated by ultrasound performed in the department of radiology (RGA) as the gold standard. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between EDUGA compared to RGA. Results Sixty-eight pregnant patients presumed to be in the 1st trimester of pregnancy based upon self-reported LMP consented to enrollment. When excluding the cases with no fetal pole, the median discrepancy of EDUGA versus RGA was 2 days (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 3.25). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.978. When including the six cases without a fetal pole in the data analysis, the median discrepancy of EDUGA compared with RGA was 3 days (IQR 1 to 4). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.945. Conclusion Based on our comparison of EDUGA to RGA in patients presenting to the ED in the first trimester of pregnancy, we conclude that emergency physicians are capable of accurately performing this measurement. Emergency physicians should consider using ultrasound to estimate gestational age as it may be useful for the future care of that pregnant patient. PMID:23216683

  3. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%.

  4. Environments for ageing, assistive technology and self-determination: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    The development of information and communication technologies for design of environments for ageing is of great importance considering demographic trends in the future. There is a realistic hope for the preservation of self-determination and independence in the long term. However, some risks like a gradual loss of privacy should not be underestimated. The article discusses some ethical problems within this context. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the development and implementation of these technologies might be discussed for instance under some ethical assumptions of personal self-responsibility as well as social responsibility for the widest independence in advanced age.

  5. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for detection of cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unmanned aerial vehicle was used to capture videos of cattle in pastures to determine the efficiency of this technology for use by Mounted Inspectors in the Permanent Quarantine zone (PQZ) of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico Border. These videos were ...

  6. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  7. Absolute age Determinations on Diamond by Radioisotopic Methods: NOT the way to Accurately Identify Diamond Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.

    2002-05-01

    Gem-quality diamond contains such low abundances of parent-daughter radionuclides that dating the diamond lattice directly by isotopic measurements has been and will be impossible. Absolute ages on diamonds typically are obtained through measurements of their syngenetic mineral inclusions: Rb-Sr in garnet; Sm-Nd in garnet and pyroxene; Re-Os and U-Th-Pb in sulfide; K-Ar in pyroxene; and U-Pb in zircon. The application of the first two isotope schemes in the list requires putting together many inclusions from many diamonds whereas the latter isotope schemes permit ages on single diamonds. The key limitations on the application of these decay pairs are the availability and size of the inclusions, the abundance levels of the radionuclides, and instrumental sensitivity. Practical complications of radioisotope dating of inclusions are fatal to the application of the technique for diamond provenance. In all mines, the ratio of gem-quality diamonds to stones with datable inclusions is very high. Thus there is no way to date the valuable, marketable stones that are part of the conflict diamond problem, just their rare, flawed cousins. Each analysis destroys the diamond host plus the inclusion and can only be carried out in research labs by highly trained scientists. Thus, these methods can not be automated or applied to the bulk of diamond production. The geological problems with age dating are equally fatal to its application to diamond provenance. From the geological perspective, for age determination to work as a tool for diamond provenance studies, diamond ages would have to be specific to particular kimberlites or kimberlite fields and different between fields. The southern African Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Mobile Belt is the only cratonic region where age determinations have been applied on a large enough scale to a number of kimberlites to illustrate the geological problems in age measurements for diamond provenance. However, this southern African example

  8. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  9. Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe.

    PubMed

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) infects many domestic and wildlife species across Europe. Transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. By determining the level of TB hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. We undertook a quantitative review of TB hazard across Europe on a country-by-country basis for cattle and five widely-distributed wildlife species. Cattle posed the greatest current and potential TB hazard other cattle for the majority of countries in Europe. Wild boar posed the greatest hazard of all the wildlife species, indicating that wild boar have the greatest ability to transmit the disease to cattle. The most common host systems for TB hazards in Europe are the cattle-deer-wild boar ones. The cattle-roe deer-wild boar system is found in 10 countries, and the cattle-red deer-wild boar system is found in five countries. The dominance of cattle with respect to the hazards in many regions confirms that intensive surveillance of cattle for TB should play an important role in any TB control programme. The significant contribution that wildlife can make to the TB hazard to cattle is also of concern, given current population and distribution increases of some susceptible wildlife species, especially wild boar and deer, and the paucity of wildlife TB surveillance programmes.

  10. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.

  11. Mountaintop island age determines species richness of boreal mammals in the American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, J.K.; Bogan, M.A.; Yates, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Models that describe the mechanisms responsible for insular patterns of species richness include the equilibrium theory of island biogeography and the nonequilibrium vicariance model. The relative importance of dispersal or vicariance in structuring insular distribution patterns can be inferred from these models. Predictions of the alternative models were tested for boreal mammals in the American Southwest. Age of mountaintop islands of boreal habitat was determined by constructing a geographic cladogram based on characteristics of intervening valley barriers. Other independent variables included area and isolation of mountaintop islands. Island age was the most important predictor of species richness. In contrast with previous studies of species richness patterns in this system, these results supported the nonequilibrium vicariance model, which indicates that vicariance has been the primary determinant of species distribution patterns in this system.

  12. Infection of cattle with Border disease virus by sheep on communal alpine pastures.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Büchi, R; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sheep grazing communal alpine pastures with cattle can transmit Border disease virus (BDV) to cattle. A total of 1170 sheep and 923 cattle were tested for BDV using RT-PCR (sheep) and for pestivirus antibodies using an ELISA (cattle), respectively, before being moved to one of 4 pastures (A, B, C and D). Eight sheep from pasture C were viraemic. 396 of 923 cattle examined before the pasture season were seronegative. The latter were re-examined after the pasture season and 99 were seropositive or indeterminate. Antibody specificity was determined in 25 of these using a serum neutralization test (SNT). BDV infection was confirmed in 10 cattle and was considered likely in 8 others. BVDV infection was confirmed in 4 cattle and considered likely in 3 after pasturing. The study has shown that the transmission of BDV from sheep to cattle is possible on communal alpine pastures.

  13. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle.

  14. Species of Cryptosporidium detected in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Monica; Dargatz, David

    2010-06-24

    To determine the species and distribution of Cryptosporidium in weaned beef calves in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 cattle between 6 and 18 months of age from 49 operations in 20 states (Alabama, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming). Fresh feces, collected either from the ground or directly from the rectum of each animal, were sieved and subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove fecal debris and to concentrate oocysts. DNA extracted from each specimen was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the SSU rRNA gene. All PCR positive specimens were subjected to sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.5% of the fecal samples. Cryptosporidium ryanae, C. bovis and C. andersoni were detected in 1.8, 4.8, and 14.0% of the 819 samples, respectively. California (number operations [n]=2), Iowa (n=3), and Nebraska (n=7) had the highest prevalence of infected weaned cattle with 44.4, 41.0 and 40.2% infected, respectively. Cryptosporidium was not detected in any weaned cattle from Alabama (number operations [n]=1), Georgia (n=2), New Mexico (n=1), South Dakota (n=1), Tennessee (n=1), or Texas (n=1). The zoonotic species, C. parvum, was not detected in any samples from 6- to 18-month-old cattle, a finding that parallels reports for dairy cattle of similar age in which less than 1% were found to harbor this species.

  15. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mete G.; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C.; Tepe, Neslihan B.; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating. Methods: This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age. Result: The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987). Conclusion: Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters. PMID:27146616

  16. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  17. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  18. Age and Environment Determined Children’s Preference Towards Dentist Attire - A Cross - Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Karthikeyan, Shanmugaavel; Subbramanian, EMG; Samuel, Victor A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The attire of the dentist has an influence on child’s behaviour in dental setup. Recent research has shown that the children have preferences towards the outfit worn by the dentist. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the preference of children towards dentists’ attire based on various age groups and environment. Materials and Methods A total of 534 children aged between 6-11 years participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups based on their age as younger, middle and older age groups. Photographs of the dentist in different attires such as white coat, surgical scrubs and regular outfit were shown to children and the questionnaire was evaluated by a single, qualified Paediatric dentist in two different environmental set ups, namely school and dental environment. The anxiety level was evaluated by using Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Data was collected and tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards dentist attire (p-value= 0.002). There was a positive correlation in the preference level of children towards dentist attire in different age groups. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards the dentist attire in school and dental environment (p-value <0.001). Conclusion Younger age group children preferred regular outfit and middle and older age group preferred white coat and surgical scrubs respectively. Children preferred white coat in school environment and surgical scrubs in dental environment. PMID:27891450

  19. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  20. Development and testing of real-time PCR assays for determining fecal loading and source identification (cattle, human, etc.) in surface water and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Gentry, R.

    2004-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Tennessee is developing and testing a series of microbial assay methods based on real-time PCR to detect fecal bacterial concentrations and host sources in water samples. Real-time PCR is an enumeration technique based on the unique and conserved nucleic acid sequences present in all organisms. The first research task was development of an assay (AllBac) to detect total amount of Bacteroides, which represents up to 30 percent of fecal mass. Subsequent assays were developed to detect Bacteroides from cattle (BoBac) and humans (HuBac) using 16sRNA genes based on DNA sequences in the national GenBank, as well as sequences from local fecal samples. The assays potentially have significant advantages over conventional bacterial source tracking methods because: 1. unlike traditional enumeration methods, they do not require bacterial cultivation; 2. there are no known non-fecal sources of Bacteroides; 3. the assays are quantitative with results for total concentration and for each species expressed in mg/l; and 4. they show little regional variation within host species, meaning that they do not require development of extensive local gene libraries. The AllBac and BoBac assays have been used in a study of fecal contamination in a small rural watershed (Stock Creek) near Knoxville, TN, and have proven useful in identification of areas where cattle represent a significant fecal input and in development of BMPs. It is expected that these types of assays (and future assays for birds, hogs, etc.) could have broad applications in monitoring fecal impacts from Animal Feeding Operations, as well as from wildlife and human sources.

  1. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329

  2. Age and gender dependence of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Köstler, Herbert; Landschütz, Wilfried; Koeppe, Sabrina; Seyfarth, Tobias; Lipke, Claudia; Sandstede, Jörn; Spindler, Matthias; von Kienlin, Markus; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to apply (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using spatial localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) to investigate possible age and gender dependencies of the energy metabolite concentrations in the human heart. Thirty healthy volunteers (18 males and 12 females, 21-67 years old, mean = 40.7 years) were examined with the use of (31)P-MRS on a 1.5 T scanner. Intra- and interobserver variability measures (determined in eight of the volunteers) were both 3.8% for phosphocreatine (PCr), and 4.7% and 8.3%, respectively, for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). High-energy phosphate (HEP) concentrations in mmol/kg wet weight were 9.7 +/- 2.4 (age < 40 years, N = 16) and 7.7 +/- 2.5 (age >or= 40 years, N = 14) for PCr, and 5.1 +/- 1.0 (age < 40 years) and 4.1 +/- 0.8 (age >or= 40 years) for ATP, respectively. Separated by gender, PCr concentrations of 9.2 +/- 2.4 (men, N = 18) and 8.0 +/- 2.8 (women, N = 12) and ATP concentrations of 4.9 +/- 1.0 (men) and 4.2 +/- 0.9 (women) were measured. A significant decrease of PCr and ATP was found for volunteers older than 40 years (P < 0.05), but the differences in metabolic concentrations between both sexes were not significant. In conclusion, age has a minor but still significant impact on cardiac energy metabolism, and no significant gender differences were detected.

  3. A Complication in Determining the Precise Age of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solar nebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materials formed requires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes to Pb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining the ages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. However, my colleagues at Arizona State University, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitat (Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made. Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before the Solar System began to form.

  4. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the... accordance with § 314.1 or § 314.3 of this subchapter. The spinal cord from cattle 30 months of age and older... beef carcasses or parts that contain vertebral columns from cattle 30 months of age and older...

  5. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the... accordance with § 314.1 or § 314.3 of this subchapter. The spinal cord from cattle 30 months of age and older... beef carcasses or parts that contain vertebral columns from cattle 30 months of age and older...

  6. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the... accordance with § 314.1 or § 314.3 of this subchapter. The spinal cord from cattle 30 months of age and older... beef carcasses or parts that contain vertebral columns from cattle 30 months of age and older...

  7. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the... accordance with § 314.1 or § 314.3 of this subchapter. The spinal cord from cattle 30 months of age and older... beef carcasses or parts that contain vertebral columns from cattle 30 months of age and older...

  8. 9 CFR 310.22 - Specified risk materials from cattle and their handling and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the... accordance with § 314.1 or § 314.3 of this subchapter. The spinal cord from cattle 30 months of age and older... beef carcasses or parts that contain vertebral columns from cattle 30 months of age and older...

  9. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  10. Age as a main determinant of renal functional damage in urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, U B; Johansson, S B

    1983-01-01

    Renal function was studied in 61 girls suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections, with at least one febrile infection. Clearance of inulin was determined. Intravenous urography and micturating cystourethrography were performed 1-6 months after the first infection and 0-6 months before or after the function test. A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was found only among children with their first pyelonephritis before the age of 3 years. A low GFR was found mostly in patients with small or scarred kidneys but was also seen in a few patients with normal intravenous urographs. Low GFR as well as radiologically small kidneys at the time of the function test were found independently of the presence or grade of vesicoureteral reflux at first infection. Patients with early onset pyelonephritis (before age 3 years) had a low capacity for early compensatory hypertrophy in contrast to patients with late onset pyelonephritis. PMID:6660895

  11. Determinants of reliability in psychiatric surveys of children aged 6-12.

    PubMed

    Fallon, T; Schwab-Stone, M

    1994-11-01

    The reliability of young children's self reports of psychiatric information is a concern of epidemiologists and clinicians alike. This paper explores the determinants of test-retest reliability in a sample of children from the general population using reliability coefficients constructed from a kappa statistic. Age, cognitive ability, and gender are related to consistency of reports in a test-retest paradigm. Controlling for age, cognitive ability and gender, children report more reliably on observable behaviors, and less reliably on questions involving unspecified time, reflections of one's own thoughts, and comparison of themselves with others. The reliability of reports of emotions lies between these two extremes. Surprisingly, sentence length of up to 40 words and psychiatric impairment of the child as measured by the Child Global Assessment Scale did not influence reliability. As might be expected, parents' reports of their children are more reliable than their children's reports.

  12. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-06-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  13. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age...

  14. Eimeriosis in cattle: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Najdrowski, M

    2005-12-01

    This report addresses various aspects of the protozoan parasite Eimeria which contribute to their increasing recognition as important protozoal pathogens in cattle. Among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with. The tenacious oocysts are found ubiquitously in the environment making an infection of calves and young cattle, the most susceptible age group, almost inevitable. Further development, comprising of asexual multiplication, the merogony, and a subsequent sexual stage, the gamogony, takes place within cells of the small and large intestines, after which numerous unsporulated oocysts are formed and shed with the faeces. Of the more than a dozen species, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii only are made responsible for severe clinical disease characterized by haemorrhagic diarrhoea with sometimes fatal outcome. To a lesser extent, Eimeria alabamensis also can cause clinical disease. Because of the damage inflicted on the intestinal tissue, the digestive process and overall homeostasis can become severely affected, even with absence of clinical disease, with adverse effects on animal welfare and performance. The consequent economic losses for the cattle industry are thus substantial. Active (species specific) immunity, both humoral and cellular, develops rapidly after first antigen contact, its intensity being dependent on the number of oocysts ingested. However, no absolute protection is achieved and even older animals can excrete oocysts, contributing to a state of endemic stability. For efficient control, exact diagnosis of the Eimeria species involved and the evaluation of animal management and husbandry practices are of utmost importance. Mixed infections are the rule and only an occurrence of pathogenic species, together with clinical symptoms, justifies the assumption of a coccidiosis. Proper hygiene regime and ensuring unfavourable conditions for oocyst survival in the

  15. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management.

  16. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  17. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O. Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A. Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  18. Host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    1995-03-01

    The usual course of infection by Plasmodium falciparum among adults who lack a history of exposure to endemic malaria is fulminant. The infection in adults living with hyper- to holoendemic malaria is chronic and benign. Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria is the basis of this difference. Confusion surrounds an essential question regarding this process: What is its rate of onset? Opinions vary because of disagreement over the relationships between exposure to infection, antigenic polymorphism and naturally acquired immunity. In this review, Kevin Baird discusses these relationships against a backdrop of host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria.

  19. Reddening and age for 13 southern Galactic open clusters determined from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.; Torres, M. C.

    2001-10-01

    In this study we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3800-6800 Å for 13 concentrated open clusters with Galactic longitudes between 219deg and 316deg, nine of which have not been previously studied. Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra of Magellanic Clouds and Galactic star clusters with known parameters, we derive both foreground interstellar reddening values and age. For nine clusters these two parameters have been determined for the first time, while for the rest of the sample the results show good agreement with previous studies. The present analysis indicates four very young (Hogg 11, NGC 5606, vdB-RN 80 and Pismis 17), seven moderately young (ESO 429-SC13, Hogg 3, Hogg 12, Haffner 7, BH 87, NGC 2368 and Bochum 12) and two intermediate-age (Berkeley 75 and NGC 2635) open clusters. The derived foreground interstellar reddening values are in the range 0.00 <= E(B-V) <= 0.38. The age and reddening distributions of the present sample of relatively faint open clusters match those of open clusters with known parameters in a 90deg sector centered at l = 270deg. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  20. Can chlorofluorocarbon sorption to black carbon (char) affect groundwater age determinations?

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2010-06-15

    Although adsorption is not generally considered important in low f(oc) (fraction organic carbon) aquifers, we show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) adsorption to black carbon (BC) is sufficiently large to retard transport and affect groundwater ages obtained with CFCs. Sorption isotherms of CFC-11, -12, and -113 to synthetic wood char were nonlinear (Freundlich n = 0.71-0.94) while humic acid isotherms were linear. Moreover, sorption to char was 10-1000 times greater than to humic acid for all three CFCs at the lowest observed concentrations, C(w)/S approximately 10(-8)-10(-7). We used the observed isotherms for char and humic acid to represent sorption to BC and amorphous organic matter, respectively, in a dual mode model to estimate retardation factors for a low f(oc) aquifer (= 0.06% gC g(-1)). The estimated retardation factors for the char-containing aquifer (presumed BC fraction = 9% of f(oc)) were approximately 6.8-10.6 at C(w)/S = 10(-8) and >5 times those estimated assuming amorphous organic matter partitioning only. The results indicate that unless CFC adsorption to BC is evaluated in transport, the groundwater age determined may be biased toward older than true ages. The CFC data archived in BC-containing aquifers may contain information about its adsorbent properties that could be useful to predict retardation of other chlorinated organic contaminants.

  1. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy; Albrecht, Eva; Andrulis, Irene L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brown, Judith; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tõnu; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flyger, Henrik; Fraser, Abigail; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Giles, Graham; Guenel, Pascal; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John; Ingelsson, Erik; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kasiman, Katherine; Knight, Julia A.; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Margolin, Sara; Marsh, Julie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Olson, Janet E.; Pennell, Craig E.; Polasek, Ozren; Rahman, Iffat; Ridker, Paul M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Salumets, Andres; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Smith, Erin N.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Southey, Melissa; Stöckl, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Truong, Therese; Ulivi, Sheila; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Qin; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F.; Zgaga, Lina; Ong, Ken K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Karasik, David; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10−9), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility. PMID:24357391

  2. Cation-ratio dating: A new rock varnish age-determination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    1983-07-01

    Rock varnish coats many surfaces of geomorphic and archaeologic interest in arid lands. All varnish dating techniques are limited by the time lag between the exposure of a surface to subaerial processes and the onset of varnishing. They are valid only where manganese is not remobilized after deposition, for example, in most arid environments. The premise of a new age-determination method, cation-ratio dating, is that the ratio of the more mobile cations (e.g., K and Ca) to titanium in varnish decreases with time. Although there are many inherent assumptions and potential limitations, cation-ratio dating has been verified on relative age-sequences from a Death Valley debris cone, Negev Desert talus flatirons, and prehistoric lake levels at Searles Lake in California. Varnish cation ratios have been calibrated to independently dated surfaces in the Coso volcanic field and vicinity in California. Tentative absolute dates have been assigned to geomorphic surfaces in the Coso area. Cation ratios have been used to distinguish relative ages of archaeologic artifacts in southwestern North America and to demonstrate that varnish at the South Stoddard locality, Mojave Desert, did not form in 25 yr.

  3. Determining Distance, Age, and Activity in a New Benchmark Cluster: Ruprecht 147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2009-08-01

    This proposal seeks 0.7 night of time on Hectochelle to observe the F, G, and K dwarfs of Ruprecht 147, recently identified as the closest old stellar cluster. At only ~ 200 pc and at an age of ~ 1-2 Gyr, this will be an important benchmark in stellar astrophysics, providing the only sample of spectroscopically accessible old, late-type stars of determinable age. Hectochelle is the ideal instrument to study this cluster, with a FOV, fiber count, and telescope aperture well matched to the cluster's diameter (~ 1°), richness (~ 100 identified members), and distance modulus (6.5-7 mag., putting the G and K dwarfs at B=11-15). Hectochelle will measure the Ca II line strengths of members to establish, for the first time, the chromospheric activity levels of a statistically significant sample of single, G and K dwarfs of this modest age. Hectochelle will also vet background stars for suitability as astrometric reference stars for a forthcoming HST FGS proposal to robustly measure the cluster's distance.

  4. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers.

  5. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  6. Thorite in an Apollo 12 granite fragment and age determination using the electron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddio, Stephen M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first quantitative compositional analysis of thorite in a lunar sample. The sample, a granitic assemblage, also contains monazite and yttrobetafite grains, all with concentrations of U, Th, and Pb sufficiently high to determine reliably with the electron microprobe. The assemblage represents the first documented occurrence of these three minerals together and only the second reported occurrence of thorite in a lunar rock. Sample 12023,147-10 is a small, monomict rock fragment recovered from an Apollo 12 regolith sample. It comprises graphic intergrowths of K-feldspar and quartz, and plagioclase and quartz, along with minor or accessory hedenbergite, fayalite, ilmenite, zircon, yttrobetafite, thorite, monazite, and Fe metal. Thorite, ideally ThSiO4, occurs in the assemblage adjacent to quartz and plagioclase, and includes a 12% xenotime ([Y,HREE]PO4) component. From quantitative electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Th, U, and Pb in thorite, assuming that all of the measured Pb is radiogenic, we calculate an age of 3.87 ± 0.03 Ga. Yttrobetafite and monazite, which contain lesser concentrations of U, Th, and Pb than the thorite, yield ages of 3.78 ± 0.06 Ga and 3.9 ± 0.3 Ga, respectively. These dates are consistent with formation of the granitic material around 3.8-3.9 Ga, possibly associated with, or after, the formation of the Imbrium basin. This age falls within a group of younger ages for granitic samples, measured mainly by ion microprobe analysis of zircon, compared to a suite of older ages, ca. 4.20-4.32 Ga, also from zircons (Meyer et al., 1996). A 3.8-3.9 Ga age may reflect an origin following the Imbrium event whereby granitic melt formed as a result of heating and melting, and was mobilized and emplaced along an Imbrium-related ring-fracture system. Silicic volcanic or exposed intrusive materials occur in several circum-Imbrium locations such as the Mairan and Gruithuisen Domes and in ejecta excavated by Aristarchus crater. Perhaps

  7. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England

    PubMed Central

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909

  8. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  9. Determination of an ageing factor for lead/acid batteries. 1. Kinetic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta-Deu, C.; Donaire, T.

    The capacity of lead/acid batteries decreases with the number of cycles. This process is known as ageing. The reduction of capacity affects not only the operation time but also the performance of the accumulator and of the system attached to the battery. One of the main procedures affected by the battery ageing is the determination of the state-of-charge. In this paper, a parameter called 'ageing factor', fa, which represents the reduction of the available energy in lead/acid batteries, is introduced. A method to calculate this factory and its incidence on battery performance has also been developed. The method is intended to predict 'ageing' effects on lead/acid batteries as a non-destructive method, as well as on-line battery operation. The method is based on the effective reduction in electrolyte specific gravity in a fully charged lead/acid battery computed from the change of the slope of the electrolyte density during charge with the number of cycles, and the subsequent reduction in discharge time. A correlation process between the reduction of the energy delivered by the electrochemical cell, the reduction of the discharge time, and the apparent change of the slope of electrolyte density has been developed, resulting in an analytical expression that may be used to compute the effective reduction in available energy in lead/acid batteries. The results of the experiments have proven the merit of the proposed system: the predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error in the a estimation being lower than 9%, a result which has been considered acceptable to validate the proposed method.

  10. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted

  11. Coxofemoral joint radiography in standing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, Beatrice; Hagen, Regine; Schmid, Tanja; Nuss, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a technique for radiographic examination of the coxofemoral joint and adjacent bony structures in standing cattle. Left (or right) 30° dorsal-right (or left) ventral radiographic views of the coxofemoral joint region of standing cattle (n = 10) with hind limb lameness were evaluated retrospectively. In addition, an experimental study of oblique laterolateral views of the coxofemoral joint region of a bovine skeleton at angles of 15-45° was carried out to determine the optimal position for visualization of the hip region. In the 10 clinical patients, the bodies of the ilium and ischium, the acetabulum and proximal third of the femur could be assessed. Six of these cattle had fractures of the body of the ilium and body of the ischium, five with and one without involvement of the acetabulum, two had craniodorsal and one caudoventral luxation of the femur and one had a femoral neck fracture. The described laterodorsal-lateroventral radiographs of the hip region in standing cattle were suitable for assessing the coxofemoral joint, the proximal aspect of the femur and parts of the ischium, ilium and pubis. After testing the optimal angle on the skeleton, it was seen that distortion and superimposition were minimized by positioning the X-ray beam at an angle of 25° to the horizontal plane. It can be concluded that the described technique improves the evaluation of injuries of the coxofemoral region in cattle. With the appropriate angle, the technique can also be applied in recumbent cattle.

  12. [Genetic mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to leukemia in Ayrshire and black pied cattle breeds determined by allelic distribution of gene Bola-DRB3].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Sulimova, G E

    2003-03-01

    In the herds of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds of Russian selection, comparative analysis of allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 was performed in animal groups with different status of persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Alleles were typed by PCR-RFLP. Different spectra of BoLA-DRB3 alleles mediating susceptibility and resistance to leukemia were detected in the studied breeds. The role of amino acid motives in beta 1 domain of BoLA-DRB3 antigens was confirmed: ER (in positions 70-71), in resistance to leukemia and VDTY and VDTV (75-78), in susceptibility to leukemia. The nucleotide sequence of allele BoLA-DRB3.2*7 with deletion of codon 65, which resulted in the changed conformation of the corresponding antigen molecule, was associated with resistance to PL. Cows of Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds with genotypes coding VDTY/VDTV (RR = 11.67, P = 0.014) and VDTY/VDTY (RR = 4.71, P = 0.022), respectively, were shown to be susceptible to PL. The role of heterozygosity level was demonstrated (estimated by BoLA-DRB3 alleles and by amino acid motives in positions 75-78 of the antigen) as an unspecific factor of resistance to PL. The lowest heterozygosity level by amino acid motives (75-78) was revealed in PL animals, for which sample inbreeding coefficients were detected: F = 0.324 and F = 0.084 in Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  14. Production of cattle lacking prion protein.

    PubMed

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP(C), such as PrP(BSE) in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP(CJD) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP(C) expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities. However, the impact of ablating PrP(C) function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrP(C)-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification. PrP(C)-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins.

  15. Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

    The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

  16. Fate of chlorate present in cattle wastes and its impact on Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli 0157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorate salts are being developed as a feed additive to reduce the numbers of pathogens in feedlot cattle. A series of studies was conducted to determine whether chlorate, at concentrations expected to be excreted in urine of dosed cattle, would also reduce the populations of pathogens in cattle wa...

  17. Age determinations and growth rates of Pacific ferromanganese deposits using strontium isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingram, B.L.; Hein, J.R.; Farmer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    87Sr 86Sr ratios, trace element and REE compositions, and textural characteristics were determined for three hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts, one hydrothermal deposit, and two mixed hydrothermalhydrogenetic crusts from the Pacific. The Sr isotope data are compared to the Sr seawater curve for the Cenozoic to determine the ages and growth rates of the crusts. The 87Sr 86Sr in the crusts does not increase monotonically with depth as expected if the Sr were solely derived from seawater and perfectly preserved since deposition. This indicates post-depositional exchange of Sr or heterogeneous sources for the Sr originally contained in the crusts. Textures of hydrogenetic crusts generally correlate with Sr isotopic variations. The highest porosity intervals commonly exhibit the highest 87Sr 86Sr ratios, indicating exchange with younger seawater. Intervals with the lowest porosity commonly have lower 87Sr 86Sr and may preserve the original Sr isotopic ratios. Minimum ages of crust growth inception were calculated from dense, low porosity intervals. Growth of the hydrogenetic crusts began at or after 23 Ma, although their substrates are Cretaceous. Estimated average growth rates of the three hydrogenetic crusts vary between 0.9 and 2.7 mm/Ma, consistent with published rates determined by other techniques. Within the Marshall Islands crust, growth rates for individual layers varied greatly between 1.0 and 5.4 mm/Ma. For one crust, very low 87Sr 86Sr ratios occurred in detrital-rich intervals. Hydrothermal Fe-Mn oxide from the active Lau Basin back-arc spreading axis (Valu Fa Ridge) has an 87Sr 86Sr ratio with a predominantly seawater signature ( 87Sr 86Sr 0.709196), indicating a maximum age of 0.9 Ma. One crust from an off-axis seamount west of Gorda Ridge may have begun precipitating hydrogenetically at 0.5 Ma (0.709211), and had increasing hydrothermal or volcanic input in the top half of the crust, indicated by a significantly lower 87Sr 86Sr ratio (0.709052). ?? 1990.

  18. Age-Related Response of Rumen Microbiota to Mineral Salt and Effects of Their Interactions on Enteric Methane Emissions in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Li, X H; Chen, Y X; Cheng, Z H; Duan, Q H; Meng, Q H; Tao, X P; Shang, B; Dong, H M

    2017-04-01

    of Succiniclasticum to Prevotella and Prevotellaceae in adults suggests a response of microbiota to mineral salt that contributes to higher propionate production, which competes for hydrogen utilized by methanogens. Our data collectively indicate that a mineral salt diet can alter interactions of bacterial taxa that result in enteric methane reduction, and this effect is also influenced in an age-dependent manner.

  19. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat.

  20. Virus-induced papillomas of the alimentary tract of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, W F; Murphy, J; O'Neil, B W; Laird, H M

    1978-09-15

    An abattoir survey was carried out to determine the incidence and aetiology of squamous papillomas of the alimentary tract of cattle in Scotland and North England as they were suspected of being involved in the genesis of alimentary carcinoma in certain localized geographical areas. A total of 7,746 cattle of a wide age range was examined. Various subsets of this number were subjected to analyses of certain specific factors. The calculated overall incidence was 19% and the detailed site incidence and tumour multiplicity are given. The sites at which papillomas were found were identical with those at which carcinoma had been noted in animals from a high-cancer area. The number of sites affected by papilloma and the tumour multiplicity were much lower in the general population than in the high-cancer area. Inclusion bodies, identified by electronmicroscopy as virus, were found in tumour cell nuclei and a typical papilloma virus was purified from the tumours. The structure of the tumours is described and the possible plurality of bovine papilloma-viruses is discussed in the light of recent findings in the human viruses. The general interest of a naturally occurring and geographically localized oncogenic system, in which an environmental carcinogen and a virus might be involved, is extended.

  1. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  2. Determination of K-Ar ages in milligram samples using an infrared laser for argon extraction.

    PubMed

    Solé, Jesús

    2009-11-01

    The K-Ar dating method has been used for decades to decipher the ages of terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. The natural radioactive decay of a metal to a rare gas is an advantage that allows the determination of very small amounts of argon by mass spectrometry. Although the Ar-Ar method has superseded K-Ar, the latter is still used and it has room for improvement. One of these is the reduction of the analyzed sample mass, a desideratum of any current analytical technique. I report here our experience in K-Ar geochronology of milligram-sized samples using laser heating and melting for gas extraction. This modification of the classical K-Ar technique has not been, to my knowledge, used in any other laboratory in the world and deserves a detailed description of its advantages and limitations.

  3. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  4. Determination of rheological property and its effect on key aroma release of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Qiu, Ju; Li, Zaigui

    2016-08-01

    The rheological property of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) was determined by rheometer, and its effects on release in eight key aroma components of SAV was investigated by SPME-GC-MS. In order to simulate the change of rheological property of SAV, a modified SAV system was developed from a finished SAV using carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, glucose, fructose, sodium chloride and tannic acid at indicate levels. The consistency coefficients (K) of SAV ranged from 1.09e(-5) to 0.0137, which was correlated to glucose, polyphenol, acids and (o)Bx. SAV changed from shear-thickening to Newtonian fluid during long-time ageing. In the modified SAV system, the K values increased significantly, and two modified vinegar became quasi-Newtonian fluids too. Furthermore, release of the eight key aroma compounds decreased significantly and decreased was pronounced, for acetic acid, furfural and tetramethylpyrazine. The results demonstrated rheological property correlated to the concentrate of sugar, salt, polyphenol, acids and macromolecule, which significantly affected the release of major aroma compounds.

  5. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  6. Prevalence of bovine dermatophilosis and disease-associated alleles in zebu Goudali cattle and their Italian Simmental crosses ranching in the western highland plateau savannah of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ojong, Bessong Willington; Saccà, Elena; Bessong, Pascal; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-10-01

    Abundance of native pastures makes Cameroon's western highland savannah (WHS) a hotspot for low-input beef-type cattle. Dumbo Ranch is central to cattle seed stock multiplication in WHS and holds that Dermatophilus congolensis infection undermines production. The bovine BoLA-DRB3 has been variously demonstrated as the principal gene of the major histocompatibility locus associated with immunity and resistance to dermatophilosis in cattle. We studied the profile of dermatophilosis prevalence in zebu Goudali (G) and its Simmental composite, SimGoud (SG), at Dumbo Ranch and determined the distribution of a dermatophilosis-associated susceptibility allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We recorded a 42 % prevalence of dermatophilosis in the studied cohort (337 animals). Dermatophilosis was more common in older cattle than in cattle ≤36 months (p ≤ 0.05). G was more affected compared to SG, because of the prevalence of the disease in the oldest animals and the age distribution of the experimental subjects. No susceptible homozygote was observed. About 85 and 15 % of the cohort carried the homozygous resistant and heterozygous condition, respectively. This genotype distribution was not affected by cattle type. The study confirms the presence of dermatophilosis among G and SG cattle in WHS. However, there was no correlation between the presence of the disease-associated susceptible allele considered and clinical manifestation. Screening for this dermatophilosis resistance-associated allele of BoLA-DRB3 gene appeared not useful for selection of G and SG in WHS.

  7. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    PubMed Central

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  8. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  9. Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d−1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d−1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d−1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d−1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg−1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg−1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  10. ANALYSIS OF AGED IN-HOME CARPETING TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES BETWEEN DUST, CARPET, AND PAD COMPARTMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of a study to determine the distribution of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between dust and carpet components in aged carpeting. Carpeting in eight homes in the Research Triangle Area, which...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 86.1826-08(d)(4). 3. Plot emissions (or catalyst inefficiency) versus aging time for each.... Plot the natural log (ln) of the slope of each best-fit line (determined in step 4) along the...

  13. Frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in naturally infected cattle in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; Neta, Elza de Souza Muniz; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of species of the genus Eimeria species in naturally infected bovines in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study population comprised 117 Zebu crossbred cattle that belonged to 10 dairy herds with extensive or semi-extensive production systems. The modified Gordon and Whitlock technique was used to determine positive samples and number of oocysts per gram of feces. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test with Yates correction and a 95% confidence interval. Thirty-nine cattle (33.33%) were positive, and ten different species were identified in infected animals: E. bovis (24.79%); E. canadensis (8.55%); E. zuernii (6.83%); E. ellipsoidalis (5.99%); E. cylindrica (3.42%); E. auburnensis (3.42%); E. brasiliensis (2.56%); E. bukidnonensis (1.71%); E. alabamensis (0.85%), and E. subspherica (0.85%). Higher parasitism was observed in animals up to one year of age (p = 0.005), but no animal presented clinical signs of the disease. As the presence of clinical eimeriosis was not evidenced and all animals were Zebu crossbred cattle from extensive or semi-extensive production systems, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of these factors on disease development.

  14. 76 FR 51458 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wonder of the Age: Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wonder of the Age: Master Painters... Age: Master Painters of India, 1100-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  15. Genomic and p16-specific DNA methylation of the mouse colon: elder age and dietary folate as interactive determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elder age and inadequate folate intake are strongly implicated as important risk factors for colon cancer and each is associated with altered DNA methylation. This study was designed to determine the effect of aging and dietary folate on select features of DNA methylation in the colon that are relev...

  16. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  17. Development of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on ear notch tissue samples in cattle infected persistently.

    PubMed

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Madić, Josip

    2011-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes a disease that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Cattle infected persistently, as a continuing source of the virus and the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds, are the main source of BVDV and a primary factor in the epidemiology of the disease. To determine whether a BVDV infection is persistent, two samples should be taken at 3-4 week intervals and tested for the virus antigen. Animal sera, whole blood, organ and ear notch tissue samples can be used for BVDV diagnosis. In ear notch tissue, viral antigen can be detected by an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This paper describes the development and implementation of an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method using ear notch tissue samples for diagnosis of cattle infected persistently. Results obtained by this method show that IF is a good alternative to RT-PCR and antigen ELISA and can be a quick and accurate method in diagnosis of BVDV in cattle infected persistently with this virus.

  18. Single parameter of inverse proportion between mortality and age could determine all mortality indicators in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, Josef

    2016-05-21

    Mortality increase with age in adult population has been studied and modeled by many authors, but relatively little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Data split in more detailed age categories can newly test mortality decrease with age. Age trajectories of mortality are studied in 20 age categories in the specific age interval 1-365 days. Four basic models mentioned in literature are tested here. The linear model and the linear model with the specific slope -1 in the log-log scale represent the most successful formalism. Mortality indicators describing the first year could be determined by a single parameter of the model with slope -1 in the log-log scale. All conclusions are based on published data which are presented as a supplement.

  19. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.

  20. Determining the age of CO2 Released From Mountain Birch Forest and Heath in Arctic Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, I. P.; Garnett, M. H.; Hopkins, D. W.; Sommerkorn, M.; Wookey, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear weapons testing released a large amount of 14C into the atmosphere during the mid 20th Century. This radiocarbon pulse provides a tracer that can be used to determine the age of C released from plants and soils. Such information is critical for predicting how terrestrial C storage will respond to global change. If respired CO2 is mainly modern, then respiration and photosynthesis are tightly coupled. In contrast, if older C is being mineralized then there is more potential for climate change to induce C loss. We carried out one of the first studies to measure seasonal variations in the 14C content of CO2 released from arctic ecosystems. Using molecular sieves, we trapped CO2 respired from a mountain birch forest and heath near Abisko, northern Sweden and measured 14C contents by accelerator mass spectrometry. CO2 was collected from both vegetated plots (control) and clipped and trenched plots (CT) on three occasions during the 2007 growing season. In addition, we used a new passive sampling technique to collect CO2 from the CT plots during winter 2007-2008. Assuming that the respired C was derived from post bomb sources (justifiable as the majority of each soil profile was enriched with bomb C), we estimated the age of the CO2 and how it changed during the year in response to changes in plant activity and key environmental drivers. On the heath, the mean age of the CO2 respired from the control plots increased from 4 to 6 years old during the growing season. The CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 5 years old in early June to 11 years old by July, but then declined to 8 years old in September. The C released during winter was also 8 years old. In the Birch forest, the mean age of CO2 respired from the CT plots increased from 4 years old in late May to 8-9 years old during July and September. However, during winter, the CO2 released was >10 years old. In the control plots, the age of respired CO2 increased from being 1 year old in late May to 6

  1. Rb-Sr age of the Civet Cat clast, 72255, 41. [radioactive age determination for lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Gray, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclase rich clasts, orthopyroxene rich matrix, purified pyroxene, and plagioclase from the Civet Cat clast define a Rb-Sr isochron age of 4.18 + or - 0.04 x 10 to the 9th power yr and an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.69922 + or - 0.00005. The fit of all data to the line is within error except for plagioclase 3, and blank corrections are essentially negligible. The decay constant used is 1.39 x 10 to the minus 11th power yr.

  2. Diagnostic considerations for evaluating nutritional problems in cattle.

    PubMed

    Maas, John

    2007-11-01

    The advances in testing methodology and in our understanding of the normal nutritional physiology of cattle have given veterinarians valuable tools to assess the nutritional status of cattle. By taking a representative number of appropriate samples, it is now relatively easy and inexpensive to determine the nutritional status of an individual or a group of animals. Also, the effectiveness of supplementation programs can be measured over time as part of an overall preventive medicine program.

  3. Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium from cattle from five states of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yap, Nan Jiun; Koehler, Anson V; Ebner, Janine; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of the cattle industry in Malaysia, there are very few studies of the diversity and public health significance of bovine cryptosporidiosis in this country. In the present study, we used a PCR-based approach to detect and genetically characterize Cryptosporidium DNA in faecal samples from a cohort of 215 asymptomatic cattle (of different ages) from six farms from five states of Peninsular Malaysia. Cattle on four of the six farms were test-positive for Cryptosporidium, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae were detected in two (0.9%) and five (2.3%) samples tested; this low prevalence likely relates to the age of the cattle tested, as most (73%) of the samples tested originated from cattle that were ≥2 years of age. Future studies should investigate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and weaned calves in rural communities of Malaysia.

  4. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  5. Metaphylactic antimicrobial therapy for bovine respiratory disease in stocker and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J

    2010-07-01

    This article provides an overview of implementing metaphylactic antimicrobial protocols to certain classes of cattle on arrival to stocker and feedlot production systems. The goal of this management practice is to reduce the negative health and performance effects induced by bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This article emphasizes the multiple factors that influence the decision for mass medication, including weight (age) of the cattle, distance traveled, environmental conditions, previous health history, visual inspection of the cattle at arrival, and prediction of the risk of disease. Current data suggest that metaphylactic programs significantly reduce negative health effects and improve feed performance that can be observed in cattle stricken with BRD.

  6. Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection. PMID:20436867

  7. Susceptibility of Cattle to First-Passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from Elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle could be exposed to chronic wasting disease (CWD) from infected farmed or free-ranging cervids. The purpose of this study was to assess the transmissibility of CWD derived from elk to cattle. Intracerebral inoculation of calves (n=14) of approximately 3 months of age was done with 1 ml of a...

  8. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  9. Formation of monazite via prograde metamorphic reactions among common silicates: implications for age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Malloy, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Three lines of evidence from schists of the Great Smoky Mountains, NC, indicate that isogradic monazite growth occurred at the staurolite-in isograd at ˜600°C: (1) Monazite is virtually absent below the staurolite-in isograd, but is ubiquitous (several hundred grains per thin section) in staurolite- and kyanite-grade rocks. (2) Many monazite grains are spatially associated with biotite coronas around garnets, formed via the reaction Garnet + Chlorite + Muscovite = Biotite + Plagioclase + Staurolite + H 2O. (3) Garnets contain high-Y annuli that result from prograde dissolution of garnet via the staurolite-in reaction, followed by regrowth, and rare monazite inclusions occur immediately outside the annulus and in the matrix, but not in the garnet core. Larger monazite grains also exhibit quasi-continuous Th zoning with high Th cores and low Th rims, consistent with monazite growth via a single reaction and fractional crystallization during prograde growth. Common silicates may host sufficient P and LREEs that reactions among them can produce observable LREE phosphate. Specifically phosphorus contents of garnet and plagioclase are hundreds of parts per million, and dissolution of garnet and recrystallization of plagioclase could form thousands of phosphate grains several micrometers in diameter per thin section. LREEs may be more limiting, but sheet silicates and plagioclase can contain tens to ˜100 (?) ppm LREE, so recrystallization of these silicates to lower LREE contents could produce hundreds of grains of monazite per thin section. Monazite ages, determined via electron and ion microprobes, are ˜400 Ma, directly linking prograde Barrovian metamorphism of the Western Blue Ridge with the "Acadian" orogeny, in contrast to previous interpretations that metamorphism was "Taconian" (˜450 Ma). Interpretation of ages from metamorphic monazite grains will require prior chemical characterization and identification of relevant monazite-forming reactions, including

  10. Does targeted grazing with small ruminants influence subsequent patch use by mule deer and cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminants are increasingly being used in controlled grazing programs to target undesirable vegetation. It has not been determined how targeted juniper browsing affects subsequent use of those patches by cattle and wildlife. To determine whether cattle or mule deer used or avoided patches that ...

  11. Determination of rain age via {gamma} rays from accreted radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M. B.; Ito, N.; Iwata, A.; Kubo, K.; Ishigaki, M.; Komura, K.

    2008-10-01

    The relative {gamma} ray activities from {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi condensed from precipitation are used to determine its 'age', the average time the accreted activity has been removed from secular equilibrium. A verifiable assumption that radon progeny on/in the surface/volume of droplets mostly remains in secular equilibrium until they begin their descent, enables estimates of their transit times to ground of typically a few tens of minutes. This agrees well with the time expected for the activity on the surface of droplets to reach the ground from heights of a few kilometers. The half lives of {gamma} activities from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb, 19.7 and 26.9 min, respectively, are on the same scale as transit time to ground and close enough to each other to measure ratios of activities from secular equilibrium (1.00) to transient equilibrium (3.88) within a few hundreds of minutes. The ratio of {gamma} count rates is independent of knowledge of either initial activity or any systematic errors and thus limited only by the uncertainty from counting statistics, which from condensates of 5-30 l of rain viewed with 2{pi} solid angle by a 50% efficient, high-resolution Ge detector is only a few percent. These ratios fit extremely well to known theoretical curves, which cannot only be used to date rain but can also be extrapolated backward to determine radon progeny activities in rain prior to its descent, knowledge of which may facilitate further studies using radon progeny as tracers.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dogs and cats as well as Arcanobacterium pyogenes from cattle and swine as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Werckenthin, Christiane; Alesík, Eva; Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Schwarz, Stefan; Wieler, Lothar H; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    During the BfT-GermVet monitoring program, Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa from dogs and cats (n = 99) as well as Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes from cattle and swine (n = 90) were examined for their antimicrobial susceptibility. In general, P. aeruginosa is known to be resistant against many antimicrobial agents whereas A. pyogenes is thought to be susceptible to most agents in-vitro. However, representative and actual minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values are missing for both veterinary pathogens. In the present study, MIC values were determined and categorized according to the recommendations given in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) documents M31-A2 and M31-S1. For susceptibility testing of A. pyogenes, the CLSI methodology was slightly modified. Specific breakpoints were not available for most of the antimicrobial agents tested. P. aeruginosa isolates from infections of the skin, ear and mouth as well as the urinary and genital tract of dogs and cats were either resistant or exhibited high MIC values to most antimicrobial agents tested. However, gentamicin resistant isolates were observed in only 27% and 11% (intermediate isolates 29% and 39%), respectively. For the same bacterium/host animal/organ system combinations, enrofloxacin resistance was detected in only 24% and 11% of the isolates (intermediate isolates 49% and 61%). For A. pyogenes, resistance was most prevalent against tetracycline (33%-56%, bovine and porcine isolates) and sulfonamides (26%-40%, bovine isolates).

  13. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Violet N; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Ambia, Julie; Kiragu, Monica W; Njehu, Alice N; Sinja, Judith; Monda, Joseph G; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One-hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of non-dairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

  14. Age determinations and Earth-based multispectral observations of lunar light plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The history of light plains still remains doubtful, but there are good arguments - mainly obtained by age determinations and supported by multispectral observations - for an endogenic (magmatic) instead of an (exclusively) impact related origin. Light plains are characterized by smooth areas with an albedo lower than the surrounding highlands (12 - 13 percent), but significantly higher than maria (5 - 6 percent). Before Apollo 16 a volcanic source has been supposed, but analysis of returned samples (highly brecciated and metamorphosed rocks) favored an impact ejecta related origin. Among the currently discussed models are formation by ejecta sedimentation from multi-ringed basins, formation by secondary and tertiary cratering action of ballistically ejected material during the formation of multi-ringed basins, in situ formation by impact melt of large events, and premare (crypto-) volcanism basalts covered by a thin ejecta cover; younger impacts penetrated the ejecta surface to create the dark haloed craters. To find arguments in favor or against these ideas the chronology of light plains is of major importance. Obviously a genetic relationship between the evolution of light plains and the basin forming impacts can be possible only if the events of emplacement features happened simultaneously.

  15. CT evaluation of medial clavicular epiphysis as a method of bone age determination in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ufuk, Furkan; Agladioglu, Kadir; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system. RESULTS Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. CONCLUSION CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years. PMID:27015321

  16. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that are 30 months of age or older from which brains and spinal cords were..., those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral...

  17. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that are 30 months of age or older from which brains and spinal cords were..., those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral...

  18. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that are 30 months of age or older from which brains and spinal cords were..., those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral...

  19. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that are 30 months of age or older from which brains and spinal cords were..., those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral...

  20. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older... paragraph (b)(2) of this section that are 30 months of age or older from which brains and spinal cords were..., those with broken appendages, severed tendons or ligaments, nerve paralysis, fractured vertebral...

  1. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  2. Neuropathological changes in auditory brainstem nuclei in cattle with experimentally induced bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Okada, H; Arai, S; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is characterized by the appearance of spongy lesions in the brain, particularly in the brainstem nuclei. This study evaluated the degenerative changes observed in the central auditory brainstem of BSE-challenged cattle. The neuropathological changes in the auditory brainstem nuclei were assessed by determining the severity of vacuolation and the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Sixteen female Holstein-Friesian calves, 2-4 months of age, were inoculated intracerebrally with BSE agent. BSE-challenged animals developed the characteristic clinical signs of BSE approximately 18 months post inoculation (mpi) and advanced neurological signs after 22 mpi. Before the appearance of clinical signs (i.e. at 3, 10, 12 and 16 mpi), vacuolar change was absent or mild and PrP(Sc) deposition was minimal in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The two cattle sacrificed at 18 and 19 mpi had no clinical signs and showed mild vacuolar degeneration and moderate amounts of PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem pathway. In the animals challenged with BSE agent that developed clinical sings (i.e. after 20 mpi), spongy changes were more prominent in the nucleus of the inferior colliculus compared with the other nuclei of the auditory brainstem and the medial geniculate body. Neuropathological changes characterized by spongy lesions accompanied by PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem nuclei of BSE-infected cattle may be associated with hyperacusia.

  3. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  4. Investigations of anabolic drug abuse in athletics and cattle feed. II. Specific determination of methandienone (Dianabol) in urine in nanogram amounts.

    PubMed

    Frischkorn, C G; Frischkorn, H E

    1978-04-21

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the free excreted anabolic drug methandienone in pharmacokinetic studies is described. After extraction of the free steroids from urine, separation on reversed-phase columns leads to quantitative determination of this drug down to 5 ng, and to qualitative detection of less than 1 ng amounts. Because the anabolic drugs and their metabolites are eluted later than the other normally excreted constituents this method is also useful for the routine surveillance of anabolic drug abuse in the sports in general.

  5. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (p<0.001) and vaginitis. In addition, significant relationships between health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial

  6. Can bone age determination provide criteria for growth hormone treatment in adopted girls with early puberty?

    PubMed

    Proos, L A; Lönnerholm, T; Jonsson, B; Tuvemo, T

    2006-01-01

    In treatment of idiopathic central precocious puberty, GnRH analogues (GnRHa) have been accepted as the treatment of choice. Since growth velocity may be impaired with GnRHa treatment growth hormone (GH) treatment has been added in clinical trials. Recently, a study followed adopted girls with early or precocious puberty on GnRHa or combined GnRHa and GH treatment to final height. It was found that final height was significantly higher in the combined treatment group, although the difference was small. It was seen that patients that were extremely short at arrival and short at start of treatment seemed to be candidates for combined treatment. We have now analysed the data in order to define criteria for the sub-group in need of combined GnRHa-GH treatment in order to achieve normal final height, i.e. above -2 SDS. Bone ages of 46 patients at start of treatment, randomized to either GnRHa treatment or GnRHa treatment combined with GH, were examined blindly by the same radiologist and the PAH calculated. The methods according to Greulich-Pyle / Bayley-Pinneau (GP/BP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) were used. Predictions versus final height data were analysed. The accuracy of FH prediction was greatest for GnRHa treated group using the GP/BP method. The GP/BP method gave useful cut off limits for when combined treatment was necessary to possibly achieve normal height. If pre-treatment GP/PAH was > 157cm, the patients attained normal height with GnRHa treatment only. Ten out of 13 (77%) such girls could be correctly identified. Using TW2 with a cut off of 164 cm, 9 out of 13 could be selected. Using a multi regression equation of best fit the number of correctly selected cases for GnRHa treatment only, could not be further increased in this group. We conclude that bone age determination and adult height prediction with the Greulich-Pyle/Bayley-Pinneau method, provides useful criteria for selecting the subgroup of adopted girls with early puberty where combined treatment

  7. Age determination of the world's oldest movable metal types through measuring the "meog" using AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, W.; Lee, S. C.; Park, J. H.; Park, G.; Sung, K. H.; Lee, J. G.; Nam, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing "Jeungdoga" was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called "meog" was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world's oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  8. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  9. Treatment of theileriosis in crossbred cattle in the Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Gill, J S; Kwatra, M S; Sharma, K K

    1993-05-01

    One hundred and nine cases of bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in Punjab State, India, were treated with oxytetracycline (23 cases) or buparvaquone (86 cases). Ages of affected cattle ranged from 6 days to 3 years. Oxytetracycline cured only 7 animals (30.4%), all of them calves below 15 days old, while buparvaquone cured all but one (98.8%), a severely affected 10 day old calf. Cured cattle remained theileriosis-free for 12 to 18 months following recovery. Theileriosis in Punjab is predominantly a disease of young calves that cannot be protected by available cell-culture vaccines. It is suggested that the most economical way to control theileriosis in India would be to immunise calves by infection with sporozoite stabilate and simultaneous treatment with tetracycline, and to reserve buparvaquone for the treatment of clinical cases, in cattle of all ages.

  10. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or “bul”, to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau’s unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country’s mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover. PMID:28358910

  11. Size, age, and habitat determine effectiveness of Palau's Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Golbuu, Yimnang; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gouezo, Marine; Olsudong, Dawnette; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    Palau has a rich heritage of conservation that has evolved from the traditional moratoria on fishing, or "bul", to more western Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), while still retaining elements of customary management and tenure. In 2003, the Palau Protected Areas Network (PAN) was created to conserve Palau's unique biodiversity and culture, and is the country's mechanism for achieving the goals of the Micronesia Challenge (MC), an initiative to conserve ≥30% of near-shore marine resources within the region by 2020. The PAN comprises a network of numerous MPAs within Palau that vary in age, size, level of management, and habitat, which provide an excellent opportunity to test hypotheses concerning MPA design and function using multiple discreet sampling units. Our sampling design provided a robust space for time comparison to evaluate the relative influence of potential drivers of MPA efficacy. Our results showed that no-take MPAs had, on average, nearly twice the biomass of resource fishes (i.e. those important commercially, culturally, or for subsistence) compared to nearby unprotected areas. Biomass of non-resource fishes showed no differences between no-take areas and areas open to fishing. The most striking difference between no-take MPAs and unprotected areas was the more than 5-fold greater biomass of piscivorous fishes in the MPAs compared to fished areas. The most important determinates of no-take MPA success in conserving resource fish biomass were MPA size and years of protection. Habitat and distance from shore had little effect on resource fish biomass. The extensive network of MPAs in Palau likely provides important conservation and tourism benefits to the Republic, and may also provide fisheries benefits by protecting spawning aggregation sites, and potentially through adult spillover.

  12. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  13. Traditional versus Non-Traditional University Students: Does Age Determine Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Maria E.

    This study investigated how students over the age of 30--nontraditional students--performed in the university setting compared to traditional students (under age 30). Overall classroom performance was evaluated by teacher-made assessments for the two groups of students, who were enrolled in an undergraduate technical writing course during the…

  14. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  15. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; ...

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  16. Determination of chronological aging parameters in epidermal keratinocytes by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chou, Sin-Yo; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is an important issue in geriatric and cosmetic dermatology. To quantitatively analyze changes in keratinocytes related to intrinsic aging, we exploited a 1230 nm-based in vivo harmonic generation microscopy, combining second- and third-harmonic generation modalities. 52 individuals (21 men and 31 women, age range 19–79) were examined on the sun-protected volar forearm. Through quantitative analysis by the standard algorithm provided, we found that the cellular and nuclear size of basal keratinocytes, but not that of granular cells, was significantly increased with advancing age. The cellular and nuclear areas, which have an increase of 0.51 μm2 and 0.15 μm2 per year, respectively, can serve as scoring indices for intrinsic skin aging. PMID:23304649

  17. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  18. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  20. [Intersuckling by cattle: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Rutgers, L J; Grommers, F J

    1988-04-15

    The literature on intersucking in cattle is reviewed. The following features are described: incidence, moments of appearance, relationship between herd mates, environmental factors (housing system, size of herd, area per animal, feeding places available, feed ration, nutrient deficiencies, housing and feeding practices during the rearing period), animal factors (genetic predisposition, social bonds, imitation), consequences (pathological changes, milk loss), and forms of symptomatic treatment (mechanical devices, surgery). It is concluded that rearing methods (bucket feeding of milk, early group housing) and genetic predisposition are likely to be the most important factors in the aetiology of intersucking in mature dairy cattle. As methods of symptomatic treatment are not successful in every case and are subject to ethical dispute, it is advisable not to treat intersucking cattle regardless of the symptomatic approach. This is the more important because there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition. The mode of inheritance is still unknown, but is likely to act through sucking motivation or drive at an early age. In problem herds more attention should be paid to rearing methods and selection of (A.I.) bulls. There also is a need for further research into the aetiology, particularly by longitudinal studies in which a large number of animals are studied from birth to first lactation.

  1. Endemic cattle diseases: comparative epidemiology and governance.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F

    2011-07-12

    Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis) using observed cattle movements, and compare the outcomes to an extensive dataset. The results demonstrate that the epidemiology of the three pathogens is determined by different aspects of within- and between-farm processes, which has economic, legal and political implications for control. We consider how these pathogens, and Mycobacterium bovis (the agent of bovine tuberculosis), may be classified by the process by which they persist and by their political profile. We further consider the dynamic interaction of these classifications with pathogen prevalence and with the action taken by the government.

  2. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  3. Prevalence of ultrasound-determined cystic endometrial hyperplasia and the relationship with age in dogs.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Whiteside, Helen; England, Gary C W

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between age and diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitches, 348 ultrasound examinations from 240 bitches (Labradors, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Flat Coated Retrievers, or crosses of those breeds aged between 1.6 and 7.2 years at examination) were examined. A subpopulation of 32 bitches that had completed their breeding careers at 6 years or more of age was also identified. Of all, 18.3% of the bitches were diagnosed with CEH; these cases were newly diagnosed when bitches were between 2.5 years and 7.3 years of age. The proportion of ultrasound examinations in which CEH was identified increased from 6.8% of examinations on 2-year-old breeding bitches to 60.0% of examinations on 6-year-old bitches. Logistic regression identified a positive correlation between mean age at the examination and presence of CEH (χ(2) = 30.74, degrees of freedom = 1, P < 0.001). For 32 bitches that had completed their breeding career, the prevalence of CEH was 56.3%, age at the diagnosis ranged from 3.8 to 7.3 years, and the proportion of bitches affected with CEH increased from 6.3% at 3 years of age to 56.3% at 7 years of age. These data support the contention that the prevalence of CEH increases with age.

  4. Determination of the age distribution of sea ice from Lagrangian observations of ice motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G.F.; Rothrock, D.A.; Stern, H.L.

    1995-03-01

    A procedure for monitoring the local age distribution of the Arctic sea ice cover is presented. The age distribution specifies the area covered by ice in different age classes. In the authors` approach, a regular array of grid points is defined initially on the first image of a long time series, and an ice tracker finds the positions of those points in all subsequent images of the series. These Lagrangian points mark the corners of a set of cells that move and deform with the ice cover. The area of each cell changes with each new image or time step. A positive change indicates that ice in a new age class was formed in the cell. A negative change is assumed to have ridged the youngest ice in the cell, reducing its area. The ice in each cell ages as it progresses through the time series. The area of multiyear ice in each cell is computed using an ice classification algorithm. Any area that is not accounted for by the young ice or multiyear ice is assigned to a category of older first-year ice. They thus have a fine age resolution in the young end of the age distribution, and coarse resolution for older ice. The age distribution of the young ice can be converted to a thickness distribution using a simple empirical relation between accumulated freezing-degree days and ice thickness, or using a more complicated thermodynamic model. They describe a general scheme for implementing this procedure for the Arctic Ocean from fall freeze-up until the onset of melt in the spring. The concept is illustrated with a time series of five ERS-1 SAR images spanning a period of 12 days. Such a scheme could be implemented with RADARSAT SAR imagery to provide basin-wide ice age and thickness information.

  5. Determination of Human Hepatic CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 Age-Dependent Expression to Support Human Health Risk Assessment for Early Ages.

    PubMed

    Song, Gina; Sun, Xueying; Hines, Ronald N; McCarver, D Gail; Lake, Brian G; Osimitz, Thomas G; Creek, Moire R; Clewell, Harvey J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2017-02-22

    Predicting age-specific metabolism is important for evaluating age-related drug and chemical sensitivity. Multiple cytochrome P450s (CYP) and carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes are responsible for human pyrethroid metabolism. Complete ontogeny data for each enzyme is needed to support in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This study was designed to determine age-dependent human hepatic CYP2C8 expression, for which only limited ontogeny data are available, and to further define CYP1A2 ontogeny. CYP2C8 and 1A2 protein levels were measured by quantitative Western blotting using liver microsomal samples prepared from 222 subjects with ages ranging from 8 weeks gestation to 18 years after birth. The median CYP2C8 expression was significantly greater among samples from subjects older than 35 postnatal days (n=122) compared to fetal samples and those from very young infants (fetal to 35 days postnatal, n=100) (0.00 vs. 13.38 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). In contrast, the median CYP1A2 expression was significantly greater after 15 months postnatal age (n=55) than in fetal and younger postnatal samples (fetal to 15 months postnatal, n=167) (0.0167 vs. 2.354 pmol/mg microsomal protein; p<0.0001). CYP2C8, but not CYP1A2, protein levels, significantly correlated with those of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 (p<0.001) consistent with CYP2C8 and CYP1A2 ontogeny being probably controlled by different mechanisms. This study provides key data for physiologically based pharmacokinetic model-based prediction of age-dependent pyrethroid metabolism, which will be used for IVIVE to support pyrethroid risk assessment for early life stages.

  6. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (<2, 2-<4, 4-6 and >6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  7. Haplotype determination of the upstream regulatory region and the second exon of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Takeshima, S-N; Baltian, L; Aida, Y; Giovambattista, G

    2014-03-01

    Polymorphisms of the BoLA-DRB3 gene are located primarily in the second exon [antigen binding site (ABS)] and, to a lesser extent, in the upstream regulatory region (URR). It can be hypothesised that exon 2 and the URR are under different types of natural selection. The aim of this work was to determine the URR-exon 2 haplotypes; 34 Holstein samples were genotyped by direct sequencing. A total of 7 URR alleles and 23 exon 2 alleles were detected, and 3 of the URR alleles were novel. Our results may suggest that no relationship exists between the URR and exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (linkage disequilibrium P value > 0.05), most likely due to recombination over time. Our results also suggest that both regions of class II genes may be included in the development of new genotyping methods based on next-generation DNA sequencing technologies.

  8. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    PubMed Central

    Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20–35 years), mid (40–55 years), and later adulthood (60–75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Results: Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). Discussion: The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. PMID:27974473

  9. Determination of the age of hydrothermal fluids by the kinetic-geochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikov, A.N.

    1995-03-01

    An estimate of the age of hydrothermal fluids at rift zones of oceans and continents, island arc regions, as well as regions of mud volcanism and occurrences of condensation and solution waters of hydrocarbon accumulations is given on the basis of the chemical, gas, and isotopic compositions and geothermobaric conditions. Correlations between the degree of accumulation of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and their age were established.

  10. Holocene age of the Yuha burial: Direct radiocarbon determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Thomas W.; Jull, A.J.T.; Zabel, T.H.; Donahue, D.J.; Duhamel, R.C.; Brendel, K.; Haynes, C.V.; Bischoff, J.L.; Payen, L.A.; Taylor, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The view that human populations may not have arrived in the Western Hemisphere before about 12,000 radiocarbon yr BP1,2 has been challenged by claims of much greater antiquity for a small number of archaeological sites and human skeleton samples. One such site is the Homo sapiens sapiens cairn burial excavated in 1971 from the Yuha desert, Imperial County, California3-5. Radiocarbon analysis of caliche coating one of the bones of the skeleton yielded a radiocarbon age of 21,500??1,000 yr BP4, while radiocarbon and uranium series analyses of caliche coating a cairn boulder yielded ages of 22,125??400 and 19,000??3,000 yr BP, respectively5. The late Pleistocene age assignment to the Yuha burial has been challenged by comparing the cultural context of the burial with other cairn burials in the same region6, on the basis of the site's geomorphological context and from radiocarbon analyses of soil caliches. 7,8 In rebuttal, arguments in defence of the original age assignment have been presented9,10 as well as an amino acid racemization analysis on the Yuha skeleton indicating an age of 23,600??2,600 yr BP11. The tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the University of Arizona has now been used to measure the ratio of 14C/13C in several organic and inorganic fractions of post-cranial bone from the Yuha H. sapiens sapiens skeleton. Isotope ratios from six chemical fractions all yielded radiocarbon ages for the skeleton of less than 4,000 yr BP. These results indicate that the Yuha skeleton is of Holocene age, in agreement with the cultural context of the burial, and in disagreement with the previously assigned Pleistocene age of 19,000-23,000 yr. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  12. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo...

  13. Infectivity of sarcocystis spp. from bison, elk, moose, and cattle for cattle via sporocysts from coyotes.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Dubey, J P; Leek, R G

    1982-08-01

    Bison bison (bison), Cervus canadensis (elk), Alces alces (moose), and Bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing Sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised Canis latrans (coyotes), Sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if Sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection and morphologic features of cysts with those resulting from infection with Sarcocystis bovicanis. All calves fed sporocysts of Sarcocystis from coyotes that ate bison or cattle muscle had similar clinical signs and harbored morphologically similar parasites, suggesting that both bison and cattle are intermediate hosts for S. bovicanis and that this species is transmissible between the two ruminant species. All calves fed sporocysts from coyotes that ate elk muscle or moose muscle remained asymptomatic but one calf in each group had intramuscular cysts. The finding of relatively large numbers of intramuscular cysts in one calf fed sporocysts of elk origin and smaller numbers in one calf fed sporocysts of moose origin could represent either spurious natural infections or indicate low infectivity of Sarcocystis spp. from elk and moose to cattle.

  14. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  15. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination. § 93.418, Nt. Effective Date Note: At 78 FR 72996, Dec. 4, 2013, § 93.418 was amended by...

  16. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  17. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  18. A MASSIF Effort To Determine The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Stars of Various Ages, Metallicities, and Evolution States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Beedict, G. Fritz; Gies, Douglas R.; Golimowski, David A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Mason, Brian; McArthur, Barbara; Nelan, Edmund; Torres, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The MASSIF (Masses and Stellar Systems with Interferometry) Team will use SIM to investigate the mass content of the Galaxy - from huge stars to barely glimmering brown dwarfs, and from hot white dwarfs to exotic black holes. We will target various samples of the Galactic population to determine and relate the fundamental characteristics of mass, luminosity, age, composition, and multiplicity - attributes that together yield an extensive understanding of the stars. Our samples will include distant clusters that span a factor of 5000 in age, and commonplace stars and substellar objects that lurk near the Sun. The principal goals of the MASSIF Key Project are to (1) define the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars in five fundamental clusters so that effects of age and metallicity can be mapped (Trapezium, TW Hydrae, Pleiades, Hyades, and M67), and (2) determine accurate masses for representative examples of nearly every type of star, stellar descendant or brown dwarf in the Galaxy.

  19. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, S. M. S.; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals. PMID:22529643

  20. Effect of dietary, social, and lifestyle determinants of accelerated aging and its common clinical presentation: A survey study.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Ravishankar, B

    2011-07-01

    Aging is unavoidable and natural phenomenon of life. Modern gerontologists are realizing the fact that aging is a disease, which Ayurveda had accepted as natural disease since long. Rate of aging is determined by one's biological, social, lifestyle, and psychological conditions and adversity of which leads to accelerated form of aging (Akalaja jara or premature aging). The aim of this study is to identify potential factors that may accelerate aging in the context of dietry factors, lifestyle and mental makeup. The 120 diagnosed subjects of premature-ageing of 30-60 years were randomly selected in the survey study. Premature ageing was common among females (75.83%), in 30-40 age group (70%), 86.67% were married, had secondary level of education (36.66%), house-views (61.67%), belongs top middle class (58.33%) and engaged in occupations that dominating physical labour (88.33%). The maximum patients are constipated (60%), had mandagni (80%), vata-kapha prakriti (48.33%), rajasika prakriti (58.33%), madhyama vyayama shakti (73.33%), and madhyama jarana shakti (85.83%). Collectively, 43.33% patients were above normal BMI. The more patients had anushna (38.33%) and vishamasana dietary pattern (25.83%), consumed Lavana (88.33%) and Amla rasa (78.33%) in excess on regular basis. Some patients had addicted to tobacco (11.67%) and beetle chewing (5.83%). The maximum patients had no any exercise (79.17%) and specific hobby (79.17%) in their leisure times. Analyzing Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Rating Scales revealed that 39.80%, 37.86%, 33.98%, 24.27% and 18.44% patients had insomnia, depression, tension, GIT symptoms and anxious mood respectively. These data suggest that certain social, dietary and lifestyle factors contribute towards accelerated ageing among young individuals.

  1. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  2. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  3. Maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation upregulates myogenic genes in cattle fetal muscle tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal myogenesis is a critical factor in determining the muscle growth potential of cattle. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation would alter the transcriptome of fetal primordial muscle tissue in cattle. A total of 14 Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchroniz...

  4. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  5. Identification of genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD...

  6. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine particulate matter (PM) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2,813 crossbre...

  7. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 IN DAIRY CATTLE FEED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cattle feed waters from two dairy farms were used in a study to determine the survival characteristics of the bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli )157:H7 and wild-type E. coli. The E. coli 0157:H7 inoculum consisted of a consortium of isolates obtained from dairy cattle. Fresh ma...

  8. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellip...

  9. Persistent efficacy and production benefits following use of extended-release injectable eprinomectin in grazing beef cattle under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, B N; Williams, J C; Johnson, E G; Stromberg, B E; Yazwinski, T A; Smith, L L; Yoon, S; Cramer, L G

    2013-03-01

    Seven studies were conducted in commercial grazing operations to confirm anthelmintic efficacy, assess acceptability, and measure the productivity response of cattle to treatment with eprinomectin in an extended-release injectable formulation (ERI) when exposed to nematode infected pastures for 120 days. The studies were conducted under one protocol in the USA in seven locations (Arkansas, Idaho, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Oregon, and Wisconsin). Each study had 67-68 naturally infected animals for a total of 475 (226 female, 249 male castrate) Angus or beef-cross cattle. The animals weighed 133-335 kg prior to treatment and were approximately 3-12 months of age. The studies were conducted under a randomized block design based on pre-treatment body weights to sequentially form 17 replicates of four animals each within sex in each study. Animals within a replicate were randomly assigned to treatments, one to Eprinomectin ERI vehicle (control) and three to Eprinomectin ERI (5%, w/v eprinomectin). Treatments were administered at 1 mL/50 kg body weight once subcutaneously anterior to the shoulder. All animals in each study grazed one pasture throughout the observation period of 120 days. Cattle were weighed and fecal samples collected pre-treatment and on 28, 56, 84, and 120 days after treatment for fecal egg and lungworm larval counts. Positive fecal samples generally were cultured en masse to determine the nematode genera attributable to the gastrointestinal helminth infection. Bunostomum, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia, and Trichostrongylus, when present, were referred to as strongylids. At all post-treatment sampling intervals, Eprinomectin ERI-treated cattle had significantly (P<0.05) lower strongylid egg counts than vehicle-treated controls, with ≥95% reduction after 120 days of grazing. Over this same period, Eprinomectin ERI-treated cattle gained more weight (43.9 lb/head) than vehicle-treated controls in all studies. This

  10. Temporal Fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea Region Cattle Population Revealed by Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Harjula, Janne; Nyström Edmark, Veronica; Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Sajantila, Antti; Lidén, Kerstin; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies. Results Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples), Medieval (14), and Post-Medieval (26) periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes) genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples) with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples) revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples) was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples). Conclusions The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle. PMID:25992976

  11. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  12. Ochoan (upper Permian) stratigraphy and age determinations, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, S.G. ); Anderson, O.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Upper Permian strata, which are the stratotype of the Ochoan State (Series), have an extensive subsurface distribution and limited outcrop area in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas. The oldest strata are alternating laminae of anhydrite and calcite of the Castile Formation and are as much as 700 m thick. The closely related and overlying Salado Formation is a much as 600 m thick and is mostly halite and argillaceous halite with minor anhydrite. The overlying Rustler Formation is as much as 150 m thick and consists of anhydrite, red silty shale and magnesian limestone. Overlying red beds are the Quartermaster Formation (Dewey Lake Formation is a synonym, as is the term Pierce Canyon red beds), which is as much as 106 m thick and consist of fine sandstones, siltstones, and minor gypsum. The Castile rests disconformably on the Capitanian (middle Permian) Lamar Limestone Member of the Bell Canyon Formation and its equivalent, the Tansill Formation of the Artesia Group. Counting of Castile-Salado laminae and their posited relationship to astronomical cycles suggests that Castile-Salado deposition took only 200,000-300,000 yr. Limited assemblages of brachiopods and conodonts from the Rustler Formation indicate a Late Permian age, but are no more precise age indicators. A small assemblage of bivalves, K-Ar ages and magnetostratigraphy indicate a late Permian age for the Quartermaster Formation. There is no evidence to support a Triassic age assignment for the Quarter-master; it is disconformably overlain by the Upper Triassic (Carnian) Chinle group. Most workers us the Ochoan as a Late Permian Stage-Age, although its typical strata generally lack good age indicators and may represent relatively short and sporadic intervals of the Late Permian. We prefer recognition of the Ochoan as a lithostratigraphic unit (group) without regional or global geochronologial significance.

  13. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 mon) and aged (20 mon) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/R in vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a promising

  14. Ar-40/Ar-39 age determinations for the Rotoiti eruption, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flude, S.; Storey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The contemporaneous Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat ignimbrites, erupted from the Taupo Volcanic zone, New Zealand, form a distinctive tephrostratigraphic horizon in the Southern Pacific. Radioisotopic dating results for these eruptions remain controversial, with published ages ranging from 35.1 × 2.8 ka [1] to 71 × 6 ka [2], with 61.0 × 1.5 ka [3] often being cited as the most widely accepted age. These eruptions are difficult to date as their age is near the limit for various radiometric dating techniques, which are complicated by a large proportion of inherited material (xenocrysts) and a lack of phases suitable for dating. Glass-bearing plutonic blocks erupted with the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat ignimbrites have previously been interpreted as deriving from a slowly cooled and incompletely solidified magma body that was sampled by the eruptions. They contain large vugs lined with euhedral quartz, sanidine and biotite crystals, indicating that these crystals grew in a gas or aqueous fluid rich environment and are interpreted to have formed shortly before or during eruption. Here we will present Ar-40/Ar-39 ages for sanidines and biotites extracted from vugs in lithic blocks erupted as part of the Earthquake Flat ignimbrite. We show that, even for vug-lining material, inherited ages remain a problem and are the likely source of the wide variation in published radiometric ages. Nevertheless, many of the Ar-40/Ar-39 ages are much younger than the 61 ka age [3] and are more consistent with the recent stratigraphic, C-14 and U-238/Th-230+(U-Th)/He ages that have been suggested (e.g. [4,5]). 1. Whitehead, N. & Ditchburn, R. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 37, 381-383 (1994). 2. Ota, Y., Omura, A. & Iwata, H. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32, 327-331 (1989). 3. Wilson, C. J. N. et al. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 1861-1870 (2007). 4. Molloy, C., Shane, P. & Augustinus, P. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 1666-1677 (2009). 5

  15. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Leadsham, Jane E.; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S.; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F.; Gourlay, Campbell W.

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing. PMID:28100667

  16. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast.

    PubMed

    von der Haar, Tobias; Leadsham, Jane E; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing.

  17. Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A clear seasonal pattern is evident in the number of movements of cattle, as are the reductions in movement volume due to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in 2001 and 2007. The distribution of ages of cattle at their time of death is multimodal, and the impact of the over thirty months rule is marked. Most movements occur between agricultural holdings, markets, and slaughterhouses, and there is a non-random pattern to the types of holdings movements occur between. Most animals move only a short distance and a few times in their life. Most movements between any given pair of holdings only occurred once in the last 10 years, but about a third occurred between 2 and 10 times in that period. There is no clear trend to movement patterns in the UK since 2002. Conclusions Despite a substantial number of regulatory interventions during the last decade, movement patterns show no clear trend since 2002. The observed patterns in the repeatability of movements, the types of holdings involved in movements, the distances and frequencies of cattle movements, and the batch sizes involved give an insight into the structure of the UK cattle industry, and could act as the basis for a predictive model of livestock movements in the UK. PMID:21711520

  18. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  19. Dynamics of Theileria orientalis genotype population in cattle in a year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Yoshihara, Shunpei; Matsubara, Atsuko; Gotoh, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Andoh, Masako; Endo, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2016-03-01

    Theirelia orientalis is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite, and infection with this parasite is one of the most important diseases for grazing cattle. Co-infection of cattle with different genotypes of T. orientalis often occurs. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of genotypes in cattle in a year-round grazing system in Japan. Genotype-specific PCR assays to determine major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genotypes (types 1 to 5) of T. orientalis were performed by using time-course blood samples collected from grazing cattle and ticks in a pasture. All 20 cattle investigated in this study were infected with T. orientalis. By using genotype-specific PCR, we detected the combination of genotypes of T. orientalis (types 1 to 5) from each cattle. These multiple genotypes of T. orientalis were also confirmed in ticks. Notably, each genotype of T. orientalis in cattle was temporally detected from cattle and more variable genotypes were found in summer. The observed temporal dynamics of the MPSP genotypes of T. orientalis in cattle could be explained by host immunity against the parasites or genetic recombination of parasite in ticks.

  20. Copy number variations in Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle genomes using the massively parallel sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lim, Kyu-Sang; Lim, Won-Jun; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Soo; Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Kim, Jong-Bok; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lim, Dajeong

    2016-09-01

    Hanwoo is an indigenous Korean beef cattle breed, and it shared an ancestor with Yanbian cattle that are found in the Northeast provinces in China until the last century. During recent decades, those cattle breeds experienced different selection pressures. Here, we present genome-wide copy number variations (CNVs) by comparing Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle sequencing data. We used ~3.12 and ~3.07 billion sequence reads from Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 901 putative CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified throughout the genome, representing 5,513,340bp. This is a smaller number than has been reported in previous studies, indicating that Hanwoo are genetically close to Yanbian cattle. Of the CNVRs, 53.2% and 46.8% were found to be gains and losses in Hanwoo. Potential functional roles of each CNVR were assessed by annotating all CNVRs and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. We found that 278 CNVRs overlapped with cattle gene-sets (genic-CNVRs) that could be promising candidates to account for economically important traits in cattle. The enrichment analysis indicated that genes were significantly over-represented in GO terms, including developmental process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. These results provide a valuable genomic resource for determining how CNVs are associated with cattle traits.

  1. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation.

  2. [Epizootiologic studies of trichophytosis in cattle].

    PubMed

    Kamyszek, F

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out during the years 1964 to 1973. The investigated material included 34 134 heads of cattle in 227 industrial farms, and 80 per cent of them were young animals, from 5 days to 22 months old. The aim of the study was to observe the intensity of skin mycosis in cattle in the Poznań Province, to determine the pathogenic factor causing the disease in individual years, and to search for a possible relation between the occurrence of this disease and the presence of ectoparasites. The clinical observations on cattle were continued for 9 years, 1932 samples of scrapings were taken from skin with mycotic changes and investigated from the points of view of mycology and parasitology. Basing on the observations and analyses performed, it was found that trichophytosis occurred during the whole year, but was more intensive in autumn and winter and in the wet period of summer. Young animals were more frequently affected with this disease. In individual groups of animals, in 10.9 to 21.1% of cases, trichophytosis occurred together with invasion of ectoparasites (lice, mallophagans, itch mites).

  3. Determining the optimal age for recording the retinal vascular pattern image of lambs.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Olivares, M A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Adell, N; Puig, P

    2012-03-01

    Newborn Ripollesa lambs (n = 143) were used to assess the optimal age at which the vascular pattern of the retina can be used as a reference for identification and traceability. Retinal images from both eyes were recorded from birth to yearling (d 1, 8, 30, 82, 180, and 388 of age) in duplicate (2,534 images) using a digital camera specially designed for livestock (Optibrand, Fort Collins, CO). Intra- and inter-age image comparisons (9,316 pairs of images) were carried out, and matching score (MS) was used as the exclusion criterion of lamb identity (MS <70). Retinal images were used for verifying the identity of live lambs of 4 Spanish commercial categories: milk-fed lambs (MF; "lechal," 1 mo of age and <12 kg of BW, n = 136); light fattened lambs (LF; "recental," 3 mo of age and ~25 kg of BW, n = 134); recruited replacement lambs (RR; "ovino mayor," 6 mo of age and ~35 kg of BW, n = 59); and yearling replacement lambs (YR; >12 mo of age and ~50 kg of BW, n = 25). Values of MS were treated with a model based on the 1-inflated bivariate beta distribution, and treated data were compared by using a likelihood ratio test. Intra-age image comparisons showed that average MS and percentage of images with MS ≥70 increased (P < 0.05) with lamb age from d 1 to 82 (81.0 ± 1.0 to 95.9 ± 0.4, and 75.8 to 100%, respectively) and reached a plateau thereafter. Inter-age retinal image comparisons for MF lambs at 30 d showed that the percentage of images with MS ≥70 was greater when reference images at 8 d were used instead of 1-d images (94.8 vs. 87.4%, respectively; P < 0.05). In LF lambs, 30-d retinal images matched better than those at 8 d of age (99.6 vs. 93.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Regarding RR and YR lambs, the 82-d images allowed the confirmation of 100% lamb identity, whereas 8-d images showed a smaller (P < 0.05) percentage of matching (87.9 and 89.8%, respectively, for RR and YR lambs; P > 0.05); no differences were detected for 30-d images (97.4 and 98

  4. Aging males' symptoms in relation to the genetically determined androgen receptor CAG polymorphism, sex hormone levels and sample membership.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gudrun; Nienhaus, Kathrin; Gromoll, Jörg; Heuft, Gereon; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Zitzmann, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism describes the co-occurrence of a range of physical, psychological and sexual symptoms in aging men, with the implication that these symptoms are caused by androgen deficiency. Previous investigations examined mostly population samples and did not take into account the testosterone modulating effects of the genetically determined CAG repeat polymorphism (CAGn) of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. This is the first study which investigates aging male symptoms (AMS) in relation to the genetically determined androgen receptor CAG polymorphism, estradiol and testosterone levels in men > or =50 years of age in a healthy population sample (n=100), outpatients of an andrological department (n=76) who presented with sexual and "aging male" symptoms and a psychosomatic/psychiatric sample (n=120) who presented with various psychological and medically unexplained somatic complaints. Although the population sample was significantly older than the two patient groups, they reported significantly fewer AMS and had higher testosterone levels and shorter CAG repeats of the AR. Regression analysis revealed influences of CAGn on the AMS global score and the psychological and somatic subscale only in the two patient samples, while testosterone had some impact on the sexual subscale. Our results suggest that the so-called aging male symptoms show a certain association to androgenicity, but that they are rather unspecific and of multifactorial origin. Other factors contributing to AMS need further clarification.

  5. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme.

  6. Chromatin modifications as determinants of muscle stem cell quiescence and chronological aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Cheung, Tom H; Charville, Gregory W; Hurgo, Bernadette Marie Ceniza; Leavitt, Tripp; Shih, Johnathan; Brunet, Anne; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-07-11

    The ability to maintain quiescence is critical for the long-term maintenance of a functional stem cell pool. To date, the epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of quiescent stem cells and how they change with age remain largely unknown. In this study, we explore the chromatin features of adult skeletal muscle stem cells, or satellite cells (SCs), which reside predominantly in a quiescent state in fully developed limb muscles of both young and aged mice. Using a ChIP-seq approach to obtain global epigenetic profiles of quiescent SCs (QSCs), we show that QSCs possess a permissive chromatin state in which few genes are epigenetically repressed by Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and a large number of genes encoding regulators that specify nonmyogenic lineages are demarcated by bivalent domains at their transcription start sites (TSSs). By comparing epigenetic profiles of QSCs from young and old mice, we also provide direct evidence that, with age, epigenetic changes accumulate and may lead to a functional decline in quiescent stem cells. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin mapping in understanding unique features of stem cell identity and stem cell aging.

  7. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  8. Determinants of After-School Programming for School-Age Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the child and family characteristics that predict enrollment in after-school programming for school-age children of immigrant and nonimmigrant families. Although much is known about the beneficial effects of after-school programming for children and youths, the literature focused on immigrant children--the…

  9. LIFESTYLE DETERMINANTS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN MIDDLE-AGED, URBAN CHINESE MEN

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Raquel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Elasy, Tom; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Xianglan; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae; Li, Honglan; Xu, Wang Hong; Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), common in aging populations, are associated with higher risk for chronic diseases, including diabetes and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between lifestyle factors and high CRP among middleaged men living in Shanghai, China. PMID:21111583

  10. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  11. The accumulation of stable cytogenetic rearrangements with age-determined by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.J.; Lee, D.A.; Senft, J.R.; Briner, J.F.; Moore, D.H. II; Tucker, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Chromosome painting is a rapid method of quantifying structural chromosomal rearrangements. The method is particularly useful for detecting stable aberrations which are difficult and expensive to quantify with classical methods. Translocations, being inherently stable, can be used as a biodosimeter for chronic and temporally-displaced exposure to radiation. Translocations may also be useful for quantifying chronic exposure to environmentally related agents which may result in an accumulation of cytogenetic damage with age. Because most chemical exposures are low and chronic, conventional cytogenetic methods are not expected to be informative. To understand the extent that age and lifestyle factors impact the frequency of stable aberrations, we used chromosome painting in healthy individuals who have not been occupationally or accidentally exposed to radiation or chemicals, and who have not received chemo- or radiotherapy. To date we have analyzed 15 umbilical cord bloods as well as peripheral blood samples from 83 adults aged up to 77 years. Because stable aberrations are rare in unexposed people, we have scored large numbers of cells from each subject. Thus far we have analyzed the equivalent of more than 78,000 metaphases from these 83 people, and have observed an average of 0.75% of cells with translocations or stable insertions. A significant curvilinear relationship with age is apparent (R{sup 2} = 0.69, p <0.00001). No effect with smoking was seen.

  12. Sex and age as determinants of rat T-cell phenotypic characteristics: influence of peripubertal gonadectomy.

    PubMed

    Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Kosec, Duško; Pilipović, Ivan; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Bufan, Biljana; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Leposavić, Gordana

    2017-03-09

    The study examined the influence of age, sex and peripubertal gonadectomy on a set of T-cell phenotypic parameters. Rats of both sexes were gonadectomised at the age of 1 month and peripheral blood and spleen T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised and gonadectomised 3- and 11-month-old rats were examined for the expression of differentiation/activation (CD90/CD45RC) and immunoregulatory markers. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised rats showed age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in (1) total count (lower in female than male 11-month-old rats); (2) CD4+:CD8 + cell ratio (higher in female than male rats of both ages); (3) the proportion of recent thymic emigrants in CD8 + T cells (lower in female than male 3-month-old rats) and (4) the proportions of mature naïve and memory/activated cells (irrespective of age, the proportion of naïve cells was higher, whereas that of memory/activated cells was lower in females). Gonadectomy influenced magnitudes or direction of these sex differences. Additionally, sex differences in peripheral blood T-lymphocyte parameters did not fully correspond to those observed in T-splenocyte parameters, suggesting the compartment-specific regulation of the major T-cell subpopulations' and their subsets' composition. Furthermore, there was no sexual dimorphism in the proportion of either CD25 + Foxp3 + cells among CD4 + or CD161+ (NKT) cells within CD8 + T lymphocytes. However, there was gonadal hormone-independent age-associated sexual dimorphism in the proportion of CD161 + cells (NKT cells) in CD8 + T splenocytes. Overall, the study revealed age-dependent variations in sexual dimorphisms in T-cell parameters relevant for immune response efficacy and showed that they are T-cell compartment-specific and partly gonadal hormone-related.

  13. Determining the water age of Lake Taihu during the water transfer from Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiping; Acharya, Kumud; Zhu, Jianting; Yu, Zhongbo

    2010-05-01

    To improve water quality and alleviate the eutrophication problem for Lake Taihu, the third largest shallow lake in China, water transfer project from Yangtze River, was initiated to dilute the polluted water and export pollutants out of the lake in 2002. The impact of water transfer on transport processes of dissolved substance in the lake is studied by using the concept of water age using a three-dimensional numerical model, Environmental Fluid dynamic Code (EFDC). Influences of inflow tributaries and wind forcing on water age distribution are investigated. Model results show that the effect of water transfer on transport processes in the lake is strongly affected by hydrodynamic conditions induced by wind and inflow/outflow tributaries. Water age in Lake Taihu has highly spatial and temporal heterogeneity, with the mean water age of approximately 130 days in summer and 230 days in other seasons during the simulation year. Southeastly wind, the dominant wind direction in summer, could improve eastern areas of the lake which provide drinking water source and Meiliang Bay, the most polluted bay in the lake. The most efficient flow discharge of transferred water for diluting the lake could be approximately 100 m3/s while considering benefit/cost ratio. Additionally, the water transfer project just minor effects on parts of the lake rather than the entire lake, unless nutrient concentrations in the transferred water are reduced to a reasonable level. This study provides useful information for better understanding the complex hydrodynamic and mass transport processes in the lake, which is important for developing and implementing effective lake management strategies. Keywords: water transfer; water age; EFDC; Lake Taihu; Yangtze River

  14. Determinants of foodservice satisfaction for patients in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residents in residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Olivia R. L.; Connelly, Luke B.; Capra, Sandra; Hendrikz, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Poor satisfaction with institutional food is a significant moderator of food intake in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Purpose  To quantify the relationship between foodservice satisfaction, foodservice characteristics, demographic and contextual variables in geriatrics/rehabilitation and residential aged care. Methods  The Resident Foodservice Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered to 103 patients of 2 geriatrics/rehabilitation units and 210 residents of nine residential aged care facilities in Brisbane, Australia. Ordered probit regression analysis measured the association of age, gender, ethnicity and appetite, timing and amount of meal choice, menu selectivity, menu cycle, production system, meal delivery system and therapeutic diets with foodservice satisfaction. Results  Patient and resident appetite (P < 0.01), the amount and timing of meal choice (P < 0.01), self‐rated health (P < 0.01), accommodation style (P < 0.05) and age (P < 0.10) significantly moderated foodservice satisfaction. High protein/high energy therapeutic diets (P < 0.01), foodservice production (P < 0.01) and delivery systems (P > 0.01) were significant moderators for those with ‘fair’ self‐rated health. Conclusions  Patient and resident characteristics and structural and systems‐related foodservice variables were more important for influencing foodservice satisfaction than characteristics of food quality. The results suggest modifications to current menu planning and foodservice delivery methods: reducing the time‐lapse between meal choice and consumption, augmenting the number of meals at which choice is offered, and revising food production and delivery systems.It is important that residents in poorer health who are a high risk of under‐nutrition are provided with sufficient high protein/high energy therapeutic diets. Diets that restrict macro‐ and micro‐nutrients should be

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of bovine astrovirus in Korean cattle.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Bovine astrovirus (BAstV) belongs to a genetically divergent lineage within the genus Mamastrovirus. The present study showed that BAstV was associated with the gastroenteric tracts of cattle in nine positive fecal samples from 115 cattle, whereas no positive samples were found in the brain tissues of 14 downer cattle. Interestingly, the positive diarrheal samples were obtained mainly from calves aged 14 days-3 months. Bayesian inference tree analysis of the partial ORF1ab and capsid (ORF2) gene sequences of BAstVs identified four divergent groups. Eleven BAstVs, four porcine astroviruses, and two deer astroviruses (DAstVs; CcAstV-1 and -2) belonged to group 1; group 2 contained two BAstVs (BAstK08-51 and BAstK10-96) with another two in group 3 (BAstK08-2 and BAstK08-53); and group 4 comprised the BAstV-NeuroS1 strain derived from a cattle brain tissue sample and an ovine astrovirus. The same divergent groups were obtained when the pairwise alignments were produced using both amino acid and nucleotide sequences. The Korean BAstVs isolated from infected cattle had a nationwide distribution and they belonged to groups 1, 2, and 3.

  16. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with

  17. Trends in cow numbers and culling rate in the Irish cattle population, 2003 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Cows are the main economic production units of Ireland's cattle industry. Therefore, demographic information, including overall numbers and survival rates, are relevant to the Irish agricultural industry. However, few data are available on the demographics of cows within a national population, either in Ireland or elsewhere, despite the recent development of comprehensive national cattle databases in many EU Member States. This study has sought: to determine the rate of cow culling from the national herd; to determine the rate of culling by type (dairy, beef), age, method of exit, date of exit and interval between last calving and exit; to calculate the national cow on-farm mortality rate; and to compare the Irish rates with published data from other countries. This work was conducted using data recorded in the national Cattle Movement Monitoring System (CMMS). Culling refers to the exit of cows from the national herd, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of cow exits (as defined above) each year divided by the number of calf births in the same year. Culling rate was determined by type (dairy or beef), date of birth, method of exit (slaughter or on-farm death), month of exit and interval between last calving and exit. The average cow-culling rate during 2003 to 2006 was 19.6% (21.3% for dairy, 18% for beef). While comparisons must be treated with caution, it concluded that the overall rates of culling in Ireland fell within published internationally accepted norms. The on-farm mortality rate of 3.2-4.1% was similar to that reported in comparable studies. PMID:21851717

  18. Phenotypic effects of cattle mitochondrial DNA in American bison.

    PubMed

    Derr, James N; Hedrick, Philip W; Halbert, Natalie D; Plough, Louis; Dobson, Lauren K; King, Julie; Duncan, Calvin; Hunter, David L; Cohen, Noah D; Hedgecock, Dennis

    2012-12-01

    Hybridization between endangered species and more common species is a significant problem in conservation biology because it may result in extinction or loss of adaptation. The historical reduction in abundance and geographic distribution of the American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and their recovery over the last 125 years is well documented. However, introgression from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) into the few remaining bison populations that existed in the late 1800s has now been identified in many modern bison herds. We examined the phenotypic effect of this ancestry by comparing weight and height of bison with cattle or bison mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Santa Catalina Island, California (U.S.A.), a nutritionally stressful environment for bison, and of a group of age-matched feedlot bison males in Montana, a nutritionally rich environment. The environmental and nutritional differences between these 2 bison populations were very different and demonstrated the phenotypic effect of domestic cattle mtDNA in bison over a broad range of conditions. For example, the average weight of feedlot males that were 2 years of age was 2.54 times greater than that of males from Santa Catalina Island. In both environments, bison with cattle mtDNA had lower weight compared with bison with bison mtDNA, and on Santa Catalina Island, the height of bison with cattle mtDNA was lower than the height of bison with bison mtDNA. These data support the hypothesis that body size is smaller and height is lower in bison with domestic cattle mtDNA and that genomic integrity is important for the conservation of the American plains bison.

  19. Hematology and biochemistry reference values for female Holstein cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K; Rowe, R

    1980-01-01

    Reference intervals are presented for 14 hematology and 32 biochemistry variables from four age groups of female Holstein cattle (n = 172) selected randomly from six well managed farms. Each animal was examined by a clinician and with the history available considered to be clinically normal at the time of blood collection. The variable observations were examined for outliers and Gaussian distribution prior to parametric or where necessary, nonparametric analysis. Many differences were noted between age groups but few between farms. PMID:7397596

  20. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  1. DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON AGING CONCRETE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.

    2010-01-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) is responsible for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities throughout the DOE Complex. Some of these facilities will be completely dismantled, while others will be partially dismantled and the remaining structure will be stabilized with cementitious fill materials. The latter is a process known as In-Situ Decommissioning (ISD). The ISD decision process requires a detailed understanding of the existing facility conditions, and operational history. System information and material properties are need for aged nuclear facilities. This literature review investigated the properties of aged concrete structures affected by radiation. In particular, this review addresses the Savannah River Site (SRS) isotope production nuclear reactors. The concrete in the reactors at SRS was not seriously damaged by the levels of radiation exposure. Loss of composite compressive strength was the most common effect of radiation induced damage documented at nuclear power plants.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii in Switzerland: a serosurvey based on meat juice analysis of slaughtered pigs, wild boar, sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Berger-Schoch, A E; Bernet, D; Doherr, M G; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2011-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide and is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Besides vertical infection during pregnancy, humans can get infected post-natally either by peroral uptake of sporulated Toxoplasma oocysts or by ingestion of tissue cysts upon consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The aim of this study was to approximate the risk of human infection via meat consumption by estimating the seroprevalence of T. gondii in slaughtered animals in Switzerland and to compare data with prevalences assessed 10 years ago. The study included pigs, cattle, sheep and wild boar of different age groups and housing conditions whenever possible and applicable. A P-30-ELISA was used to detect T. gondii-specific antibodies and to determine seroprevalences in meat juice of slaughtered animals. A total of 270 domestic pigs (120 adults, 50 finishing, 100 free-ranging animals), 150 wild boars, 250 sheep (150 adults, 100 lambs) and 406 cattle (47 calves, 129 heifers, 100 bulls, 130 adult cows) were tested. Seropositivity increased with the age of the assessed animals. Independent of the age-group, the overall seroprevalence was lowest in wild boars (6.7%), followed by pigs (23.3%), cattle (45.6%) and sheep (61.6%), respectively. Conventional fattening pigs and free-ranging pigs surprisingly had comparable seroprevalences (14.0% and 13.0%, respectively). Unlike in other European countries, where generally a decrease in the number of seropositive animals had been observed, we found that the prevalence of seropositive animals, when compared with that of 10 years ago, had increased for most species/age groups. Conclusively, the results demonstrated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii in animals slaughtered for meat production and revealed that increasing age of the animals is a more important risk factor than housing conditions in Switzerland.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  4. Epidemiological study on foot-and-mouth disease in cattle: seroprevalence and risk factor assessment in South Omo zone, south-western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Molla, B; Ayelet, G; Asfaw, Y; Jibril, Y; Ganga, G; Gelaye, E

    2010-10-01

    A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in seven districts of the South Omo zone, south-western Ethiopia, between October 2008 and May 2009 with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and identifying the potential risk factors associated with the disease. In total, 770 cattle sera samples were collected and submitted to the National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, for screening using the 3ABC-ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of 8.18% (n=63) was recorded in the study. The highest district-level prevalence was observed in Bennatsemay district (30.2%), and the lowest prevalence was in Malle and Debub Aari districts, each with prevalence of 6.3%. The difference in seropositivity of FMD in the studied districts was found to be statistically significant. From the various risk factors analysed, age of animal, contact history with wild animals, distance of the herd from parks and wild animals' sanctuary and movement pattern of herds in search of pasture and water from area to area were found to be significantly associated (P<0.05) with the seroprevalence of FMD. The results of this study showed that FMD is an important cattle disease in the study areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve regulation of transboundary cattle movement, prevention of contact with wildlife and vaccination against the circulating virus strain.

  5. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth’s surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity. PMID:25684855

  6. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth's surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity.

  7. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  8. New forensic anthropological approachment for the age determination of human fetal skeletons on the base of morphometry of vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Kósa, F; Castellana, C

    2005-01-17

    The anthropometrical study was carried out on 107 human fetal/newborn skeletons (54 male, 43 female, and 9 of unknown sex). The age of the individuals ranged from 4 to 10 lunar months. Each fetal or newborn vertebral region (cervical, thoracal and lumbar) has its own distinguishing features that are easily identifiable even in fragmentary bones. With our large sample size and extension of the age range studied, we are able to determine the fetal age with a considerable degree of accuracy from measurements defined in the vertebral ossification centers using regression equations. A simple rapid method for the identification and classification of fetal vertebral column bones has been contributed. The identification and classifications were carried out using discriminant functions. Knowledge of changes in vertebral column bones during fetal development is important in applied contexts of forensic and anthropology researches.

  9. [Clinical, biochemical and anthropometric studies and determination of biological age in relation to body mass in a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Hunecke, I; Reuter, W; Sauer, I; Ries, W

    1989-01-15

    On 46 adipose persons (25 males and 21 females) and 53 test persons with normal weight (35 males and 18 females) at the age of 25-40 years since 1976 clinical, biochemical and anthropometric investigations as well as the determination of the biological age have annually been performed. Several of the parameters established (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure among others) in the course of 9 years within the well-known normal regions draw towards the adequate valid limit value to the pathological entity. The results of the study distinctly show the central role of obesity for the development of risk factors. Despite the partly only with a certain tendency recognizable behaviour of single parameters after 9 years from our point of view the longitudinal method represents itself as a very well suitable method for establishing dynamic processes and risk factors of age.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  11. Detection of multiple zoonotic infectious agents in cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows were examined and 9, 10, 24, and 17 were found positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were concurrently i...

  12. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on production and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Pollari, F L; Wangsuphachart, V L; DiGiacomo, R F; Evermann, J F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis (> or = 9,000 lymphocytes/microliter) (n = 74), and seropositive cows with lymphosarcoma (n = 29). Seropositive groups of cows were bred more times and had longer calving intervals than seronegative cows. The seropositive groups had greater 305-day ME (mature equivalent) FCM (3.5% fat-corrected milk) per lactation and were older when culled than seronegative cows. However, the percent fat per lactation was greater in seronegative cows. In the last complete lactation, differences in 305-day ME FCM, days open and cull age between groups were reduced and none were significant (p > 0.05). In the cull lactation, only cows with lymphocytosis had reduced milk production relative to seronegative cows, although this difference was not significant. After adjustment for initial production and reproductive values, only seropositive nonlymphocytotic cows were culled at a significantly older age than seronegative cattle. Lymphocytotic cows were culled four months younger on average than nonlymphocytotic seropositive cows. Hence, BLV infected cows had greater milk production on average than uninfected cows. Adverse effects of BLV infection were primarily limited to lymphocytotic cows which were culled earlier and had reduced milk production in the cull lactation. PMID:1477797

  13. Proliferation rates of bovine primary muscle cells relate to liveweight and carcase weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, Chantal A; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P; Siddell, Jason P; Greenwood, Paul L; White, Jason D; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5-20 hours in culture) in vitro (P < 0.05). The proliferation rates of myoblasts during early stages of culture in vitro were also found to be positively related to the liveweight and carcase weight of cattle (P < 0.05). Gene expression of MYF5 was also found to be significantly down-regulated in WagyuX compared with Angus cattle (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that early events during myogenesis are important for determining liveweight and caracase weights in cattle.

  14. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P < 0.05). The proliferation rates of myoblasts during early stages of culture in vitro were also found to be positively related to the liveweight and carcase weight of cattle (P < 0.05). Gene expression of MYF5 was also found to be significantly down-regulated in WagyuX compared with Angus cattle (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that early events during myogenesis are important for determining liveweight and caracase weights in cattle. PMID:25875203

  15. The rotation-lithium depletion correlation in the β Pictoris association and the LDB age determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Feiden, G. A.; Millward, M.; Desidera, S.; Buccino, A.; Curtis, I.; Jofré, E.; Kehusmaa, P.; Medhi, B. J.; Monard, B.; Petrucci, R.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Evidence exists in the 125-Myr Pleiades cluster, and more recently in the 5-Myr NGC 2264 cluster, to show that rotation plays a key role in lithium (Li) depletion processes among low-mass stars. Fast rotators appear to be less Li-depleted than equal-mass slow rotators. Aims: We intend to explore the existence of a Li depletion-rotation connection among the β Pictoris members at an age of about 24 Myr, and to use this correlation either to confirm or to improve age estimates based on the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) modeling. Methods: We photometrically monitored all the known members of the β Pictoris association with at least one lithium equivalent width (Li EW) measurement from the literature. Results: We measured the rotation periods of 30 members for the first time and retrieved the rotation periods for another 36 members from the literature, building a catalogue of 66 members with a measured rotation period and Li EW. Conclusions: We find that in the 0.3 < M < 0.8M⊙ range, there is a strong correlation between rotation and Li EW. For higher mass stars, no significant correlation is found. For very low-mass stars in the Li depletion onset, at about 0.1 M⊙, there are too few data to infer a significant correlation. The observed Li EWs are compared with those predicted by the Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models that incorporate the effects of magnetic fields. After decorrelating the Li EW from the rotation period, we find that the hot side of the LDB is well fitted by Li EW values that correspond to an age of 25 ± 3 Myr, which is in good agreement with independent estimates from the literature.

  16. Child Weight Growth Trajectory and its Determinants in a Sample of Iranian Children from Birth until 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications. PMID:24829720

  17. Effects of electrical stimulation on histochemical muscle fiber staining, quality, and composition of camel and cattle Longissimus thoracis muscles.

    PubMed

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Al-Marzooqi, W; Khalaf, S K; Mansour, M H; Al-Sinani, S S H; Al-Amri, I S

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation on muscle fiber type, meat quality, and composition of Longissimus thoracis muscles from one-humped camels and Dofari Omani cattle of a comparable age range were investigated. A low-voltage electrical stimulation with 90 V, 14 Hz (pulse of 7.5-millisecond duration every 70 milliseconds) 20 min postmortem was applied. Samples from the left muscle were collected from 20 (2 to 3 y) camels and 24 cattle (1 to 3 y). For chemical composition, muscle samples were dried in a freeze dryer, and then ground to determine moisture, protein, fat, and ash. Macro- and micro-minerals were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. Quality characteristics of the meat were evaluated using shear force value, pH, sarcomere, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss percent, and CIE L*, a*, b* color values. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) more rapid pH fall in the muscle during the first 24 h after slaughter in both species. Muscles from electrically stimulated carcasses had significantly (P < 0.05) lower ultimate pH, longer sarcomere, and lower shear force values than those from nonstimulated carcasses. Lightness (L*), myofibrillar fragmentation, and expressed juice were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for stimulated than for nonstimulated muscles. Muscles of camels had significantly (P < 0.05) higher expressed juice, cooking loss percent, redness color (a*), and lower fat, Mg, K, and P than those from cattle. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both species. This indicates that meat quality of local camel and cattle can be improved by electrical stimulation and consequently improves their acceptability to consumers and better marketability.

  18. Age, caste, and behavior determine the replicative activity of intestinal stem cells in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ward, Kristen N; Coleman, Jennifer L; Clinnin, Kaitlin; Fahrbach, Susan; Rueppell, Olav

    2008-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) display a pronounced natural aging plasticity. The differences in aging rates between the alternative phenotypes and behavioral classes could reflect differences in protection against damage or in the ability to repair vulnerable tissues. As in other animals, including humans, the gut is continually exposed to environmental insults and harbors a large population of replicating stem cells that maintain the intestinal epithelium. Through studies of the major internal organs using incorporation and immunodetection of the mitotic marker bromo-deoxyuridine, the intestine was determined to be the main site of tissue renewal in adult honeybees. Proliferative activity of the intestinal stem cells was compared among queens, workers, and males of different ages. Simultaneous attempts to assess intestinal cell loss via apoptosis yielded inconclusive results. The relationship between intestinal cell proliferation and worker life-history was evaluated in greater depth by studying diutinus winter workers, reproductive workers, and by decoupling worker behavioral status from chronological age in a single-cohort colony. Intestinal cell proliferation was abundant in all groups and showed an age-related decline in workers, queens, and males. At young ages, workers exhibited relatively more intestinal cell proliferation than did queens and queens more than drones, but the caste and sex differences decreased with age. Cell proliferation did not decrease beyond 6 weeks of age in older queens and in diutinus workers. Ovary activation did not correlate with the amount of intestinal stem cell proliferation in workers, although the queenless hive condition was associated with lower overall counts. In the single-cohort colony, nurse bees exhibited more cell proliferation than foragers, regardless of age. The overall results do not support our hypothesis that longer-lived phenotypes exhibit increased somatic repair in the form of higher replicative activity of

  19. The assessment of biomarkers in sentinel cattle for monitoring vanadium exposure.

    PubMed

    Gummow, B; van den Broek, J; Kirsten, W F A; Botha, C J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2006-04-01

    Various potential biomarkers were sampled for vanadium every 3-4 months from Bos indicus beef cattle farmed extensively immediately adjacent (high exposure (HE) group) and two km away (low exposure (LE) group) from a vanadium processing plant, respectively. Vanadium intake (mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1)) was modelled using environmental and physiological data as inputs. The vanadium intake ranged from 0.57 to 5.44 mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1) in the HE group and 0.41 to 2.61 mg vanadium kg(-1) bwt d(-1) in the LE group over a five-year period of monitoring. Samples collected from live sentinel animals over the five-year period included caudal coccygeal vertebrae, tail-switch hair, milk, urine, faeces, rib-bone biopsies and a wide range of blood clinical pathology and haematological parameters. The data was analysed for differences in response between the HE and LE groups. Where differences were found, a linear mixed-effects regression model was fitted to model the relationship between the exposure dose and the response variable. The model included the effects of age, duration of exposure and response, and allowed the prediction of the exposure dose given these inputs. Moreover, forty-two adult cattle were slaughtered over the five years. A wide range of tissue samples, rumen content and whole blood were taken from the cattle at slaughter for vanadium determination. In live animals, a difference in response was found between the HE group and LE group with respect to serum albumin (n = 36), monocyte (n = 36) and thrombocyte (n = 36) counts, and hair (n = 2) and faeces (n = 34) vanadium concentrations. No difference in vanadium concentrations could be shown for urine (n = 36), the traditional occupational health biomarker. Regression models are described for serum albumin, monocyte counts, faeces and hair, which showed the most promise as biomarkers. Average concentrations of vanadium in the tissues of slaughtered cattle ranged from 0.08 to 2.94 mg kg(-1) (wet

  20. Relationship of serum total calcium to serum albumin in dogs, cats, horses and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bienzle, Dorothee; Jacobs, Robert M.; Lumsden, John H.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed in order to assess the relationship between serum calcium and serum albumin concentrations in domestic animals. Results of 9041 canine, 1564 feline, 2917 equine, and 613 bovine serum samples from hospitalized patients were examined by regression analysis. Subpopulations of cases with concurrent elevations in creatinine or that were less than six months of age were evaluated separately. Statistically significant linear relationships between calcium and albumin concentrations were established for each species (p <0.05). The coefficients of determination (r2) were 0.169 for dogs, 0.294 for cats, 0.222 for horses, and 0.032 for cattle. The correlation coefficients (r) computed were: dogs = 0.411, cats = 0.543, horses = 0.471, cattle = 0.182. Neither increases in creatinine concentration nor juvenile age appreciably influenced the relationship between calcium and albumin concentrations. Interspecies variation was marked, and a strong correlation between calcium and albumin concentrations was not established in any species. PMID:17424241

  1. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  2. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  3. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  4. Evidence against the use of fecal pellet size for age determination in European wild rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouco, Carlos; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Moreno, Sacramento

    2009-09-01

    Techniques for estimating the age of wild animals are crucial to many aspects of the study of population biology. Accurate estimates of the proportion of different age classes in wild rabbit populations would be very useful, and the possibility that it could be obtained from the pellet size holds great appeal. However, this suggestion has created controversy in the literature as this technique has not been validated. This study involved assessment of whether threshold fecal pellet diameters could be used to differentiate adult and juvenile rabbits. The proportion of adults in four wild rabbit populations living in semi-natural conditions was compared with the proportion of animal pellets greater than threshold diameters of 6 mm and 4 mm. Our results suggest that inferring a relationship between the proportion of pellets >6 mm diameter and the proportion of adults in a population is not applicable to European wild rabbits, and that the use of this method could produce erroneous interpretations. The use of a 4 mm pellet diameter threshold appeared to produce even more inaccurate results. Studies that use this technique should include validation, as the results can vary greatly among individuals and populations.

  5. Determinants of famous name processing speed: age of acquisition versus semantic connectedness.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim

    2013-02-01

    The age of acquisition (AoA) and the amount of biographical information known about celebrities have been independently shown to influence the processing of famous people. In this experiment, we investigated the facilitative contribution of both factors to famous name processing. Twenty-four mature adults participated in a familiarity judgement task, in which the names of famous people were grouped orthogonally by AoA and by the number of bits of biographical information known about them (number of facts known; NoFK). Age of acquisition was found to have a significant effect on both reaction time (RT) and accuracy of response, but NoFK did not. The RT data also revealed a significant AoA×NoFK interaction. The amount of information known about a celebrity played a facilitative role in the processing of late-acquired, but not early-acquired, celebrities. Once AoA is controlled, it would appear that the semantic system ceases to have a significant overall influence on the processing of famous people. The pre-eminence of AoA over semantic connectedness is considered in the light of current theories of AoA and how their influence might interact.

  6. Estimation of the time of divergence between Japanese Mishima Island cattle and other cattle populations using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sasaki, Osamu; Ishii, Kazuo; Minezawa, Mitsuru; Oda, Senichi; Visscher, Peter M; Furukawa, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    We applied the theory of random genetic drift to determine the divergence history of a closed cattle population over the relatively short timescale of several hundred years. The divergence history of the closed population of Mishima Island cattle, a national natural treasure of Japan, was examined, and the results were compared with historical documents. Inbreeding depression in the isolated population was investigated for body size and fertility. Twenty-one DNA microsatellite markers in Mishima Island cattle and 3 major breeds from the mainland were genotyped. For the mainland breeds, all 21 or 20 markers were segregating. However, nearly half the number of loci (9 of 21) was fixed in the Island cattle. The average number of alleles per locus of Island cattle was markedly lower than that in the mainland breeds. These results support the theory that Island cattle have been isolated for a considerable period of time. The number of generations of isolation was estimated as 14.1-22.6, and the year of divergence was calculated as 1778-1846. In view of these findings, we propose that Island cattle diverged from the mainland population at around 1800 and were isolated for about 200 years. These estimates are in agreement with historical documents showing that divergence occurred between 1672 and 1880. The total inbreeding coefficient of the present population was predicted to be in the range of 0.51-0.60. However, historical reports dated over 100 years do not support changes in fertility, so that there is no evidence for inbreeding depression.

  7. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  8. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  9. Socialization and Self- Determination in Different-Age Dyads of Students Who Are Deafblind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Zatta, Mary C.; Gavin, Mary; Stelzer, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deafblindness limits access to social cues and social feedback, thus restricting the development of social skills. Many children with CHARGE syndrome, a leading cause of deafblindness, experience challenges with emotional self-regulation and anxiety that may interfere with socialization. Learning about self-determination skills such…

  10. Theileria annulata seroprevalence among different cattle breeds in Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    ALI, Md. Wajed; ALAUDDIN, Md.; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; HASAN, Md. Ariful; APPIAH-KWARTENG, Cornelia; TAKASU, Masaki; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; RAHMAN, Moizur; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Theileria annulata infection was undertaken in a cattle population in Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh. The local cattle breeds from the area (North Bengal Gray and Deshi) and crosses between the local breeds and Holstein cattle were predominantly screened. In total, 192 cattle serum samples were collected in two areas of Rajshahi Division, the Rajshahi District (n=147) and Natore District (n=45). The samples were screened with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. annulata surface protein (TaSP) as the antigen. The seroprevalence was 80.0% (36/45) in Natore and 20.4% (30/147) in Rajshahi. A logistic regression analysis showed that the sampling location was significantly associated with seropositivity, whereas age, sex and breed were not. Although the logistic regression analysis did not show a linear dependence on age, we considered age-specific seroprevalence separately in the two districts. Seroprevalence did not differ significantly among age categories in the Natore District. In contrast, all the cattle <1 year old in the Rajshahi District were seronegative (11/11). Seroprevalence in the 1- and 2-year-old cattle was significantly lower in the Rajshahi District than in the Natore District. In the older age categories (3, 4 and >5 years), seroprevalence did not differ significantly between the Natore and Rajshahi Districts. These results suggest that the cattle in the Rajshahi District were sporadically exposed to T. annulata, whereas most cattle in the Natore District became infected during an early phase of life. PMID:27396398

  11. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  12. Genetic diversity in Trypanosoma theileri from Sri Lankan cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Fukushi, Shintaro; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Tuvshintulga, Bumduuren; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru

    2015-01-30

    Trypanosoma theileri is a hemoprotozoan parasite that infects various ruminant species. We investigated the epidemiology of this parasite among cattle and water buffalo populations bred in Sri Lanka, using a diagnostic PCR assay based on the cathepsin L-like protein (CATL) gene. Blood DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=316) and water buffaloes (n=320) bred in different geographical areas of Sri Lanka were PCR screened for T. theileri. Parasite DNA was detected in cattle and water buffaloes alike in all the sampling locations. The overall T. theileri-positive rate was higher in water buffaloes (15.9%) than in cattle (7.6%). Subsequently, PCR amplicons were sequenced and the partial CATL sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The identity values for the CATL gene were 89.6-99.7% among the cattle-derived sequences, compared with values of 90.7-100% for the buffalo-derived sequences. However, the cattle-derived sequences shared 88.2-100% identity values with those from buffaloes. In the phylogenetic tree, the Sri Lankan CATL gene sequences fell into two major clades (TthI and TthII), both of which contain CATL sequences from several other countries. Although most of the CATL sequences from Sri Lankan cattle and buffaloes clustered independently, two buffalo-derived sequences were observed to be closely related to those of the Sri Lankan cattle. Furthermore, a Sri Lankan buffalo sequence clustered with CATL gene sequences from Brazilian buffalo and Thai cattle. In addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of T. theileri among Sri Lankan-bred cattle and water buffaloes, the present study found that some of the CATL gene fragments sourced from water buffaloes shared similarity with those determined from cattle in this country.

  13. Characterisation of Commensal Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Cattle and Their Attendants in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mtambo, Madundo M. A.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Lupindu, Athumani M.; Olsen, John E.

    2016-01-01

    While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%), sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8%) and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%). However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants than isolates from cattle. Sixteen out of 66 ERIC-PCR genotypes were shared between the two hosts, and among these ones, seven types contained isolates from cattle and cattle attendants from the same farm, suggesting transfer of strains between hosts. Genome-wide analysis showed that the majority of the sequenced cattle isolates were assigned to phylogroups B1, while human isolates represented phylogroups A, C, D and E. In general, in silico resistome and virulence factor identification did not reveal differences between hosts or phylogroups, except for lpfA and iss found to be cattle and B1 phylogroup specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes associated with both intra and extraintestinal E. coli pathotypes. PMID:27977751

  14. New K Ar age determinations of Kilimanjaro volcano in the North Tanzanian diverging rift, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonnotte, Philippe; Guillou, Hervé; Le Gall, Bernard; Benoit, Mathieu; Cotten, Joseph; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    The Kilimanjaro is the African highest mountain and culminates at 5895 m high. This huge volcanic edifice is composed of three main centres along a N110°E-striking axis (Shira, Kibo and Mawenzi from W to E), and emplaced in a key area where a major N80°E-oriented volcanic lineament intersects a first-order NW-SE basement fault-like discontinuity. Seventeen K-Ar ages (on microcrystalline groundmass) acquired on lavas and intrusive facies from the three eruptive centres confirm that the Plio-Quaternary volcanicity of Kilimanjaro is clearly polyphased. The oldest phases of volcanic activity begun at ~ 2.5 Ma in the Shira vent and our data suggest that the latest important phases occurred around 1.9 Ma, just before the collapse of the Northern part of the edifice. Magmatic activity then shifted eastwards in the Mawenzi and Kibo twin centres where initial volcanism is dated at ~ 1 Ma. Two K-Ar ages obtained for the most recent Mawenzi rocks from the Neumann Tower-Mawenzi group (492 ka) and Mawenzi eruptive centre (448 ka), near the present summit, are linked to the final stage of edification for this centre. Whereas the eruptive activity ceased in the Mawenzi, it still continued on Kibo since sub-actual time. The oldest dated rocks from Kibo (482 ka) is obtained on a dyke from the Lava Tower group cropping out at 4600 m high. The main phase of magmatism on Kibo is recorded by two lava formations with a great spatial extension - the Rhomb Porphyry group and the Lent group - that have been emplaced in a short time interval at ~ 460-360 ka (including two erosive stages) and 359-337 ka, respectively. Based on the dating of Caldera rim group lavas, it is shown that the edification of the present cone was accomplished in a period ranging from 274 to 170 ka. The new ages obtained for the main episodes of volcanic activity on Kibo appear to roughly coincide with the oldest known Quaternary glaciations. The interaction between eruptive phenomena and the ice cover is assumed to

  15. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  16. Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) capacity in cattle serum

    PubMed Central

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Kamogawa, Erisa; Kimura, Anna; Kitahara, Go; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Oowada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) activity in cattle and human sera was evaluated with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Scavenging rates against six active species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen were quantified. The difference in the electron spin resonance signal intensity in the presence and absence of the serum was converted into the scavenging rates. Comparative MULTIS measurements were made in sera from eight beef cattle, three fetal calves and fifteen healthy human volunteers. Further, we determined the MULTIS value of albumin, the most abundant component in serum. MULTIS values in cattle sera indicated higher scavenging activity against most free radical species tested than human sera. In particular, cattle serum scavenging activities against superoxide and methyl radical were higher than human serum by 2.6 and 3.7 fold, respectively. In cattle serum, albumin appears to play a dominant role in MULTIS activity, but in human serum that is not the case. Previous data indicated that the abundance of uric acid in bovine blood is nearly 80% less than humans; however, this difference does not explain the deviation in MULTIS profile. PMID:28163386

  17. Origins of movements following stunning and during bleeding in cattle.

    PubMed

    Terlouw, E M Claudia; Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique; Mallet, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    At slaughter, after stunning, the absence of certain physical signs such as eye movements/reflexes or rhythmic breathing helps determine whether the loss of consciousness was actually achieved. Cattle frequently show movements of neck and/or legs during the post-stun period. We evaluated 1) the origins of these movements in stunned unconscious cattle and 2) relationships with presence of ocular signs or breathing and shot characteristics. In stunned unconscious cattle, movements appear to be reflex-like, generated in the brain stem and/or spinal cord. First, in stunned unconscious cattle, movements could continue until 3 min after the start of bleeding. Second, severing the spinal cord in stunned unconscious cattle did not influence amount of movements. Third, in reaction to the skin cut and sticking, some unconscious animals showed a nociceptive withdrawal reflex. In bulls, following longer stun-stick delays, this response was weaker. Shot placement, post-stun movements and initial bleeding efficiency seemed related but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  18. Morphological and immunohistochemical features of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle.

    PubMed

    Masuno, K; Yanai, T; Hirata, A; Yonemaru, K; Sakai, H; Satoh, M; Masegi, T; Nakai, Y

    2006-03-01

    Light and electron microscopic features and immunohistochemical features of Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) and host reaction in the mucosa were studied. Although the affected cattle demonstrated no apparent clinical signs, a severe infection of C. andersoni was observed in the abomasum. C. andersoni were round in shape, measured 6-8 microm in size and were mainly observed to be freely located in the gastric pits, being attached in occasional cases to the surface of the abomasum epithelium. Frequent inflammatory cells had infiltrated the lamina propria of the affected mucosa, and frequent mitotic figures were observed in epithelial cells at the dilated isthmus. To access the cell kinetics, the number of epithelial cells infected with C. andersoni were counted and compared with noninfected cattle. The number of gastric pit cells in infected cattle was significantly higher than that in the controls. The number of proliferative cells determined by the Ki-67 antigen in C. andersoni infected cattle was also significantly higher than that in the controls. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of the C. andersoni organism was common to those of other Cryptosporidium spp. Immunohistochemically, several commercial antibodies against Cryptosporidium spp. showed positive reactions at the wall of these oocysts or parasitophorous vacuoles. This report is possibly the first to discuss the prominent hyperplasia of the abomasum mucosa, as well as morphologic features of C. andersoni in cattle.

  19. Age and regulatory focus determine preferences for health-related role models.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Penelope; Chasteen, Alison L; Wong, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The authors hypothesized that the effectiveness of role models varies across the adult life span because of differences in health-related regulatory orientations. Because young adults have strong health-related promotion orientations, they should be motivated by positive models who illustrate the benefits of good health. Because older adults have more balanced health-related promotion and prevention orientations, they should be motivated not only by positive models but also by negative models who illustrate the costs of poor health. Results indicated that both young and older adults perceived positive models to be motivating, but older adults found negative models to be more motivating than did young adults. Age differences in responses to negative models were partially mediated by differences in health-related prevention orientation.

  20. Radiometric age determinations on Pliocene/Pleistocene formations in the lower Omo basin, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, F.H.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1971-01-01

    THE potassium-argon ages presented here were obtained during 1966 to 1969 in order to provide an absolute time scale for the stratigraphic work by the international Omo Research Expedition in the Pliocene/Pleistocene formations (unpublished work of F. H. B., J. de Heinzelin and F. C. Howell) in south-west Ethiopia. Although some of these dates are not new1-3, most of the analytical procedures and data have not been presented. We also present a list of fossil localities recorded by the University of Chicago contingent of the expedition within the Shungura Formation. Preliminary descriptions of the Hominidae have been published already3,4. ?? 1971 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cattle sedated with xylazine

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shozo

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of sedation with xylazine on the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) of cattle to determine whether sedation causes differences in waveform configuration, peak latencies, interpeak latencies, measurement time of the average count (2000 responses), and clinical signs. There were no significant differences between the sedation and no-sedation groups in peak latency of any stimulus intensities. In the sedation group, the baselines of waveforms were comparatively stabilized. Those in the no-sedation group were unstable, however, because the measurement can be influenced by excessive muscle movement. The present findings suggest that clinically, it is useful to use a sedative when measuring BAEP in cattle to control excessive movement of the cattle without influencing the peak latencies. PMID:18505193

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Vidal, Lorena; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250) and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40) were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 %) but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %). An important part of the ground beef strains (80 %) had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Heidar; Mohammadzadeh, Abdolmajid; Gharekhani, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran) from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%). The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite. PMID:25568696

  4. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Heidar; Mohammadzadeh, Abdolmajid; Gharekhani, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran) from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%). The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite.

  5. Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs, Cattle, and the Conservation of North America’s Arid Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sierra–Corona, Rodrigo; Davidson, Ana; Fredrickson, Ed L.; Luna-Soria, Hugo; Suzan-Azpiri, Humberto; Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands. PMID:25760377

  6. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  7. Behavior and distribution of cattle grazing riparian zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to study cattle site use and behavior in riparian pastures so that the nature of use by livestock can be determined and potential ecosystem impacts can be scientifically evaluated. Through the course of this study, we will employ high resolution GPS trackers to exam...

  8. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  9. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  10. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  11. 205 PRODUCTION OF Cas9-EXPRESSING CATTLE USING DNA TRANSPOSON.

    PubMed

    Hahn, S-E; Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    A genome-editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9 system is proved to be a powerful tool for knockout and knock-in in various species. When 2 components [Cas9 and single guide (sg) RNA] are delivered into cells or embryos, the events of gene editing occur. Because Cas9 is essential for every gene editing based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system, some studies reported that efficiency of gene editing would be increased as Cas9 was integrated into cells or animals. Accordingly, if the Cas9-expressing cattle is born, it would be broadly used for gene editing in cattle. For this study, the Cas9 and RFP genes were cloned into the PiggyBac transposon system. PiggyBac-Cas9-RFP and transposase were microinjected into 1436 IVF embryos and 241 blastocysts were formed. Blastocysts with RFP expression accounted for 14.1% of total formed blastocysts. Five blastocysts were selected and transferred into 5 recipient cow (1 embryo per recipient). After gestation periods, 4 transgenic cattle were delivered without any veterinary assistance. From transgenic cattle, ear skin tissue was collected for primary culture. On those primary cells, sgRNA in DNA form for various genes such as PRNP, RB1, and BLG were transfected with 2μg of sgRNA per 5×10(5) cells using electroporation. As expected, every group of each sgRNA delivered was confirmed to be mutated by T7E1 assay. The data demonstrated that, for the first time, transgenic cattle with Cas9 expression were born, grown up to date (age=5 months) and will be a valuable resource for genome editing in cattle.

  12. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  13. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  14. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  15. Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  16. Genetic and environmental determinants of growth of school-aged children in a rural Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Titcomb, M

    1977-01-01

    Parent-offspring correlations and heritabilities of body measurements from midparent-offspring regressions are presented for school-aged children from the village of Tenza, Colombia (N = 403 families). Parent-child correlations and midparent regressions in this subsistence farming sample, are similar in magnitude to those for well nourished, urban industrial samples, suggesting that the environmental component of variability in body size is the same regardless of the environment. Tenza children are significantly shorter and lighter than upper class Bogota children, and Tenza parents have mean heights and weights similar to those of other lower class Colombian samples. Thus, chronic undernutrition has affected the growth of parents and continues to affect the growth of the present generation. Although it has been hypothesized that heritability of growth might be reduced in samples experiencing malnutrition and its sequelae, such a reduction may only be observable where environment of parents during their development is different from that of their offspring, which is not the case here. The pattern of heritabilities with respect to different body measurements in Tenza, is similar to that seen in well nourished samples, except that measurements of breadth (biacromial, bicristal, bicondylar) have heritabilities similar in magnitude to those of linear measurements (height, sitting-height, subischial length) especially in males; and heritabilities of some measurements related to adiposity are significantly higher in daughters than in sons.

  17. Ammonium is a key determinant on the dietary restriction of yeast chronological aging in culture medium.

    PubMed

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2015-03-30

    New evidences have recently emerged from studies in yeast and in higher eukaryotes showing the importance of nutrient balance in dietary regimes and its effects on longevity regulation.We have previously shown that manipulation of ammonium concentration in the culture and/or aging medium can drastically affect chronological lifespan (CLS)of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially in amino acid restricted cells. Here we describe that the CLS shortening under amino acid restriction can be completely reverted by removing ammonium from the culture medium. Furthermore, the absence of ammonium, and of any rich nitrogen source, was so effective in extending CLS that no beneficial effect could be observed by further imposing calorie restriction conditions. When present in the culture medium,ammonium impaired the consumption of the auxotrophy-complementing amino acids and caused in an improper cell cycle arrest of the culture.TOR1 deletion reverted ammonium effects both in amino acid restricted and non-restricted cultures, whereas, Ras2p and Sch9p seem to have only a milder effect in the mediation of ammonium toxicity under amino acid restriction and no effect on non-restricted cultures.Our studies highlight ammonium as a key effector in the nutritional equilibrium between rich and essential nitrogen sources and glucose required for longevity promotion.

  18. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23–4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60–126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18–10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58–4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81–13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  19. Resources and life-management strategies as determinants of successful aging: on the protective effect of selection, optimization, and compensation.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela; Smith, Jacqui

    2006-06-01

    In this research, the authors investigated the specific and shared impact of personal resources and selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) life-management strategies (A. M. Freund & P. B. Baltes, 2002) on subjective well-being. Life-management strategies were expected to be most relevant when resources were constrained, particularly in very old age. In Study 1 (N=156, 71-91 years), age-differential predictive patterns supported this assumption: Young-old individuals' well-being was predicted independently by resources and SOC, whereas SOC buffered the effect of restricted resources in old-old individuals. Study 2 replicated the findings longitudinally with resource-poor and resource-rich older individuals (N=42). In both studies, specific SOC strategies were differentially adaptive. Results confirm that resources are important determinants of well-being but that life-management strategies have a considerable protective effect with limited resources.

  20. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films. The utilization of the digital image processor in the determination of aging of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kevin A.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The age of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) can be determined with the use of the Digital Image Processor. This technique is used in conjunction with a modified method for aging, refined by John Ropes of the Woods Hole Laboratory, Massachusetts. This method utilizes a thinned sectioned chondrophore of the surf clam which contains annual rings. The rings of the chondrophore are then counted to determine age. By digitizing the chondrophore, the Digital Image Processor is clearly able to separate these annual rings more accurately. This technique produces an easier and more efficient way to count annual rings to determine the age of the surf clam.

  1. Problems determining relative and absolute ages using the small crater population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Strom, Robert G.

    2012-07-01

    The small crater populations (diameter smaller than 1 km) are widely used to date planetary surfaces. The reliability of small crater counts is tested by counting small craters at several young and old lunar surfaces, including Mare Nubium and craters Alphonsus, Tycho and Giordano Bruno. Based on high-resolution images from both the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera and Kaguya Terrain Camera, small craters in two different diameter ranges are counted for each counting area. Large discrepancies exist in both the cumulative (absolute model ages) and relative plots for the two different size ranges of the same counting areas. The results indicate that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations is highly unreliable because the contamination of secondaries may invalidate the results of small crater counts. A comparison of the size-frequency distributions of the small crater populations and impact ejected boulders around fresh lunar craters shows the same upturn as typical martian secondaries, which supports the argument that secondaries dominate the small crater populations on the Moon and Mars. Also, the size-frequency distributions of small rayed lunar and martian craters of probable primary origin are similar to that of the Population 2 craters on the inner Solar System bodies post-dating Late Heavy Bombardment. Dating planetary surfaces using the small crater populations requires the separation of primaries from secondaries which is extremely difficult. The results also show that other factors, such as different target properties and the subjective identification of impact craters by different crater counters, may also affect crater counting results. We suggest that dating planetary surfaces using small crater populations should be with highly cautious.

  2. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  3. Age Determination of the Remaining Peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; de Fontaine, Christian S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California was once a 1,400 square kilometer (km2) tidal marsh, which contained a vast layer of peat ranging up to 15 meters (m) thick (Atwater and Belknap, 1980). Because of its favorable climate and highly fertile peat soils, the majority of the Delta was drained and reclaimed for agriculture during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Drainage of the peat soils changed the conditions in the surface layers of peat from anaerobic (having no free oxygen present) to aerobic (exposed to the atmosphere). This change in conditions greatly increased the decomposition rate of the peat, which consists largely of organic (plant) matter. Thus began the process of land-surface subsidence, which initially was a result of peat shrinkage and compaction, and later largely was a result of oxidation by which organic carbon in the peat essentially vaporized to carbon dioxide (Deverel and others, 1998; Ingebritsen and Ikehara, 1999). Because of subsidence, the land-surface elevation on farmed islands in the Delta has decreased from a few meters to as much as 8 m below local mean sea level (California Department of Water Resources, 1995; Steve Deverel, Hydrofocus, Inc., written commun., 2007). The USGS, in collaboration with the University of California at Davis, and Hydrofocus Inc. of Davis, California, has been studying the formation of the Delta and the impact of wetland reclamation on the peat column as part of a project called Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time (REPEAT). The purpose of this report is to provide results on the age of the remaining peat soils on four farmed islands in the Delta.

  4. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma.

  5. A review of Model Production Function age determinations on the Mercury surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, Matteo; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Martellato, Elena; Giacomini, Lorenza; Ferrari, Sabrina

    The Model Production Function (MPF) chronology relies on the estimate of the crater size-frequency distribution for a specific planet on the basis of theoretical prediction of the impactor flux (Marchi et al., 2009). Hence it is a readily and flexible method to infer ages on any planets also considering a variable impact flux through time. In addition the methodology derive crater size distribution function from the distribution of impactors applying only once the Holsapple and Housen (2007) scaling law; this allows a consistent control of the function itself and an improved fit of the crater statistics, which, on its own, may give even some insights for the uppermost layering and rheology of the investigated crusts (Massironi et al. 2009). During the here proposed presentation, we will discuss all the applications of MPF method realized on the hermean surface so far. This will give us the opportunity to explain the importance of the geological interpretation required to correctly apply this methodology as well as to illustrate strength and weakness of such an approach. References Holsapple, K. A., and Housen K. R. (2007). A crater and its ejecta: An interpreta-tion of Deep Impact, ICARUS, 187, 345 -356. Marchi S, Mottola S, Cremonese G, Massironi M., Martellato E (2009). A New Chronology for the Moon and Mercury. THE ASTRONOM-ICAL JOURNAL, vol. 137; p. 4936-4948. Massironi M., Cremonese G, Marchi S, Martellato E, Mottola S, Wagner RJ (2009). Mercury's geochronology revised by applying Model Pro-duction Function to Mariner 10 data: Geological implications. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, vol. 36; L21204.

  6. Embryonic and posthatching development of the barn owl (Tyto alba): reference data for age determination.

    PubMed

    Köppl, Christine; Futterer, Eva; Nieder, Bärbel; Sistermann, Ralf; Wagner, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    The normal development of the barn owl was documented with the intent of providing a guideline for determining the maturational stage of embryos and posthatching individuals. Embryonic development up to stage 39 could be well described using the well-known developmental atlas for the chicken (Hamburger and Hamilton [1951] J. Morphol. 88:49-92). For later stages, limb size was established as a suitable indicator. In addition, measuring the egg's vascularized area through candling was found to be a useful, noninvasive method for staging very early embryos, up to stage 25. An average relationship between incubation period and embryonic stage was derived, which showed that development in the barn owl initially lags that in the chicken. For posthatching individuals, skeletal measures (tarsal and ulnar length, skull width and length) were the most reliable parameters for judging maturation, up to 1 month. For older individuals, feather development (e.g., length of primary wing feathers) provided the only cue.

  7. Determinants of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in middle-aged, premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Toth, M J; Sites, C K; Cefalu, W T; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    2001-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the relative importance of adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. To address this issue, we measured insulin-stimulated glucose disposal [mg. kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1). min(-1); oxidative and nonoxidative components] in 45 nondiabetic, nonobese, premenopausal women (mean +/- SD; 47 +/- 3 yr) by use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU. m(-2). min(-1)) and [6,6-2H2]glucose dilution techniques. We also measured body composition, abdominal fat distribution, thigh muscle fat content, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and physical activity energy expenditure ((2)H(2)(18)O kinetics) as possible correlates of glucose disposal. VO2 max was the strongest correlate of glucose disposal (r = 0.63, P < 0.01), whereas whole body and abdominal adiposity showed modest associations (range of r values from -0.32 to -0.46, P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). A similar pattern of correlations was observed for nonoxidative glucose disposal. None of the variables measured correlated with oxidative glucose disposal. The relationship of VO2 max to glucose disposal persisted after statistical control for FFM, percent body fat, and intra-abdominal fat (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). In contrast, correlations of total and regional adiposity measures to insulin sensitivity were no longer significant after statistical adjustment for VO2 max. VO2 max was the only variable to enter stepwise regression models as a significant predictor of total and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Our results highlight the importance of VO2 max as a determinant of glucose disposal and suggest that it may be a stronger determinant of variation in glucose disposal than total and regional adiposity in nonobese, nondiabetic, premenopausal women.

  8. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Results: Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Conclusions: Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society. PMID:26929727

  9. Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age.

    PubMed

    Runge, M; Hunter, G

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular parameters that describe locomotion are indispensable variables for the diagnosis and treatment of frailty, fall risk and osteoporosis. A scientifically-based standardized locomotor assessment should be an essential part of medical examinations in research and clinical practice. There has been no previous consensus regarding which test procedures should be included in a locomotor assessment. The goal of this article is to provide a rationale for the selection of appropriate locomotor tests in a comprehensive locomotor assessment for elderly patients. We propose that a locomotor assessment should comprise the parameters that have been proven predictive for both falls and impending disability. The parameters should be measured in the standard units of physics. Therefore, we propose the following tests for a standardized locomotor assessment: (1) Self-selected gait velocity as the single best measure of general locomotor status and a good predictor of age-related adverse events; (2) Chair rise test (timed 5 chair rises) which measures power on vertical movement and the hip surrounding muscles as the most important neuromuscular risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures; (3) Tandem standing and tandem walking to measure postural capacity (balance) to the side; (4) Timed up and go test as a global screening procedure; (5) Clinical gait analysis with special focus on regularity; and (6) At least on a research level, movement must be measured referring to the terms of physics by mechanography. Mechanography (Leonardo force plate system, Novotec Pforzheim, Germany) records the time course of ground reaction forces, velocity of the vertical movements of the center of mass and power during unrestricted physiological movements. In the mechanogram the eccentric and concentric phases of movements can be differentiated and the storage of energy in the elastic elements of the body can be examined. The kinetics of human movement is explained by mechanograms of

  10. Vascular determinants of cancer stem cell dormancy--do age and coagulation system play a role?

    PubMed

    Rak, Janusz; Milsom, Chloe; Yu, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The inability of tumour-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to bring about a net increase in tumour mass could be described as a source of tumour dormancy. While CSCs may be intrinsically capable of driving malignant growth, to do so they require compatible surroundings of supportive cells, growth factors, adhesion molecules and energy sources (e.g. glucose and oxygen), all of which constitute what may be referred to as a 'permissive' CSC niche. However, in some circumstances, the configuration of these factors could be incompatible with CSC growth (a 'non-permissive' niche) and lead to their death or dormancy. CSCs and their niches may also differ between adult and paediatric cancers. In this regard the various facets of the tumour-vascular interface could serve as elements of the CSC niche. Indeed, transformed cells with an increased tumour-initiating capability may preferentially reside in specific zones adjacent to tumour blood vessels, or alternatively originate from poorly perfused and hypoxic areas, to which they have adapted. CSCs themselves may produce increased amounts of angiogenic factors, or rely for this on their progeny or activated host stromal cells. It is likely that 'vascular' properties of tumour-initiating cells and those of their niches may diversify and evolve with tumour progression. The emerging themes in this area include the role of vascular (and bone marrow) aging, vascular and metabolic comorbidities (e.g. atherosclerosis) and the effects of the coagulation system (both at the local and systemic levels), all of which could impact the functionality of CSCs and their niches and affect tumour growth, dormancy and formation of occult as well as overt metastases. In this article we will discuss some of the vascular properties of CSCs relevant to tumour dormancy and progression, including: (i) the role of CSCs in regulating tumour vascular supply, i.e the onset and maintenance of tumour angiogenesis; (ii) the consequences of changing vascular

  11. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  15. Stir bar sorptive extraction for the determination of volatile compounds in oak-aged wines.

    PubMed

    Marín, J; Zalacain, A; De Miguel, C; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2005-12-09

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been optimized for the determination of 13 of the most important oak volatiles in wine samples, all in a single run. The stir bar sorptive extraction method was optimized in terms of temperature, time, pH and NaCl addition, and the best results were obtained after stirring the wine sample with the polydimethylsiloxane stir bar during 90min at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride did not enhance the volatile extraction. The method proposed showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.92 to 0.99 for all the analytes. The reproducibility and repeatability of the method was estimated between 0.11 and 5.45%. The detection and quantification limits of all analytes were lower than their respective olfactory threshold values, and, most importantly, no artifacts have been observed during the analysis as described in most extractions using other current methodologies.

  16. Human locomotion on snow: determinants of economy and speed of skiing across the ages.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Ardigò, Luca P; Minetti, Alberto E

    2005-08-07

    We explore here the evolution of skiing locomotion in the last few thousand years by investigating how humans adapted to move effectively in lands where a cover of snow, for several months every year, prevented them from travelling as on dry ground. Following historical research, we identified the sets of skis corresponding to the 'milestones' of skiing evolution in terms of ingenuity and technology, built replicas of them and measured the metabolic energy associated to their use in a climate-controlled ski tunnel. Six sets of skis were tested, covering a span from 542 AD to date. Our results show that: (i) the history of skiing is associated with a progressive decrease in the metabolic cost of transport, (ii) it is possible today to travel at twice the speed of ancient times using the same amount of metabolic power and (iii) the cost of transport is speed-independent for each ski model, as during running. By combining this finding with the relationship between time of exhaustion and the sustainable fraction of metabolic power, a prediction of the maximum skiing speed according to the distance travelled is provided for all past epochs, including two legendary historical journeys (1206 and 1520 AD) on snow. Our research shows that the performances in races originating from them (Birkebeiner and Vasaloppet) and those of other modern competitions (skating versus classical techniques) are well predicted by the evolution of skiing economy. Mechanical determinants of the measured progression in economy are also discussed in the paper.

  17. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  18. Eosinophilic myositis in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G

    1991-01-01

    Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289

  19. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  20. Genetic Determinants of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Diverse Populations From the PAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Nicole A.; Spencer, Kylee L.; Goodloe, Robert; Garrett, Tiana A.; Heiss, Gerardo; Bůžková, Petra; Jorgensen, Neal; Jensen, Richard A.; Matise, Tara C.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cornes, Belinda K.; Tai, E.-Shyong; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Substantial progress has been made in identifying susceptibility variants for AMD in European populations; however, few studies have been conducted to understand the role these variants play in AMD risk in diverse populations. The present study aims to examine AMD risk across diverse populations in known and suspected AMD complement factor and lipid-related loci. Methods. Targeted genotyping was performed across study sites for AMD and lipid trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Genetic association tests were performed at individual sites and then meta-analyzed using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model stratified by self-described race/ethnicity. Participants included cases with early or late AMD and controls with no signs of AMD as determined by fundus photography. Populations included in this study were European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Singaporeans from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Results. Index variants of AMD, rs1061170 (CFH) and rs10490924 (ARMS2), were associated with AMD at P = 3.05 × 10−8 and P = 6.36 × 10−6, respectively, in European Americans. In general, none of the major AMD index variants generalized to our non-European populations with the exception of rs10490924 in Mexican Americans at an uncorrected P value < 0.05. Four lipid-associated SNPS (LPL rs328, TRIB1 rs6987702, CETP rs1800775, and KCTD10/MVK rs2338104) were associated with AMD in African Americans and Mexican Americans (P < 0.05), but these associations did not survive strict corrections for multiple testing. Conclusions. While most associations did not generalize in the non-European populations, variants within lipid-related genes were found to be associated with AMD. This study highlights the need for larger well-powered studies in non-European populations. PMID:25205864