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Sample records for cattle age determination

  1. Morphological study of bacterial pneumonia of feedlot cattle: Determination of age of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    1989-01-01

    Lungs from 48 feedlot cattle that had died from bacterial pneumonia were examined grossly and microscopically. Criteria based on microscopic lesions were adopted to age these pneumonias. In 38 cases, pneumonic lesions were of relatively uniform age throughout the affected tissue. In eight other cases, the presence of older lesions confined to one or two lobes suggested a previous episode of pneumonia. The aging criteria adopted were in agreement with the duration of the observed clinical signs in 26 cases. In 13 other cases, the pneumonia was estimated to be of longer duration than suggested by the history, whereas in the remaining nine cases, it was estimated to be more recent. Areas of tan discoloration of the parenchyma surrounded by white or yellow borders were considered the best areas to examine microscopically since they offered the best chances of revealing necrosis and fibrosis, the main lesions used to age the pneumonia. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423236

  2. Age-dependent patterns of bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Conlan, Andrew J K; Mitchell, Andy P; Blackwell, Ruth; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Wood, James L N

    2013-10-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important livestock disease, seriously impacting cattle industries in both industrialised and pre-industrialised countries. Like TB in other mammals, infection is life long and, if undiagnosed, may progress to disease years after exposure. The risk of disease in humans is highly age-dependent, however in cattle, age-dependent risks have yet to be quantified, largely due to insufficient data and limited diagnostics. Here, we estimate age-specific reactor rates in Great Britain by combining herd-level testing data with spatial movement data from the Cattle Tracing System (CTS). Using a catalytic model, we find strong age dependencies in infection risk and that the probability of detecting infection increases with age. Between 2004 and 2009, infection incidence in cattle fluctuated around 1%. Age-specific incidence increased monotonically until 24-36 months, with cattle aged between 12 and 36 months experiencing the highest rates of infection. Beef and dairy cattle under 24 months experienced similar infection risks, however major differences occurred in older ages. The average reproductive number in cattle was greater than 1 for the years 2004-2009. These methods reveal a consistent pattern of BTB rates with age, across different population structures and testing patterns. The results provide practical insights into BTB epidemiology and control, suggesting that targeting a mass control programme at cattle between 12 and 36 months could be beneficial.

  3. Age-dependent patterns of bovine tuberculosis in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an important livestock disease, seriously impacting cattle industries in both industrialised and pre-industrialised countries. Like TB in other mammals, infection is life long and, if undiagnosed, may progress to disease years after exposure. The risk of disease in humans is highly age-dependent, however in cattle, age-dependent risks have yet to be quantified, largely due to insufficient data and limited diagnostics. Here, we estimate age-specific reactor rates in Great Britain by combining herd-level testing data with spatial movement data from the Cattle Tracing System (CTS). Using a catalytic model, we find strong age dependencies in infection risk and that the probability of detecting infection increases with age. Between 2004 and 2009, infection incidence in cattle fluctuated around 1%. Age-specific incidence increased monotonically until 24–36 months, with cattle aged between 12 and 36 months experiencing the highest rates of infection. Beef and dairy cattle under 24 months experienced similar infection risks, however major differences occurred in older ages. The average reproductive number in cattle was greater than 1 for the years 2004–2009. These methods reveal a consistent pattern of BTB rates with age, across different population structures and testing patterns. The results provide practical insights into BTB epidemiology and control, suggesting that targeting a mass control programme at cattle between 12 and 36 months could be beneficial. PMID:24131703

  4. Evidence for increasing digestive and metabolic efficiency of energy utilization with age of dairy cattle as determined in two feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Grandl, F; Zeitz, J O; Clauss, M; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2017-07-24

    The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving. During 2 days, the gaseous exchange of the animals was quantified in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by an 8-day period of feed, faeces, urine and milk collection. Daily amounts and energy contents were used to calculate complete energy balances. Age and feeding regime effects were analysed by parametric regression analysis where BW, milk yield and hay proportion in forage as consumed were considered as covariates. Relative to intake of gross energy, the availability of metabolizable energy (ME) increased with age. This was not the result of an increasing energy digestibility, but of proportionately lower energy losses with methane (following a curvilinear relationship with the greatest losses in middle-aged cows) and urine (continuously declining). The efficiency of utilization of ME for milk production (k l) increased with age. Potential reasons include an increase in the propionate-to-acetate ratio in the rumen because of a shift away from fibre degradation and methane formation as well as lower urine energy losses. The greater k l allowed older cows to accrete more energy reserves in the body. As expected, offering concentrate enhanced digestibility, metabolizability and metabolic utilization of energy

  5. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score.

    PubMed

    Raines, C R; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Knock, R C

    2008-12-01

    This research explores the relationship between generally accepted and alternative cattle age-prediction methods and chronological age. Cattle (n = 386) of documented ages ranging from 370 to 1,115 d of age were used. Dentition (DEN), USDA maturity score (MS), lens weight (LW), and lens total N (LN) content were used as possible predictors of age. Correlations with age were determined: LW (r = 0.77); DEN (r = 0.74); LN (r = 0.71); and MS (r = 0.64). Stepwise backward regression was used to generate an age prediction equation: Age (mo) = -21.79 + 17.23(LW, g) + 0.038(DEN). By this equation, 38% of cattle age were verified as age. Independent measures verified the following percentages of cattle as age: LW (20.2%), MS (11.0%), DEN (9.6%), and LN (8.7%). The DEN verified that 87.6% were verified as <30 mo old, and LW verified 81.6% of cattle as <30 mo old. A separate group of cattle (n = 18) ranging in age from 1 to 12 yr were evaluated for lens properties, for which LW (R(2) = 0.91) and LN (R(2) = 0.92) were highly correlated with age. The LW and DEN were the best predictors of age for cattle 13- to 37-mo-old and yielded the most accurate age prediction when used in combination (R(2) = 0.67).

  6. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  7. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  8. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  9. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  10. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  11. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1997-07-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

  12. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  13. Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

    2010-12-01

    Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources.

  14. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  15. Nonnative Cattle Ownership, Diet, and Child Height-for-Age: Evidence from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Fierstein, Jamie L; Eliasziw, Misha; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge; Forrester, Janet E

    2017-01-11

    In underresourced settings where domestic animals and children often cohabitate, there is limited evidence about the net impact of domestic animal ownership on child health. We analyzed the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey to determine whether household ownership of native cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs, and nonnative cattle was associated with child height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), and to assess the influence of diet on this association in rural and urban environments. Using weighted multivariable linear regression, we found that nonnative cattle ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+1.32 standard deviations [SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2-2.5) and 2 to < 5 years of age (+0.58 SD, 95% CI = 0.003-1.2), and urban children 2 to < 5 years of age (+1.08 SD, 95% CI = 0.38-1.8). Sheep ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 2 to < 5 years of age (+0.29 SD, 95% CI = 0.002-0.58) and goat ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+0.27 SD, 95% CI = 0.003-0.55). We observed no other significant associations. Children who lived in households that owned nonnative cattle consumed dairy more frequently; however, the relationship between child HAZ and nonnative cattle ownership was not mediated by child dairy consumption. These findings suggest that domestic animal ownership may not be detrimental to child HAZ, and that nonnative cattle ownership is beneficial for child HAZ through pathways other than dairy consumption. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Determination of proviral load in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with and without lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Gutierrez, Silvina E; Ceriani, Carolina

    2007-11-01

    To determine proviral load in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle with and without persistent lymphocytosis to assess the potential of transmitting the virus. Cattle in 6 dairy herds. Blood samples from infected cows were evaluated 3 times at 6-month intervals for determination of proviral load via PCR assay, serologic results via ELISA, and hematologic status via differential cell counts. Infected cattle were classified into lymphocytotic and nonlymphocytotic groups. Lymphocytotic cattle consistently had > 100,000 copies of integrated provirus/mug of DNA (ie, high proviral load) in peripheral blood leukocytes. Titers of antibodies against BLVgp51 and BLVp24 indicated a strong immune response. Nonlymphocytotic cattle comprised 2 subgroups: a group with high proviral load and strong immune response, and a group with a weaker immune response, mostly against BLVp24, and a proviral load of < 100 copies/microg of DNA (ie, low proviral load). Results emphasized the importance of characterizing nonlymphocytotic BLV-infected cattle during eradication programs. The risk of transmitting BLV infection from nonlymphocytotic cattle may differ depending on the proviral load. Nonlymphocytotic cattle with high proviral load could be efficient transmitters (as efficient as lymphocytotic cattle), whereas nonlymphocytotic cattle with low proviral load could be inefficient transmitters under standard husbandry conditions. Because most cattle with low proviral load do not develop anti-BLVp24 antibodies, it appears that lack of an anti-BLVp24 antibody response may be a good marker of this condition.

  17. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  18. Effect of cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity on lung respiratory lesions and liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...

  19. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Doornenbal, H; Tong, A K; Murray, N L

    1988-01-01

    Reference (normal) values for 12 blood serum components were determined for 48 Shorthorn cows (2-10 years old) and their 48 calves, 357 crossbred cows (12-14 years old), 36 feedlot bulls and 36 feedlot steers. In addition, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and cortisol levels were determined for the crossbred cows, and feedlot bulls and steers. Reference values were tabulated according to sex, age and stage of lactation. Serum concentrations of urea, total protein and bilirubin, and serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase increased with age (P less than 0.05), while calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase decreased with age (P less than 0.05) from birth to the age of ten years. The Shorthorn cows had the highest levels of glucose at parturition (P less than 0.05) with decreasing levels during lactation. Creatinine concentration decreased during lactation and increased during postweaning. Both lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased (P less than 0.05) during lactation. Urea and uric acid were present at higher concentrations in lactating than nonlactating cows (P less than 0.05). The values reported, based on a wide age range and large number of cattle, could serve as clinical guides and a basis for further research. PMID:3349406

  20. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  1. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Seraina; Juillerat, Valerie; Doherr, Marcus G; Haase, Bianca; Polak, Miroslaw; Ehrensperger, Felix; Leeb, Tosso; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Background The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical BSE (C-type) in biochemical properties of the pathological prion protein. Depending on the molecular mass and the degree of glycosylation of its proteinase K resistant core fragment (PrPres), mainly determined in samples derived from the medulla oblongata, these atypical cases are currently classified into low (L)-type or high (H)-type BSE. In the present study we address the question to what extent such atypical BSE cases are part of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland. Results To this end we analyzed the biochemical PrPres type by Western blot in a total of 33 BSE cases in cattle with a minimum age of eight years, targeting up to ten different brain regions. Our work confirmed H-type BSE in a zebu but classified all other cases as C-type BSE; indicating a very low incidence of H- and L-type BSE in Switzerland. It was documented for the first time that the biochemical PrPres type was consistent across different brain regions of aging animals with C-type and H-type BSE, i.e. independent of the neuroanatomical structure investigated. Conclusion Taken together this study provides further characteristics of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland and generates new baseline data for the definition of C- and H-type BSE phenotypes, thereby underpinning the notion that they indeed represent distinct prion disease entities. PMID:19470160

  2. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  3. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  4. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C

    2011-07-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

  5. Analytical procedure for the determination of eprinomectin in soil and cattle faeces.

    PubMed

    Litskas, V D; Batzias, G C; Karamanlis, X N; Kamarianos, A P

    2010-06-01

    A new analytical HPLC-fluorescence method was developed for the quantitative determination of eprinomectin (EPM) in soil and cattle faeces. EPM was extracted with acetone and acetonitrile from soil and cattle faeces, respectively. Solid phase extraction and derivatization reaction with N-methylimidazole in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride and acetic acid were applied. The limit of quantitation was 1 ng g(-1) air dried soil and 2.5 ng g(-1) moist cattle faeces. Overall recovery (RSD) was 89% (8) in soil and 85% (10) in cattle faeces and its good reproducibility (RSD<15%) allows the application of the method in advanced ecotoxicological studies, required for the environmental fate assessment of EPM. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  7. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  8. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights, scrotal circumference, and testicular volume measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silva, J A V; Sesana, R C; Sesana, J C; Junqueira, J B; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-04-01

    Data from 129,575 Nellore cattle born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to the Jacarezinho cattle-raising farm, were used to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference measured at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12), and 18 (SC18) mo of age and testicular volume measured at the same ages (TV9, TV12, and TV18) and to determine their correlation with weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW), to provide information for the definition of selection criteria in beef cattle. Estimates of (co)variance components were calculated by the REML method applying an animal model in single- and multiple-trait analysis. The following heritability estimates and their respective SE were obtained for WW, YW, SC9, SC12, SC18, TV9, TV12, and TV18: 0.33 +/- 0.02, 0.37 +/- 0.03, 0.29 +/- 0.03, 0.39 +/- 0.04, 0.42 +/- 0.03, 0.19 +/- 0.04, 0.26 +/- 0.05, and 0.39 +/- 0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation between WW and YW was positive and high (0.80 +/- 0.04), indicating that these traits are mainly determined by the same genes. Genetic correlations between the growth traits and scrotal circumference measures were positive and of low to moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.38 +/- 0.04. On the other hand, increased genetic associations were estimated between scrotal circumference and testicular volume at different ages (0.61 +/- 0.04 to 0.86 +/- 0.04). Selection for greater scrotal circumference in males should result in greater WW, YW, and testicular volume. In conclusion, in view of the difficulty in measuring testicular volume, there is no need to change the selection criterion from scrotal circumference to testicular volume in genetic breeding programs of Zebu breeds.

  9. Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Divakar J.; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.

    2007-01-01

    The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were tested repeatedly over a period of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ECF lateral flow test does not accurately identify nonpregnancy in dairy cattle. PMID:17824326

  10. [History and economic importance of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in Switzerland from Neolithic to Early Middle Ages].

    PubMed

    Schibler, J; Schlumbaum, A

    2007-01-01

    In Switzerland domestic cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus resp. Bos taurus L.) first appear with the earliest Neolithic settlements (approximately 5000 BC). With the gradual deforestation of the landscape caused by human exploitation of the environment, cattle were used more intensive and in many ways. There is evidence that cattle were used as draught animal since ca. 3400 BC, probably even earlier milk was regularly used. The size of domestic cattle gradually decreased from Early Neolithic until Iron Age. Only with Roman influence larger animals are found. However, after the withdrawal of Romans the average size of cattle decreased again. Archaeogenetic studies will have to show, whether this is due to novel breeding strategies or the import of breeding stock. First genetic results showed that a female genetic type, which is rare in European breeds, is present in Swiss Evolène cattle and in one animal of Roman time cattle from Augusta Raurica. Is this a sign for influence of Roman cattle on today's Swiss breeds?

  11. Effect of sex, age and genetics on crossover interference in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Li, Jinquan; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Crossovers generated by homologous recombination ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. Crossover interference results in chiasmata being more evenly distributed along chromosomes, but the mechanism underlying crossover interference remains elusive. Based on large pedigrees of Holstein and Jersey cattle with genotype data, we extracted three-generation families, including 147,327 male and 71,687 female meioses in Holstein, and 108,163 male and 37,008 female meioses in Jersey, respectively. We identified crossovers in these meioses and fitted the Housworth-Stahl “interference-escape” model to study crossover interference patterns in the cattle genome. Our result reveals that the degree of crossover interference is stronger in females than in males. We found evidence for inter-chromosomal variation in the level of crossover interference, with smaller chromosomes exhibiting stronger interference. In addition, crossover interference levels decreased with maternal age. Finally, sex-specific GWAS analyses identified one locus near the NEK9 gene on chromosome 10 to have a significant effect on crossover interference levels. This locus has been previously associated with recombination rate in cattle. Collectively, this large-scale analysis provided a comprehensive description of crossover interference across chromosome, sex and age groups, identified associated candidate genes, and produced useful insights into the mechanism of crossover interference. PMID:27892966

  12. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4-8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3-4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort.

  13. Ageing Cattle: The Use of Radiographic Examinations on Cattle Metapodials from Eketorp Ringfort on the Island of Öland in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Telldahl, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper conventional X-ray analysis of cattle metapodials is used to study the age structure of slaughtered cattle at Eketorp ringfort on the island of Öland, Sweden. The X-ray analyses suggest that several animals in both phases were slaughtered aged 4–8 years. More oxen/bulls than cows reached the advanced age of over 8 years, yet in phase III more oxen/bulls seem to have been slaughtered between the ages of 2 and 8 years. These differences may reflect a change in demand for meat related to the character of the site. The results also show a correlation between metapodials with a pathology connected to biomechanical stress and older animals. This suggests that male cattle were used both in meat production and as draught animals. Asymmetry in male metatarsals such as distal broadening of the lateral part of the medial trochlea was visible on the X-ray images. The bone element also indicates a denser outer cortex of the medial diaphysis in comparison to the inner medulla. This could be the result of repetitive mechanical stress. Two metatarsals from cows were documented with distal asymmetry indicating that cows were also used as working animals. Bone elements with changes in the articular surfaces were more common in metapodials from cows with an X-ray age of over 3–4 years. These results highlighted the slaughter age difference between oxen/bulls and cows, enabling a better understanding of animal husbandry and the selection of draught cattle at Eketorp ringfort. PMID:26336086

  14. Transfer of aged Pu to cattle grazing on a contaminated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Engel, D.W.; Smith, D.D.; Shinn, J.H.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Eisele, G.R.

    1988-03-01

    Estimates are obtained of the fraction of ingested or inhaled 239+240Pu transferred to blood and tissues of a reproducing herd of beef cattle, individuals of which grazed within fenced enclosures for up to 1064 d under natural conditions with no supplemental feeding at an arid site contaminated 16 y previously with Pu oxide. The estimated (geometric mean (GM)) fraction of Pu transferred from the gastrointestinal tract to blood serum was about 5 x 10(-6) (geometric standard error (GSE) = 1.4) with an approximate upper bound of about 2 x 10(-5). These results are in reasonable agreement with the value of 1 x 10(-5) recommended for human radiation protection purposes by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for insoluble Pu oxides that are free of very small particles. Also, results from a laboratory study by Stanley (St75), in which large doses of /sup 238/Pu were orally administered daily to dairy cattle for 19 consecutive days, suggest that aged 239+240Pu at this arid grazing site may not be more biologically available to blood serum than fresh 239+240Pu oxide. The estimated fractions of 239+240Pu transferred from blood serum to tissues of adult grazing cattle were: femur (3.2 X 10(-2), 1.8; GM, GSE), vertebra (1.4 X 10(-1), 1.6), liver (2.3 X 10(-1), 2.0), muscle (1.3 X 10(-1), 1.9), female gonads (7.9 X 10(-5), 1.5), and kidney (1.4 X 10(-3), 1.7). The blood-to-tissue fractional transfers for cattle initially exposed in utero were greater than those exposed only as adults by a factor of about 4 for femur (statistically significant) and of about 2 for other tissues (not significant). The estimated (GM) fraction of inhaled Pu initially deposited in the pulmonary lung was 0.34 (GSE = 1.3) for adults and 0.15 (GSE = 1.3) for cattle initially exposed in utero (a statistically significant difference).

  15. The IGF1 pathway genes and their association with age of puberty in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Li, Yutao; Collis, Eliza; Zhang, Yuandan; Hawken, Rachel J

    2013-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (somatomedin C) (IGF1) influences gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons during puberty, and GnRH release guides pubertal development. Therefore, genes of the IGF1 pathway are biological candidates for the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting age of puberty. In a genome-wide association study, genotyped heifers were Tropical Composite (TCOMP, n = 866) or Brahman (BRAH, n = 843), with observation of age at first corpus luteum defining puberty. We examined SNPs in or near genes of the IGF1 pathway and report seven genes associated with age at puberty in cattle: IGF1R, IGFBP2, IGFBP4, PERK (HUGO symbol EIF2AK3), PIK3R1, GSK3B and IRS1. SNPs in the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) showed the most promising associations: two SNPs were associated with puberty in TCOMP (P < 0.05) and one in BRAH (P = 0.00009). This last SNP explained 2% of the genetic variation (R(2) = 2.04%) for age of puberty in BRAH. Hence, IGF1R was examined further. Additional SNPs were genotyped, and haplotypes were analysed. To test more SNPs in this gene, four new SNPs from dbSNP were selected and genotyped. Single SNP and haploytpe analysis revealed associations with age of puberty in both breeds. There were two haplotypes of 12 IGF1R SNPs associated with puberty in BRAH (P < 0.05) and one in TCOMP (P < 0.05). One haplotype of two SNPs was associated (P < 0.01) with puberty in BRAH, but not in TCOMP. In conclusion, the IGF1 pathway appeared more relevant for age of puberty in Brahman cattle, and IGF1R showed higher significance when compared with other genes from the pathway.

  16. Atypical BSE (BASE) Transmitted from Asymptomatic Aging Cattle to a Primate

    PubMed Central

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Casalone, Cristina; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Freire, Sophie; Marcé, Dominique; Auvré, Frédéric; Ruchoux, Marie-Magdeleine; Ferrari, Sergio; Monaco, Salvatore; Salès, Nicole; Caramelli, Maria; Leboulch, Philippe; Brown, Paul; Lasmézas, Corinne I.; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) results from foodborne transmission of prions from slaughtered cattle with classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (cBSE). Atypical forms of BSE, which remain mostly asymptomatic in aging cattle, were recently identified at slaughterhouses throughout Europe and North America, raising a question about human susceptibility to these new prion strains. Methodology/Principal Findings Brain homogenates from cattle with classical BSE and atypical (BASE) infections were inoculated intracerebrally into cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis), a non-human primate model previously demonstrated to be susceptible to the original strain of cBSE. The resulting diseases were compared in terms of clinical signs, histology and biochemistry of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres). The single monkey infected with BASE had a shorter survival, and a different clinical evolution, histopathology, and prion protein (PrPres) pattern than was observed for either classical BSE or vCJD-inoculated animals. Also, the biochemical signature of PrPres in the BASE-inoculated animal was found to have a higher proteinase K sensitivity of the octa-repeat region. We found the same biochemical signature in three of four human patients with sporadic CJD and an MM type 2 PrP genotype who lived in the same country as the infected bovine. Conclusion/Significance Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products. PMID:18714385

  17. Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?

    PubMed

    Mahande, Aneth M; Mwang'onde, Beda J; Msangi, Shandala; Kimaro, Epiphania; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Mahande, Michael J; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2010-06-15

    To ensure sustainable routine surveillance of mosquito vectors, simple, effective and ethically acceptable tools are required. As a part of that, we evaluated the efficiency of resting boxes baited with fresh and aging cattle urine for indoor and outdoor sampling of An. arabiensis in the lower Moshi rice irrigation schemes. A cattle urine treatment and re-treatment schedule was used, including a box with a piece of cloth re-treated with urine daily, and once after 3 and 7 day. Resting box with piece of black cloth not treated with urine was used as a control. Each treatment was made in pair for indoor and outdoor sampling. A 4 by 4 Latin square design was used to achieve equal rotation of each of the four treatments across the experimental houses. Sampling was done over a period of 6 months, once per week. A total of 7871 mosquitoes were collected throughout the study period. 49.8% of the mosquitoes were collected from resting box treated with urine daily; 21.6% and 20.0% were from boxes treated 3 and 7 days respectively. Only 8.6% were from untreated resting box (control). The proportion collected indoors was approximately 2 folds greater than the outdoor. Of all mosquitoes, 12.3% were unfed, 4.1% full fed, 34.2% semi-gravid and 49.4% gravid. Fresh and decaying cattle urine odour baited resting boxes offer an alternative tool for sampling particularly semi-gravid and gravid An. arabiensis. Evaluation in low density seasons of An. arabiensis in different ecological settings remains necessary. This sampling method may be standardized for replacing human landing catch.

  18. Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To ensure sustainable routine surveillance of mosquito vectors, simple, effective and ethically acceptable tools are required. As a part of that, we evaluated the efficiency of resting boxes baited with fresh and aging cattle urine for indoor and outdoor sampling of An. arabiensis in the lower Moshi rice irrigation schemes. Methods A cattle urine treatment and re-treatment schedule was used, including a box with a piece of cloth re-treated with urine daily, and once after 3 and 7 day. Resting box with piece of black cloth not treated with urine was used as a control. Each treatment was made in pair for indoor and outdoor sampling. A 4 by 4 Latin square design was used to achieve equal rotation of each of the four treatments across the experimental houses. Sampling was done over a period of 6 months, once per week. Results A total of 7871 mosquitoes were collected throughout the study period. 49.8% of the mosquitoes were collected from resting box treated with urine daily; 21.6% and 20.0% were from boxes treated 3 and 7 days respectively. Only 8.6% were from untreated resting box (control). The proportion collected indoors was ~2 folds greater than the outdoor. Of all mosquitoes, 12.3% were unfed, 4.1% full fed, 34.2% semi-gravid and 49.4% gravid. Conclusion Fresh and decaying cattle urine odour baited resting boxes offer an alternative tool for sampling particularly semi-gravid and gravid An. arabiensis. Evaluation in low density seasons of An. arabiensis in different ecological settings remains necessary. This sampling method may be standardized for replacing human landing catch. PMID:20550680

  19. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  20. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low

  1. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss.

  2. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa A; Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D; van Paridon, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age-abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60-90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997-2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6-24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0-1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10-16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

  3. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-11-27

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  4. Determination and correlation of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs and cattle from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, G. Félix; Morales, S. Elizabeth; MartÍnez, M. José; Trigo, J. Francisco

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine and to compare through an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the presence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in city and farm dogs, as well as in farm cows, and the relationship among them. The correlation between anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm dogs and cattle was also assessed. The research was conducted in the dairy region of Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies was significantly higher in farm dogs (n = 14) (51%) when compared to those from the city (n = 6) (20%) (P < 0.05), suggesting that farm dogs have a higher risk of exposure to the parasite. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between males (n = 11) (39%) and females (n = 9) (33%) (P > 0.05). The frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies in farm cattle was significantly higher in farms with dogs (n = 158) (58%) when compared to those with no dogs (n = 43) (35%) (P < 0.05). These results suggest the possible transmission of the parasite from dogs to cattle. PMID:12760481

  5. Determination of lying behavior patterns in healthy beef cattle by use of wireless accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Robért, Bradley D; White, Brad J; Renter, David G; Larson, Robert L

    2011-04-01

    To describe daily, hourly, and animal-to-animal effects on lying behavior in steers. 25 crossbred beef steers. Wireless accelerometers were used to record behavioral data for cattle housed in a drylot cattle research facility during two 20-day periods (winter 2007 [n = 10 steers] and spring 2008 [15]). Behavioral data were categorized into lying, standing, and walking behaviors for each time point recorded. Logistic regression models were used to determine potential associations between the percentage of time spent lying and several factors, including time (hour) of day, day of trial, and steer. Lying behavior was significantly associated with hour of day, and a distinct circadian rhythm was identified. Steers spent > 55% of the time between 8:00 pm and 4:00 am lying and were most active (<30% lying behavior) during feeding periods (6:00 am to 7:00 am and 4:00 pm to 5:00 pm). Model-adjusted mean percentage of time spent lying was significantly associated with study day and was between 45% and 55% on most (27/40 [67.5%]) days. Lying behavior varied significantly among steers, and mean ± SD percentage of time spent lying ranged from 28.9 ± 6.1 % to 66.1 ± 6.6%. Cattle had distinct circadian rhythm patterns for lying behavior, and percentage of time spent lying varied by day and among steers. Researchers need to account for factors that affect lying patterns of cattle (ie, time of day, day of trial, and individual animal) when performing research with behavioral outcomes.

  6. Eastern Mediterranean Mobility in the Bronze and Early Iron Ages: Inferences from Ancient DNA of Pigs and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiri, Meirav; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy; Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Morgenstern, Peggy; Macheridis, Stella; Rosen, Baruch; Huchon, Dorothée; Maran, Joseph; Finkelstein, Israel

    2017-04-06

    The Late Bronze of the Eastern Mediterranean (1550-1150 BCE) was a period of strong commercial relations and great prosperity, which ended in collapse and migration of groups to the Levant. Here we aim at studying the translocation of cattle and pigs during this period. We sequenced the first ancient mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA of cattle from Greece and Israel and compared the results with morphometric analysis of the metacarpal in cattle. We also increased previous ancient pig DNA datasets from Israel and extracted the first mitochondrial DNA for samples from Greece. We found that pigs underwent a complex translocation history, with links between Anatolia with southeastern Europe in the Bronze Age, and movement from southeastern Europe to the Levant in the Iron I (ca. 1150-950 BCE). Our genetic data did not indicate movement of cattle between the Aegean region and the southern Levant. We detected the earliest evidence for crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle in the Iron IIA (ca. 900 BCE). In light of archaeological and historical evidence on Egyptian imperial domination in the region in the Late Bronze Age, we suggest that Egypt attempted to expand dry farming in the region in a period of severe droughts.

  7. Growth rate and changes of the somatotropic axis in beef cattle administered exogenous bovine somatotropin beginning at two hundred, two hundred fifty, and three hundred days of age.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, B T; Govoni, K E; Hoagland, T A; Zinn, S A

    2007-11-01

    To determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment beginning at 3 ages on the growth rate and components of the somatotropic axis, 40 beef cattle (200 +/- 21 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (10 animals/treatment). Three of the treatment groups received bST (33 mug/kg of BW) daily beginning at 200, 250, or 300 d of age until all animals reached 400 d of age; the fourth group served as controls (0 bST). Animals were housed in pens (5 animals per pen; 2 pens per treatment) and fed a diet formulated for an ADG of 1.2 kg/d. Feed intake (per pen) was measured daily, and BW was determined weekly. Blood samples (10 mL) and ultrasound measurements were collected at 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 d of age. Serum concentrations of ST and IGF-I were determined by RIA and IGFBP-2 and -3 by ligand blot procedures. Overall, cattle gained 284.0 +/- 14.7 kg of BW with a treatment x week interaction (P < 0.01), such that during the treatment period ADG was 11.6, 8.7, and 15.8% greater (P < 0.05) in cattle treated with bST beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d, respectively, relative to controls during the same time frame. Average DMI was 13.6% less (P < 0.05) in bST-treated cattle than in controls. Increases in ADG coupled with a reduction in DMI resulted in 11.7, 14.0, and 26.4% increases (P < 0.01) in the efficiency of gain (G:F) in bST-treated cattle beginning at 200, 250, and 300 d of age, respectively, compared with contemporary controls. Backfat thickness increased (P < 0.05) over time, but the magnitude of the increase was less in the bST-treated cattle (treatment x week interaction; P < 0.05). Area of the LM increased (P < 0.05) over time but was similar across treatment groups. Serum concentrations of ST, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 increased (P < 0.05), whereas IGFBP-2 decreased (P < 0.05) over time. The changes in the components of somatotropic axis were more pronounced in bST-treated cattle compared with controls, with the greatest magnitude of response

  8. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  9. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Melissa A.; Goater, Cameron P.; Colwell, Douglas D.; van Paridon, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age–abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60–90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997–2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6–24 month-olds (median = 72, range = 0–1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10–16 year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems. PMID:25426422

  10. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of sulfamethazine in swine and cattle tissues.

    PubMed

    Manuel, A J; Steller, W A

    1981-07-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method is described for determining sulfonamide residues in animal tissues, with specificity for 7 sulfonamides. Residues are extracted from tissues with acetone-chloroform, fatty substances are removed, and the sulfonamide residue is methylated with diazomethane in acetone-ether to render it amenable to determination by gas-liquid chromatography on an all-glass column suitable for direct on-column injection and a Ni electron-capture detector. Quantitation is achieved by external standardization. The method has a validated limit of sensitivity of 0.10 ppm with the corresponding control values for all tissues being less than 0.01 ppm. Satisfactory recoveries have been obtained for sulfamethazine in swine and cattle tissues. Specificity for sulfamethazine in the presence of sulfathiazole, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimethoxine, sulfabromomethazine, sulfaethoxypyridazine, and sulfachloropyrazine is attained by resolution of the respective methyl derivatives on the GLC column.

  11. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  12. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  13. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  14. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  15. Freezing, thawing and aging effects on beef tenderness from Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina N; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; Gomide, Lúcio Alberto M; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ladeira, Márcio M; Ramos, Eduardo M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of freezing prior to aging on the meat tenderness of young Nellore and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Samples of the longissimus thoracis muscle were submitted to two treatments: conventional aging and freezing (-20°C for 40 days) followed by thawing and aging periods. The meats were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 aging days (1°C). Freezing increased (P<0.05) purge, cooking loss and total exudate loss throughout aging. Nellore meats had greater total exudate loss and shorter sarcomere lengths (P<0.05). Freezing increased proteolysis during aging in the meats of both breeds, but reduced shear force was found (P<0.05) only in Aberdeen Angus meats and only at time zero. These results suggest that the meat tenderizing process by freezing prior to aging may contribute to meat tenderness in the first weeks of aging, but it is dependent on the animal breed.

  16. A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 mo of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence mic...

  17. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  18. Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Rolf H; de Bruin, Karla G; van Gemert, Martin J C; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2012-03-10

    Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of view, an accurate estimation of when the crime was committed enables to verify witnesses' statements, limits the number of suspects and assesses alibis. Despite several attempts and exploration of many technologies during a century, no method has been materialized into forensic practice. This review gives an overview of an extensive search in scientific literature of techniques that address the quest for age determination of bloodstains. We found that most techniques are complementary to each other, in short as well as long term age determination. Techniques are compared concerning their sensitivity for short and long term ageing of bloodstains and concerning their possible applicability to be used on a crime scene. In addition, experimental challenges like substrate variation, interdonor variation and environmental influences are addressed. Comparison of these techniques contributes to our knowledge of the physics and biochemistry in an ageing bloodstain. Further improvement and incorporation of environmental factors are necessary to enable age determination of bloodstains to be acceptable in court. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves

    PubMed Central

    Parul, Singh; Bist, Basanti; Sharma, Barkha; Jain, Udit; Yadav, Janardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces. Materials and Methods: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The VTEC isolates were observed for the enterohemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar (wSBA). Results: A total of 177 presumptive E. coli were isolated from 216 calf fecal samples revealing an overall prevalence of E. coli to be 81.94%. A total of 32 (14.81%) isolates were detected as VTEC through mPCR. The prevalence of verotoxin genes vt1, vt2, and combination of vt1+vt2 in the VTEC isolates was found to be 12 (37.5%), 14 (43.75%), and 6 (18.75%), respectively. Other virulent genes eaeA and hlyA were found in 6 and 11 VTEC strains with prevalence values of 18.75% and 34.37%, respectively. A total of 13 different O serogroups were revealed in serotyping of 32 VTEC isolates. Out of 32 VTEC strains, only 26 (81.25%) were enterohemolytic on wSBA as they produced the characteristic small, turbid zone of hemolysis around the streaking line. Although enterohemolysin production has been attributed to the presence of hlyA gene, only 11 of 26 enterohemolysin producing VTEC were found to be harboring the hlyA gene (11/26) 42.03%. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there might be an association between the presence of verotoxin genes and enterohemolysin production in VTEC group of E. coli. PMID:27651684

  20. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  1. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  2. Random regression models on Legendre polynomials to estimate genetic parameters for weights from birth to adult age in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Alencar, M M

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects, and subsequently, to derive relevant genetic parameters for growth traits in Canchim cattle. Data comprised 49,011 weight records on 2435 females from birth to adult age. The model of analysis included fixed effects of contemporary groups (year and month of birth and at weighing) and age of dam as quadratic covariable. Mean trends were taken into account by a cubic regression on orthogonal polynomials of animal age. Residual variances were allowed to vary and were modelled by a step function with 1, 4 or 11 classes based on animal's age. The model fitting four classes of residual variances was the best. A total of 12 random regression models from second to seventh order were used to model direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects. The model with direct and maternal genetic effects, animal and maternal permanent environmental effects fitted by quadric, cubic, quintic and linear Legendre polynomials, respectively, was the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability obtained by multi-trait (seven traits) and random regression models were very similar. Selection for higher weight at any age, especially after weaning, will produce an increase in mature cow weight. The possibility to modify the growth curve in Canchim cattle to obtain animals with rapid growth at early ages and moderate to low mature cow weight is limited.

  3. The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed.

    PubMed

    Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G

    2013-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

  4. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  5. Determination of gestational age by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Butt, Kimberly; Lim, Ken

    2014-02-01

    To assist clinicians in assigning gestational age based on ultrasound biometry. To determine whether ultrasound dating provides more accurate gestational age assessment than menstrual dating with or without the use of ultrasound. To provide maternity health care providers and researchers with evidence-based guidelines for the assignment of gestational age. To determine which ultrasound biometric parameters are superior when gestational age is uncertain. To determine whether ultrasound gestational age assessment is cost effective. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library in 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (gestational age, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound dating). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 31, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Accurate assignment of gestational age may reduce post-dates labour induction and may improve obstetric care through allowing the optimal timing of necessary interventions and the avoidance of unnecessary ones. More accurate dating allows for optimal performance of prenatal screening tests for aneuploidy. A national algorithm for the assignment of gestational age may reduce practice variations across Canada for clinicians and researchers. Potential harms include the possible reassignment of dates when significant fetal pathology

  6. Cattle fetal sex determination by polymerase chain reaction using DNA isolated from maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, A S; Silva, D C; Costa, E O A; De M-Jr, P; da Silva, C C; Silva, D M; da Cruz, A D

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of fetal cells/DNA in the maternal plasma of pregnant cows to determine the sex of the fetus. Plasma was harvested from 35 cows of mixed genotype at different stages of pregnancy ranging from 5 to 35 weeks. A male calf and a heifer calf provided the control samples. Fetal sex was determined by amplification of Y-specific sequences. For the 35 cows, the fetal sex predicted by this technique was in accordance with the sex of the calf at birth in 88.6% of cases. The agreement between predicted and observed fetal sex was less for cows with a gestational length of 35-48 days (63.6%). Regression analysis showed that there was a strong relationship between the probability of correctly predicting fetal sex and the stage of gestation. It was estimated that the test performed at 43.8 days post fertilization would have 95% accuracy, increasing to 99% accuracy for testing at 48.4 days and 99.9% accuracy for tests at 55.0 days or later. It was concluded that PCR analysis of fetal cells in maternal plasma can be used to predict successfully the sex of the fetus in cattle.

  7. The effects of age, weight, and sire on pregnancy rate in cattle.

    PubMed

    Shorten, P R; Morris, C A; Cullen, N G

    2015-04-01

    The goal was to estimate the heritabilities and genetic variances for pregnancy rate (PR) and calving date (CD) in Angus cattle along with the effect of weight, age, and sire on PR and CD. The data consisted of 4,999 records on PR and CD. Statistical models included year as a fixed effect; premating/postmating weight and age as covariates; and sire of embryo, maternal grandsire (MGS), and permanent maternal environmental effects as random effects. The models also included the interactions between herd and weight (weight change). Direct and maternal effects on PR and CD were estimated using sire MGS and animal models in REML. Pregnancy rate increased from age 2 to 6 and decreased from age 7 to 11 (P < 0.01) and this effect was independent of the culling strategy. There was a quadratic effect of premating cow weight independent of age on PR, with lower PR for low weights (P < 0.01). Overall, cows with a premating weight of 550 kg had the greatest PR. Cows that lost weight during mating had lower PR (P < 0.01). The maternal additive heritability for PR was 0.001 ± 0.012 and the direct additive heritability was 0.024 ± 0.020. The ratio of permanent maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance was significant (0.048 ± 0.017; P < 0.01). This demonstrates that permanent maternal environmental effects play a major role in the repeatability of PR (0.049 ± 0.015; P < 0.01). The maternal additive heritability for CD was 0.040 ± 0.022, and the direct additive heritability was 0.076 ± 0.045. The ratio of permanent maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance was low (0.014 ± 0.017) and the repeatability for CD was significant (0.0544 ± 0.0180; P < 0.01). This suggests that maternal genetic effects are as important as direct genetic effects on CD. There was a positive quadratic relationship between premating cow weight and CD with delayed calving for low/high weights (P < 0.01). Cows that lost weight over mating also had a later CD (P < 0

  8. [Determinants of the age at natural menopause].

    PubMed

    Biela, Urszula

    2002-01-01

    The age at natural menopause (ANM) varies due to environmental and genetic factors. Smoking accelerates ANM by about 1.5-2 years. Other factors which accelerate ANM are: nulliparity, short-length menstrual cycles and unilateral oophorectomy. In contrast, factors such as irregular menstrual cycles, height socioeconomic status, parity and giving birth before the age 25 all delay ANM. Nutritional factors also affect ANM. For example, vegetarian diet accelerates ANM by about 2 years; a high intake of fat, cholesterol, coffee also accelerate menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays it. However, the influence of dietary factors has not been adequately documented due to a relatively small number of studies. Moreover, genetic factors seem to influence ANM: for example, early menopausal age of the mother correlates with early menopausal age of her daughter. Factors such as the age at menarche, spontaneous abortions, passive smoking, weight and height, breast feeding, using of oral contraceptives, employment and depression, have all been suggested to influence menopausal age, but their impact needs to be established. Therefore, there is a need for longterm, follow-up studies which would allow to evaluate the impact of life style factors, including dietary factors on ANM. The knowledge of factors influencing ANM is crucial for medical practice, public health and reproductive biology. Menopause is the period during which serious health problems such as cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis occur with increasing frequency. Knowing the factors which determine menopausal age may lead to lifestyle changes (such as not smoking), which would result in delaying menopause, and therefore prolonging natural estrogen protection.

  9. Determination of ractopamine hydrochloride in swine, cattle, and turkey feeds by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection.

    PubMed

    Turberg, M P; Macy, T D; Lewis, J J; Coleman, M R

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (LY31537) in swine, turkey, and cattle feeds in the 1.25-100 ppm range and in swine supplement at 100 ppm. Feed samples were extracted with acidified methanol. An aliquot of the feed extract was diluted with water and buffered to pH 10.5 +/- 0.5 with sodium carbonate to convert ractopamine hydrochloride to a free base. The free base was extracted from the buffered sample with ethyl acetate. The extract was further purified on an acid-washed, silica solid-phase extraction cartridge. After conversion of the free base back to the salt form with pH 4.5 buffer, analytical separation and quantitation of ractopamine hydrochloride were accomplished on IBM phenyl and Whatman ODS reversed-phase columns with coulometric detection at +600 mV. Mean daily recovery levels ranged from 85 to 100% for feeds fortified at 1.25 to 100 ppm. The coefficients of variation ranged from 1 to 6% for feeds fortified at 2.5 to 100 ppm.

  10. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in montane meadows.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Susan K; Lind, Amy J; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H; Roche, Leslie M; Frost, William E; Grasso, Rob L; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  11. Use of multivariate analyses for determining heat tolerance in Brazilian cattle.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Castanheira, Marlos; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Louvandini, Helder; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Paludo, Giane Regina; Bianchini, Eliandra; Corrêa, Patricia Spoto

    2011-03-01

    Adaptability can be evaluated by the ability of an animal to adjust to environmental conditions and is especially important in extreme weather conditions such as that found in tropical Brazil. A multivariate analysis using physical and physiological traits in exotic (Nellore and Holstein) and naturalized (Junqueira, Curraleira, Mocho Nacional, Crioula Lageana, and Pantaneira) cattle breeds was carried out in the Federal District of Brazil to test and determine which traits are important in the adaptation of animal to heat stress as well as the ability of these traits and statistical techniques to separate the breeds studied. Both physical and physiological traits were measured on three occasions and included body measurements, skin and hair thickness, hair number and length, pigmentation, sweat gland area as well as heart and breathing rates, rectal temperature, sweating rate, and blood parameters. The data underwent multivariate statistical analyses, including cluster, discriminate, and canonical procedures. The tree diagram showed clear distances between the groups studied, and canonical analysis was able to separate individuals in groups. Coat traits explained little variation in physiological parameters. The traits which had higher discriminatory power included packed cell volume, shoulder height, mean corpuscular volume, body length, and heart girth. Morphological and physiological traits were able to discriminate between the breeds tested, with blood and size traits being the most important. More than 80% of animals of all breeds were correctly classified in their genetic group.

  12. Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in Montane Meadows

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Lind, Amy J.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Roche, Leslie M.; Frost, William E.; Grasso, Rob L.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models. PMID:24223919

  13. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  14. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1.

  15. Species and age determination of central nervous system tissue by fatty acid patterns.

    PubMed

    Griessbach, Maria; Hartmann, Franziska; Massag, Nicole; Baumann, Daniela; Krex, Christian; Biedermann, Wolfgang; Truyen, Uwe; Lücker, Ernst

    2008-01-25

    The banning of specified risk materials (SRMs) from food chain is one of the most important measures to protect the consumer against any exposition with the agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In order to control the SRM-ban, suitable methods for the detection of SRMs have to be developed. In this study homogenized samples of central nervous system (CNS) tissue from cattle (n=38), sheep (n=38) and pig (n=40) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis was focused on the identification of fatty acid ratios for species differentiation and age estimation. We found a novel fatty acid ratio (C24:1(n-9)/(n-7))/(2OH-C24:1(n-9)/(n-7) for species differentiation. For the first time, we used multivariate analysis for species differentiation, based on fatty acid ratios. It showed an excellent predictive ability (Q_(cum)(2))Q_(cum)(2)=0.842. For age estimation in cattle CNS we discovered a novel fatty acid ratio 2OH-C25:0/2OH-C24:1(n-7). The ratio is strongly correlated with age (coefficient of correlation (r)=0.935, Spearman-Rho). The corresponding regression analysis which allows the prediction of age by this ratio was acceptable (coefficient of determination (R(2))=0.831).

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  17. Determining ammonia emissions from a cattle feedlot with an inverse dispersion technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An inverse-dispersion technique is used to calculate ammonia (NH3) gas emissions from a cattle feedlot. The technique relies on a simple backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model to relate atmospheric NH3 concentration to the emission rate Qbls. Because the wind and the source configurat...

  18. Assessment of Different Strategies to Determine MAP-specific Cellular Immune Responses in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of cellular immunity in cattle against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by established methods remains unsatisfactory for diagnostic purposes. Recent studies conclude that analysis of T-cell subset responsiveness may improve diagnostic outcome. Aim of this study was to iden...

  19. Triallelic SNPs for estimating cattle introgression, inbreeding, and determining parentage in North American yak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current population of yaks in the U.S. is estimated to exceed 5,000 and was derived from about 150 animals imported in the 20th Century. During the expansion of the U.S. herd, some yaks were allowed to hybridize with cattle, although it is not clear to what extent. Our aim was to use next genera...

  20. Genome-wide association study and annotating candidate gene networks affecting age at first calving in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Mota, R R; Guimarães, S E F; Fortes, M R S; Hayes, B; Silva, F F; Verardo, L L; Kelly, M J; de Campos, C F; Guimarães, J D; Wenceslau, R R; Penitente-Filho, J M; Garcia, J F; Moore, S

    2017-10-09

    We performed a genome-wide mapping for the age at first calving (AFC) with the goal of annotating candidate genes that regulate fertility in Nellore cattle. Phenotypic data from 762 cows and 777k SNP genotypes from 2,992 bulls and cows were used. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects based on the single-step GBLUP methodology were blocked into adjacent windows of 1 Megabase (Mb) to explain the genetic variance. SNP windows explaining more than 0.40% of the AFC genetic variance were identified on chromosomes 2, 8, 9, 14, 16 and 17. From these windows, we identified 123 coding protein genes that were used to build gene networks. From the association study and derived gene networks, putative candidate genes (e.g., PAPPA, PREP, FER1L6, TPR, NMNAT1, ACAD10, PCMTD1, CRH, OPKR1, NPBWR1 and NCOA2) and transcription factors (TF) (STAT1, STAT3, RELA, E2F1 and EGR1) were strongly associated with female fertility (e.g., negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion, folliculogenesis and establishment of uterine receptivity). Evidence suggests that AFC inheritance is complex and controlled by multiple loci across the genome. As several windows explaining higher proportion of the genetic variance were identified on chromosome 14, further studies investigating the interaction across haplotypes to better understand the molecular architecture behind AFC in Nellore cattle should be undertaken. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight and age at first calving in Brown Swiss cattle in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, José C; Chin-Colli, Ricardo C; Magaña-Monforte, Juan G; Núñez-Domínguez, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations between birth weight (n = 13,741), adjusted 240-day weaning weight (WW, n = 8,806) and age at first calving (AFC, n = 3,955) of Brown Swiss cattle in Mexico were estimated. Data from 91 herds located in 19 of 32 states of Mexico from 1982 to 2006 were provided by the Mexican Brown cattle Breeder Association. Components of (co)variance, direct and maternal heritabilities were estimated for birth weight, WW and AFC using bivariate animal models. Direct and maternal heritabilities were 0.21 and 0.05 for birth weight, 0.40 and 0.05 for WW, whereas direct heritability for AFC was 0.08. The correlations between direct and maternal effects for birth weight and WW were -0.49 and -0.64, respectively. The genetic correlations between birth weight-WW and WW-AFC were 0.36 and -0.02, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, selection for increasing birth weight would increase WW, but increasing WW will not change AFC.

  2. Effect of castration at 10 months of age on growth physiology and behavior of male feral beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Albertí, Pere; Ripoll, Guillermo; Blasco, Isabel; Sanz, Albina

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the growth performance, plasma testosterone and cortisol levels around castration at 10 months of age, and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentration and flight speed, in intact bulls and steers from 10 to 21 months of age in a feral Spanish breed. Fourteen bulls (366.5 ± 48.5 kg live weight) were assigned at random to one of two treatments: surgically castrated (steers) or intact (bulls), and submitted to an identical fattening period. Steers reared until heavy live weights (21 months of age) grew slowly and had lower plasma IGF-I concentrations than intact bulls. These differences were mainly highlighted the month after surgery (11 months of age) and the last part of the fattening period (from 19 to 21 months of age). After surgical castration (11 and 12 months of age), steers showed a tendency to display greater flight speed values than intact bulls but baseline plasma cortisol concentration did not differ between groups at this time. At the end, steers and bulls reached nearly similar temperament, as flight speed did not differ between them. The results confirm the role of IGF-I as a key anabolic hormone in male beef cattle and thus it may reflect growth differences due to altered sex steroids production. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of single dose ceftiofur sodium administered intramuscularly or intravenously to cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Chester, S T; Robb, E J

    1996-02-01

    The effects of maturation on the intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium following a dose of 2.2 mg ceftiofur equivalents/kg body weight were evaluated in 16 one-day-old Holstein bull calves (33-53 kg body weight initially; Group 1) and 14 six-month-old Holstein steers (217-276 kg body weight initially; Group 2). Group 1 calves were fed unmedicated milk replacer until 30 days of age and were then converted to the same roughag/concentrate diet as Group 2. Groups 1-IV and 2-IV received ceftiofur sodium IV, and Groups 1-IM and 2-IM received ceftiofur sodium IM. Group 1 calves were dosed at 7 days of age and at 1 and 3 months of age; group 2 calves were dosed at 6 and 9 months of age. Blood samples were obtained serially from each calf, and plasma samples were analysed using an HPLC assay that converts ceftiofur and all desfuroylceftiofur metabolites to desfuroylceftiofur acetamide. Cmax values were similar in all calves, and were no higher in younger calves than in older calves. Plasma concentrations remained above 0.150 microgram ceftiofur free acid equivalents/mliter for 72 h in 7-day-old calves, but were less than 0.150 microgram/mliter within 48 h following IV or IM injection for 6- and 9-month-old calves. Intramuscular bioavailability, assessed by comparing the model-derived area under the curve (AUCmod) from IM and IV injection at each age, appeared to be complete. After IV administration, the AUCmod in 7-day-old and 1-month-old calves (126.92 +/- 21.1 micrograms.h/mliter and 135.0 +/- 21.6 micrograms.h/mliter, respectively) was significantly larger than in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old calves (74.0 +/- 10.7 micrograms.h/mliter, 61.0 +/- 17.7 micrograms.h/mliter and 68.5 +/- 12.8 micrograms.h/mliter, respectively; P < 0.0001). The Vd(ss) decreased linearly within the first 3 months of life in cattle (0.345 +/- 0.0616 L/kg, 0.335 +/- 0.919 L/kg and 0.284 +/- 0.0490 L/kg, respectively; P = 0.031), indicative of the decreasing

  4. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  5. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  6. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section 435.522... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Age § 435.522 Determination of age. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in determining age, the...

  7. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    PubMed

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (<9 months of age) have resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  8. Evaluation of tropically-adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Heifer age and size at first conception and characteristics of their first calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to estimate genetic effects for age and size at estimated time of first conception, and temperament in straightbred and crossbred heifers (n = 554) produced from Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, and to evaluate first parturition performance of heifers, includi...

  9. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    .08-0.50) and 0.91 (0.85-0.98), respectively). None of the other diseases examined were significantly associated with ANM. Information from the questionnaire was self-reported, making recall possible, but it is unlikely that any bias was different in the strata of different factors considered. Misclassification could also have occurred in cases where the diagnoses of common diseases were close to age at last follow-up. In addition, observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. Our study is the first in examining multiple common diseases simultaneously as determinants of ANM. Contrary to previous reports, we did not find any significant accelerating effect of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes on ANM. KARMA was financed by the Märit and Hans Rausing's Initiative Against Breast Cancer. K.R.W. is supported by the Swedish Society of Medicine and by Stockholm County Council. J.L. is a recipient of an Alex and Eva Wallström Foundation award. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  11. British Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS): to determine the prevalence of E. coli O157 in herds with cattle destined for the food chain.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Tongue, S C; Evans, J; Webster, C; McKENDRICK, I J; Morgan, M; Willett, A; Reeves, A; Humphry, R W; Gally, D L; Gunn, G J; Chase-Topping, M E

    2017-09-19

    Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166-0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156-0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.

  12. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  13. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  14. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  15. 27 CFR 19.328 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determining age of mingled... for Mingling Or Blending Spirits § 19.328 Determining age of mingled spirits. When spirits are mingled, the age of the spirits for the entire lot will be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the...

  16. Characterization of fecal microbiota from a Salmonella endemic cattle herd as determined by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Scupham, Alexandra J; Bearson, Shawn M D; Carlson, Steve A

    2009-05-12

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is composed of complex communities. For all species examined thus far, culture and molecular analyses show that these communities are highly diverse and individuals harbor unique consortia. The objective of the current work was to examine inter-individual diversity of cattle fecal microbiota and determine whether Salmonella shedding status correlated with community richness or evenness parameters. Using a ribosomal gene array-based approach, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of ribosomal genes (OFRG), we analyzed 1440 16S genes from 19 fecal samples obtained from a cattle herd with a history of salmonellosis. Identified bacteria belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (53%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Proteobacteria (17%). Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene clones revealed that Spirochaetes and Verrucomicrobia were also present in the feces. The majority of Firmicutes present in the feces belonged to the order Clostridiales, which was verified via dot blot analysis. beta-Proteobacteria represented 1.5% of the bacterial community as determined by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis of the 16S libraries from the 19 animals indicated very high levels of species richness and evenness, such that individual libraries represented unique populations. Finally, this study did not identify species that prevented Salmonella colonization or resulted from Salmonella colonization.

  17. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers.

  18. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  19. Aging and endothelin: determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Since the beginning of the 20th century human life expectancy has doubled to more than 80 years, and growth and aging of the world population now represent major challenges for healthcare providers, political decision makers, and societies. Cellular senescence is associated with a general, pro-inflammatory state, which represents the common denominator between aging and chronic diseases and their progression. Approaches to interfere with these changes and to allow healthy aging involve modulation of the cellular activity of modifiable molecular mediators (MMMs), such as signaling molecules and growth factors. ET-1 - the biologically predominant member of the endothelin peptide family - is an endothelial cell-derived peptide with a wide variety of developmental and physiological functions, which include embryogenesis, nociception, and natriuresis. In addition, ET-1 is a cytokine-like, multifunctional peptide with pro-inflammatory, mitogenic, and vasoconstrictor properties. If produced in excess amounts ET-1 promotes disease - mainly via activation of its ETA receptor. Because of its multiple disease-promoting functions ET-1 represents an ideal target MMM. Preclinical studies targeting either activity or production of ET-1 - utilizing ERAs, ARBs, or ACEIs, respectively - have demonstrated that partial regression of aging-associated changes in vasculature and kidney is possible. In this article I will review the molecular regulation of ET-1 and its role in the physiology of vascular homeostasis, aging, and cellular senescence. The clinical implications of activators of ET-1 overproduction, modalities for delaying or reversing aging-related cellular changes, as well as interventions to promote healthy aging and early disease prevention - particularly physical activity - are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene determinants and biofilm formation in Aeromonas species isolated from cattle.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the antibiogram of Aeromonas strains recovered from cattle faeces and the potential pathogenic status of the isolates. The antibiogram of the Aeromonas isolates demonstrated total resistance to clindamycin oxacillin, trimethoprim, novobiocin and ticarcillin. However, Aeromonas strains were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxytetracycline and tobramycin. The Aeromonas strains from Lovedale and Fort Cox farms were found to possess some virulence genes. The percentage distribution was aer 71.4%, ast 35.7%, fla 60.7%, lip 35.7% and hlyA 25% for Lovedale farm and aer 63.1%, alt 10.5%, ast 55.2%, fla 78.9%, lip 21% and hlyA 35.9% for Fort Cox farm. Class 1 integron was present in 27% of Aeromonas isolates; the bla TEM gene was present in 34.8%, while the blaP1 class A β-lactamase gene was detected in 12.1% of the isolates. Approximately 86% of the isolates formed a biofilm on microtitre plates. The presence of multiple antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Aeromonas isolates from cattle faeces reveals the pathogenic and infectious importance of these isolates and is of great significance to public health. The possession of a biofilm-forming capability by such isolates may lead to difficulty during the management of infection related to Aeromonas species.

  2. [Therapeutic efficacy of buparvaquone (buparvon) in cattle with theileriosis].

    PubMed

    Saruhan, Bariş; Paşa, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of buparvaquone (Buparvon, ALKE, Istanbul) in the treatment of theileriosis in cattle. The causative agent T. annulata causes direct and indirect gross economical loss in Turkey. Theileriosis was microscopically diagnosed by determining the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes in thin blood smears stained with Giemsa stain. Buparvaquone was administered intramuscularly to the cattle with theileriosis using a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Clinical and laboratory examinations in cattle with theileriosis were carried out before and on the first, third and seventh days after treatment. As a result, it was concluded that a single deep intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg buparvaquone was effective in the treatment of cattle which are naturally infected with T. annulata. However, further studies are needed using control groups of the same breed and age including suitable numbers of naturally infected and experimentally infected cattle.

  3. Age as a Determinant of Interpersonal Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Michael F.; Schulz, Richard

    This study focuses on the impact of age on interpersonal evaluation of persons, particularly the elderly as individuals and not as a group. Using a 75-year-old target and a 23-year-old target, the experimenter predicted and found support for the idea that personal information contained in a transcript would evoke sympathy, and thereby lead…

  4. Foetal age determination and development in elephants

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Drews, Barbara; Gaeth, Ann P; Goeritz, Frank; Hermes, Robert; Schmitt, Dennis; Gray, Charlie; Rich, Peter; Streich, Wolf Juergen; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    Elephants have the longest pregnancy of all mammals, with an average gestation of around 660 days, so their embryonic and foetal development have always been of special interest. Hitherto, it has only been possible to estimate foetal ages from theoretical calculations based on foetal mass. The recent development of sophisticated ultrasound procedures for elephants has now made it possible to monitor the growth and development of foetuses of known gestational age conceived in captivity from natural matings or artificial insemination. We have studied the early stages of pregnancy in 10 captive Asian and 9 African elephants by transrectal ultrasound. Measurements of foetal crown–rump lengths have provided the first accurate growth curves, which differ significantly from the previous theoretical estimates based on the cube root of foetal mass. We have used these to age 22 African elephant foetuses collected during culling operations. Pregnancy can be first recognized ultrasonographically by day 50, the presumptive yolk sac by about day 75 and the zonary placenta by about day 85. The trunk is first recognizable by days 85–90 and is distinct by day 104, while the first heartbeats are evident from around day 80. By combining ultrasonography and morphology, we have been able to produce the first reliable criteria for estimating gestational age and ontological development of Asian and African elephant foetuses during the first third of gestation. PMID:17164195

  5. Determinants of muscle and bone aging

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, E; Litwic, A; Cooper, C; Dennison, E

    2015-01-01

    Loss of bone and muscle with advancing age represent a huge threat to loss of independence in later life. Osteoporosis represents a major public health problem through its association with fragility fractures, primarily of the hip, spine and distal forearm. Sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle mass and function, may add to fracture risk by increasing falls risk. In the context of muscle aging, it is important to remember that it is not just a decline in muscle mass which contributes to the deterioration of muscle function. Other factors underpinning muscle quality come into play, including muscle composition, aerobic capacity and metabolism, fatty infiltration, insulin resistance, fibrosis and neural activation. Genetic, developmental, endocrine and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, smoking and poor diet have dual effects on both muscle and bone mass in later life and these will be reviewed here. These include poor nutrition, lack of physical activity and cigarette smoking, comorbidities or medication use. Recent work has highlighted a possible role for the early environment. Inflammaging is an exciting emerging research field that is likely to prove relevant to future work, including interventions designed to retard to reverse bone and muscle loss with age. PMID:25820482

  6. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Meng, Qinghui; Chen, Yongxing; Xu, Mengsi; Shen, Min; Gao, Rui; Gan, Shangquan

    2017-01-01

    Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months) had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI). The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months) this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI. PMID:28855896

  7. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index. PMID:21734821

  8. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-04-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

  9. Thelazia rhodesii infection on cattle in Kupang district.

    PubMed

    Djungu, D F L; Retnani, E B; Ridwan, Y

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, the intensity, infection, clinical sign, to identify species and to investigate associated risk factors of thelaziosis in cattle in Kupang district, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. A total of 385 head of cattle were randomly selected from 96 farms in three subdistricts of Kupang District and observed for thelaziosis. The nematode present in the eye of cattle were collected with a forcep after administering local anesthesia (10% Xylocaine). The potential risk factors related to age of cattle, human resources and farm management were obtained by interviewing the farmers. Logistic regression was applied to analyze related risk factor of thelaziosis. The result showed that of the total 385 cattle observed, 23 (5.96%) were infected by Thelazia spp., of which 22 cattle showed apparent clinical signs namely excessive lacrimation and conjunctivitis that led to keratoconjunctivitis, while one cattle showed ulceration. A total of 357 worms (157 males and 210 female) were collected from 23 infected cattle with the mean number of worms in infected cattle being 32.92 ± 21.03. Observations on morphological characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) helped to identify the nematode species as Thelazia rhodesii. The infection was more prevalent in older cattle (≥ 6-12 month old) than calves (0-6 month old) (P<0.05). Significant risk factors of animal husbandry practices affecting the prevalence of thelaziosis in cattle were anthelmintic treatment, grazing management, barn cleaning, and manure management. Our results highlight that significant risk factors of the disease should be considered in designing strategic control programs for thelaziosis.

  10. Dynamics of offensive gas-phase odorants in fresh and aged feces throughout the development of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, A; Ravid, U; Brosh, A; Baybikov, R; Eitam, H; Laor, Y

    2009-05-01

    Livestock odors are largely caused by several groups of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including sulfur-containing compounds, VFA, and phenols and indoles. Throughout the growth stages of cattle in the nursery and feedlot, distinctly different diets are formulated to meet the changing requirements of the animal. Because diet composition and manure management are 2 major factors affecting odor emissions, it was assumed that changes in diet composition along the development of calves would affect VOC emissions from fresh and stored manure. In this study, the dynamics of gas-phase VOC in feces from 6 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were followed at 5 ages: 1 to 5 wk (stage I), 6 to 8 wk (stage II, before weaning), 9 to 14 wk (stage III, after weaning), and 15 to 36 wk (stages IV and V). The CP content of the formulated diet decreased from 23.0 to 13.9%. Samples of fresh feces were incubated under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 21 d. The VOC were analyzed from the feces headspace by solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Distinct changes in gas-phase VOC were observed in fresh and aged feces from calves at different ages. Semiquantitatively (based on comparative peak area counts), the following trends were observed: 1) S-containing compounds were the least dominant in fresh feces at the age of 2 wk (stage I), whereas VFA esters were the most dominant. 2) At the age of 7 wk (stage II), 1 wk before calves were weaned, feces seemed to be the most offensive, presumably because of the difficulty of synchronizing the requirements of the animal and the diet formulation during this stage of rapid development. 3) The VOC decreased during storage of feces under aerobic conditions but significantly increased at all 5 life stages during storage under anaerobic conditions. This study demonstrates that life stage and manure management affect odor emissions from beef fattening operations. Incorporation of the age and diet of calves

  11. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  12. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  13. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  14. Immunochemical determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in cattle hair: a strategy to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Fátima; Pinacho, Daniel G; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar

    2014-08-15

    Enrofloxacin (ERFX) is a synthetic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone (FQ) family, which is commonly administered in veterinary medicine. ERFX and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), have been reported to accumulate in hair of treated animals. Therefore, hair analysis is an attractive non-invasive alternative to control misuse of such antibiotic and to ensure food safety by preventing such food derived products arrive to the consumer. In this context, an immunochemical analytical protocol has been established to detect ERFX and CPFX residues in cattle hair samples. Unpigmented and pigmented hair were collected from ERFX-treated and non-treated calves, and the aqueous NH4OH extracts were directly analyzed by ELISA, being possible to achieve limits of detection in the range of 10-30 μg kg(-1). A good concordance between HPLC and ELISA measurements was observed. The results demonstrate the potential of the immunochemical procedure reported here to rapidly screen and quantitate FQ residues in hair samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of 4 point-of-care units for the determination of blood l-lactate concentration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, T; Kaynar, O; Hayirli, A; Kom, M

    2013-01-01

    Despite being used commonly in bovine medicine, information on reliability of point-of-care (POC) lactate meters is limited. To determine the validity of 4 commercially available POC lactate meters in cattle. Cattle with various diseases (n = 120). Blood samples collected from the jugular vein were processed immediately on POC lactate meters. Plasma l-lactate concentration was measured by the enzymatic-colorimetric method (ELISA). Data were subjected to Friedman's test for comparison, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot analyses for reliability, and receiver operating characteristics analysis for sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). The POC lactate meters were highly correlated with ELISA (r = 0.98-0.99) despite disagreements among units. When regressed on ELISA, blood l-lactate concentrations generated from Accutrend Plus and Lactate Pro were linear up to 16.6 and 15.7 mmol/L, respectively, whereas those generated from i-STAT and Lactate Scout were linear up to 19.5 and 19.7 mmol/L, respectively. All POC lactate meters had a Se of 100% with Sp of 95.7-98.6% at a plasma l-lactate cut-off concentration of 4 mmol/L. i-STAT had the best accuracy (99.0%) and precision (99.8%), the best linear fit (y = -0.13 + 1.04X) yielding the lowest bias (-6.6%) as well as the highest Se (100%) and Sp (98.6%). Despite high correlation with the reference method, dilution is needed for Accutrend Plus/Lactate Pro and i-STAT/Lactate Scout if concentrations >15 and 20 mmol/L, respectively. i-STAT provided the most accurate and precise results. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is known...

  17. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is known...

  18. A Spatially Explicit Metapopulation Model and Cattle Trade Analysis Suggests Key Determinants for the Recurrent Circulation of Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Pilot Area of Madagascar Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Véronique; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Fontenille, Didier; Durand, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008–2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of

  19. A spatially explicit metapopulation model and cattle trade analysis suggests key determinants for the recurrent circulation of rift valley Fever virus in a pilot area of madagascar highlands.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Gaëlle; Chevalier, Véronique; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Fontenille, Didier; Durand, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. In 2008-2009, a RVF outbreak affected the whole Madagascar island, including the Anjozorobe district located in Madagascar highlands. An entomological survey showed the absence of Aedes among the potential RVF virus (RVFV) vector species identified in this area, and an overall low abundance of mosquitoes due to unfavorable climatic conditions during winter. No serological nor virological sign of infection was observed in wild terrestrial mammals of the area, suggesting an absence of wild RVF virus (RVFV) reservoir. However, a three years serological and virological follow-up in cattle showed a recurrent RVFV circulation. The objective of this study was to understand the key determinants of this unexpected recurrent transmission. To achieve this goal, a spatial deterministic discrete-time metapopulation model combined with cattle trade network was designed and parameterized to reproduce the local conditions using observational data collected in the area. Three scenarios that could explain the RVFV recurrent circulation in the area were analyzed: (i) RVFV overwintering thanks to a direct transmission between cattle when viraemic cows calve, vectors being absent during the winter, (ii) a low level vector-based circulation during winter thanks to a residual vector population, without direct transmission between cattle, (iii) combination of both above mentioned mechanisms. Multi-model inference methods resulted in a model incorporating both a low level RVFV winter vector-borne transmission and a direct transmission between animals when viraemic cows calve. Predictions satisfactorily reproduced field observations, 84% of cattle infections being attributed to vector-borne transmission, and 16% to direct transmission. These results appeared robust according to the sensitivity analysis. Interweaving between agricultural works in rice fields, seasonality of

  20. Effect of freezing prior to aging on myoglobin redox forms and CIE color of beef from Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina Naves; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; de Miranda Gomide, Lúcio Alberto; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing prior to wet aging on the color of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle meat. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis muscle were subjected to two treatments: conventional aging (0, 7, 14 and 21days); and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging. Freezing promoted (P<0.05) formation of metmyoglobin during aging, especially in Nellore beef. Frozen meats showed (P<0.05) lower lightness (L*) values and higher redness (a*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) values at the first day of storage, deteriorating quickly with aging time. The color of the Nellore meat was less (P<0.05) stable to freezing, being lighter, yellower and less red than Angus meat. The results suggest that color stability in vacuum-packed beef is reduced by freezing prior to aging and that reduction depends on the animal breed.

  1. Lead-alpha age determinations of granitic rocks from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Jaffe, H.W.; Waring, C.L.

    1957-01-01

    Lead-alpha activity age determinations were made on zircon from seven granitic rocks of central and southeastern Alaska. The results of the age determinations indicate two periods of igneous intrusion, one about 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous period, and another about 53 million years ago, during the early part of the Tertiary. The individual ages determined on zircon from 2 rocks from southeastern Alaska and 1 from east-central Alaska gave results of 90, 100, and 96 million years; those determined on 4 rocks from central Alaska gave results of 47, 56, 58, and 51 million years.

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Saskatchewan cattle: characterization of isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, antibiotic resistance profiles, and pathogenicity determinants.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Korber, Darren R

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 associated with feedlot cattle in Saskatchewan was determined in a 10-month longitudinal study (3 feedlots) and a point prevalence study (20 feedlots). The prevalence of E. coli O157 at the three different sites in the horizontal study varied from 2.5 to 45%. The point prevalence of E. coli O157 among Saskatchewan cattle from 20 different feedlots ranged from 0% to a high of 57%. A statistically significant (P = 0.003) positive correlation was determined to exist between the density of cattle and the E. coli O157 prevalence rate. A significant correlation (P = 0.006) was also found between the E. coli O157 percent prevalence and the number of cattle housed/capacity ratio. All 194 E. coli O157 isolates obtained were highly virulent, and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis revealed that the isolates grouped into 39 different E. coli O157 subtypes, most of which were indigenous to specific feedlots. Two of the most predominant subtypes were detected in 11 different feedlots and formed distinct clusters in two geographic regions in the province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the E. coli O157 isolates revealed that 10 were multidrug resistant and that 73 and 5 were resistant to sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, respectively.

  3. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were co...

  4. Dose determination of the persistent activity of moxidectin long-acting injectable formulations against various nematode species in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, T A; Williams, J C; Smith, L L; Tucker, C; Loyacano, A F; Derosa, A; Peterson, P; Bruer, D J; Delay, R L

    2006-04-30

    The effectiveness, safety and production-enhancing benefit (improved weight gains) of moxidectin long-acting injection given subcutaneously in the ear at the rates of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg bw were evaluated in three studies under common protocol. The only adverse reaction to treatment was a mild (<2 tablespoons in volume), and for the most part transient (<28 days for the treatment rate of 1.0mg/kg bw) injection site swelling as noted in a minority of the animals (12.2% of the animals treated at the rate of 1.0mg/kg bw). Regardless of study site, post-treatment interval or dose rate, average daily gains were improved over control cattle by approximately 33%. Reductions in strongyle EPG counts relative to controls were > or = 90% for all dose rates of moxidectin for a post-treatment period of 42 days (Wisconsin), 84 days (Arkansas) and 140 days (Louisiana). In Arkansas and Louisiana, the majority (>80%) of post-treatment strongyle eggs, as determined by coproculture, were Cooperia spp. As determined by sequential necropsies, periods of continuous, post-treatment protection (> or = 90% efficacy in at least two out of three studies) for moxidectin long-acting injection given at the rate of 1.0 mg/kg bw were 90 days (adult Haemonchus spp.), 120 days (Dictyocaulus viviparus and adult Ostertagia and Oesophagostomum) and 150 days (Ostertagia spp. EL4).

  5. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants.

    PubMed

    Aka, P Sema; Canturk, Nergis; Dagalp, Rukiye; Yagan, Murat

    2009-01-30

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses and infants by examining metric tooth development of central incisors in deceased fetuses and infants. Five dimensions of 76 maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured: mesio-distal (MD), bucco-lingual (BL), crown height (CH), crown thickness (CT), and root height (RH). The results showed that 44.45+/-0-2 weeks is a sectional time for age calculations, which corresponds to 40 weeks from conception plus 4 to 5 weeks after birth. Four ATA entitled age formulas are derived to give the relation of age with tooth dimensions before and after 44.45 weeks [ATA is the special name given to the honor of the great Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)]. Age estimation can be calculated from these formulas with an accuracy of the age +/-0-2 weeks. Also, calcification time can be determined from ATA formulas. In conclusion, the age of fetuses and infants can be assessed by the measurements of a single central incisor. According to this research, when estimating age during identification studies, forensic researchers must take into consideration the period of embryonic human growth and development.

  6. Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    Tables for determining lead, uranium, and thorium isotope ages are presented in the form of computer printouts. Decay constants, analytical expressions for the functions evaluated, and the precision of the calculations are briefly discussed.

  7. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of an ageing population and (ii) develop effective novel prevention strategies. It is important to compare the trajectories of respiratory diseases with those of other chronic diseases.

  8. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled spirits. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... the entire lot shall be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the lot. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85...

  9. [Comparison of two methods of age determination in teeth of known age from wild carnivores].

    PubMed

    Thomé, H; Geiger, G

    1997-06-01

    Two age-determining methods were conducted on representatives of known age from the Order Carnivora (4 red foxes, 3 tree martens, 3 stone martens, 2 racoons, 2 badgers, 2 polecat and one otter). Age determination employed with the aid of tooth wear nearly agrees with the real age of the animals. Dating based on the formation of the age-dependent cement zone coincided well with the known ages of the individual specimens. However, in real foxes the figure one must be added to the number of cementum layers counted determining the definitive age of individuals. For representation of the cementum layers transverse sections of the apical part of the tooth root of canini, P2 and P3, stained with methylene blue, should be used. It is important to note that the dentino-cemental line should not be considered when counting the year rings in the cement.

  10. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  11. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  12. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-08

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV.

  13. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  14. Changes in taste compounds, breaking properties, and sensory attributes during dry aging of beef from Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Miyazaki, Yuki; Tsuyuki, Risako; Kato, Kenichi; Egusa, Ai; Ogoshi, Hiro; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the quality of highly marbled beef during dry aging for 60days after slaughter showed that the changes in some qualities differed from those of conventional meat. The tenderness of these meats did not change during aging for 50days but then gradually increased until day 60. The juiciness of these meats, as determined by sensory evaluation, did not change during aging for 60days, except for a decrease on day 20. The umami intensity of these meats in the sensory evaluation and the value calculated by Glu and IMP quantification were highest on day 40. This high umami intensity was induced by the synergistic effect of umami compounds such as Glu and IMP. These results for tenderness, juiciness, umami intensity, and flavor intensity suggested that the best duration of dry aging for highly marbled beef was 40days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall be... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of...

  16. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall be... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of...

  17. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall be... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of...

  18. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall be... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of...

  19. Automated determination of bone age in a modern chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2-20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8-14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7-12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China.

  20. Midlife determinants associated with sedentary behavior in old age.

    PubMed

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Bosma, Hans; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Martin, Kathryn R; Brychta, Robert J; Chen, Kong Y; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Johannsson, Erlingur; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Harris, Tamara B; Koster, Annemarie

    2014-07-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with adverse health effects. Insights into associated determinants are essential to prevent sedentary behavior and limit health risks. Sedentary behavior should be viewed as a distinct health behavior; therefore, its determinants should be independently identified. This study examines the prospective associations between a wide range of midlife determinants and objectively measured sedentary time in old age. Data from 565 participants (age 73-92 yr) of the AGESII-Reykjavik Study were used. Participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) on the right hip for seven consecutive days. On average, 31 yr earlier (during midlife), demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biomedical factors were collected. Linear regression models were used to examine prospective associations between midlife determinants and sedentary time (<100 counts per minute) in old age. After adjustment for sex, age, follow-up time, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, body mass index, health status, mobility limitation, and joint pain in old age, the midlife determinants not being married, primary education, living in a duplex or living in an apartment (vs villa), being obese, and having a heart disease were associated with, on average, 15.3, 12.4, 13.5, 13.3, 21.8, and 38.9 sedentary minutes more per day in old age, respectively. This study shows that demographic, socioeconomic, and biomedical determinants in midlife were associated with considerably more sedentary time per day in old age. These results can indicate the possibility of predicting sedentariness in old age, which could be used to identify target groups for prevention programs reducing sedentary time in older adults.

  1. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  2. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  3. Efficacy of a pour-on formulation of doramectin against lice, mites, and grubs of cattle.

    PubMed

    Rooney, K A; Illyes, E F; Sunderland, S J; Sarasola, P; Hendrickx, M O; Keller, D S; Meinert, T R; Logan, N B; Weatherley, A J; Conder, G A

    1999-04-01

    To determine effectiveness of a pour-on formulation of doramectin against Damalinia bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Chorioptes bovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Hypoderma bovis, and Hypoderma lineatum. Cattle of various ages with naturally acquired or artificial infestations with 1 or more species of lice, mites, or grubs. In 10 louse and 6 mite studies, cattle were treated with doramectin (500 microg/kg, topically) on day 0, and parasite counts were performed approximately weekly from days 0 to 35. In 6 grub studies, cattle expected to harbor Hypoderma spp were treated before emergence of warbles. After warbles began to emerge, they were counted every 2 weeks, and grubs were collected and identified by species. Burdens of D bovis, H eurystemus, L vituli, and S capillatus on doramectin-treated cattle were 0 by 28 days after treatment. Burdens of C bovis and S scabiei decreased to 0 in naturally infested cattle and approximately 0 in artificially infested cattle by day 14 to 15. In grub studies, 107 of 136 control cattle had warbles, whereas 2 of 136 doramectin-treated cattle had 1 warble each, which represented a cure rate of 98.5%. One topical application of doramectin was highly efficacious against common species of lice, mites, and grubs known to affect performance, health, and appearance of cattle.

  4. Simple visual assay for determination of Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxin neutralizing antibody titers in cattle sera.

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, M J; Confer, A W; Kreps, J A

    1985-01-01

    A simple visual assay is described for determining the capacity of bovine serum to neutralize the cytotoxin produced by Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. The test was reproducible from day to day with different target cell populations and cytotoxin preparations. Cytotoxin neutralization titers obtained by the visual assay were comparable to those determined by the trypan blue exclusion and 51Cr-release methods. The visual assay was used to measure neutralization titers of bovine sera obtained from vaccination experiments and fractions of purified serum obtained by gel filtration. The major advantages of the visual assay over other assays are that it is rapid, inexpensive, and does not use radioisotopes. It also does not require specialized equipment, making it adaptable to most laboratories. Images PMID:3905853

  5. Age-Specificity of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Sheep, Goats and Cattle on Subsistence Farms in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Moizur; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; NAHAR, Lovely; ROUF, Shah Md. Abdur; OHYA, Kenji; CHIOU, Shih-Pin; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats. PMID:24849051

  6. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats.

  7. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  8. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  9. A determination and comparison of urease activity in feces and fresh manure from pig and cattle in relation to ammonia production and pH changes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production.

  10. Age at first marriage in Nepal: differentials and determinants.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Tika Ram

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the differentials and determinants of female age at first marriage in rural Nepal. The life table technique was employed to calculate median age at marriage. The proportional hazard model was used to study the effect of various socioeconomic variables, and to identify the magnitude and significance of their effects on the timing of first marriage. The data were taken from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts in rural Nepal. Both married and unmarried females of marriageable age were included in the survey. Median age at marriage was about 17 years for data from only married females, whereas it was about 18 years for data from married as well as unmarried females of marriageable age. Median age at marriage was about 16 years for uneducated females and 19 years for females educated up to intermediate or higher level. The analysis underestimates the median age at marriage for married females, probably due to right censoring. The risk of getting married early decreased gradually with increasing year-of-birth cohort. The risk of early marriage was higher among females of high socioeconomic status compared with those of low socioeconomic status. Females engaged in service married earlier than those engaged in household work. High socioeconomic status families are motivated, for religious and prestige reasons, to get their daughters married at an early age, preferably before menarche. Thus, education, occupation and age at menarche are the most powerful factors in deciding the timing of first marriage in Nepal.

  11. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    PubMed

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (P<0.05) values of pH0, pH24, a*, and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and lower (P<0.05) values of L*, b* and pressure losses than from Unstressed animals. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among breeds in L*, a* and pressure losses. The ageing time had a significant effect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A method for determining the concentration of haptoglobin in cattle blood following haemolysis caused at collection.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, L L; Colditz, I G

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an in-house assay for haptoglobin determination in bovine blood samples, assess the effect of haemolysis on the reported haptoglobin concentration and develop a method to correct for haemolysis interference. The assay developed is highly repeatable (92.3% across plates and 94.8% between assays). A correction equation (Hp(corrected)=Hp(raw)-Hp(endogenous activity)-Hp(due to Hb); where Hp(due to Hb)=0.118×Hb(free)+0.015) was developed based around the linear relationship of haptoglobin and haemoglobin (by-product of haemolysis) and endogenous interference, tested and validated for use with haemolysed samples. The method described in this paper allows samples inadvertently haemolysed at collection to be analysed, with the reported haptoglobin concentration being an accurate reflection of the physiological levels in the animal's blood at the time of collection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Age determination in mini-Shetland ponies and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H; Van Loon, G

    1999-09-01

    The accuracy of ageing mini-Shetland ponies and donkeys was assessed by correlating the appearance of specific dental features with the known ages of 106 mini-Shetland ponies and 63 donkeys. The ages of the animals ranged between 2 days and 26 years. In both species the eruption of the deciduous and permanent incisors occurred later than in horses. On the other hand, the appearance of the dental stars on the permanent incisors of mini-Shetlands and donkeys was seen at a younger age than in horses. As in most horse breeds, the disappearance of the cups, the clinical crown lengths, the presence of hooks on the upper corner and the presence of a Galvayne's groove are unreliable features for dental age determination in the pony and the donkey. Specific dental characteristics of both the mini-Shetland pony and the donkey are discussed.

  14. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  15. Age at first marriage in Viet Nam: patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H M

    1997-06-01

    "Using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey, this article examines the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage. It shows that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage. It identifies regional variations and discusses the significant impact of warfare on the country's age patterns of marriage. It concludes by bringing out the implications of the study for policy purposes." The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.

  16. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ˜ 22,500), near infrared (1.51-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ˜0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  17. Computed tomographic evaluation to determine efficacy of euthanasia of yearling feedlot cattle by use of various firearm-ammunition combinations.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel U; Wileman, Benjamin W; Rezac, Darrel J; Miesner, Matt D; Johnson-Neitman, Jennifer L; Biller, David S

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate with CT the efficacy of various combinations of firearms and ammunitions to penetrate and disrupt the brain tissue of cadaveric heads of feedlot steers. 42 fresh cadaveric heads of 12- to 18-month-old Bos taurus steers. For each of 7 combinations of firearms and ammunitions (.22-caliber rifle firing a long rifle 30-grain plated lead solid- or hollow-point round, .223-caliber carbine firing a 50-grain ballistic-tip round, 9-mm pistol firing a 124-grain total metal jacket round, .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol [ACP] firing a 230-grain full metal jacket round, and 12-gauge shotgun firing a 2.75-inch 1.25-ounce No. 4 birdshot shell or a 1-ounce rifled slug), 6 cadaveric heads were shot at an identical distance (3 m), angle, and anatomic location. Heads were scanned with third-generation CT, and images were evaluated to determine extent of penetration, projectile fragmentation, cranial fracture, and likelihood of instantaneous death (≥ 30% destruction of brain tissue or a brainstem lesion). RESULTS-41 of 42 skulls were penetrated by the projectile. Instantaneous death was considered a likely consequence for 83% (25/30) of heads shot with a rifle-fired .22-caliber solid-point round, pistol-fired .45-caliber ACP round, carbine-fired .223-caliber round, and shotgun-fired birdshot and slug. Of the 18 heads shot with pistol-fired 9-mm and .45-caliber ACP rounds and rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds, only 6 had brainstem lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results suggested that gunshots delivered by all firearm-ammunition combinations except rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds and pistol-fired 9-mm rounds were viable options for euthanasia of feedlot cattle.

  18. Neospora caninum in pastured cattle: determination of climatic, environmental, farm management and individual animal risk factors using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Fusco, G; Musella, V; Veneziano, V; Guarino, A; Taddei, R; Cringoli, G

    2005-03-31

    above determined risk factors for N. caninum seroprevalence indicate that horizontal infection resulting from the ingestion of oocysts shed by dogs is the most probable route of N. caninum infection in pastured cattle of the southern Italian Apennines.

  19. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  20. Virulence Gene Profiles and Clonal Relationships of Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates from Feedlot Cattle as Determined by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rump, Lydia V.; Cao, Guojie; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized mainly into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) O26, carrying a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and mostly causing mild diarrhea, and Shiga-toxigenic (STEC) O26, which carries the Shiga toxin (STX) gene (stx), responsible for more severe outcomes. stx-negative O26 strains can be further split into two groups. One O26 group differs significantly from O26 EHEC, while the other O26 EHEC-like group shows all the characteristics of EHEC O26 except production of STX. In order to determine the different populations of O26 E. coli present in U.S. cattle, we sequenced 42 O26:H11 strains isolated from feedlot cattle and compared them to 37 O26:H11 genomes available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that O26:H11/H− strains in U.S. cattle were highly diverse. Most strains were sequence type 29 (ST29). By wgMLST, two clear lineages could be distinguished among cattle strains. Lineage 1 consisted of O26:H11 EHEC-like strains (ST29) (4 strains) and O26:H11 EHEC strains (ST21) (2 strains), and lineage 2 (36 strains) consisted of O26:H11 EPEC strains (ST29). Overall, our analysis showed U.S. cattle carried pathogenic (ST21; stx1+ ehxA+ toxB+) and also potentially pathogenic (ST29; ehxA+ toxB+) O26:H11 E. coli strains. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that 70% of the cattle strains carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. Our results showed that whole-genome sequence analysis is a robust and valid approach to identify and genetically characterize E. coli O26:H11, which is of importance for food safety and public health. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) carrying LEE, causing mild diarrhea, and

  1. Foot and mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV- Mut). We had previously sho...

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian inference on genetic and non-genetic components of partial efficiencies determining feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy cattle feed efficiency (FE) can be defined as the ability to convert DMI into milk energy (MILKE) and maintenance or metabolic body weight (MBW). In other words, DMI is conditional on MILKE and MBW (DMI|MILKE,MBW). These partial regressions or partial efficiencies (PE) of DMI on MILKE and MBW ...

  3. [A new method of determining ages: chronological classification].

    PubMed

    Gubry, P

    1983-01-01

    Two methods of determining ages, the historical calendar method and the classification method, are compared using data for Chad from the UDEAC-TCHAD demographic survey. Complementary processing shows that the classification method is more accurate for those born in villages, while the historical method is more accurate for those born elsewhere. (summary in ENG)

  4. Determining site index accurately in even-aged stands

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson

    1992-01-01

    Good site index estimates are necessary for intensive forest management. To get tree age used in determining site index, increment cores are commonly used. The diffuse-porous rings of northern hardwoods, though, are difficult to count in cores, so many site index estimates are imprecise. Also, measuring the height of standing trees is more difficult and less accurate...

  5. Age determination of asylum seekers and alleged people smugglers.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Ranson, David

    2012-12-01

    This column discusses the issues encountered when courts attempt to determine if an individual who has no reliable age at birth documentation has reached adulthood, or is still a legal minor. This issue has recently received a high level of public interest due to the wrongful imprisonment in Australian adult prisons of Indonesian minors accused of people smuggling following the determination, subsequently shown to be incorrect, that they were adults. The discussion explains current deficits existing in the science of age estimation with reference to the recent Australia Human Rights Commission "Inquiry into the Treatment of Individuals Suspected of People Smuggling Who Say That They are Children". Future research possibilities in the science of age estimation which may help to resolve many of the issues are explored.

  6. Determining Ages of APOGEE Giants with Known Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillet, Diane; Bovy, Jo; Holtzman, Jon A.; Girardi, Leo; APOGEE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of 705 local (d <400 pc) red giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the SDSS-III APOGEE spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the age distribution from the high-resolution spectroscopic stellar parameters and accurate distance measurements from Hipparcos. The high-resolution (R ~ 23,000), near infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of the stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 40 %. For red giants, the relatively rapid evolution of stars up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained based on the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the prior on the SFH, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of a model SFH from the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model shows a clear relation between age and [α/M] at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we construct a full age probability distribution function and determine ages for individual stars. The age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~ 0.5 dex spread in metallicity. For stars with ages > 1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. This method of estimating ages of red giants is developed with the intent of estimating ages for the much larger sample of APOGEE survey giants that will have parallax measurements from Gaia.

  7. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages.

  8. Effects of age of cattle, turning technology and compost environment on disappearance of bone from mortality compost.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Hao, X; Xu, S; McAllister, T A; Larney, F; Leonard, J J

    2009-10-01

    As residual bones in mortality compost negatively impact subsequent tillage, two studies were performed. For the first study, windrows of mature cattle or calves were placed on a base of barley straw and covered with beef manure. Windrows were divided into two sections and turned at 3-month intervals. Approximately 5000 kg of finished compost per windrow was passed through a 6mm trommel screen, with bones collected and weighed. Bone weight was 0.66% of mature cattle compost and 0.38% of calf compost on a dry matter basis, but did not differ after adjustment for weights of compost ingredients. In a subsequent study, four windrows were constructed containing mortalities, straw and beef manure (STATC) or straw, manure and slaughter waste (STATW). Also, straw, beef manure and slaughter waste was added to an 850 L rolling drum composter (DRUMW). Fresh bovine long-bones from calves were collected, weighed and embedded in the compost. Bones were retrieved and weighed when windrows were turned, or with DRUMW, after 8 weeks. Temperatures achieved followed the order STATW>STATC>DRUMW (p<0.05). Rate of bone disappearance followed a pattern identical to temperature, with the weight of bones in STATW declining by 53.7% during 7 weeks of composting. For STATC, temperatures were uniform over three composting periods, but bone disappearance was improved (p<0.05) when compost dry matter was lower (46%), as compared to 58%. Using a ratio of five parts manure to one part mortalities, results of this study demonstrated that residual bone was <1% of cured cattle compost and may be reduced by maintaining a high compost temperature and moisture content.

  9. Hsp72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Berg, Peer; Loeschcke, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily considered as being intracellular, this study identified the presence of Hsp72 in plasma from female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Plasma samples were collected from the same animals at different ages and on different days after calving and accordingly divided into 5 age classes. The age classes were calves less than 235 days of age, young heifers between 235 and 305 days of age, older heifers between 305 and 560 days of age, cows early in lactation, and cows later in lactation. For a subsample of animals within each age class, replicate plasma samples were collected from 1 to 7 days apart to test whether the Hsp72 concentration levels are repeatable on this shorter timescale. Hsp72 was observed in plasma samples from animals of all 5 age classes. For animals with blood samples taken a few days apart, the repeatability (within age class) of the Hsp72 concentration was 0.52 +/- 0.06. Age and days from calving significantly affected the Hsp72 concentration level. The highest Hsp72 level was observed in older heifers (305-560 days of age). The repeatability of Hsp72 concentrations across age classes within animal was 0.22 +/- 0.06. High environmental sensitivity and negative genetic associations between production and health traits in this high-producing breed have been documented earlier. Hsp72 is believed to be strictly stress inducible, and the finding of Hsp72 in plasma indicates that even apparently healthy individuals may experience extrinsic or intrinsic stress (or both).

  10. Impact of asteroseismology on improving stellar ages determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High precision photometry as performed by the CoRoT and Kepler satellites on-board instruments has allowed to detect stellar oscillations over the whole HR diagram. Oscillation frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles, themselves tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state of stars. Seismic diagnostics performed on stellar internal structure models allow to infer the age and mass of oscillating stars. The accuracy and precision of the age determination depend both on the goodness of the observational parameters (seismic and classical) and on our ability to model a given star properly. They therefore suffer from any misunderstanding of the physical processes at work inside stars (as microscopic physics, transport processes...). In this paper, we recall some seismic diagnostics of stellar age and we illustrate their efficiency in age-dating the CoRoT target HD 52265.

  11. DETERMINING AGES OF APOGEE GIANTS WITH KNOWN DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Feuillet, Diane K.; Holtzman, Jon; Bovy, Jo; Girardi, Léo; MacDonald, Nick; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.

    2016-01-20

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1 m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500), near infrared (1.51–1.7 μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass–age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age–[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age–metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ∼0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages ≲1 Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars.

  12. The recent prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among Japanese cattle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-24

    A seroepidemiological survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted in Japan in 2007 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A total of 5420 cattle (dairy, 3966; breeding beef, 797; fattening beef, 657) from 209 farms in seven prefectures in Japan were tested. The overall prevalence of BLV infection was 28.6%. The prevalence of BLV infection in dairy cattle (34.7%) was higher than for both fattening beef cattle (7.9%) and breeding beef cattle (16.3%). Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age in all types of cattle and was notably different between dairy and beef cattle under 1 year of age. Among 207 farms, 141 herds (68.1%) had one or more positive animals. The proportion of these positive farms was significantly higher among dairy farms (79.1%) than among beef breeding farms (39.5%) and beef fattening farms (51.9%) (P<0.001). Dairy farms (40.5%) also showed a significantly higher within-herd prevalence than beef breeding (27.4%) and fattening (14.9%) farms (P=0.001). This study indicated that BLV is more widely spread in dairy cattle than in beef breeding cattle in Japan. Given the prevalence of BLV infection in dairy and beef cattle was 8- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively, than rates previously found in 1980-1982, BLV appears to be spreading particularly among the dairy cattle population during the last two decades. Further investigation is required to determine the risk factors necessary to control BLV infection that take into account the different farming practices that exist between dairy and beef sectors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  14. Risk factors for Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle in the United Kingdom: A farm-level case-control study and assessment of the role of movement history, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (P<0.001; 95% CI: 3.3-5.52) more

  15. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  16. The Stability of Genetic Determination from Age 2 to Age 9: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Hugh; And Others

    A longitudinal investigation of the social and cognitive development of male twins was conducted when twins were 2.5 years of age, and again when they were 8- to 10-years-old. This study was designed to re-examine the heritability of the traits studied at the earlier age and, thus, to address the question of the stability of genetic determination.…

  17. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view.

    PubMed

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE.

  18. Cementum as an age determinant: A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar; Keerthi, Muddana; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Reddy, Dorankula Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Forensic age estimation (FAE) defines an expertise in forensic medicine, which aims to define in the most accurate way to determine the unknown chronological age of the person involved in judicial or legal proceedings. Dental cementum is a vital tissue which demonstrates continuous apposition throughout the life of the tooth. This appositional changes of cementum helps in approximation of age inforensic investigations. Aims: To correlate age by measuring the overlap or coronal migration of thecementum at thecementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the thickness of the cementum at the apical third of the root. Settings and Design: A hundred freshly extracted teethfrom patients ranging from ages 17-55were longitudinal buccolingually ground sectioned using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Materials and Methods: 100 freshly extracted teeth of age group ranging from 17-55 years were taken. These teeth were longitudinally ground sectioned to a thickness of 8-10μm using a mounted lathe wheel and Arkansas stone. Afterwards the teeth were examined under a light microscope using a micrometer eyepiece for measuring the overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of root. Statistical Analysis: Measurements of the overlap or the coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the root are correlated with age. Results: Results of the study indicated that the cementum at the CEJ migrated coronally during theaging process in case of the impacted teeth. There is also a significant increase in the thickness of the cementum at the apical onethird of rootin the case of both the impacted and erupted teeth. Conclusion: Approximation of age by measuring overlap or coronal migration of the cementum at the CEJ and the thickness of the cementum at the apical one-third of the rootsets new alleys in FAE. PMID:28123278

  19. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  20. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution.

  1. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  2. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K.; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Roks, Anton J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  3. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  4. DNA Damage: A Main Determinant of Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Niño, Paula K; Portilla-Fernandez, Eliana; Vaughan, Douglas E; Danser, A H Jan; Roks, Anton J M

    2016-05-18

    Vascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative mechanisms by which chronological aging mediates its impact, independently from classical risk factors, remain to be elucidated. In recent years evidence has accumulated that unrepaired DNA damage may play an important role. Observations in animal models and in humans indicate that under conditions during which DNA damage accumulates in an accelerated rate, functional decline of the vasculature takes place in a similar but more rapid or more exaggerated way than occurs in the absence of such conditions. Also epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between DNA maintenance and age-related cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, mouse models of defective DNA repair are means to study the mechanisms involved in biological aging of the vasculature. We here review the evidence of the role of DNA damage in vascular aging, and present mechanisms by which genomic instability interferes with regulation of the vascular tone. In addition, we present potential remedies against vascular aging induced by genomic instability. Central to this review is the role of diverse types of DNA damage (telomeric, non-telomeric and mitochondrial), of cellular changes (apoptosis, senescence, autophagy), mediators of senescence and cell growth (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)/senescence-messaging secretome (SMS), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling), the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) axis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) vs. endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c

  5. Effect of very fast chilling and aging time on ultra-structure and meat quality characteristics of Chinese Yellow cattle M. Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Yimin; Mao, Yanwei; Cornforth, Daren; Dong, Pengcheng; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, He; Luo, Xin

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of the current study were to evaluate meat ultra-structure and tenderness variation at different chilling regimes and aging times. Hot boned longissimus lumborum of 18 Chinese crossbred cattle were divided into 4 portions per side. One portion underwent very fast chilling (VFC, at -21 °C to achieve core temperature of 0 °C, then transferred to another incubator at 2 °C), whereas other treatments were held at 14, 7 and 0 °C for 10 h postmortem, respectively. At 10 h postmortem, all muscles were vacuum aged at 2 °C for 21 d. Cold shortened muscles had greatest absolute amount of tenderization during aging. VFC caused lowest sarcomere length, with super-contractions, ruptured Z-lines and myofibril cleavage, but improved myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), with no significant negative effect on toughness. Overall, aging improved the meat quality of cold shortened beef. Moreover, it should be prudent in some applications to apply VFC to excised muscles from a food safety perspective, and to improve tenderness compared to cold-shortened muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  7. Towards global age-friendly cities: determining urban features that promote active aging.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Louise; Kalache, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    At the same time as cities are growing, their share of older residents is increasing. To engage and assist cities to become more "age-friendly," the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared the Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and a companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities". In collaboration with partners in 35 cities from developed and developing countries, WHO determined the features of age-friendly cities in eight domains of urban life: outdoor spaces and buildings; transportation; housing; social participation; respect and social inclusion; civic participation and employment; communication and information; and community support and health services. In 33 cities, partners conducted 158 focus groups with persons aged 60 years and older from lower- and middle-income areas of a locally defined geographic area (n = 1,485). Additional focus groups were held in most sites with caregivers of older persons (n = 250 caregivers) and with service providers from the public, voluntary, and commercial sectors (n = 515). No systematic differences in focus group themes were noted between cities in developed and developing countries, although the positive, age-friendly features were more numerous in cities in developed countries. Physical accessibility, service proximity, security, affordability, and inclusiveness were important characteristics everywhere. Based on the recurring issues, a set of core features of an age-friendly city was identified. The Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide and companion "Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities" released by WHO serve as reference for other communities to assess their age readiness and plan change.

  8. Metabolic reserve as a determinant of cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represent points on a continuum of cognitive performance in aged populations. Cognition may be impaired or preserved in the context of brain aging. One theory to account for memory maintenance in the context of extensive pathology involves ‘cognitive reserve,’ or the ability to compensate for neuropathology through greater recruitment of remaining neurons. In this review, we propose a complementary hypothesis of ‘metabolic reserve’, where a brain with high metabolic reserve is characterized by the presence of neuronal circuits that respond adaptively to perturbations in cellular and somatic energy metabolism and thereby protects against declining cognition. Lifestyle determinants of metabolic reserve, such as exercise, reduced caloric intake, and intake of specific dietary components can promote neuroprotection, while pathological states arising from sedentary lifestyles and excessive caloric intake contribute to neuronal endangerment. This bidirectional relationship between metabolism and cognition may be mediated by alterations in central insulin and neurotrophic factor signaling and glucose metabolism, with downstream consequences for accumulation of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylated tau. The metabolic reserve hypothesis is supported by epidemiological findings, and the spectrum of individual cognitive trajectories during aging, with additional data from animal models identifying potential mechanisms for this relationship. Identification of biomarkers for metabolic reserve could assist in generating a predictive model for the likelihood of cognitive decline with aging. PMID:22045480

  9. Vru (Sub0144) controls expression of proven and putative virulence determinants and alters the ability of Streptococcus uberis to cause disease in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Sharon A.; Ward, Philip N.; Watson, Michael; Field, Terence R.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation and control of gene expression in response to differing environmental stimuli is crucial for successful pathogen adaptation and persistence. The regulatory gene vru of Streptococcus uberis encodes a stand-alone response regulator with similarity to the Mga of group A Streptococcus. Mga controls expression of a number of important virulence determinants. Experimental intramammary challenge of dairy cattle with a mutant of S. uberis carrying an inactivating lesion in vru showed reduced ability to colonize the mammary gland and an inability to induce clinical signs of mastitis compared with the wild-type strain. Analysis of transcriptional differences of gene expression in the mutant, determined by microarray analysis, identified a number of coding sequences with altered expression in the absence of Vru. These consisted of known and putative virulence determinants, including Lbp (Sub0145), SclB (Sub1095), PauA (Sub1785) and hasA (Sub1696). PMID:22383474

  10. Profile and determinants of successful aging in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Abiona, Taiwo; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-05-01

    To determine the profile and determinants of successful aging in a developing country characterized by low life expectancy and where successful agers may represent a unique group. Community-based cohort study. Eight contiguous states in the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. A multistage clustered sampling of households was used to select a representative sample of individuals (N = 2,149) aged 65 and older at baseline. Nine hundred thirty were successfully followed for an average of 64 months between August 2003 and December 2009. Lifestyle and behavioral factors were assessed at baseline. Successful aging, defined using each of three models (absence of chronic health conditions, functional independence, and satisfaction with life), was assessed at follow-up. Between 16% and 75% of respondents could be classified as successful agers using one of the three models while 7.5% could be so classified using a combination of all the models. Correlations between the three models were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.15. Different features predicted their outcomes, suggesting that they represent relatively independent trajectories of aging. Whichever model was used, more men than women tended to be classified as aging successfully. Men who aged successfully, using a combination of all the three models, were more likely never to have smoked (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-14.46) and to report, at baseline, having contacts with friends (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-18.76) or participating in community activities (aOR = 16.0, 95% CI = 1.23-204.40). In women, there was a nonlinear trend for younger age at baseline to predict this outcome. Modifiable social and lifestyle factors predicted successful aging in this population, suggesting that health promotion targeting behavior change may lead to tangible benefits for health and well-being in old age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Substrate Type and Free Ammonia Determine Bacterial Community Structure in Full-Scale Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Treating Cattle or Swine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Yao, Minjie; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Yan, Zhiying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    The microbial-mediated anaerobic digestion (AD) process represents an efficient biological process for the treatment of organic waste along with biogas harvest. Currently, the key factors structuring bacterial communities and the potential core and unique bacterial populations in manure anaerobic digesters are not completely elucidated yet. In this study, we collected sludge samples from 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters treating cattle or swine manure, and investigated the variations of bacterial community compositions using high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Clustering and correlation analysis suggested that substrate type and free ammonia (FA) play key roles in determining the bacterial community structure. The COD: NH4+-N (C:N) ratio of substrate and FA were the most important available operational parameters correlating to the bacterial communities in cattle and swine manure digesters, respectively. The bacterial populations in all of the digesters were dominated by phylum Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Increased FA content selected Firmicutes, suggesting that they probably play more important roles under high FA content. Syntrophic metabolism by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Synergistetes and Planctomycetes are likely inhibited when FA content is high. Despite the different manure substrates, operational conditions and geographical locations of digesters, core bacterial communities were identified. The core communities were best characterized by phylum Firmicutes, wherein Clostridium predominated overwhelmingly. Substrate-unique and abundant communities may reflect the properties of manure substrate and operational conditions. These findings extend our current understanding of the bacterial assembly in full-scale manure anaerobic digesters. PMID:26648921

  12. Exploratory trial to determine the efficacy of the PYthon and the PYthon Magnum slow-release insecticide ear tags for the control of midges (Culicoides spp.), attacking sheep and cattle and flies attacking cattle.

    PubMed

    Goosen, H; de Vries, P J T; Fletcher, M G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic action of the chemical combination zeta-cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide, administered by means of slow-release insecticide-impregnated ear tags, against biting midges (Culicoides spp) attacking sheep and against midges, horn flies (Haematobia irritant), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), and houseflies (Musca domestica) attacking cattle. Treated sheep and cattle were protected 100 percent against blood-feeding midges for two months and there was a clear reduction in the number of midges collected from treated animals. Three days after the ear tags were attached to cattle, the number of horn flies on the cattle was reduced to practically zero and remained at a low level until the end of the trial (day 85). There was also a strong reduction in the numbers of stable flies and houseflies counted.

  13. Age and sex determination of the Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Simon, John C.; Pratt, Thane K.; Baker, Paul E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We determined the best plumage and morphometric variables for ageing and sexing the Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on east Maui, Hawaii, by examining and measuring 30 museum specimens and 71 live birds captured in mist nets. Juvenal plumage was identified by the presence of pale-tipped wing bars on the middle and greater coverts, grayish olive dorsal plumage, and dingy white underparts and superciliaries. Birds undergoing first prebasic molt retained the juvenal remiges, rectrices, and wing coverts. Birds in first basic plumage possessed juvenal wing bars and a dull juvenal-like plumage. Subsequent molts were complete, and adults lacked wing bars. Adult males had bright yellow plumage on the cheeks, throat, and superciliaries, as did 27% of adult females. All other adult females had less yellow in the underparts. The dorsal plumage of adult females was more variable than adult males and was either yellow-olive like the males or grayish olive. Adult males had longer wing, bill, tail, and tarsometatarsus and greater mass than adult females. Virtually all males and females could be distinguished by wing length. Morphometrics of immature birds were significantly smaller than for adult males. Only immature male wing chord was significantly larger than that of adult females. Although it was difficult to distinguish between immatures and some adult females based on plumage coloration or measurements, a cut-off point of 70.4 mm for wing chord separated 91% of females from 93% of males, regardless of age.

  14. Detection of Schistosoma spindale ova and associated risk factors among Malaysian cattle through coprological survey.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tiong Kai; Low, Van Lun; Lee, Soo Ching; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee; Ngui, Romano; Bathmanaban, Premaalatha; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Sharma, Reuben Sunil Kumar; Jaafar, Tariq; Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian

    2015-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Schistosoma spindale ova and its associated risk factors in Malaysian cattle through a coprological survey. A total of 266 rectal fecal samples were collected from six farms in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall infection rate of S. spindale was 6% (16 of 266). Schistosoma spindale infection was observed in two farms, with a prevalence of 5.4% and 51.9%, respectively. This trematode was more likely to co-occur with other gastro-intestinal parasites (i.e., Dicrocoelium spp., Paramphistomum spp., strongyle, Eimeria spp. and Entamoeba spp.). Chi-square analysis revealed that female cattle are less likely to get S. spindale infection as compared to male cattle (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.08-1.06; p < 0.05), and cattle weighing lower than 200 kg, were significantly at higher risk than those higher than 200 kg (OR = 5; 95% CI = 1.07-24.79; p < 0.05) to the infection. Multivariate analysis confirmed that among the cattle in Malaysia, the age (cattle with two year old and higher: OR = 21; 95% CI = 2.48-179.44; p < 0.05) and weight (weighing 200 kg and lower: OR = 17; 95% CI = 3.38-87.19; p < 0.05) were risk factors for S. spindale infection among Malaysian cattle.

  15. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  16. [Evaluation of cervical vertebrae for determination of skeletal age].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, M; Leonardi, R; Zaborra, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship among cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal, dental and chronological ages were assessed by the Authors in lateral cephalometric, hand and orthopantomographic x-rays on 72 italian young subjects from 10 to 15 years of age. Statistically significant correlations were found between cervical vertebral maturation and skeletal age both in males and females, while vertebrae age was correlated with dental and chronological ages only in the females.

  17. Effects of United States Department of Agriculture carcass maturity on sensory attributes of steaks produced by cattle representing two dental age classes.

    PubMed

    Semler, M L; Woerner, D R; Belk, K E; Enns, K J; Tatum, J D

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effects of USDA carcass maturity on sensory properties of LM steaks produced by cattle representing 2 dental age classes. Carcasses identified for use in the experiment were produced by steers and heifers classified as either <30 mo of age (MOA) or ≥30 MOA at the time of slaughter using dentition. Within each dental age class, carcasses were selected to represent 2 maturity groups and 3 marbling categories, resulting in 12 dental age × maturity × marbling subclasses, each consisting of 50 carcasses. Maturity groups consisted of carcasses classified by USDA graders as either A to A (A) overall maturity or B to D (B-D) overall maturity; marbling categories consisted of carcasses with instrument marbling scores of Slight to Slight (SL), Small to Small (SM), or Modest to Moderate (MT-MD). Carcasses were selected in pairs so that each carcass chosen to represent the B-D-maturity group was paired with an A-maturity carcass of the same sex and marbling score (±50 marbling units). Strip loin (LM) steaks were obtained from both sides of each carcass. After a 14-d aging period, 1 LM steak was measured for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF), whereas the other LM steak was used for sensory analysis by a trained descriptive attribute panel. No differences ( > 0.05) in LM tenderness, juiciness, or flavor were detected between carcass maturity groups in either dental age class. Advanced dental age (≥30 MOA), however, was associated with more intense ( < 0.05) grassy and bloody/serumy flavors and decreased ( < 0.05) tenderness within the SL marbling group. Marbling score effectively stratified carcasses (MT-MD > SM > SL) according to differences ( < 0.0001) in LM tenderness, juiciness, beefy/brothy flavor, and buttery/beef fat flavor. In addition, increased marbling was associated with lesser ( < 0.01) intensities of bloody/serumy, livery/organy, and grassy flavors as well as smaller ( < 0.0001) values for WBSF and SSF

  18. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method in multiple reaction monitoring mode to determine 17alpha-ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair without previous digestion.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, S; Lolo, M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2007-11-14

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for determination of ethynylestradiol residues in cattle hair. Hair samples were pulverized with a cryogenic mill followed by a simple extraction with acetonitrile. A dansyl derivatization procedure to improve ethynylestradiol detection was used before the LC-MS/MS analysis in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using alpha-estradiol as an internal standard. The method was validated following the latest EU guidelines using blank hair samples spiked at 2 ng g(-1). The detection capability (CCbeta) was less than 2 ng g(-1), and the decision limit (CCalpha) was 1 ng g(-1). Incurred samples obtained 56 days after cow treatment with ethynylestradiol were analyzed, and the presence of ethynylestradiol in the hair was confirmed in all cases.

  19. Determinants of breast appearance and aging in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Soltanian, Hooman T; Liu, Mengyuan T; Cash, Adam D; Iglesias, Rodrigo A

    2012-09-01

    Appearance, aging, and disorders of the breast are multifactorial. There are intrinsic, patient-specific characteristics, such as breast growth during puberty and propensity for breast cancer, which are primarily inherited. There are also environmental factors, which can be potentially controlled. Monozygotic twins provide an excellent research opportunity to examine the role of extrinsic factors in subjects with identical genetic predispositions. The authors investigate the role and significance of various environmental and acquired factors on breast aesthetics. Identical female twins were recruited during the Twins Days Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, in 2009 and 2010. After consent was obtained, enrolled subjects completed a comprehensive survey on their medical and personal history. Standardized digital photographs were taken by medical photographers. Sixteen aesthetic breast features were subjectively rated by 6 plastic surgery residents blinded to the survey results. These ratings were then analyzed against survey data to determine the significance of different exogenous factors on breast appearance. A total of 161 pairs of identical female twins (n = 322) with a mean (SD) age of 47.6 (14.5) years were recruited. Twins who moisturized their skin daily had significantly fewer rhytids (P = .002). Twins who received hormone replacement therapy after menopause had more attractive breast shape, size, projection, areolar shape, and areolar size (P < .03). However, twins who had a higher body mass index, greater number of pregnancies, and larger cup sizes had significantly less attractive breasts (P < .05). Twins who smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol also had significantly less attractive breasts (P < .05). Twins who breastfed had less attractive areolar size and shape but better skin quality than their counterparts who never breastfed (P < .03). Finally, there was a significantly higher incidence of breast pain in twins who primarily slept on their sides compared

  20. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all steers received the same high-starch diet. In EWS steers the expression of PPARG, other adipogenic (CEBPA, ZFP423) and lipogenic (THRSP, SREBF1, INSIG1) activators, and several enzymes (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, PCK1, DGAT2) that participate in the process of IMF increased gradually to a peak between 96 and 167 days on treatment. Steers in NW did not achieve similar expression levels even by 222 days on treatment, suggesting a blunted response even when fed a high-starch diet after weaning. High-starch feeding at an early age (EWS) triggers precocious and sustained adipogenesis, resulting in greater marbling. PMID:24516329

  1. Determining the age of dwarfmistletoe infections on red fir

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf; J.R. Parmeter

    1966-01-01

    Dwarfmistletoe on red fir in California can be aged rapidly and reliably by counting the number of annual rings showing swelling and then adding 1 year for the lag period between infection and swelling. Infections were correctly aged in 70 percent of the cases observed, and were aged to within 1 year in the other 30 percent.

  2. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  3. Nongenetic Determinants of Age at Menarche: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The acceleration of pubertal development is an important medical and social problem, as it may result in increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This systematic review summarizes relevant data about nongenetic factors, which contribute to age at menarche (AAM), and suggests those which may be the most important. Methods. The available literature from 1980 till July 2013 was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Finally, 154 papers were selected for the analysis. Results. Environmental factors, which may affect AAM, vary in populations of different ethnicity. The prenatal, infancy, and early childhood periods are the most susceptible to these factors. Body weight, high animal protein intake, family stressors (e.g., single parenting), and physical activity seem to influence AAM in most populations. Conclusions. The data about influence of nongenetic factors on AAM are still inconsistent. The factors affecting prenatal and early childhood growth seem to have a larger effect on further sexual maturation. Further studies are needed in order to validate the association between other environmental determinants and AAM in different ethnical groups. PMID:25050345

  4. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells size on the determinism of the breed in cattle.

    PubMed

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes.

  5. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. PMID:24660089

  6. Phylogenomic approaches to determine the zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from Zambian dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Lupolova, Nadejda; Sikakwa, Linda; Bessell, Paul R.; Muma, John B.; Hoyle, Deborah V.; McAteer, Sean P.; Gibbs, Kirsty; Williams, Nicola J.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Cordoni, Guido; Argyle, Sally A.; Wagner, Sam; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Dallman, Timothy J.; Stevens, Mark P.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Gally, David L.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) sampled from 104 dairy units in the central region of Zambia and compared these with isolates from patients presenting with diarrhoea in the same region. A subset of 297 E. coli strains were sequenced allowing in silico analyses of phylo- and sero-groups. The majority of the bovine strains clustered in the B1 ‘commensal’ phylogroup (67%) and included a diverse array of serogroups. 11% (41/371) of the isolates from Zambian dairy cattle contained Shiga toxin genes (stx) while none (0/73) of the human isolates were positive. While the toxicity of a subset of these isolates was demonstrated, none of the randomly selected STEC belonged to key serogroups associated with human disease and none encoded a type 3 secretion system synonymous with typical enterohaemorrhagic strains. Positive selection for E. coli O157:H7 across the farms identified only one positive isolate again indicating this serotype is rare in these animals. In summary, while Stx-encoding E. coli strains are common in this dairy population, the majority of these strains are unlikely to cause disease in humans. However, the threat remains of the emergence of strains virulent to humans from this reservoir. PMID:27220895

  7. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    , and catastrophically disrupt, the saturnian moons. Finally, we present crater counts on the satellites from two different groups. Many of the heavily cratered terrains appear to be nearly saturated, so it is difficult to infer the provenance of the impactors from crater counts alone. More large craters have been found on Iapetus than on any other satellite. Enceladus displays an enormous range of surface ages, ranging from the old mid-latitude plains to the extremely young South Polar Terrain. Cassini images provide some evidence for the reality of Population II. Most of the observed craters may have formed in one or more cataclysms, but more work is needed to determine the roles of heliocentric and planetocentric bodies in creating the craters.

  8. Icy Satellites of Saturn: Impact Cratering and Age Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dones, L.; Chapman, C. R.; McKinnon, William B.; Melosh, H. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; Neukum, G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2009-01-01

    , and catastrophically disrupt, the saturnian moons. Finally, we present crater counts on the satellites from two different groups. Many of the heavily cratered terrains appear to be nearly saturated, so it is difficult to infer the provenance of the impactors from crater counts alone. More large craters have been found on Iapetus than on any other satellite. Enceladus displays an enormous range of surface ages, ranging from the old mid-latitude plains to the extremely young South Polar Terrain. Cassini images provide some evidence for the reality of Population II. Most of the observed craters may have formed in one or more cataclysms, but more work is needed to determine the roles of heliocentric and planetocentric bodies in creating the craters.

  9. Age determination in refugee children: A narrative history tool for use in holistic age assessment.

    PubMed

    Vaska, Ashish I; Benson, Jill; Eliott, Jaklin A; Williams, Jan

    2016-05-01

    To present the rationale for using a narrative history tool as part of a holistic age assessment of accompanied refugee children with age uncertainty by exploring cultural narratives of age. Seven small group, semi-structured interviews with 24 humanitarian entrants (10 male, 14 female) recruited from Afghan, Bhutanese and Burundian communities in Adelaide, Australia were conducted. Interviews were performed with interpreters present, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Four themes emerged: the significance of age; ways of remembering age; the refugee experience and its effect on age recall; and the reliability and permissibility of documentation. Age was significant, but understood and remembered differently with knowledge of an exact date of birth not required for functioning in participants' home societies. Information regarding age was embedded in narrative accounts, related to events and other people. Birth was not always registered, with birth and age-containing documentation obtained later in life. These documents often reflected cultural ideas regarding age, rather than recording true chronological age. The refugee experience profoundly affected the ability of people to remember their age by disrupting methods used to recall specific events, including birth. Narrative history provides valuable information regarding age in accompanied refugee children with age uncertainty, and allows for age to be located within a range that approximates true chronological age when age documentation is absent or clearly erroneous. The Age Assessment Tool questionnaire provides health professionals with a framework for conducting age assessment interviews. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon Bieneusi Infections in Naturally Infected Dairy Cattle from Birth to Two Years of Age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi species/genotypes. It is crucial to know which species and/or genotypes are actually present ...

  11. Bos indicus cattle possess greater basal concentrations of HSP27, alpha B-crystallin, and HSP70 in skeletal muscle in vivo compared with cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Zerby, H N; Fitzpatrick, L A; Parker, A J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the basal concentrations of heat shock proteins (HSP) between and cattle and to determine if HSP basal concentrations change as an animal matures. A total of 40 cattle were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of genotype and age (heifers and mature cows) on basal concentrations of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), α B-crystallin (Cryab), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Each experimental group of 10 animals was sampled on a separate day over a period of 4 wk during July 2014. A muscle sample was collected from the longissimus thoracis (LT) and concentrations of HSP were quantified using ELISA. There were no significant differences in HSP concentration for the interaction between age and genotype or for age alone. cattle had greater ( < 0.05) basal concentrations of HSP27, Cryab, and HSP70 in the LT than cattle. The results of this study show that basal in vivo HSP concentrations differ between and cattle. However, further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between HSP concentrations and meat tenderness with respect to genotypes to see if HSP concentrations account for at least some variability in tenderness differences.

  12. Determination of GHG and ammonia emissions from stored dairy cattle slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber.

    PubMed

    Minato, Keiko; Kouda, Yasuyuki; Yamakawa, Masaaki; Hara, Satoshi; Tamura, Tadashi; Osada, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a system for measuring emissions from stored slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber. CH(4) , CO(2) , N(2) O and NH(3) emitted from the storage tank of a dairy cattle farm in eastern Hokkaido were measured during summer 2008 (7/16-8/6), fall 2008 (10/2-10/26), spring 2009 (6/2-6/21) and winter 2009 (3/11). Average daily gas emission rates in summer, fall and spring were, respectively, 54.8, 54.2 and 34.3 g/m(2) for CH(4) ; 602, 274 and 254 g/m(2) for CO(2) ; 55.4, 68.2 and trace mg/m(2) for N(2) O; and 0.55, 0.73 and 0.46 g/m(2) for NH(3) . CH(4) , CO(2) and NH(3) emission rates during the brief measurement period in winter were reduced to 1/4, 1/23 and 1/2, respectively, of summer emission rate levels. All gas emissions showed diurnal fluctuation and were greatest during the daytime, when the ambient temperature rose. CH(4) , NH(3) and CO(2) emissions increased significantly during the daytime, and the daily emission (in grams) of each gas was positively correlated with maximum daily temperature. According to the combined spring, summer and fall measurements, the CH(4) , N(2) O and NH(3) annual emission factors were 1.42% (g CH(4) /g volatile solids), 0.02% (g N(2) O-N/g total N) and 0.43% (g NH(3) -N/g total N), respectively.

  13. Effects of monolaurin on ruminal methanogens and selected bacterial species from cattle, as determined with the rumen simulation technique.

    PubMed

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Meile, Leo; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2011-10-01

    Before being able to implement effective ruminal methane mitigation strategies via feed supplementation, the assessment of side effects on ruminal fermentation and rumen microbial populations is indispensable. In this respect we investigated the effects of monolaurin, a methane-mitigating lipid, on methanogens and important carbohydrate-degrading bacteria present in ruminal fluid of dairy cattle in continuous culture employing the rumen simulation technique. In six experimental runs, each lasting for 10 days, four diets with different carbohydrate composition, based on hay, maize, wheat and a maize-wheat mixture, either remained non-supplemented or were supplemented with monolaurin and incubated in a ruminal-fluid buffer mixture. Incubation liquid samples from days 6 to 10 of incubation were analyzed with relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes to assess monolaurin-induced shifts in specific rumen microbial populations in relation to the corresponding non-supplemented diets. Monolaurin completely inhibited Fibrobacter succinogenes in all diets while the response of the other cellulolytic bacteria varied in dependence of the diet. Megasphaera elsdenii remained unaffected by monolaurin in the two diets containing maize, but was slightly stimulated by monolaurin with the wheat and largely with the hay diet. The supply of monolaurin suppressed Methanomicrobiales below the detection limit with all diets, whereas relative 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Methanobacteriales increased by 7-fold with monolaurin in case of the hay diet. Total Archaea were decreased by up to over 90%, but this was significant only for the wheat containing diets. Thus, monolaurin exerted variable effects mediated by unknown mechanisms on important ruminal microbes involved in carbohydrate degradation, along with its suppression of methane formation. The applicability of monolaurin for methane mitigation in ruminants thus depends on the extent to which adverse

  14. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness ...

  15. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness ...

  16. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness ...

  17. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness ...

  18. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of birth) or the popular usage method (under which a specific age is reached on the anniversary of birth... month, of his birth is known. Blindness ...

  19. [The demographic determinants of the aging of the population].

    PubMed

    Partida Busch, V

    1998-01-01

    The extent to which changes in the major demographic variables have caused the aging of the population of Mexico is analyzed. These factors include the decline in mortality since 1950, the increase in international migration since 1950, and the decline in fertility since 1963. These effects are illustrated using a series of age pyramids with and without the impact of the factor under consideration.

  20. A stochastic model to determine the economic value of changing diagnostic test characteristics for identification of cattle for treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Theurer, M E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Schroeder, T C

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is an economically important syndrome in the beef industry, and diagnostic accuracy is important for optimal disease management. The objective of this study was to determine whether improving diagnostic sensitivity or specificity was of greater economic value at varied levels of respiratory disease prevalence by using Monte Carlo simulation. Existing literature was used to populate model distributions of published sensitivity, specificity, and performance (ADG, carcass weight, yield grade, quality grade, and mortality risk) differences among calves based on clinical respiratory disease status. Data from multiple cattle feeding operations were used to generate true ranges of respiratory disease prevalence and associated mortality. Input variables were combined into a single model that calculated estimated net returns for animals by diagnostic category (true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative) based on the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity for each iteration. Net returns for each diagnostic category were multiplied by the proportion of animals in each diagnostic category to determine group profitability. Apparent prevalence was categorized into low (<15%) and high (≥15%) groups. For both apparent prevalence categories, increasing specificity created more rapid, positive change in net returns than increasing sensitivity. Improvement of diagnostic specificity, perhaps through a confirmatory test interpreted in series or pen-level diagnostics, can increase diagnostic value more than improving sensitivity. Mortality risk was the primary driver for net returns. The results from this study are important for determining future research priorities to analyze diagnostic techniques for bovine respiratory disease and provide a novel way for modeling diagnostic tests.

  1. Genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among gestation length, birth weight, growth traits and age at first calving in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, R M; Brinks, J S

    1982-09-01

    Data on the Red Angus, Angus and Hereford herds of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa, collected from 1968 to 1976, were analyzed for relationships among gestation length, birth weight, prenatal gain (birth weight adjusted for gestation length), growth traits and age at first calving. A total of 5,691 calf records, 1,783 listing gestation length, were included in the study. Paternal half-sib analyses and least-squares procedures were used to compute heritability estimates and genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations among growth traits, including prenatal gain, were high in all cases. Heritability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .36 and .43, respectively, for bull calves and .37 and .35 for heifer calves. Genetic correlations between these traits were .25 and .22 for bull and heifer calves, respectively. Gestation length was negatively correlated (genetically) with all growth traits except birth weight. This result suggests that faster growing fetuses may trigger parturition earlier than average. Age at first calving was negatively correlated (genetically) with growth traits, indicating a favorable relationship between growth and early reproduction. Analysis of several selection indexes combining either birth weight and yearling weight or gestation length and yearling weight indicated that continued response to selection for growth without excessive increase in birth weight is feasible. Selection for growth and moderate birth weight would be more effective than selection for growth and shorter gestation, suggesting that the former method would both shorten gestation and alter the growth curve. Repeatability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .20 and .22, respectively. Maternal effects accounted for approximately 10% of the variation in each trait.

  2. Epigenetic Determinants of Healthy and Diseased Brain Aging and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    S., Akbarian; S., Beeri M.; V., Haroutunian

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of normal and diseased brain aging and cognition will have a significant public health impact, given that the oldest-old persons over 85 years of age represent the fastest growing segment in the population in developed countries, with over 30 million new cases of dementia predicted to occur world-wide each year by 2040. Dysregulation of gene expression, and more generally, genome organization and function, is thought to contribute to age-related declines in cognition. Remarkably, nearly all neuronal nuclei that reside in an aged brain had permanently exited from the cell cycle during prenatal development, and DNA methylation and histone modifications and other molecular constituents of the epigenome are likely to play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal health and function throughout the entire lifespan. Here, we provide an overview on age-related changes in the brain’s chromatin structures, highlight potential epigenetic drug targets for cognitive decline and age-related neurodegenerative disease and discuss opportunities and challenges when studying ‘epigenetic biomarkers’ in aging research. PMID:23571692

  3. An independent method for determining the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Hansen, C. J.; Liebert, James; Van Horn, H. M.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-01-01

    An age of 9.3 + or - 2.0 Gyr is derived for the Galactic disk on the basis of comparisons between the sudden drop in the observed luminosity distribution and theoretical evolutionary white dwarf models and allowance for a mean prewhite-dwarf lifetime of 0.3 Gyr. To obtain the age of the universe, the time between the big bang and the first appearance of stars in the Galactic disk is added. The age of the universe is estimated to be 10.3 + or - 2.2 Gyr.

  4. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for body weight and scrotal circumference adjusted to 12 and 18 months of age for male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Frizzas, O G; Grossi, D A; Buzanskas, M E; Paz, C C P; Bezerra, L A F; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, J A; Munari, D P

    2009-03-01

    Heritability estimates and genetic correlations were obtained for body weight and scrotal circumference, adjusted, respectively, to 12 (BW12 and SC12) and 18 (BW18 and SC18) months of age, for 10 742 male Nellore cattle. The adjustments to SC12 and SC18 were made using a nonlinear logistic function, while BW12 and BW18 were obtained by linear adjustment. The contemporary groups (CGs) were defined from animals born on the same farm, in the same year and birth season. The mean heritability estimates obtained using the restricted maximum likelihood method in bi-trait analysis were 0.25, 0.25, 0.29 and 0.42 for BW12, BW18, SC12 and SC18, respectively. The genetic correlations were 0.30 ± 0.11, 0.21 ± 0.13, 0.21 ± 0.11, -0.08 ± 0.15, 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.89 ± 0.04 between the traits BW12 and BW18; BW12 and SC12; BW12 and SC18; BW18 and SC12; BW18 and SC18; and SC12 and SC18. The heritability for SC18 was considerably greater than for SC12, suggesting that this should be included as a selection criterion. The genetic correlation between BW18 and SC12 was close to zero, indicating that these traits did not influence each other. The contrary occurred between SC12 and SC18, indicating that selection using one of these could alter the other. Because of the mean magnitudes of heritabilities in the various measurements of weight and scrotal perimeter, it is suggested that the practice of individual selection for these traits is possible.

  5. A comparative evaluation of PCR- based methods for species- specific determination of African animal trypanosomes in Ugandan cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, PCR has been become widely applied for the detection of trypanosomes overcoming many of the constraints of parasitological and serological techniques, being highly sensitive and specific for trypanosome detection. Individual species-specific multi-copy trypanosome DNA sequences can be targeted to identify parasites. Highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are also useful for comparisons between closely related species. The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) in particular are relatively small, show variability among related species and are flanked by highly conserved segments to which PCR primers can be designed. Individual variations in inter-species length makes the ITS region a useful marker for identification of multiple trypanosome species within a sample. Methods Six hundred blood samples from cattle collected in Uganda on FTA cards were screened using individual species-specific primers for Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma vivax and compared to a modified (using eluate extracted using chelex) ITS-PCR reaction. Results The comparative analysis showed that the species-specific primer sets showed poor agreement with the ITS primer set. Using species-specific PCR for Trypanozoon, a prevalence of 10.5% was observed as compared to 0.2% using ITS PCR (Kappa = 0.03). For Trypanosoma congolense, the species-specific PCR reaction indicated a prevalence of 0% compared to 2.2% using ITS PCR (Kappa = 0). For T. vivax, species-specific PCR detected prevalence of 5.7% compared to 2.8% for ITS PCR (Kappa = 0.29). Conclusions When selecting PCR based tools to apply to epidemiological surveys for generation of prevalence data for animal trypanosomiasis, it is recommended that species-specific primers are used, being the most sensitive diagnostic tool for screening samples to identify members of Trypanozoon (T. b. brucei s.l). While ITS primers are useful for studying the prevalence of trypanosomes

  6. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  7. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    ) distance to the spectral centroid of a calibration population of 796 faecal samples collected throughout 2 years in four herds. Seasonal trends in pasture quality and responses to management practices were identified adequately and H<3.0 for 98% of faecal samples collected. We conclude that the development of FNIRS equations with confined animals is not only unexpensive and ethically acceptable, but their predictions are also sufficiently accurate to monitor dietary composition (but not intake) of beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

  8. Age of dam and sex of calf adjustments and genetic parameters for gestation length in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H

    2006-01-01

    To estimate adjustment factors and genetic parameters for gestation length (GES), AI and calving date records (n = 40,356) were extracted from the Canadian Charolais Association field database. The average time from AI to calving date was 285.2 d (SD = 4.49 d) and ranged from 274 to 296 d. Fixed effects were sex of calf, age of dam (2, 3, 4, 5 to 10, > or = 11 yr), and gestation contemporary group (year of birth x herd of origin). Variance components were estimated using REML and 4 animal models (n = 84,332) containing from 0 to 3 random maternal effects. Model 1 (M1) contained only direct genetic effects. Model 2 (M2) was G1 plus maternal genetic effects with the direct x maternal genetic covariance constrained to zero, and model 3 (M3) was G2 without the covariance constraint. Model 4 (M4) extended G3 to include a random maternal permanent environmental effect. Direct heritability estimates were high and similar among all models (0.61 to 0.64), and maternal heritability estimates were low, ranging from 0.01 (M2) to 0.09 (M3). Likelihood ratio tests and parameter estimates suggested that M4 was the most appropriate (P < 0.05) model. With M4, phenotypic variance (18.35 d2) was partitioned into direct and maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental components (hd2 = 0.64 +/- 0.04, hm2 = 0.07 +/- 0.01, r(d,m) = -0.37 +/- 0.06, and c2 = 0.03 +/- 0.01, respectively). Linear contrasts were used to estimate that bull calves gestated 1.26 d longer (P < 0.02) than heifers, and adjustments to a mature equivalent (5 to 10 yr old) age of dam were 1.49 (P < 0.01), 0.56 (P < 0.01), 0.33 (P < 0.01), and -0.24 (P < 0.14) d for GES records of calves born to 2-, 3-, 4-, and > or = 11-yr-old cows, respectively. Bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters for GES with birth and adjusted 205-d weaning weights, and postweaning gain. Direct GES was positively correlated with direct birth weight (BWT; 0.34 +/- 0.04) but negatively correlated with maternal

  9. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P J

    2007-09-01

    Heat stress causes large reductions in fertility in lactating dairy cows. The magnitude and geographical extent of this problem is increasing because improvements in milk yield have made it more difficult for cows to regulate body temperature during warm weather. There have been efforts to improve fertility during heat stress by exploiting determinants of oocyte and embryonic responses to elevated temperature. Among these determinants are genotype, stage of development, and presence of cytoprotective molecules in the reproductive tract. One effective strategy for increasing pregnancy rate during heat stress is to use embryo transfer to bypass effects of elevated temperature on the oocyte and early embryo. Pregnancy success to embryo transfer in the summer can be further improved by exposure of embryos to insulin-like growth factor-I during culture before transfer. Among the cytoprotective molecules that have been examined for enhancing fertility during heat stress are bovine somatotropin and various antioxidants. To date, an effective method for delivery of these molecules to increase fertility during heat stress has not been identified. Genes in cattle exist for regulation of body temperature and for cellular resistance to elevated temperature. Although largely unidentified, the existence of these genes offers the possibility for their incorporation into dairy breeds through crossbreeding or on an individual-gene basis. In summary, physiological or genetic manipulation of the cow to improve embryonic resistance to elevated temperature is a promising approach for enhancing fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging.

    PubMed

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Filip, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists' assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  11. Erros in Site Index Determination Caused by Tree Age Variation in Even-Aged Oak Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert A. McQuilkin

    1975-01-01

    Age deviations of individual trees in even-aged oak stands in Missouri caused variations in the height growth patterns and site index estimates of these younger or older trees. A correction factor for site index estimates on these age-deviant trees is given.

  12. Shelf life determination of an epoxy resin by accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the study reported were to first define the rate and mode of degradation of an epoxy resin at two storage conditions, 4.4/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, by means of a thermally accelerated aging experiment. Then, samples which had been aged the equivalent of at least 10 years at each storage condition would be tested for conformance to the material specifications. The study's results demonstrate that the commercial resin could be acquired and stored for the required 10 to 11 years without concern over degradation. The expected changes at the two storage temperatures have been defined. Aged resin samples are shown to yield an acceptable product. Sufficient data exist to predict the changes in viscosity and epoxide equivalent of the resin at any other storage temperature of interest. (LEW)

  13. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  15. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  16. BSE infectivity in jejunum, ileum and ileocaecal junction of incubating cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To establish bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) public health protection measures it is important to precisely define the cattle tissues considered as specified risk materials (SRM). To date, in pre-clinical BSE infected cattle, no evidence of the BSE agent had been found in the gut outside of the ileal Peyer's Patches. This study was undertaken to determine when and where the pathological prion protein (PrPSc) and/or BSE infectivity can be found in the small intestine of cattle 4 to 6 months of age, orally challenged with BSE. Samples of the jejunum, the ileum and the ileocaecal junction from 46 BSE infected cattle, culled from 1 up to 44 months post infection (mpi) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Samples from cattle 8 mpi to 20 mpi were additionally studied by PTA Western blot, rapid tests, and by mouse (TgbovXV) bioassay. In doing so nearly all of the cattle, from 4 up to 44 mpi, had detectable amounts of PrPSc and/or infectivity in the distal ileum. In the distal ileum clear time-dependent variations were visible concerning the amount of PrPSc, the tissue structures affected, and the cells involved. BSE infectivity was found not only in the ileum and ileocaecal junction but also in the jejunum. The systematic approach of this study provides new data for qualitative and quantitative risk assessments and allows defining bovine SRM more precisely. PMID:21314904

  17. BioAge: Toward A Multi-Determined, Mechanistic Account of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Correne A.; Tuokko, Holly A.; Williams, Dorothy; Dixon, Roger A.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk and protective factors across the human lifespan confers individual risk for late-life cognitive decline, implicating a multi-causal explanation. In this review, we explore current BioAge models, describe three broad yet pathologically relevant biological processes linked to cognitive decline, and propose a novel operationalization of BioAge accounting for both moderating and causal mechanisms of cognitive decline and dementia. We argue that a multivariate and mechanistic BioAge approach will lead to a greater understanding of disease pathology as well as more accurate prediction and early identification of late-life cognitive decline. PMID:25278166

  18. Cloning cattle.

    PubMed

    Oback, B; Wells, D N

    2003-01-01

    Over the past six years, hundreds of apparently normal calves have been cloned worldwide from bovine somatic donor cells. However, these surviving animals represent less than 5% of all cloned embryos transferred into recipient cows. Most of the remaining 95% die at various stages of development from a predictable pattern of placental and fetal abnormalities, collectively referred to as the "cloning-syndrome." The low efficiency seriously limits commercial applicability and ethical acceptance of somatic cloning and enforces the development of improved cloning methods. In this paper, we describe our current standard operating procedure (SOP) for cattle cloning using zona-free nuclear transfer. Following this SOP, the output of viable and healthy calves at weaning is about 9% of embryos transferred. Better standardization of cloning protocols across and within research groups is needed to separate technical from biological factors underlying low cloning efficiency.

  19. Effect of Packaging Method on the Lipid Oxidation, Protein Oxidation, and Color in Aged Top Round from Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the packaging method on the lipid and protein oxidation, and color in aged top round from Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for 14 d at 4℃. Catalase activity was the highest (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging (VP) treatment during storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+vacuum skin packaging (VSP) treatments than in other treatments at d 14. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.05) in VP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments at d 14. During storage, total antioxidant activity was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatment than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment. TBARS value was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment during storage and was lower (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP and Ox-MAP treatments, respectively. Carbonyl content was the lowest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 10 d. From 7 d, the a* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment and was higher (p<0.05) in 50% Ox-MAP and 50% Ox-MAP+VSP treatments than in other treatments. The b* value was the highest (p<0.05) in VP treatment from 3 d, and was higher (p<0.05) in 80% Ox-MAP+VSP, 50% Ox-MAP, and 50% Ox-MAP+ VSP treatments than in 80% Ox-MAP treatment at d 14. Therefore, VP improved the oxidation and red color stabilities in stored-aged top round compared with Ox-MAP. In addition, 50% Ox-MAP improved the lipid oxidation and red color stabilities compared with 80% Ox-MAP, and its inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation was enhanced by combination with VSP. PMID:26761167

  20. Medical and Psychological Determinants on the Development in Aged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz-Scherzer, R.

    The relationships between somatic and sociological-psychological variables are complex. Each mental change which occurs in aging is more or less closely accompanied by somatic changes. The reverse is also true. The objective state of health and the subjective feeling of well-being are linked. Both can exert an influence over behavior and…

  1. Relative size and stand age determine Pinus banksiana mortality

    Treesearch

    Han Y. H. Chen; Songling Fu; Robert A. Monserud; Ian C. Gillies

    2008-01-01

    Tree mortality is a poorly understood process in the boreal forest. Whereas large disturbances reset succession by killing all or most trees, background tree mortality was hypothesized to be affected by competition, ageing, and stand composition. We tested these hypotheses on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) mortality using data from long-term...

  2. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  3. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  4. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection.

    PubMed

    Arzt, Jonathan; Pacheco, Juan M; Smoliga, George R; Tucker, Meghan T; Bishop, Elizabeth; Pauszek, Steven J; Hartwig, Ethan J; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2014-03-01

    Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV-Mut). After aerosolization of FMDV-WT, primary infection sites had significantly greater quantities of FMDV, viral RNA, and type I/III interferon (IFN) activity compared to corresponding tissues from cattle infected with FMDV-Mut. Additionally, FMDV-WT-infected cattle had marked induction of systemic IFN activity in serum. In contrast, FMDV-Mut aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest systemic IFN response nor had viremia. Interestingly, IEL inoculation of FMDV-Mut in cattle restored the virulent phenotype and systemic IFN response. These data indicate that the attenuated phenotype in cattle is associated with decreased replicative efficiency, reflected by decreased innate response. However, attenuation is abrogated by bypassing the common primary infection sites, inducing accelerated viral replication at the inoculation site.

  6. Estimating seroprevalence and variation to four tick-borne infections and determination of associated risk factors in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Ngumi, P N; Kitala, P M; Skilton, R A

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne disease (TBD) parasites (Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina) was conducted on traditional smallholder mixed farms in Mbeere District in Kenya. The objective was to estimate the infections' seroprevalence and variation and identify associated risk factors. A total of 440 cattle in 80 farms, selected by stratified random sampling from the four divisions in the district, were surveyed. Information on animal and on each farm's management practices, particularly on tick control practices, was obtained by personal interview using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalences of serum antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The relationship between TBDs seroprevalence and the risk factors was assessed by multivariable analysis using standard logistic regression models and mixed models using the farm as a random effect. Overall estimation of seroprevalences and their 95% confidence limits were: T. parva (19% [14%, 25%]), T. mutans (25% [20%, 29%]), A. marginale (58% [52%, 64%]) and B. bigemina (19% [15%, 23%]). Analysis in presence of extra-binomial variation under Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) yielded relatively larger intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.3) and variance-inflation factor (VIF) (2.35) values for T. parva than for the other parasites [range, 0.05-0.07 (for ICC) and 1.02-1.32 (for VIF)]. Both farm- and area-level variables had variably significant and large effects on all infections, but these were more pronounced on T. parva seroprevalence. Inclusion of farm random effect resulted in substantially higher estimate of farm variance component for T. parva infection (1.73) compared to other infections [range, 0.29-0.56], comparable ICC values with those under ANOVA analysis [range, 0.08-0.35] and a substantially better fit than the standard multivariable logistic regressions. The above results

  7. Obesity and aging: determinants of endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    Endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. After the discovery of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) by Robert F. Furchgott in 1980 it soon became clear that endothelial cells also release vasoactive factors distinct from nitric oxide (NO) namely, endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCF) as well as hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF). Vasoactive factors derived from endothelial cells include NO/EDRF, reactive oxygen species, endothelins and angiotensins which have either EDRF or EDCF functions, cyclooxygenase-derived EDCFs and EDRFs, and EDHFs. Endothelial factors are formed by enzymes such as NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, converting enyzmes, NADPH oxidases, and epoxigenases, among others, and participate in the regulation of vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions; however, their abnormal regulation due to endothelial cell dysfunction contributes to disease processes such as atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, and renal disease. Because of recent changes in world demographics and the declining health status of the world's population, both aging and obesity as independent risk factors for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke, will continue to increase in the years to come. Obesity and associated conditions such as arterial hypertension and diabetes are now also some of the primary health concerns among children and adolescents. The similarities of pathomechanisms activated in obesity and aging suggest that obesity--at least in the vasculature--can be considered to have effects consistent with accelerated, "premature" aging. Pathomechanisms as well as the clinical issues of obesity- and aging-associated vascular changes important for atherosclerosis development and prevention are discussed.

  8. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  9. Production and dose determination of the Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) Muguga cocktail vaccine used to control East Coast fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ekta; Mwaura, Stephen; Kiara, Henry; Morzaria, Subhash; Peters, Andrew; Toye, Philip

    2016-03-01

    The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-14—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-13—Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-12— Selection of Retirement Rate Category... II-B. 3 Table II-C. Table II-A—Expected Retirement Ages for Individuals in the Low...

  13. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  14. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  15. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  16. [Methods for the determination of pH value and redox potential in the rumen fluid of adult cattle].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Mannhardt, K

    1994-10-01

    pH sticks and pH meters were tested to determine ruminal pH and mV meters in order to measure the redox potential in rumen contents. Rumen pH can be determined by reading pH sticks left in rumen liquor or immediately after removal. Differences between pH sticks and a reference method accounted for 0.01-0.48 pH units, depending on the pH stick used and the pH range of the ruminal contents (pH < 6, 6-7, > 7). Ruminal pH is accurately measured by the pH meters pHep and GPHR (y = -0.22 + 1.03x, or y = 0.15 + 0.97 x). By using a mV meter the redox potential in rumen liquor can be determined 10 min after start of measurement. Results determined with the mV meter GPHR showed a mean difference of 10-23 mV, those determined with ORP a mean difference of 131-202 mV in comparison with a reference method. There is no linear correlation between the data of the mV measurements and the data of the methylene blue reduction test in ruminal contents (y = -328.5 - 0.003 x; p = 0.652). Therefore these data may not be in used in the same manner for rumen liquor diagnosis.

  17. Reciprocal Changes in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Kinase with Age Are a Determinant of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Hakimi, Parvin; Kao, Clara; Kao, Allison; Liu, Ruifu; Janocha, Allison; Boyd-Tressler, Andrea; Hang, Xi; Alhoraibi, Hanna; Slater, Erin; Xia, Kevin; Cao, Pengxiu; Shue, Quinn; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Dubyak, George R.; Berger, Nathan A.; Hanson, Richard W.; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves progressive loss of cellular function and integrity, presumably caused by accumulated stochastic damage to cells. Alterations in energy metabolism contribute to aging, but how energy metabolism changes with age, how these changes affect aging, and whether they can be modified to modulate aging remain unclear. In locomotory muscle of post-fertile Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a progressive decrease in cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), a longevity-associated metabolic enzyme, and a reciprocal increase in glycolytic pyruvate kinase (PK) that were necessary and sufficient to limit lifespan. Decline in PEPCK-C with age also led to loss of cellular function and integrity including muscle activity, and cellular senescence. Genetic and pharmacologic interventions of PEPCK-C, muscle activity, and AMPK signaling demonstrate that declines in PEPCK-C and muscle function with age interacted to limit reproductive life and lifespan via disrupted energy homeostasis. Quantifications of metabolic flux show that reciprocal changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age shunted energy metabolism toward glycolysis, reducing mitochondrial bioenergetics. Last, calorie restriction countered changes in PEPCK-C and PK with age to elicit anti-aging effects via TOR inhibition. Thus, a programmed metabolic event involving PEPCK-C and PK is a determinant of aging that can be modified to modulate aging. PMID:26631730

  18. Determination of dideoxyosone precursors of AGEs in human lens proteins.

    PubMed

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Kaid Johar, S R; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2011-10-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl)benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by Western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 vs. 31.7±19.5AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Dideoxyosone Precursors of AGEs in Human Lens Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Johar, Kaid; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2011-01-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-{[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl) benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 AU/mg protein vs. 31.7±19.5 AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  20. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  1. Intestinal surgery of adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Ewoldt, Jennifer M Ivany

    2005-03-01

    Surgical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle occur occasionally, and veterinarians are challenged to determine an accurate diagnosis and treatment for these conditions. Although surgical diseases most commonly occur in the forestomachs (dislocated abomasum, reticuloperitonitis) and the colons (cecal dilation), this article focuses n lesions in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).

  2. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management practices followed for draught cattle in the southern part of India.

    PubMed

    Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India.

  4. [Cholesterol content in longissimus muscle beef from slaughter cattle in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Huerta Leidenz, N; Ruíz Ramírez, J L; Arenas Moreno, L; Jerez Timaure, N; Márquez, E; Muñoz, B

    1996-12-01

    An observational study was conducted with 149 cattle, raised under tropical conditions of Venezuela (mostly grassfed), to study the relationships of sex class (62 bulls, 67 steers, 20 heifers), age by dentition (2.5; 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 yr), physiological maturity (A or B), cattle type (17 Dairy or 132 Zebu type crossbreds), Venezuelan carcass grade (Optima, Excelente, Selecta or Superior), marbling level (four levels from "None" to "Small quantity"), carcass fat cover (four level: "Even", "Uneven", "patch-like" and "Devoid") and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) over the ribeye (1 = 0.1-0.2 cm; 2 = 0.3-0.4 cm; 3 = 0.5-0.9 cm and 4 = > 1.0 cm) on cholesterol content (mg/ 100 g wet weight) of longissimus muscle. Cholesterol content, as determined colormetrically, did not vary in response to the differences in sex class, age, maturity level, carcass grade, marbling level or SFT represented in the present survey. However, cattle type affected (P = 0.08) cholesterol content. Least square means analysis showed that dairy type contained 12.2 mg more of cholesterol/100 g of muscle than Zebu type. The overall mean (+/- SD) muscle cholesterol for the kind of cattle sampled herein (66.6 +/- 16 mg/100 g) was not considered to be different from those of cattle fed in other latitudes.

  5. Factors affecting the infectivity of lymphocytes from cattle with bovine leukosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, B A; Schultz, R D

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 13 bovine leukosis virus infected cattle and inoculated subcutaneously into 29 recipient adult steers to determine (a) the number of mononuclear cells (equivalent amount of blood) necessary to cause infection and (b) factors influencing infectivity of mononuclear cells from bovine leukosis virus-infected animals. A total of 55 inoculations were made. Inoculation of 1 X 10(4), 2 X 10(4) and 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells caused seroconversion in 12%, 57% and 62% of steers, respectively. No infections occurred with 1 X 10(3) or 2 X 10(3) mononuclear cells. Cattle infected for longer than 24 months and those animals greater than three years of age were more likely to cause infection with 1 to 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells than were cattle infected for less than 24 months or animals less than three years of age. Lymphocytes from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis caused more infections when 1 X 10(4) or 2 X 10(4) mononuclear cells were inoculated, than did lymphocytes from nonpersistent lymphocytosis cattle; however, both groups were equally infectious when 5 X 10(4) mononuclear cells were inoculated. No differences were found in infectivity of experimentally vs naturally exposed animals. PMID:6095977

  6. Eruption of posterior teeth in the maxilla and mandible for age determination of water deer.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyejin; Kim, Jinsun; Seomun, Hong; Hwang, Jae Joon; Jeong, Ho-Gul; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cho, Sung-Won

    2017-01-01

    Eruption of posterior teeth, including premolars and molars in the mandible rather than in the maxilla, is accepted as an accurate reference for age determination of deer. In water deer, Hydropotes inermis, the eruption age of mandibular molars has been described in two studies, but the ages were inconsistent with each other. In this study, we aimed to confirm the eruption age of mandibular posterior teeth for the accurate age determination of water deer and to evaluate the efficacy of maxillary posterior teeth for the age determination of deer. The eruption of mandibular and maxillary posterior teeth was investigated in the dry skulls of individual wild water deer of both sexes, up to an age of about 15 months. The eruption age of mandibular molars in water deer was consistent with that of a previous study. The eruption age of posterior teeth was almost the same in the maxilla and mandible of individual water deer. The deciduous mandibular fourth premolar and the permanent maxillary fourth premolar were two easiest teeth to be identified for the age determination. The former controversial eruption age of mandibular posterior teeth in water deer was confirmed. Our study first presented the eruption age of maxillary posterior teeth in water deer. It is suggested that posterior teeth not only in the mandible but also in the maxilla are useful indicators for the age determination of water deer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. AGE DETERMINATION OF SIX INTERMEDIATE-AGE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTERS WITH HST/ACS

    SciTech Connect

    Glatt, Katharina; Kayser, Andrea; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S. III; Harbeck, Daniel; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Koch, Andreas; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-10-15

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend {approx}3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of {approx}0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 ({approx}50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 ({approx}67 kpc), have a relative distance of {approx}17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern

  9. Age Determination of Six Intermediate-Age Small Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters with HST/ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatt, Katharina; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Gallagher, John S., III; Nota, Antonella; Sirianni, Marco; Clementini, Gisella; Tosi, Monica; Harbeck, Daniel; Koch, Andreas; Kayser, Andrea; Da Costa, Gary

    2008-10-01

    We present a photometric analysis of the star clusters Lindsay 1, Kron 3, NGC 339, NGC 416, Lindsay 38, and NGC 419 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F555W and F814W filters. Our color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend ~3.5 mag deeper than the main-sequence turnoff points, deeper than any previous data. Cluster ages were derived using three different isochrone models: Padova, Teramo, and Dartmouth, which are all available in the ACS photometric system. Fitting observed ridgelines for each cluster, we provide a homogeneous and unique set of low-metallicity, single-age fiducial isochrones. The cluster CMDs are best approximated by the Dartmouth isochrones for all clusters, except for NGC 419 where the Padova isochrones provided the best fit. Using Dartmouth isochrones we derive ages of 7.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 1), 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Kron 3), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 339), 6 ± 0.5 Gyr (NGC 416), and 6.5 ± 0.5 Gyr (Lindsay 38). The CMD of NGC 419 shows several main-sequence turnoffs, which belong to the cluster and to the SMC field. We thus derive an age range of 1.2-1.6 Gyr for NGC 419. We confirm that the SMC contains several intermediate-age populous star clusters with ages unlike those of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. Interestingly, our intermediate-age star clusters have a metallicity spread of ~0.6 dex, which demonstrates that the SMC does not have a smooth, monotonic age-metallicity relation. We find an indication for centrally-concentrated blue straggler star candidates in NGC 416, while these are not present for the other clusters. Using the red clump magnitudes, we find that the closest cluster, NGC 419 (~50 kpc), and the farthest cluster, Lindsay 38 (~67 kpc), have a relative distance of ~17 kpc, which confirms the large depth of the SMC. The three oldest SMC clusters (NGC 121, Lindsay 1, and Kron 3) lie in the northwestern part of the SMC, while the youngest (NGC 419

  10. Geo-structural mapping and age determinations of Rembrandt basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Sabrina; Massironi, Matteo; Martellato, Elena; Giacomini, Lorenza; Cremonese, Gabriele; Rothery, David; Prockter, Louise M.

    During its second and thirds flybys MESSENGER imaged a new large and well-preserved basin called Rembrandt Basin (Watters et al., 2009) in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Rembrandt is partially filled by volcanic overlay and is crossed by a marked lobate scarp with some similarities to another prominent mercurian lobate scarp, Beagle Rupes. In attempt to reveal Rembrandt Basin evolution, we mapped its geological units inferring -where possible -their stratigraphic relationships. In addition, we performed crater counts on several of these units and derived age estimates by applying Model Production Function (MPF) absolute-model chronology (Marchi et al., 2009). Since Rembrandt basin (in contrast to other well-seen basins) displays evidence of global-scale in addition to basin-localized deformation (Watters et al. 2009), it is characterized by different tectonic features that in some cases may be controlled by rheological layering within the crust. We attempted to map the contractional and extensional local patterns and the global tectonic features. Notably, the pronounced scarp transecting a 60 km crater near the edge of Rembrandt's inner ring and other structural features in the surrounding regions suggest a linked fault system. The apparent bow shape of this feature could be compared with Beagle Rupes, and similarly may imply special conditions of weakness inside the crust (Rothery and Massironi, 2010). Ref. Watters, T. R., Head, J. W., Solomon, S. C., Robinson, M. S., Chapman, C. R., Denevi, B. W., Fassett, C. I., Murchie, S. L., and Strom, R. G., 2009. Evolution of the Rembrandt Impact Basin on Mercury. Science, 324 , 618-621. Marchi, S., Mottola, S., Cremonese, G., Massironi, M., and Martellato, E., 2009. A new Chronology for the Moon and Mercury. Astronomical Journal, 137 , 4936-4948. Rothery, D. A. and Massironi, M., 2010. Beagle Rupes -evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere. Icarus (In Press).

  11. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  12. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Morgan J; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam M; Nørgaard, Camilla F; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  13. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    PubMed

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P < 0.01). However, embryos derived from oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had the same ability to develop to the blastocyst stage and the levels of mtDNA copy number in their blastocysts were similar to blastocysts derived from oocytes harbouring Bos taurus mtDNA. Nevertheless, oocytes originating from the Bos indicus phenotype exhibited lower developmental potential due to low mtDNA copy number when compared with oocytes from cattle with a Bos

  14. Clenbuterol determination in calf hair by UPLC-MS-MS: case report of a fraudulent use for cattle growth.

    PubMed

    Salquèbre, Guillaume; Bresson, Marie; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent; Kintz, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    A method for clenbuterol determination in hair has been developed. Hair specimens collected from two calves were decontaminated using hot water followed by methylene chloride. Hair was cut into small pieces, and 100 mg was incubated in 1 mL 0.1M hydrochloric acid overnight at 45 degrees C in the presence of 1 ng acebutolol used as internal standard. After neutralization with 1 mL 0.1M NaOH, 2 mL of bicarbonate buffer (pH 8.6) were added and the preparation was then purified using solid-phase extraction with an Isolute C18 column. Methanolic eluent was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted with 50 microL methanol. A 5-microL portion was injected onto an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 x 50 mm, 1.7 microm) and separation was achieved using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was done on a Waters Micromass Quattro Micro API triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ionization was achieved using electrospray in positive mode. Clenbuterol was identified by two transitions (m/z 277.1 > 203.2 and m/z 277.1 > 132.1). Quantitation was performed with the most intensive transition (m/z 277.1 > 203.2) versus the internal standard monitored using the transition (m/z 337.3 > 116.1). When compared with gas chromatography methods that are generally used for the determination of beta-adrenergics, the major advantages of this method were the sensitivity, a shorter run time, and the absence of a derivatization step. The analysis of two hair samples from calves suspected of drug administration showed low clenbuterol concentrations at 3.6 and 4.8 pg/mg.

  15. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  16. Determination of the Lead, Cadmium, and Chromium Concentration in Mineral Feeds and Supplements for Cattle Produced in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sigarini, Keyla Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Adriana Paiva; Martins, Daiane Lima; Brasil, Alexandre Silva; de Oliveira, Kamila Cristina; Villa, Ricardo Dalla

    2017-05-01

    This work aimed to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in mineral feeds and supplements for cattle produced in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Three different lots of nine mineral supplements and eleven mineral feeds were collected, and the samples were prepared by wet decomposition and quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.18 to 0.64 mg kg(-1) and 0.54 to 1.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Cr concentrations varied from lower than the LQI to 11.9 mg kg(-1), and all samples presented values below the maximum recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) and European Union (EU). Cd concentrations varied from lower than the LQI to 6.1 mg kg(-1), and 100 % of the mineral supplements and 60 % of the mineral feed showed Cd concentrations above the recommended by the EU (1.0 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations ranged from lower than the LQI to 33.1 mg kg(-1), and 100 % of the mineral supplements and 90 % of the mineral feed showed Pb concentrations above the recommended by the EU (5.0 mg kg(-1)). All samples presented values below the maximum recommended by the NRC for Cd and Pb (10 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively). A large scatter of results was observed in the different samples for the three elements analyzed. This can be attributed to inhomogeneous impurity levels between batches of phosphate rocks used in the mineral feeds and supplements. A strict control of such mineral feeds and supplements should be implemented.

  17. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Groom, Rosemary J.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i) counting cementum annuli (ii) pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height) (iv) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio) (v) tooth weight and (vi) skull measurements (length, width and height). A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6–24 months; 25–60 months and > 60 months), with a McFadden’s Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  18. Influenza D Virus Infection in Mississippi Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lucas; Eckard, Laura; Epperson, William B.; Long, Li-Ping; Smith, David; Huston, Carla; Genova, Suzanne; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, influenza D virus (IDV), was first reported in swine in the Midwest region of the United States. This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggested that IDV has been circulating in the Mississippi cattle populations since at least 2004. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the evolution and epidemiology of IDV in the bovine population. PMID:26386554

  19. Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lucas; Eckard, Laura; Epperson, William B; Long, Li-Ping; Smith, David; Huston, Carla; Genova, Suzanne; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-12-01

    A new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, influenza D virus (IDV), was first reported in swine in the Midwest region of the United States. This study aims to extend our knowledge on the IDV epidemiology and to determine the impact of bovine production systems on virus spread. A total of 15 isolates were recovered from surveillance of bovine herds in Mississippi, and two genetic clades of viruses co-circulated in the same herd. Serologic assessment from neonatal beef cattle showed 94% seropositive, and presumed maternal antibody levels were substantially lower in animals over six months of age. Active IDV transmission was shown to occur at locations where young, weaned, and comingled calves were maintained. Serological characterization of archived sera suggested that IDV has been circulating in the Mississippi cattle populations since at least 2004. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the evolution and epidemiology of IDV in the bovine population.

  20. Determination of ptaquiloside and pterosin B derived from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) in cattle plasma, urine and milk.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Paulo César Reis; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Strobel, Bjarne W; Friis, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a toxin from bracken fern (Pteridium sp.) with genotoxic effects. Hydrolysis of PTA leads to the non-toxic and aromatised indanone, pterosin B (PTB). Here we present a sensitive, fast, simple and direct method, using SPE cartridges to clean and pre-concentrate PTA and PTB in plasma, urine and milk followed by LC-MS quantification. The average recovery of PTA in plasma, urine, and milk was 71, 88 and 77%, respectively, whereas recovery of PTB was 75, 82 and 63%. The method LOQ for PTA and PTB in plasma was 1.2 and 3.7ngmL(-1), 52 and 33ngmL(-1) for undiluted urine and 5.8 and 5.3ngmL(-1) for milk. The method is repeatable within and between days, with RSD values lower than 15% (PTA) and 20% (PTB). When PTA and PTB spiked samples were stored at -18°C for 14 days both compounds remained stable. In contrast, the PTA concentration was reduced by 15% when PTA spiked plasma was left for 5h at room temperature before SPE clean-up, whereas PTB remained stable. The method is the first to allow simultaneous quantification of PTA and PTB in biological fluids in a relevant concentration range. After intravenous administration of 0.092mg PTA per kgbw in a heifer, the plasma concentration was more than 300ngmL(-1) PTA and declined to 9.8ngmL(-1) after 6h, PTB was determined after 10min at 50ngmL(-1.) Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Shocked monazite chronometry: integrating microstructural and in situ isotopic age data for determining precise impact ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Timmons M.; Timms, Nicholas E.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Tohver, Eric; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Pearce, Mark A.; Reddy, Steven M.

    2017-03-01

    Monazite is a robust geochronometer and occurs in a wide range of rock types. Monazite also records shock deformation from meteorite impact but the effects of impact-related microstructures on the U-Th-Pb systematics remain poorly constrained. We have, therefore, analyzed shock-deformed monazite grains from the central uplift of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa, and impact melt from the Araguainha impact structure, Brazil, using electron backscatter diffraction, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Crystallographic orientation mapping of monazite grains from both impact structures reveals a similar combination of crystal-plastic deformation features, including shock twins, planar deformation bands and neoblasts. Shock twins were documented in up to four different orientations within individual monazite grains, occurring as compound and/or type one twins in (001), (100), ( 10bar{1} ), {110}, { 212 }, and type two (irrational) twin planes with rational shear directions in [0bar{1}bar{1}] and [bar{1}bar{1}0]. SIMS U-Th-Pb analyses of the plastically deformed parent domains reveal discordant age arrays, where discordance scales with increasing plastic strain. The correlation between discordance and strain is likely a result of the formation of fast diffusion pathways during the shock event. Neoblasts in granular monazite domains are strain-free, having grown during the impact events via consumption of strained parent grains. Neoblastic monazite from the Inlandsee leucogranofels at Vredefort records a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2010 ± 15 Ma (2 σ, n = 9), consistent with previous impact age estimates of 2020 Ma. Neoblastic monazite from Araguainha impact melt yield a Concordia age of 259 ± 5 Ma (2 σ, n = 7), which is consistent with previous impact age estimates of 255 ± 3 Ma. Our results demonstrate that targeting discrete microstructural domains in shocked monazite, as identified through orientation mapping, for in

  2. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  3. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) infections in Korean native cattle.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Eun-Yong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of a disease with parapox-like symptoms was reported in South Korea in April 2012. Three of 45 Korean native cattle, age 20-24 months, were affected. Parapoxviruses were detected and identified by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To determine the genetic characteristics of the Korean strains, the sequence of the major envelope protein (B2L) was determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus strains were closely related to not only isolates from Japan, but also isolates from Germany, Sudan and the United states. This is the first report on an outbreak and the molecular characterization of BPSV in Korea.

  4. Methodology for concurrent determination of urea kinetics and the capture of recycled urea nitrogen by ruminal microbes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C

    2009-03-01

    We measured the incorporation of recycled urea-nitrogen (N) by ruminal microbes, using five ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (237 kg) fed low-quality grass hay (47 g crude protein/kg dry matter (DM)). Three received 1 kg/day of soybean meal (SBM) and two received no supplemental protein (control). The experiment was 15 days long. Background enrichments of 15N were measured on day 9 and continuous jugular infusion of 0.12 g/day [15N15N]urea began on day 10. Daily samples of urine, feces, ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta from days 10 through 14 were used to determine plateaus in 15N enrichment. Duodenal and bacterial samples collected on day 15 were used to measure duodenal N flows. Bacterial N flow was calculated as duodenal N flow multiplied by duodenal 15N enrichment divided by bacterial 15N enrichment. Bacterial N from recycled urea-N was calculated as bacterial N flow multiplied by bacterial 15N enrichment divided by urinary urea 15N enrichment. Urinary enrichment of [15N15N]urea plateaued within 24 h, whereas 14N15N urea plateaued within 48 h of [15N15N]urea infusion. Bacteria reached a plateau in 15N enrichment within 24 h and duodenal samples within 48 h. Urea production was 17.6 g of urea-N/day for control and 78.0 g/day for SBM. Gut entry was 0.99 g of urea-N/g of urea-N produced for control and 0.87 g/g for SBM. Incorporation of recycled N into microbial N was 9.0 g of N/day for control and 23.0 g/day for SBM. Recycled urea-N accounted for 0.33 g of N/g of microbial N at the duodenum for control and 0.27 g/g for SBM. Our methods allowed measurement of incorporation of recycled urea-N into ruminal microbial N.

  5. Age ratios and their possible use in determining autumn routes of passerine migrants

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Age ratios and abundance of 61 migrant passerine species comprising more than 42,000 birds were analyzed in an attempt to determine patterns of migration. The data were collected at 10 stations from coastal Massachusetts to inland Pennsylvania. Age ratios are thought to be useful in determining routes of migration. The principal criteria for the edge of a species...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix... 4044—Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age Table I-11—Selection of Retirement Rate Category If participant reaches URA in year— Participant's retirement rate category is— Low 1 if...

  7. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections.

  8. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  9. The Differential Expression of Immune Genes between Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle Determines Species-Specific Susceptibility to Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Yang; Wu, Haiwei; Jin, Yamei; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Lu, Ke; Shi, Yaojun; Yuan, Chunxiu; Cheng, Guofeng; Feng, Xingang; Liu, Jinming; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2015-01-01

    Water buffalo are less susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection than yellow cattle. The factors that affect such differences in susceptibility remain unknown. A Bos taurus genome-wide gene chip was used to analyze gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection with S. japonicum. This study showed that most of the identified differentially expressed genes(DEGs) between water buffalo and yellow cattle pre- and post-infection were involved in immune-related processes, and the expression level of immune genes was lower in water buffalo. The unique DEGs (390) in yellow cattle were mainly associated with inflammation pathways, while the unique DEGs (2,114) in water buffalo were mainly associated with immune-related factors. The 83 common DEGs may be the essential response genes during S. japonicum infection, the highest two gene ontology (GO) functions were associated with the regulation of fibrinolysis. The pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs constituted similar immune-related pathways pre- and post-infection between the two hosts. This first analysis of the transcriptional profiles of natural hosts has enabled us to gain new insights into the mechanisms that govern their susceptibility or resistance to S. japonicum infections. PMID:26125181

  10. Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today industrialized countries face a burgeoning aged population. Thus, there is increasing attention on the functioning and disabilities of aged adults as potential determinants of autonomy and independent living. However, there are few representative findings on the prevalence and determinants of disability in aged persons in the German population. The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability. Methods Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence. Results We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups. Conclusions In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions. PMID:23410010

  11. A comparison of chemical and electrophoretic methods of serum protein determinations in clinically normal domestic animals of various ages.

    PubMed

    Green, S A; Jenkins, S J; Clark, P A

    1982-10-01

    The biuret total protein method and a bromcresol green (BCG) albumin method were used on the Abbott ABA-100 chemistry analyzer to assay serum proteins in clinically normal cattle, sheep, ponies, pigs, and ducks. Total proteins were also read on a refractometer and mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed. Globulins and A/G ratios were calculated from the chemical method and the results compared with the electrophoretic method. Total protein, albumin and A/G ratios in the ponies, sheep and older cattle were in agreement between the two methods. The younger cattle and all the pigs had higher albumin levels and A/G ratios with the chemical BCG method. Ducks had slightly higher albumin values and A/G ratios with the electrophoretic method and the presence of pre-albumin was detected. Typical mylar supported cellulose acetate electrophoretic patterns are presented which show the excellent separation using these membranes. Means and range for normal animals are given and changes of proteins with age are discussed.

  12. Determination of Genetic Structure and Signatures of Selection in Three Strains of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu, Boran and Friesian Cattle by Genome-Wide SNP Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Msalya, George; Kim, Eui-Soo; Laisser, Emmanuel L. K.; Kipanyula, Maulilio J.; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 90 percent of cattle in Tanzania belong to the indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (TSZ) population which has been classified into 12 strains based on historical evidence, morphological characteristics, and geographic distribution. However, specific genetic information of each TSZ population has been lacking and has caused difficulties in designing programs such as selection, crossbreeding, breed improvement or conservation. This study was designed to evaluate the genetic structure, assess genetic relationships, and to identify signatures of selection among cattle of Tanzania with the main goal of understanding genetic relationship, variation and uniqueness among them. Methodology/Principal findings The Illumina Bos indicus SNP 80K BeadChip was used to genotype genome wide SNPs in 168 DNA samples obtained from three strains of TSZ cattle namely Maasai, Tarime and Sukuma as well as two comparative breeds; Boran and Friesian. Population structure and signatures of selection were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), admixture analysis, pairwise distances (FST), integrated haplotype score (iHS), identical by state (IBS) and runs of homozygosity (ROH). There was a low level of inbreeding (F~0.01) in the TSZ population compared to the Boran and Friesian breeds. The analyses of FST, IBS and admixture identified no considerable differentiation between TSZ trains. Importantly, common ancestry in Boran and TSZ were revealed based on admixture and IBD, implying gene flow between two populations. In addition, Friesian ancestry was found in Boran. A few common significant iHS were detected, which may reflect influence of recent selection in each breed or strain. Conclusions Population admixture and selection signatures could be applied to develop conservation plan of TSZ cattle as well as future breeding programs in East African cattle. PMID:28129396

  13. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  15. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan.

  16. An epidemiological survey of setaria in the abdominal cavities of Iranian sistani and brahman cattle in the southeastern of iran.

    PubMed

    Khedri, Javad; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, abdominal cavity of 518 Iranian Sistani cattle and 498 Brahman cattle were inspected for the presence of Setaria spp. from April 2012 - May 2013. The species were determined by microscopic examination of the morphological characteristics of the anterior and posterior parts of the parasites and authentic guidelines. The overall prevalence of Setaria spp. was 28.6% and 36.5%, respectively and this difference was significant (P<0.05). Out of 148 Sistani cattle which were infected with Setaria, 51(34.4%) were infected with S. digitata, 31 (20.9%) were infected with S. labiatopapillosa, 65 (43.9%) showed mixed infection of S. digitata and S. labiatopapillosa and one case (0.6%) was infected with mixed infection of S. labiatopapillosa, S. digitata and S. marshalli. These values were 87 (47.8%), 27 (14.8%), 67 (36.8%) and 1 (0.5%) for 182 infected Brahaman cows, respectively. The proportion of infected cattle in spring and summer was greater than cooler season (autumn and winter) significantly (P<0.001). The prevalence of infection with Setaria in 2-3 years old Sistatni cattle (42.2 %) was greater than other age categories (P<0.05). Furthermore, the infection rate between males (25.5%) and females (37.3%) Iranian Sistani cattle showed significant difference (P =0.009). It is important to point out the presence of cerebrospinal setariosis, namely in sheep, goats and horses in the investigated area.

  17. Analgesic drug administration and attitudes about analgesia in cattle among bovine practitioners in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fajt, Virginia R; Wagner, Sarah A; Norby, Bo

    2011-03-15

    To determine current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and to identify factors associated with these attitudes and practices. Web-based survey. Sample-3,019 US members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) with e-mail addresses. Veterinarians were invited via e-mail to participate in a Web-based survey. Respondents replied to questions related to pain and analgesia and supplied personal, professional, and demographic information. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and associations among various factors were examined. 666 surveys (25.5% response rate) were analyzed. Among common procedures and medical conditions of cattle listed on the survey, castration of dairy calves < 6 months old was subjectively estimated as causing the least pain; abdominal surgery, toxic mastitis, and dehorning of calves > 6 months old were assessed as causing the greatest pain. Respondents reported not providing analgesic drugs to approximately 70% of calves castrated at < 6 months of age. The most commonly administered analgesics were NSAIDs, local anesthetics, and α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists. Significant associations were detected among respondent characteristics and pain ratings, percentages of cattle treated, and opinions regarding analgesia. Results provide information on current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and can be considered in the development of policies and protocols for pain management in cattle. These data can be compared with those of future studies to examine changes over time.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale in cattle blood samples from Nigeria using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Elelu, Nusirat; Ferrolho, Joana; Couto, Joana; Domingos, Ana; Eisler, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are some of the most important animal health and management problems in Africa, including Nigeria. This study aims to determine the prevalence of an important TBD, anaplasmosis, in a North-central region of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from cattle and stored on Whatman FTA(®) cards. Information on village, age and sex associated with each cattle was also recorded. The packed red blood cell volume (PCV) for each blood sample was determined. After DNA extraction, pathogen presence was evaluated by TaqMan(®) based qPCR of which 75.9 % of the cattle tested positive for Anaplasma marginale. Statistical analysis revealed that the presence of A. marginale infection differed significantly between cattle age groups. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of this pathogen between the sexes or among cattle grouped by PCV level. Finally, using a highly sensitive molecular method our pioneer study contributes to the improvement of the current knowledge regarding tick-borne pathogens that seriously affect animal health in specific areas of Nigeria.

  19. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  20. Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (p<0.05)). Sero-prevalence in feedlot calves was significantly lower with only one sero-positive calf out of 256 (0.4%, CI95%=0-2.2%). Sero-prevalence among dairy cattle was 2.7% (CI95%=2-3.6%) with location of up to 3km from FMD outbreaks in multiple farms and location of up to 5km from the nearest border standing out as significant (p<0.05) risk factors for sero-positivity. The extremely low sero-prevalence of FMD in feedlot cattle and the significant association of infection in beef cattle with previous outbreaks suggest absence of virus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation

  2. AGE DETERMINATION FOR 346 NEARBY STARS IN THE HERSCHEL DEBRIS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Vican, Laura

    2012-06-15

    DEBRIS is a flux-limited survey of nearby stars (spectral types A-M) for evidence of debris disks with the Herschel Space Observatory. One goal of the survey is to determine disk incidence as a function of various stellar parameters. Understanding debris disk evolution depends on knowledge of the precise age of stars around which these debris disks are found. However, finding ages for field stars is notoriously difficult. Furthermore, in an unbiased sample like DEBRIS, one is working with stars across many spectral types. This requires a multi-method approach to age determination. In this paper, we outline several methods of age determination broken down by spectral type, including some strengths and limitations of each method. In total, we were able to calculate ages for 263 of 274 F-, G-, and K-type stars, and all 83 A-type stars in the DEBRIS sample.

  3. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.; Summerfelt, R.D.; Hall, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  4. Age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among female students in an urban area in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Serajul; Hussain, Md Altaf; Islam, Saimul; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the age at menarche and its socioeconomic determinants among urban female students (n=680) in Bangladesh. The mean age of the respondents was 14±1.43years. Majority of the respondents were unmarried (98.4%). The mean age at menarche was 11.6±3.6years, median 12years. Almost one-third (35.7%) of the participants had menarche at the age of 12years. There was no statistically significant difference between age at menarche before and after 12years with the socio-economic characteristics, except education (p=<0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher education was statistically significant predictor of age at menarche. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  6. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  7. Detection of picobirnavirus and rotavirus in diarrhoeic faecal samples of cattle and buffalo calves in Mumbai metropolis, Western India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjan; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Majee, Sharmila B; Bannalikar, Anilkumar Sadashivrao

    2013-01-01

    In this study 113 diarrhoeic faecal samples obtained from buffalo (n = 68) and cattle (n = 45) calves under 1 years of age were analysed in order to determine the presence of rotavirus infection and the frequency of picobirnavirus excretion. Eleven (9.73%) samples positive for group A rotavirus were identified through RNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (RNA-PAGE), while 4 (3.53%) samples showed a bisegmented genome with a typical picobirnavirus pattern. This is the first report of picobirnavirus in cattle and buffalo calves from Western India.

  8. Practical tips for modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Norio; Oboshi, Kenji; Sasaki, Naoki; Yamada, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    Segmental dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia has been considered difficult to perform. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not it is difficult for beginners to learn how to do modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia of cattle. Thirty cattle were divided into two groups, young (n = 8) and adult (n = 22), according to their age and body weight, and 0.12% new methylene blue (NMB) was injected into the first interlumbar (L1-L2) epidural space by four fifth-year veterinary school students who had never performed this method. After a 1 hour lecture on the modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia procedure which included basic anatomy and skills, each student successfully performed the procedure. In the young group, the NMB solution was distributed between the periosteum and the epidural fat (BPF) in one half and between the epidural fat and the dura mater (BFD) in the other half of the cattle. In about 60% (13/22) of the adult group, the NMB solution distributed as BFD type. This study showed that the modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia procedure is easy for beginners to perform if they overcome their fear about the deeper insertion of the epidural needle with basic anatomical knowledge and a little experience. PMID:16434853

  9. Determinants of successful aging using a multidimensional definition among Chinese elderly in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze Pin; Broekman, Birit F P; Niti, Matthew; Gwee, Xinyi; Kua, Ee Heok

    2009-05-01

    Most studies of successful aging have used restricted definitions based on the absence of disability and identified a small number of predictors. The authors aimed to examine whether a broad multidimensional definition of successful aging has good construct validity and identified a wider range of predictors that are relevant for multifaceted interventions. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses were performed on 1,281 community-living Chinese elderly of 65 years and above in the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Successful aging was measured in multiple dimensions of functioning and wellness: cognitive and affective status, physical health, social functioning and engagement and life satisfaction, and a summary composite measure created across dimensions to form a dichotomous variable. Potential determinants included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral variables. Successful aging was determined in 28.6% of respondents and in multivariate models was significantly (p <0.05) associated with age (OR = 0.90), female gender (OR = 1.37), > or =6 years of education (OR = 2.31), better housing (OR = 1.41), religious or spiritual beliefs (OR = 1.64), physical activities and exercise (OR = 1.90), and low or no nutritional risk (OR = 2.16). In contrast to findings based on more restricted biomedical definitions of successful aging, a multidimensional definition of successful aging identified more variables including demographic status, psychosocial support, spirituality, and nutrition as salient determinants.

  10. Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M

    2009-01-01

    The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of short-lived fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopic values are available. Uranium isotopics are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U isotopic values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium isotopics over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate isotopic calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium isotopics. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium isotopics; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.

  11. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status.

  12. Age of an Indonesian Fossil Tooth Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, JS

    2004-04-07

    The first fossil hominid tooth recovered during 1999 excavations from the Cisanca River region in West Java, Indonesia, was associated with a series of bovid teeth from a single individual that was recovered 190 cm beneath the hominid tooth. The age of the fossil bovid teeth was determined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis as part of an effort to bracket the age of the hominid tooth. The EPR-derived age of the bovid teeth is (5.16 {+-} 2.01) x 10{sup 5} years. However, the age estimate reported here is likely an underestimate of the actual age of deposition since evidence of heating was detected in the EPR spectra of the bovid teeth, and the heating may have caused a decrease in the intensity of EPR components on which the age calculation is based.

  13. Physiological age of ixodid ticks: aspects of its determination and application.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, I

    1995-11-01

    This review analyzes 30 yr of data concerning physiological age of ixodid ticks. The level and state of nutritional reserves in unfed ticks has been proposed as an index of tick physiological age. The dynamics of the use of these substances reflect tick aging. Thus, physiological age of ixodid ticks is determined by estimating the irreversible changes caused by natural vital activity in the body of unfed ticks, which inevitably raises the probability of tick death. The 4 age groups used in most studies correspond to different periods in the life of unfed ticks: the postmolting development, the commencement of active life (= questing activity), the midperiod of active life, and the final period of active life. The aging of adult ixodid ticks has been studied in natural populations and laboratory colonies of different species belonging to several genera. The dynamics of age composition through the activity season observed in adult Ixodes persulcatus, I. ricinus, and Dermacentor reticulatus from field populations correlated well with the known data on the life history of these species. Physiological age was successfully used as an indicator of the patterns of tick activization (= beginning of questing activity). Tick susceptibility to acaricides was shown to increase with tick aging. The success of maintenance, reproduction, and transmission of pathogens was found to be strongly influenced by tick physiological age. The physiological age can provide information about the present physiological status of an individual tick or a group of ticks and, on this basis, predictions can be made (for example, life expectancy, degree of response to certain factors). The physiological age does not give reliable information about the past life of ticks, in particular their calendar age. In this respect, the meaning of the physiological age of ixodid ticks corresponds to the biological (physiological, functional) age of animals, as used in gerontology, and differs from the

  14. Impact of cattle congregation sites on soil nutrients and soil compaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the impact of grazing cattle on the changes in soil quality around and beneath cattle congregation sites (mineral feeders, water troughs, and shades). Baseline soil samples around and beneath three congregations sites in established (>10 yr) grazed beef cattle pastures at the U...

  15. Cattle congregation sites do not appear to impact soil nutrients build-up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study determined the impact of grazing cattle on the changes in soil quality around and beneath cattle congregation sites (mineral feeders, water troughs, and shades). Baseline soil samples around and beneath three congregations sites in established (>10 year) grazed beef cattle pastures at the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico or... date determined by APHIS to be the date of effective enforcement of a ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban...

  17. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  18. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  19. Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Dabak, Murat; Kizil, Omer

    2010-11-01

    As thiamine status of ruminants is adversely affected by rumen acidity, this study investigated whether or not thiamine deficiency occurs in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet. Fifty 1- to 2-year-old feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet (75% barley) for at least 3 mo (high concentrate diet group) and 15 healthy feedlot cattle of similar ages (control group) that were fed a low concentrate diet (30% barley) were used. Rumen fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis and their pH was determined with a portable pH meter. Blood samples taken from all animals from a jugular vein were used to determine erythrocyte transketolase enzyme activity, and hence thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect. Odor and mean pH values of ruminal fluid samples from the high concentrate diet and control group were acidic (pH 5.3) and aromatic (pH 6.1), respectively. The mean TPP effect % in the high concentrate diet group (47.2 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than in the control group (19.53 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001). The study provides evidence of a TPP effect in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet.

  20. Age determination of ballpoint pen ink by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bügler, Jürgen H; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

    2008-07-01

    Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.5 years. It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e.g., within a few days, to a constant level, which can be too fast for casework. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed.

  1. Short communication: Analysis of genomic predictor population for Holstein dairy cattle in the United States--Effects of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2015-04-01

    Increased computing time for the ever-growing predictor population and linkage decay between the ancestral population and current animals have become concerns for genomic evaluation systems. The effects on reliability of US genomic evaluations from including cows and bulls in the Holstein predictor population and also from excluding older bulls from the predictor population were examined. Holstein data collected for December 2013 US genomic evaluations were used in cutoff studies to determine reliability gains, regression coefficients, and bias for 5 yield, 3 fitness, 2 fertility, and 18 conformation traits. Three predictor populations were examined based on animal sex: 30,852 cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, 21,883 bulls with traditional evaluations as of August 2012, and a combined group of all bulls and cows. Three subsets of the bull predictor population were examined to determine effect of age: bulls born before 1996 excluded (25% of bulls excluded), bulls born before 2001 excluded (50%), and bulls born before 2005 excluded (75%). The validation set for all predictor populations was either bulls or cows first receiving a traditional evaluation between August 2012 and December 2013. Across all traits, the addition of cows to the bull predictor population increased reliability gains by 0.4 percentage points for validation bulls and 4.4 points for validation cows. Across all traits, excluding bulls born before 1996 from the bull-only predictor population decreased gains in genomic reliability by 1.8 percentage points. For 19 of 28 traits, excluding bulls born before 2005 from the predictor population resulted in lower bias in genomic evaluations of validation bulls. Although the contribution of cows and older bulls to improved accuracy of US genomic evaluations is small, a plateau of achievable gain has not yet been reached.

  2. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle and buffaloes in Jabalpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Marskole, Priyanka; Verma, Yamini; Dixit, Alok Kumar; Swamy, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: The presence of helminths eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were detected using standard qualitative and quantitative methods. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts. Results: Out of 120 cattle and buffaloes examined, 73.33% were found positive for eggs of one or more species of GI parasite. The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in cattle (75%) as compared to that of buffaloes (70.45%), but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). Sex wise prevalence of GI parasites was higher in males as compared to that of females, but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). The animals above 2 years of age were more affected by GI parasites as compared to animals of 6 months - 2 years of age, but the age wise differences were nonsignificant (p>0.05). Single parasitic infections were more common than mixed infections. The monthly prevalence of GI parasites in cattle and buffaloes were highest in the month of September (81.81%) and least in December (61.11%). The eggs/oocysts per gram in most of the animals, was in the range of 201-300. Conclusion: GI parasites are problem in cattle and buffaloes of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The prevalence rate of GI parasites varied with month. The burden of parasitic infection was moderate in most animals warranting treatment. PMID:27956771

  3. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will find...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will find...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will find...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will find...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will find...

  8. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P < 0.001, NSW) and 9.3 N (P = 0.002, WA) in AT 7 d aged M. longissimus lumborum compared with those with no favorable alleles. There was no evidence (all P > 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the

  9. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for detection of cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An unmanned aerial vehicle was used to capture videos of cattle in pastures to determine the efficiency of this technology for use by Mounted Inspectors in the Permanent Quarantine zone (PQZ) of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico Border. These videos were ...

  10. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... after such test was performed. (c) Brucellosis test or vaccination certificates. (1) Cattle from Canada...; the date of such vaccination; the dosage of vaccine used; and the age of each animal on the date of vaccination. ...

  11. Age determination of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, using wing pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Chris; Hassell, Aaron; Lauziere, Isabelle; Bextine, Blake

    2011-01-01

    A red pigment is contained in the wing veins of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). This insect is the main vector of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae), the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Over the course of the H. vitripennis lifespan, the red pigment darkens and eventually becomes brown/black in color. These pigments are believed to be pheomelanin and eumelanin, respectively. The age of H. vitripennis can be determined by calculating the amount of red pigment found in the wings by analyzing high resolution wing photographs with image analysis software. In this study, a standard curve for the age determination of H. vitripennis was developed using laboratory-reared insects of known ages varying from 1 to 60 days. The impact of three environmental conditions on these readings was also investigated and found to have little effect on the age determination, and could be easily accounted for. Finally, field collected insects from several Central Texas vineyards were successfully analyzed for age determination suggesting that the annually reported influx of H. vitripennis was composed almost entirely of older insects.

  12. Female Reproductive Decline Is Determined by Remaining Ovarian Reserve and Age

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosz, Pawel; Greggains, Gareth D.; Tanbo, Tom G.; Fedorcsak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline. PMID:25310678

  13. Age determination in dogs using ocular light reflection, dental abrasion and tartar.

    PubMed

    Gesierich, K; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of an animal's age is important for disease probability, prognoses, or epidemiological questions, but unfortunately, it is often unknown for dogs in animal shelters. A simple estimating procedure is preferable being quick and easy to perform, even for non-veterinarians. In 295 dogs the dimension of light reflection (diameter in millimetres), visible on the posterior lens capsule using a penlight, the grade of dental abrasion and dental tartar were documented photographically and the exact weight and age in days were obtained. These photographs were evaluated blinded. The dogs were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was used to establish a model for age determination using linear and logistic regression models considering the documented parameters, which was then validated with the data of the second group. The size of ocular light reflection and age correlated significantly (r = 0.781; p < 0.001; sy,x = 2.45 years [SD of y for given x]). The linear regression model gave the final equation: Estimated age [months] = 13.954 + 33.400 × lens reflection [mm] + 8.406 × dental abrasion [grade] + 8.871 × tartar [grade] with a standard error of estimation of 2.26 years. Age determination, even based on three parameters results in a large standard deviation making age estimation in dogs very crude.

  14. Determination of age at death using combined morphology and histology of the femur

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, C. D. L.; STEIN, M. S.; FEIK, S. A.; WARK, J. D.; CLEMENT, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is characterised by age-related morphological and histological changes. We have previously established an automated method of recording bone morphometry and histology from entire transverse sections of cortical bone. Our aim was to determine whether data acquired using this automated system were useful in the prediction of age. Ninety-six specimens of human femoral middiaphysis were studied from subjects aged 21–92 y. Equations predicting specimen age were constructed using macroscopic data (total subperiosteal area (TSPA), periosteal perimeter (PP), endosteal perimeter (EP), cortical bone area (CA) and moments of area) and microscopic data (the number, size and diversity of pores and intracortical porosity) together with sex, height and weight. Both TSPA and PP were independent predictors of age but the number of pores was not a significant predictor of age in any equation. The age predicted by these equations was inaccurate by more than 8 y in over half the subjects. We conclude that we could not predict age at a clinically acceptable level using data from our automated system. This most likely reflects an insensitivity to regional age-related changes in bone histology because we recorded data from each entire cortex. Automated bone measurement according to cortical region might be more useful in the prediction of age. The inclusion of TSPA together with PP as independent predictors of age raises the possibility that a future measure of periosteal shape at the femoral diaphysis could also be helpful in the prediction of age. The accuracy reached with the relatively simple methods described here is sufficient to encourage the development of image-analysis systems for the automatic detection of more complex features. PMID:10853968

  15. Determination of age in dogs and cats by use of changes in lens reflections and transparency.

    PubMed

    Tobias, G; Tobias, T A; Abood, S K; Hamor, R E; Ballam, J M

    1998-08-01

    To develop and test a noninvasive technique for determining age in dogs and cats on the basis of changes in lens reflections and transparency. 85 dogs representing 5 breeds and 73 domestic shorthair cats. While examining dilated eyes in a darkened room, using a penlight, 2 experienced examiners who were blinded to actual age of animals individually measured the diameter of reflections from the anterior (La) and posterior (Lb) surfaces of the lens and scored lens transparency (Ltr) from 1 (clear) to 5 (severe opacity). Models were developed to predict age on the basis of these measurements. Aging models developed for dogs and cats were as follows: Age(dogs) = 2.197 - 0.070 x (La) + 1.361 x (Lb) + 1.193 x (Ltr) and Age(cats) = 1.988 + 1.024 x (La) + 2.220 x (Lb) + 1.019 x (Ltr), where age was expressed in years, and La and Lb were in millimeters. All variables, except La in dogs, contributed significantly to accuracy of the models. Correlation between predicted and actual ages, as measured by Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, was significant in both species (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were not found between examiners or between the first and second evaluations by the same examiner. A noninvasive technique based on evaluation of lens reflections and transparency can provide clinically useful predictions of age in mature dogs and cats. This technique could be an important tool for veterinarians or humane shelters in determining differential diagnoses and assessing longevity and adoptability of mature animals of unknown age.

  16. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  17. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax

  18. Evaluation of the sensitivity of faecal sampling for detection of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium and other Salmonella in cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M E; Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Mueller-Doblies, D; Davies, R H

    2015-06-01

    There has been a rapid rise in the prevalence of cases of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST) in both humans and farm animals, and it has been found in pigs, cattle and poultry. It is therefore vital to have a good understanding of how to efficiently detect infected farms. The objective of this project was to determine sample type sensitivity in the detection of Salmonella to detect infected groups of animals on both pig (breeder, grower and finisher sites) and cattle (beef and dairy) farms, using data collected from a study investigating farms that were positive for mST, and to explore any variation between different age groups and management practices. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted to analyse the individual and pooled faecal sample data collected from each epidemiological group on each of the farms. The sensitivity of pooled sampling depended on the prevalence of infection in the group being sampled, with a higher prevalence leading to higher sensitivity. Pooled sampling was found to be more efficient at detecting positive groups of animals than individual sampling, with the probability of a random sample from a group of animals with 5% prevalence testing positive being equal to 15·5% for immature pigs (3·6% for an individual faecal sample, taking into account the sensitivity and infection prevalence), 7·1% for adult pigs (1·2% for individual sampling), 30% for outdoor cattle (2% for individual sampling) and 34% for indoor cattle (1% for individual sampling). The mean prevalence of each epidemiological group was higher in outdoor farms than indoor for both pigs and cattle (mean within-farm prevalence of 29·4% and 38·7% for outdoor pigs and cattle, respectively, compared to 19·8% and 22·1% for indoor pigs and cattle).

  19. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Infection of cattle with Border disease virus by sheep on communal alpine pastures.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Büchi, R; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sheep grazing communal alpine pastures with cattle can transmit Border disease virus (BDV) to cattle. A total of 1170 sheep and 923 cattle were tested for BDV using RT-PCR (sheep) and for pestivirus antibodies using an ELISA (cattle), respectively, before being moved to one of 4 pastures (A, B, C and D). Eight sheep from pasture C were viraemic. 396 of 923 cattle examined before the pasture season were seronegative. The latter were re-examined after the pasture season and 99 were seropositive or indeterminate. Antibody specificity was determined in 25 of these using a serum neutralization test (SNT). BDV infection was confirmed in 10 cattle and was considered likely in 8 others. BVDV infection was confirmed in 4 cattle and considered likely in 3 after pasturing. The study has shown that the transmission of BDV from sheep to cattle is possible on communal alpine pastures.

  1. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  2. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang’s index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%). High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5%) and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species. PMID:28225825

  3. Validation of band counts in eyestalks for the determination of age of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Kilada, Raouf; Reiss, Christian S; Kawaguchi, So; King, Robert A; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Ichii, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Using known-age Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) grown from eggs hatched at two different laboratories, we validate the annual pattern of bands deposited in the eyestalks of krill and determine the absolute age of these animals. Ages two through five years were validated, and these animals ranged from 37.1 to 62.6 mm in total length. The band counts in these individuals were either identical to their absolute ages, or only failed to agree by a few months, which demonstrates the accuracy of this method. Precision and bias were estimated graphically using Chang's index (Coefficient of Variation = 5.03%). High accuracy and precision between readers and low ageing bias indicate that longitudinal sections of eyestalks can be used to age krill in wild samples and to develop age-based stock assessment models for krill. Archival samples preserved in formalin (5%) and stored in ambient conditions were also readable. Ageing preserved krill will provide the opportunity to examine changes in growth among krill populations within the Southern Ocean and to retrospectively examine changes in krill production over the last century to better understand the historical and future impacts of climate change on this critical Southern Ocean species.

  4. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  5. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope observations determine the age of some of the oldest stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-05-01

    Globular clusters like NGC 6752 are compact, spherically shaped collections of several hundred thousand stars which orbit our galaxy. Virtually all of the stars in these clusters began their lives at the time of the formation of our galaxy. Astronomers therefore believe that globular clusters contain the oldest sample of stars that we can easily study and that an accurate determination of the ages of such stars would also define the age of our own galaxy since its formation. The age of our galaxy, in turn, sets a firm lower limit on the age of the Universe. Obtaining accurate ages of stars in globular clusters has previously been hindered by the inability to determine accurate distances to these clusters. Using the Wide Field and Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, a team of astronomers in Italy, the US and Canada obtained long exposure images of NGC 6752 in April 1995. These sharp images allowed them to detect and measure the brightness and color of a number of faint white dwarf stars in the cluster. With dwarfs are the condensed cores of stars that have reached the final stage of their lives as stars. They represent the stellar remains of the more massive stars in NGC 6752 which have completed their evolution. By comparing the apparent brightness and color of these stars with a sample of white dwarfs in the neighborhood of the Sun which have known distances, the team determined the distance to NGC 6752 to be 13,300 light years with an uncertainty of less than 5%. This distance provides an accurate measure of the luminosity of the brightest stars in NGC 67523 that are still burning hydrogen at their center. In turn, the knowledge of this luminosity allows to estimate the time elapsed since the formation of the stars in the cluster, hence the cluster age. This leads rather directly to an age of 15 billion years with a 10% uncertainty. Using current estimates of the time interval between the Big Bang and the era of galaxy formation gives 16-17 billion

  8. Determination of patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging and dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Hurtig, H.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Kushner, M.; Silver, F.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRGlc) were measured using 18F-FDG and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age=64), 9 elderly controls (age=61), and 9 young controls (age=28). PET studies were performed without sensory stimulation or deprivation. Metabolic rates in individual brain regions were determined using an atlas overlay. Relative metabolic rates (rCMRGl c/global CMRGlc) were determined for all subjects. Comparison of young and elderly controls demonstrated significant decreases in frontal metabolism (rho<0.005) and right inferior parietal (IP) metabolism (rho<0.02) with normal aging. Patients with mild-moderate AD (NMAD) (n=8) when compared to age-matched controls, showed further reduction in right IP metabolism (rho<0.02). SAD patients also demonstrated metabolic decrements in left hemisphere language areas (rho<0.01). This latter finding is consistent with language disturbance observed late in the course of the disease. Out data reveal progressive changes in patterns of cerebral glucose utilization with aging and demential with reflect salient clinical features of these processes.

  9. Development and testing of real-time PCR assays for determining fecal loading and source identification (cattle, human, etc.) in surface water and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Gentry, R.

    2004-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Tennessee is developing and testing a series of microbial assay methods based on real-time PCR to detect fecal bacterial concentrations and host sources in water samples. Real-time PCR is an enumeration technique based on the unique and conserved nucleic acid sequences present in all organisms. The first research task was development of an assay (AllBac) to detect total amount of Bacteroides, which represents up to 30 percent of fecal mass. Subsequent assays were developed to detect Bacteroides from cattle (BoBac) and humans (HuBac) using 16sRNA genes based on DNA sequences in the national GenBank, as well as sequences from local fecal samples. The assays potentially have significant advantages over conventional bacterial source tracking methods because: 1. unlike traditional enumeration methods, they do not require bacterial cultivation; 2. there are no known non-fecal sources of Bacteroides; 3. the assays are quantitative with results for total concentration and for each species expressed in mg/l; and 4. they show little regional variation within host species, meaning that they do not require development of extensive local gene libraries. The AllBac and BoBac assays have been used in a study of fecal contamination in a small rural watershed (Stock Creek) near Knoxville, TN, and have proven useful in identification of areas where cattle represent a significant fecal input and in development of BMPs. It is expected that these types of assays (and future assays for birds, hogs, etc.) could have broad applications in monitoring fecal impacts from Animal Feeding Operations, as well as from wildlife and human sources.

  10. Self-Determination among Transition-Age Youth with Autism or Intellectual Disability: Parent Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 68 parents' views of the self-determination skills and capacities of their young adult children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability (ages 19-21 years). Results indicated parents placed a high value on the importance of all seven component skills (i.e., choice-making skills, decision-making skills,…

  11. Age versus size determination of radial variation in wood specific gravity : lessons from eccentrics

    Treesearch

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2011-01-01

    Radial increases in wood specific gravity have been shown to characterize early successional trees from tropical forests. Here, we develop and apply a novel method to test whether radial increases are determined by tree age or tree size. The method compares the slopes of specific gravity changes across a short radius and a long radius of trees with eccentric trunks. If...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix D to Part 4044 - Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables Used To Determine Expected Retirement Age D Appendix D to Part 4044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4044, App. D Appendix D to Part...

  13. The Observational Determination of the Age of the Universe as a Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadmus, Robert R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a procedure that allows undergraduate students to determine the approximate age of the universe using their own data. The experiment requires a relatively small telescope with a modest spectrograph. Includes sample data and calculations. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/WRM)

  14. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410.426 Section 410.426 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- )...

  15. Determining the age of cats by pulp cavity/tooth width ratio using dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoungsun; Ahn, Jaesang; Kang, Sunmee; Lee, Euiri; Kim, Soohyun; Park, Sangwan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Seo, Kangmoon

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the ratio of pulp cavity/tooth width (P/T ratio) in healthy cats. The dental radiographs of 32 cats (16 males and 16 females) were generated with a digital dental X-ray unit with the animals under general anesthesia. Standardized measurement of the canine teeth was performed by drawing a line on the radiograph perpendicular to the cemento- enamel junction (CEJ) of the tooth. There was an inversely proportional correlation between chronological age and the P/T ratio. Moreover, a strong Pearson squared correlation (γ(2) = 0.92) was identified by the curved regression model. No significant differences in the P/T ratio based on gender or breed were found. These results suggest that determination of age by P/T ratio could be clinically useful for estimating the chronological age of cats.

  16. [Determination of writing age of blue ballpoint pen inks by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Fan; Li, Xin-Qian; Xu, Ying-Jian; Wang, Jing-Han; Wang, Yan-Ji

    2006-09-01

    As it is a frequently encountered problem in the laboratory of forensic science nowadays to distinguish whether the questioned documents, such as deeds, contracts, and receipts, written in ballpoint pen inks are true or not, and identify the writing age of them, it is very essential to establish a simple, sensitive and accurate method to examine the similarities and differences of the ballpoint pen inks and identify the writing age. The present paper introduces a technique that allows identifying the kind and the writing age of the blue ballpoint pen inks. The technique is based on using a high performance liquid chromatographic method for distinguishing the similarities and differences in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks and determining changes in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks developed with age, and these changes can be evaluated by the ratio of peak areas.

  17. Late Na+ current and protracted electrical recovery are critical determinants of the aging myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Signore, Sergio; Sorrentino, Andrea; Borghetti, Giulia; Cannata, Antonio; Meo, Marianna; Zhou, Yu; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Pasqualini, Francesco; O'Malley, Heather; Sundman, Mark; Tsigkas, Nikolaos; Zhang, Eric; Arranto, Christian; Mangiaracina, Chiara; Isobe, Kazuya; Sena, Brena F.; Kim, Junghyun; Goichberg, Polina; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Isom, Lori L.; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The aging myopathy manifests itself with diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction. We raised the possibility that, in a mouse model of physiological aging, defects in electromechanical properties of cardiomyocytes are important determinants of the diastolic characteristics of the myocardium, independently from changes in structural composition of the muscle and collagen framework. Here we show that an increase in the late Na+ current (INaL) in aging cardiomyocytes prolongs the action potential (AP) and influences temporal kinetics of Ca2+ cycling and contractility. These alterations increase force development and passive tension. Inhibition of INaL shortens the AP and corrects dynamics of Ca2+ transient, cell contraction and relaxation. Similarly, repolarization and diastolic tension of the senescent myocardium are partly restored. Thus, INaL offers inotropic support, but negatively interferes with cellular and ventricular compliance, providing a new perspective of the biology of myocardial aging and the aetiology of the defective cardiac performance in the elderly. PMID:26541940

  18. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  19. Phenotypic characteristics of local cattle in Madura Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maylinda, Sucik; Nugroho, H.; Busono, W.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the research is to (1) analyze phenotypic variance both qualitative and quantitative characters in Madura cattle, (2) to analyze the relationship between that characters and body weight. Cattle studied were located in Waru and Pademawu subdistrict, Pamekasan district, Indonesia. The sampling technique was accidental sampling. Subject animals were 8-20 month-old cows, grouped into 2 age groups of <1 and >1 years old. Both qualitative and quantitative phenotypic characteristics were recorded. Qualitative characteristics were the color of the body, white color in bottom and leg, black color at the back, and the presence of horns. Quantitative characteristics were the head index, body weight, chest girth (CG), body height (BH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Data were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses. Results showed that qualitative characteristics of the Madura local cattle were all those of the reference Madura cattle standard, such as the white color of leg and bottom, with small head indexes. We found that (1) most of Madura Local cattle had the standard Madura cattle characteristics in both sexes, and (2) the best cattle, in terms of body weight, can be selected based on chest girth rather than other measurements, which is advantageous because measuring the chest circumference is quicker and easier than directly measuring cattle weight in rural villages.

  20. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  1. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  2. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H; Gillis, T; Mysore, J S; Hayden, M R; Warby, S C; Morrison, P; Nance, M; Ross, C A; Margolis, R L; Squitieri, F; Orobello, S; Di Donato, S; Gomez-Tortosa, E; Ayuso, C; Suchowersky, O; Trent, R J A; McCusker, E; Novelletto, A; Frontali, M; Jones, R; Ashizawa, T; Frank, S; Saint-Hilaire, M H; Hersch, S M; Rosas, H D; Lucente, D; Harrison, M B; Zanko, A; Abramson, R K; Marder, K; Sequeiros, J; Paulsen, J S; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Myers, R H; MacDonald, M E; Gusella, J F

    2012-03-06

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors.

  3. Species of Cryptosporidium detected in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Monica; Dargatz, David

    2010-06-24

    To determine the species and distribution of Cryptosporidium in weaned beef calves in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 cattle between 6 and 18 months of age from 49 operations in 20 states (Alabama, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming). Fresh feces, collected either from the ground or directly from the rectum of each animal, were sieved and subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove fecal debris and to concentrate oocysts. DNA extracted from each specimen was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the SSU rRNA gene. All PCR positive specimens were subjected to sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.5% of the fecal samples. Cryptosporidium ryanae, C. bovis and C. andersoni were detected in 1.8, 4.8, and 14.0% of the 819 samples, respectively. California (number operations [n]=2), Iowa (n=3), and Nebraska (n=7) had the highest prevalence of infected weaned cattle with 44.4, 41.0 and 40.2% infected, respectively. Cryptosporidium was not detected in any weaned cattle from Alabama (number operations [n]=1), Georgia (n=2), New Mexico (n=1), South Dakota (n=1), Tennessee (n=1), or Texas (n=1). The zoonotic species, C. parvum, was not detected in any samples from 6- to 18-month-old cattle, a finding that parallels reports for dairy cattle of similar age in which less than 1% were found to harbor this species.

  4. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older; (iii) The entire carcass of cattle not inspected and passed for human consumption as defined...

  5. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older; (iii) The entire carcass of cattle not inspected and passed for human consumption as defined...

  6. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older; (iii) The entire carcass of cattle not inspected and passed for human consumption as defined in...

  7. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older; (iii) The entire carcass of cattle not inspected and passed for human consumption as defined in...

  8. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... carcass of BSE-positive cattle; (ii) The brains and spinal cords of cattle 30 months of age and older; (iii) The entire carcass of cattle not inspected and passed for human consumption as defined in...

  9. Prevalence of pathogenic trypanosomes in anaemic cattle from trypanosomosis challenged areas of Itezhi-tezhi district in central Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Njelembo J; Namangala, Boniface; Sitali, Lungowe; Vorster, Ilse; Michelo, Charles

    2015-12-15

    The measure of anaemia status using packed cell volume (PCV) can be a reliable indicator of African trypanosomosis (AT) in the absence of other anaemia-causing conditions. However, studies that have estimated prevalence of anaemia in cattle from AT endemic areas have rarely reported the prevalence of the disease in the anaemic cattle. Therefore we investigated the prevalence of AT in anaemic cattle at sites that had recently reported the disease in Itezhi tezhi district of central Zambia. During a survey, blood samples were collected from 564 randomly selected cattle for anaemia determination from seven crush pens (Mutenda, Kapulwe, Banachoongo, Itumbi, Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba). At a PCV- value cut off of 26 %, all samples positive for anaemia were subjected to both parasitological examination on thick and thin blood smears and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for detection of trypanosome DNA. Fisher's exact test and a mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used to determine and measures associations, respectively. Of 564 cattle screened, 58 (10.3 %; 95 % CI: 7.8-12.8 %) had anaemia. PCR-RFLP results showed that 17 (29.3 %; 95 % CI; 17.2-41.4 %) anaemic cattle were positive for pathogenic trypanosomes compared to 1 (1.7 %; 95 % CI: 0.0-5.2 %) on parasitological examination using thick smears. The infections were caused by Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax. Fisher's exact test showed a strong association between PCV and pathogenic trypanosome infection (P = 0.004). A mixed effect multivariate logistic regression showed that a one unit increase in PCV reduced the likelihood of detecting AT with PCR-RFLP by 24.7 % (95 % CI: 4.6-40.6 %; P = 0.019) in anaemic cattle, taking into account their age and sex, with random effects for crush pen. These results suggest that T. congolense and T. vivax could be important causes of anaemia in cattle reared in AT endemic areas of Itezhi

  10. Airborne SAR determination of relative ages of Walker Valley moraines, eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, A.; Isacks, B.; Bloom, A.; Fielding, E.; Mcmurry, D.

    1991-01-01

    A regional study of the distribution and elevations of Pleistocene moraines in the Andes requires a method of determining relative age from space. One of our primary objectives is to establish the relative chronology of major climatic events responsible for glaciation in the Andes and other regions that are difficult to access on the ground and where suitable material for absolute age determination is lacking. The sensitivity of radar to surface roughness makes it possible to develop a remotely-based relative dating technique for landforms for which surface age and roughness can be correlated. We are developing such a technique with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the eastern Sierra Nevada where independent evidence is available for the ages and physical characteristics of moraines. The Sierra Nevada moraines are similar in form and environmental setting to Andean moraines that we have targeted for study during the pending Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission. SAR imagery is used to differentiate the ages of five moraine sequences of Walker Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  11. Airborne SAR determination of relative ages of Walker Valley moraines, eastern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, A.; Isacks, B.; Bloom, A.; Fielding, E.; Mcmurry, D.

    1991-01-01

    A regional study of the distribution and elevations of Pleistocene moraines in the Andes requires a method of determining relative age from space. One of our primary objectives is to establish the relative chronology of major climatic events responsible for glaciation in the Andes and other regions that are difficult to access on the ground and where suitable material for absolute age determination is lacking. The sensitivity of radar to surface roughness makes it possible to develop a remotely-based relative dating technique for landforms for which surface age and roughness can be correlated. We are developing such a technique with Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) imagery of the eastern Sierra Nevada where independent evidence is available for the ages and physical characteristics of moraines. The Sierra Nevada moraines are similar in form and environmental setting to Andean moraines that we have targeted for study during the pending Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission. SAR imagery is used to differentiate the ages of five moraine sequences of Walker Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  12. Determinants of VO2 max decline with aging: an integrated perspective.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Hepple, Russell T

    2008-02-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the capacity for physical activity. Central to this decline is a reduction in the maximal rate of oxygen utilization, or VO2 max. This critical perspective examines the roles played by the factors that determine the rate of muscle oxygen delivery versus those that determine the utilization of oxygen by muscle as a means of probing the reasons for VO2 max decline with aging. Reductions in muscle oxygen delivery, principally due to reduced cardiac output and perhaps also a maldistribution of cardiac output, appear to play the dominant role up until late middle age. On the other hand, there is a decline in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with aging, due in part to mitochondrial dysfunction, which appears to play a particularly important role in extreme old age (senescence) where skeletal muscle VO2 max is observed to decline by approximately 50% even under conditions of similar oxygen delivery as young adult muscle. It is noteworthy that at least the structural aspects of the capillary bed do not appear to be reduced in a manner that would compromise the capacity for muscle oxygen diffusion even in senescence.

  13. Proteomic biomarkers for ageing the mosquito Aedes aegypti to determine risk of pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A; Wockner, Leesa F; Birrell, Geoff W; Norris, Emma L; Kienzle, Vivian J; Sikulu, Maggy T; Ryan, Peter A; Gorman, Jeffery J; Kay, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting

  14. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification.

  15. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas B; Craig, Thomas M; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy J; Gill, Ronald J

    2014-09-01

    To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence ⇒ 30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  17. Early determinants for the development of undernutrition in an older general population: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Schilp, Janneke; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    2011-09-01

    Undernutrition may be an important modifiable risk factor for poor clinical outcomes in older individuals. To achieve earlier detection or prevention of undernutrition, more information is needed about risk factors for the development of undernutrition in community-dwelling older individuals. The objective was to identify early determinants of incident undernutrition in a prospective population-based study. Baseline data (1992-3) on socio-economic, psychological, medical, functional, lifestyle and social factors of 1120 participants aged 65-85 years of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used. Undernutrition, defined as a BMI < 20 kg/m2 or self-reported involuntary weight loss ≥ 5 % in the last 6 months, was assessed every 3 years during a 9-year follow-up period. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to investigate the association between early determinants at baseline and incident undernutrition. In 9 years, 156 participants (13·9 %) developed undernutrition. In univariate analyses, female sex, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, multiple chronic diseases, high medication use (women), poor appetite, no alcohol use v. light alcohol use, loneliness, not having a partner, limitations in performing normal activities due to a health problem, low physical performance (participants aged < 75 years) and reporting difficulties walking stairs (participants aged < 75 years) were statistically significantly associated with incident undernutrition. In a multivariate model, poor appetite and reporting difficulties walking stairs (participants aged < 75 years) remained early determinants. The results of the present study can be used to identify subgroups of older individuals with increased risk of undernutrition and to identify modifiable determinants for the purpose of prevention of undernutrition.

  18. Accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound in determining gestational age in first trimester pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient reported menstrual history, physician clinical evaluation, and ultrasonography are used to determine gestational age in the pregnant female. Previous studies have shown that pregnancy dating by last menstrual period (LMP) and physical examination findings can be inaccurate. An ultrasound performed in the radiology department is considered the standard for determining an accurate gestational age. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound as an estimation of gestational age (EDUGA) as compared to the radiology department standard. Methods A prospective convenience sample of ED patients presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy (based upon self-reported LMP) regardless of their presenting complaint were enrolled. EDUGA was compared to gestational age estimated by ultrasound performed in the department of radiology (RGA) as the gold standard. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between EDUGA compared to RGA. Results Sixty-eight pregnant patients presumed to be in the 1st trimester of pregnancy based upon self-reported LMP consented to enrollment. When excluding the cases with no fetal pole, the median discrepancy of EDUGA versus RGA was 2 days (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 3.25). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.978. When including the six cases without a fetal pole in the data analysis, the median discrepancy of EDUGA compared with RGA was 3 days (IQR 1 to 4). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.945. Conclusion Based on our comparison of EDUGA to RGA in patients presenting to the ED in the first trimester of pregnancy, we conclude that emergency physicians are capable of accurately performing this measurement. Emergency physicians should consider using ultrasound to estimate gestational age as it may be useful for the future care of that pregnant patient. PMID:23216683

  19. Age determination of highly enriched uranium: separation and analysis of 231Pa.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, A; Apostolidis, C; Mayer, K

    2002-11-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the age determination of highly enriched uranium samples exploiting the mother/daughter pair 235U/231Pa. Protactinium is separated from bulk uranium through highly selective sorption to silica gel and is subsequently quantified using alpha-spectrometry. The method has been validated using uranium standard reference materials of known ages. It affords decontamination factors exceeding 2.5 x 10(7), overall recoveries in the range of 80-85%, and a combined uncertainty below 5%.

  20. Environments for ageing, assistive technology and self-determination: ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Remmers, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    The development of information and communication technologies for design of environments for ageing is of great importance considering demographic trends in the future. There is a realistic hope for the preservation of self-determination and independence in the long term. However, some risks like a gradual loss of privacy should not be underestimated. The article discusses some ethical problems within this context. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the development and implementation of these technologies might be discussed for instance under some ethical assumptions of personal self-responsibility as well as social responsibility for the widest independence in advanced age.

  1. Healthy Ageing: Raising Awareness of Inequalities, Determinants, and What Could Be Done to Improve Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Sadana, Ritu; Blas, Erik; Budhwani, Suman; Koller, Theadora; Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Social and scientific discourses on healthy ageing and on health equity are increasingly available, yet from a global perspective limited conceptual and analytical work connecting both has been published. This review was done to inform the WHO World Report on Ageing and Health and to inform and encourage further work addressing both healthy aging and equity. We conducted an extensive literature review on the overlap between both topics, privileging publications from 2005 onward, from low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We also reviewed evidence generated around the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, applicable to ageing and health across the life course. Based on data from 194 countries, we highlight differences in older adults' health and consider three issues: First, multilevel factors that contribute to differences in healthy ageing, across contexts; second, policies or potential entry points for action that could serve to reduce unfair differences (health inequities); and third, new research areas to address the cause of persistent inequities and gaps in evidence on what can be done to increase healthy ageing and health equity. Each of these areas warrant in depth analysis and synthesis, whereas this article presents an overview for further consideration and action. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Direct Age Determination of a Subtropical Freshwater Crayfish (Redclaw, Cherax quadricarinatus) Using Ossicular Growth Marks

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Jesse C.; Bucher, Daniel J.; Coughran, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that crustacean age determination is possible. We applied a direct ageing method (i.e. transverse cross sectioning of gastric ossicles) to a subtropical freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) sourced from an aquaculture population. Growth mark periodicity and the potential for chronological depositions were investigated by staining C. quadricarinatus with calcein and examining their ossicles a year later. Pterocardiac ossicles were superior to other ageing structures (i.e. other ossicles and eyestalks) and produced repeatable between-reader counts (87% were corroborated and 13% varied by ±1). C. quadricarinatus size-at-age data (for an aquaculture population) was described by a von Bertalanffy growth equation (L∞ = 32 mm occipital carapace length; K = 0.64; t0 = –0.18; R2 = 0.81). Ossicular growth marks did not correspond to moult history. The calcein stain was retained over an annual cycle comprising multiple moults, demonstrating that pterocardiac ossicles retain chronological information. The maximum age (3+) corroborated other indirectly-obtained longevity estimates for C. quadricarinatus. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the growth marks in C. quadricarinatus ossicles are probably deposited annually during winter. The ability to extract age information from subtropical decapods provides substantial opportunities for advancing fisheries and conservation research globally, but further research is needed to provide a definitive validation and elucidate the mechanism governing the accrual of ossicular growth marks. PMID:26309228

  3. Effects of diet forage source and neutral detergent fiber content on milk production of dairy cattle and methane emissions determined using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    PubMed

    Hammond, K J; Jones, A K; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Reynolds, C K

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield. Milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured daily, and milk composition measured weekly, with methane yield (g/kg of DMI) estimated using a GF unit (wk 10 to 12). Experiment 2 was a 4×4 Latin square design with 5-wk periods and 4 dairy cows (114d in milk) fed the same 4 dietary treatments as in experiment 1. Measurements of DMI, milk production, and milk composition occurred in wk 4, and DMI, milk production, and methane yield were measured for 2d in RC during wk 5. Dietary treatments for both experiments were fed as total mixed rations offered ad libitum and containing 500g of silage/kg of dry matter composed (DM basis) of either 75:25 MS:GS (MS) or 25:75 MS:GS (GS), without or with added NDF from chopped straw and soy hulls (+47g of NDF/kg of dry matter). In both experiments, compared with high GS, cows fed high MS had a higher DMI, greater milk production, and lower methane yield (24% lower in experiment 1 using GF and 8% lower in experiment 2 using RC). Added NDF increased (or tended to increase) methane yield for high MS, but not high GS diets. In the separate experiments, the GF and RC methods detected similar dietary treatment effects on methane emission (expressed as g/d and g/kg of DMI), although the magnitude of the differences varied between

  4. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamalandua, Aubeline

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0–91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19–70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R2 of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals PMID:26280308

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

  6. Determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium-thorium-plutonium isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, I. V.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Eichler, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of the Galaxy age ( T G), as determined by the method of uranium-thorium isotopic ratios, on the parameters of the nucleosynthesis model is studied within the theory of galactic nucleosynthesis. It is shown that TG depends strongly both on the scenario of the production of nuclei in the r-process and those features of neutron-rich nuclei that are used in the respective analysis and on galactic-nucleosynthesis parameters. The effect of a sudden nucleosynthesis spike before the formation of a solar system on the Galaxy age is evaluated. The region of admissible values of the parameters of galacticnucleosynthesis theory is discussed. The method of uranium-thorium isotopic ratios is supplemented with the 244Pu/238U ratio for yet another cosmochronometer pair, and the Galaxy age is estimated on the basis of the model modified in this way.

  7. [Determination of the writing age of blue ballpoint ink by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yao, Lijuan; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Jinghan; Wang, Yanji

    2005-03-01

    A method of identifying the writing age of blue ballpoint ink has been established for imperative demand of forensic laboratory. The content of the volatile component in blue ballpoint ink was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The absorbance of the dye in the blue ballpoint ink was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). A writing age curve of the blue ballpoint ink has been established by the ratio of the content of the volatile components and the dye, based on the identification of 74 kinds of blue ballpoint inks, from both domestic and international origins. The change of benzyl alcohol or phenoxyethyl alcohol was tested with the writing age. Blue ballpoint inks of different kinds were detected and the repeatability of the experiment was investigated. The results indicated that the method is reliable and systematic, and especially suitable for practical cases.

  8. Eimeriosis in cattle: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Najdrowski, M

    2005-12-01

    This report addresses various aspects of the protozoan parasite Eimeria which contribute to their increasing recognition as important protozoal pathogens in cattle. Among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with. The tenacious oocysts are found ubiquitously in the environment making an infection of calves and young cattle, the most susceptible age group, almost inevitable. Further development, comprising of asexual multiplication, the merogony, and a subsequent sexual stage, the gamogony, takes place within cells of the small and large intestines, after which numerous unsporulated oocysts are formed and shed with the faeces. Of the more than a dozen species, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii only are made responsible for severe clinical disease characterized by haemorrhagic diarrhoea with sometimes fatal outcome. To a lesser extent, Eimeria alabamensis also can cause clinical disease. Because of the damage inflicted on the intestinal tissue, the digestive process and overall homeostasis can become severely affected, even with absence of clinical disease, with adverse effects on animal welfare and performance. The consequent economic losses for the cattle industry are thus substantial. Active (species specific) immunity, both humoral and cellular, develops rapidly after first antigen contact, its intensity being dependent on the number of oocysts ingested. However, no absolute protection is achieved and even older animals can excrete oocysts, contributing to a state of endemic stability. For efficient control, exact diagnosis of the Eimeria species involved and the evaluation of animal management and husbandry practices are of utmost importance. Mixed infections are the rule and only an occurrence of pathogenic species, together with clinical symptoms, justifies the assumption of a coccidiosis. Proper hygiene regime and ensuring unfavourable conditions for oocyst survival in the

  9. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  10. Absolute age Determinations on Diamond by Radioisotopic Methods: NOT the way to Accurately Identify Diamond Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.

    2002-05-01

    Gem-quality diamond contains such low abundances of parent-daughter radionuclides that dating the diamond lattice directly by isotopic measurements has been and will be impossible. Absolute ages on diamonds typically are obtained through measurements of their syngenetic mineral inclusions: Rb-Sr in garnet; Sm-Nd in garnet and pyroxene; Re-Os and U-Th-Pb in sulfide; K-Ar in pyroxene; and U-Pb in zircon. The application of the first two isotope schemes in the list requires putting together many inclusions from many diamonds whereas the latter isotope schemes permit ages on single diamonds. The key limitations on the application of these decay pairs are the availability and size of the inclusions, the abundance levels of the radionuclides, and instrumental sensitivity. Practical complications of radioisotope dating of inclusions are fatal to the application of the technique for diamond provenance. In all mines, the ratio of gem-quality diamonds to stones with datable inclusions is very high. Thus there is no way to date the valuable, marketable stones that are part of the conflict diamond problem, just their rare, flawed cousins. Each analysis destroys the diamond host plus the inclusion and can only be carried out in research labs by highly trained scientists. Thus, these methods can not be automated or applied to the bulk of diamond production. The geological problems with age dating are equally fatal to its application to diamond provenance. From the geological perspective, for age determination to work as a tool for diamond provenance studies, diamond ages would have to be specific to particular kimberlites or kimberlite fields and different between fields. The southern African Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Mobile Belt is the only cratonic region where age determinations have been applied on a large enough scale to a number of kimberlites to illustrate the geological problems in age measurements for diamond provenance. However, this southern African example

  11. [Research on the social determinants of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 in China].

    PubMed

    Man, S Lm; Guo, Y

    2016-06-18

    To understand the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants among children under the age of 5 in China, and to provide evidence and useful information to help policy makers develop social policies to improve child nutritional status. Information of 2 434 children aged 0-5 was extracted from year 1991 to 2011 longitudinal survey data in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was extracted for analysis. Child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting were defined using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. Weight-for-age values, height-for-age values or weight-for-height values below 2 standard deviations were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting. World Health Organization igrowup software was used to calculate the prevalence of child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants (household income, parents' educational level, living regions, and communities' urbanization level). The prevalence of child underweight and child stunting were decreased by 64.8% and 67.8%, respectively from 1991 to 2011, while the prevalence of child wasting had remained at a relatively low level (below 5%). The problem of child underweight and stunting had been significantly resolved in China. Female children had better outcomes than male children on improving nutritional status. Among all the non-socio-economic determinants of child malnutrition, children with low height mother and children had inadequate protein intake were both risk factors of malnutrition. The social determinants significantly associated to child malnutrition included: living in the western regions and central regions, living in low level urbanization communities, with low household incomes, and low maternal educational levels. In order to further decrease the prevalence of child

  12. Mountaintop island age determines species richness of boreal mammals in the American Southwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, J.K.; Bogan, M.A.; Yates, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Models that describe the mechanisms responsible for insular patterns of species richness include the equilibrium theory of island biogeography and the nonequilibrium vicariance model. The relative importance of dispersal or vicariance in structuring insular distribution patterns can be inferred from these models. Predictions of the alternative models were tested for boreal mammals in the American Southwest. Age of mountaintop islands of boreal habitat was determined by constructing a geographic cladogram based on characteristics of intervening valley barriers. Other independent variables included area and isolation of mountaintop islands. Island age was the most important predictor of species richness. In contrast with previous studies of species richness patterns in this system, these results supported the nonequilibrium vicariance model, which indicates that vicariance has been the primary determinant of species distribution patterns in this system.

  13. Age at adiposity rebound: determinants and association with nutritional status and the metabolic syndrome at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Péneau, S; González-Carrascosa, R; Gusto, G; Goxe, D; Lantieri, O; Fezeu, L; Hercberg, S; Rolland-Cachera, M F

    2016-07-01

    Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact nutritional status later in life but studies investigating the association with long-term health remain scarce. Our aims were to identify determinants of age at AR and its relationship with nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk factors at adulthood. A total of 1465 subjects aged 20-60 years participated in this retrospective cohort study. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure were measured at adulthood. Childhood weight, height, gestational age, birth weight and early nutrition were collected retrospectively from health booklets and age at AR was assessed. Participants self-reported parental silhouettes. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression. An earlier AR was associated with higher body mass index and waist circumference at adulthood in both men and women (P<0.0001). In addition, women with an earlier occurrence of AR had higher triglyceride (P=0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.001), systolic (P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.04) at adulthood. Both men (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.82 (0.70-0.95)) and women (OR (95% CI): 0.84 (0.73-0.96) with an AR occurring earlier were more likely to develop a metabolic syndrome. Larger parental silhouette was associated with an earlier AR. This long-term study showed that age at AR was associated with nutritional status and metabolic syndrome at adulthood. These results highlight the importance of monitoring childhood growth so as to help identify children at risk of developing an adverse cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. AR determinants for use in overweight surveillance were identified.

  14. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates..., 1999, the date determined by APHIS to be the date of effective enforcement of a ruminant-to-ruminant...

  15. Leather quality of beefalo-Nellore cattle in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Mateus, Rodrigo Gonçalves; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Dias, Alexandre Menezes; Gomes, Fabio Candal; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Schio, Alex Resende; Nogueira, Eriklis; Petit, Hélène Véronique

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of two production systems on performance, carcass traits and physical-mechanical characteristics of leather from Beefalo-Nellore steers and heifers and to determine if the response to the production system was similar for both genders. A total of 40 Beefalo-Nellore cattle, 20 steers and 20 heifers, were evaluated. Animals were divided into two production systems: slaughtered at 15 (intensive system) or 26 (extensive system) months of age. In the intensive system, all animals received a ration containing 600 g/kg corn silage and 400 g/kg concentrate. In the extensive system, animals were kept on a pasture predominantly based on Brachiaria sp. and supplemented with 2 kg/day concentrate. In the intensive system, there was no difference in slaughter weight (470 kg body weight) between steers and heifers but steers in the extensive system had greater slaughter weight than heifers (463 and 428 kg body weight, respectively). Leather weight was higher for animals in the intensive than extensive system but there was no difference in leather weight once excess fat was removed. Leather quality from Beefalo-Nellore cattle slaughtered at 15 or 26 months of age is similar although carcass yield is higher for cattle slaughtered at a younger age. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness in men aged 42 to 60 years with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo Antero; Savonen, Kai; Rauramaa, Rainer; Mäkikallio, Timo; Kurl, Sudhir

    2009-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been found to protect against cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate determinants of directly measured cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]), including age, body composition, prevalent diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary functions, biochemical factors, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and alcohol consumption, in a population-based study of 936 men 42 to 60 years of age. Variables that had the strongest direct associations with VO2max (milliliters per minute) in a linear multivariate step-up regression model were body weight, heart rate at maximal exercise, mean intensity and frequency of conditioning physical activity, intake of carbohydrates, blood hemoglobin, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The strongest inverse associations with VO2max were heart rate at rest, age, fasting serum insulin, waist-to-hip ratio, coronary heart disease, and asthma. This model accounted for 67% of the variation of VO2max. In conclusion, mean intensity, frequency, and duration of conditioning physical activity were associated directly with VO2max. However, measurements of the function of pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, carbohydrate intake, and body composition were powerful determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness, especially in older middle-aged men.

  17. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-06-01

    Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is measured with accelerometers, was conducted in healthy subjects under daily living conditions over intervals of one or more weeks. Activity energy expenditure as a fraction of daily energy expenditure is highest in adults at the reproductive age. Then, activity energy expenditure is a function of fat-free mass. Excess body mass as fat does not affect daily activity energy expenditure, but body movement decreases with increasing fatness. Overweight and obesity possibly affect daily physical activity energy expenditure through endurance. Physical activity is affected by energy availability; a negative energy balance induces a reduction of activity expenditure. Optimal performance and health require prevention of excess body fat and maintenance of energy balance, where energy balance determines physical activity rather than physical activity affecting energy balance.

  18. Age of ovary determines remaining life expectancy in old ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Shelley L.; Carey, James R.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Anderson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Summary We investigated the capacity of young ovaries, transplanted into old ovariectomized CBA mice, to improve remaining life expectancy of the hosts. Donor females were sexually mature 2-month-olds; recipients were prepubertally ovariectomized at 3 weeks and received transplants at 5, 8 or 11 months of age. Relative to ovariectomized control females, life expectancy at 11 months was increased by 60% in 11-month recipient females and by 40% relative to intact control females. Only 20% of the 11-month transplant females died in the 300-day period following ovarian transplantation, whereas nearly 65% of the ovariectomized control females died during this same period. The 11-month-old recipient females resumed oestrus and continued to cycle up to several months beyond the age of control female reproductive senescence. Across the three recipient age groups, transplantation of young ovaries increased life expectancy in proportion to the relative youth of the ovary. Our results relate to recent findings on the gonadal input upon aging in Caenorhabditis elegans and may suggest how the mammalian gonad, including that of humans, could regulate aging and determine longevity. PMID:12882411

  19. Age of ovary determines remaining life expectancy in old ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Shelley L; Carey, James R; Müller, Hans-Georg; Anderson, Gary

    2003-06-01

    We investigated the capacity of young ovaries, transplanted into old ovariectomized CBA mice, to improve remaining life expectancy of the hosts. Donor females were sexually mature 2-month-olds; recipients were prepubertally ovariectomized at 3 weeks and received transplants at 5, 8 or 11 months of age. Relative to ovariectomized control females, life expectancy at 11 months was increased by 60% in 11-month recipient females and by 40% relative to intact control females. Only 20% of the 11-month transplant females died in the 300-day period following ovarian transplantation, whereas nearly 65% of the ovariectomized control females died during this same period. The 11-month-old recipient females resumed oestrus and continued to cycle up to several months beyond the age of control female reproductive senescence. Across the three recipient age groups, transplantation of young ovaries increased life expectancy in proportion to the relative youth of the ovary. Our results relate to recent findings on the gonadal input upon aging in Caenorhabditis elegans and may suggest how the mammalian gonad, including that of humans, could regulate aging and determine longevity.

  20. Anthropometric, body composition and health determinants of active ageing: a gender approach.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar Montero; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; López, Santiago Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    This study applied a gender perspective to establish some of the anthropometric, body composition, health and socio-cultural determinants of active ageing. The variable 'active ageing' (presence/absence) was created based on cognitive and disability/illness/physical functioning, subjective health, satisfaction with life and productive activity performed, and used in predictive models to establish its relationship with anthropometric variables, physical health indicators and educational level. The sample consisted of 456 home-living individuals (169 men and 287 women; age range 54-75 years) from Madrid and Toledo in Spain. The women had a higher prevalence of obesity than the men (37.6% vs 29.0%), significantly greater fat accumulation in the abdominal area and worst perceived health (p=0.003). The frequency of active agers is higher in men than in women (38.4% vs 21.9%; p<0.001). Men and women were found to have distinctive ageing patterns. Health factors condition the presence of active ageing in women, while education factors are also relevant in men.

  1. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mete G.; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C.; Tepe, Neslihan B.; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating. Methods: This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age. Result: The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987). Conclusion: Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters. PMID:27146616

  2. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  3. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  4. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    PubMed

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  5. Age and Environment Determined Children’s Preference Towards Dentist Attire - A Cross - Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Karthikeyan, Shanmugaavel; Subbramanian, EMG; Samuel, Victor A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The attire of the dentist has an influence on child’s behaviour in dental setup. Recent research has shown that the children have preferences towards the outfit worn by the dentist. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the preference of children towards dentists’ attire based on various age groups and environment. Materials and Methods A total of 534 children aged between 6-11 years participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups based on their age as younger, middle and older age groups. Photographs of the dentist in different attires such as white coat, surgical scrubs and regular outfit were shown to children and the questionnaire was evaluated by a single, qualified Paediatric dentist in two different environmental set ups, namely school and dental environment. The anxiety level was evaluated by using Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Data was collected and tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards dentist attire (p-value= 0.002). There was a positive correlation in the preference level of children towards dentist attire in different age groups. A statistically significant difference was evident in the preference level of children towards the dentist attire in school and dental environment (p-value <0.001). Conclusion Younger age group children preferred regular outfit and middle and older age group preferred white coat and surgical scrubs respectively. Children preferred white coat in school environment and surgical scrubs in dental environment. PMID:27891450

  6. Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329

  7. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages. II: Meat stability and flavour.

    PubMed

    Warren, H E; Scollan, N D; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the effect of breed and diet on meat quality, defined as lipid stability, colour shelf life and sensory quality. Ninety-six steers were used, half Aberdeen Angus (AA) cross and half Holstein-Friesian (HF). They were reared from 6 months of age on a standard concentrate diet or grass silage and slaughtered at 14, 19 or 24 months of age. Breed had small effects on quality with lower lipid stability in muscle of 24 month-old HF (P<0.05). Sensory scores were similar between the breeds, the few differences being in favour of AA. Diet had the biggest effects on meat quality, in all 3 age groups. The grass silage diet produced higher plasma and muscle levels of vitamin E, lower lipid oxidation in loin steaks measured at 4 and 7 days of retail display and better colour stability (saturation) during shelf life in MAP (O(2):CO(2); 75:25) (all P<0.001). The high values for lipid oxidation in the concentrate-fed steers were linked to high muscle PUFA concentrations and low levels of vitamin E.

  8. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  9. [Genetic mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to leukemia in Ayrshire and black pied cattle breeds determined by allelic distribution of gene Bola-DRB3].

    PubMed

    Udina, I G; Karamysheva, E E; Turkova, S O; Orlova, A R; Sulimova, G E

    2003-03-01

    In the herds of Ayrshire and Black Pied cattle breeds of Russian selection, comparative analysis of allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 was performed in animal groups with different status of persistent lymphocytosis (PL) caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Alleles were typed by PCR-RFLP. Different spectra of BoLA-DRB3 alleles mediating susceptibility and resistance to leukemia were detected in the studied breeds. The role of amino acid motives in beta 1 domain of BoLA-DRB3 antigens was confirmed: ER (in positions 70-71), in resistance to leukemia and VDTY and VDTV (75-78), in susceptibility to leukemia. The nucleotide sequence of allele BoLA-DRB3.2*7 with deletion of codon 65, which resulted in the changed conformation of the corresponding antigen molecule, was associated with resistance to PL. Cows of Black Pied and Ayrshire breeds with genotypes coding VDTY/VDTV (RR = 11.67, P = 0.014) and VDTY/VDTY (RR = 4.71, P = 0.022), respectively, were shown to be susceptible to PL. The role of heterozygosity level was demonstrated (estimated by BoLA-DRB3 alleles and by amino acid motives in positions 75-78 of the antigen) as an unspecific factor of resistance to PL. The lowest heterozygosity level by amino acid motives (75-78) was revealed in PL animals, for which sample inbreeding coefficients were detected: F = 0.324 and F = 0.084 in Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  11. Coxofemoral joint radiography in standing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, Beatrice; Hagen, Regine; Schmid, Tanja; Nuss, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a technique for radiographic examination of the coxofemoral joint and adjacent bony structures in standing cattle. Left (or right) 30° dorsal-right (or left) ventral radiographic views of the coxofemoral joint region of standing cattle (n = 10) with hind limb lameness were evaluated retrospectively. In addition, an experimental study of oblique laterolateral views of the coxofemoral joint region of a bovine skeleton at angles of 15-45° was carried out to determine the optimal position for visualization of the hip region. In the 10 clinical patients, the bodies of the ilium and ischium, the acetabulum and proximal third of the femur could be assessed. Six of these cattle had fractures of the body of the ilium and body of the ischium, five with and one without involvement of the acetabulum, two had craniodorsal and one caudoventral luxation of the femur and one had a femoral neck fracture. The described laterodorsal-lateroventral radiographs of the hip region in standing cattle were suitable for assessing the coxofemoral joint, the proximal aspect of the femur and parts of the ischium, ilium and pubis. After testing the optimal angle on the skeleton, it was seen that distortion and superimposition were minimized by positioning the X-ray beam at an angle of 25° to the horizontal plane. It can be concluded that the described technique improves the evaluation of injuries of the coxofemoral region in cattle. With the appropriate angle, the technique can also be applied in recumbent cattle. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  12. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (15.6-8.1) and MgSO4 (17.0-8.7) but there was no significant difference between treatments. The mean rumen pH values changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (7.-8.7) and MgSO4 (7.3-8.3) but there was no significant difference between treatments. However, use of the MgO product caused a more severe (P<0.001) metabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181

  13. Uranium-series age determination of calcite veins, VC-1 drill core, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Binz, Carl M.

    1988-06-01

    Uranium-series analysis (238U-234U-230Th) of 13 calcite veins from the hydrothermally altered Madera Limestone in the VC-1 drill core was performed to determine the ages of the veins and their relation to the Valles hydrothermal system. Thermal water from VC-1 and two hot springs in San Diego Canyon was analyzed for U and (234U/238U) to help evaluate the constancy of initial (234U/238U). The (230Th/234U) age of one of the veins is ˜95 kyr, and those of two other veins are ˜230 and ˜250 kyr. Five of the veins have near equilibrium (230Th/234U) and are probably older than ˜0.3 m.y. Uranium concentrations in the remaining veins are too low for analysis by the α-spectrometry techniques employed in this study. Of the five veins near (230Th/234U) equilibrium, four are also near (234U/238U) equilibrium, suggesting ages greater than ˜1.0 m.y., but one has (234U/238U) = 1.15, suggesting an age between ˜0.3 and ˜1.0 m.y. Calculated initial (234U/238U) of the veins yielding relatively young ages are neither equal to each other nor to (234U/238U) in thermal water from VC-1, indicating inconstancy of initial (234U/238U) that may be related to variations in groundwater mixing proportions. Three of the four veins that yield relatively young ages consist of coarse, sparry, vuggy calcite, suggesting that this may be the type of calcite vein which forms under conditions resembling those encountered presently in VC-1. The analytical data are consistent with closed-system behavior of U and Th in the VC-1 calcite veins.

  14. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Methods Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Results Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Conclusion Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of

  15. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2015-01-01

    Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  16. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT.

    PubMed

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers.

  18. Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

    The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

  19. A Complication in Determining the Precise Age of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive components in meteorites contain a detailed record of the conditions and processes in the solar nebula, the cloud of dust and gas surrounding the infant Sun. Determining accurately when the first materials formed requires the lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating method, a method based on the decay of uranium (U) isotopes to Pb isotopes. The initial ratio of U-238 to U-235 is critical to determining the ages correctly, and many studies have concluded that the ratio is constant for any given age. However, my colleagues at Arizona State University, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitat (Frankfurt, Germany), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum (also in Frankfurt) and I have found that some calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondritic meteorites deviate from the conventional value for the U-238/U-235 ratio. This could lead to inaccuracies of up to 5 million years in the age of these objects, if no correction is made. Variations in the concentrations of thorium and neodymium with the U-238/U-235 ratio suggest that the ratio may have been lowered by the decay of curium-247, which decays to U-235 with a half-life of 15.6 million years. Curium-247 is created in certain types of energetic supernovae, so its presence suggests that a supernova added material to the pre-solar interstellar cloud between 110 and 140 million years before the Solar System began to form.

  20. Fate of chlorate present in cattle wastes and its impact on Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli 0157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorate salts are being developed as a feed additive to reduce the numbers of pathogens in feedlot cattle. A series of studies was conducted to determine whether chlorate, at concentrations expected to be excreted in urine of dosed cattle, would also reduce the populations of pathogens in cattle wa...

  1. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management.

  2. Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted virus, which causes bluetongue disease (BT) in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American white-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no overt clinical signs of disease appear to be associated with BTV infection. Serological evidence and isolation of different BTV serotypes have been reported in Sudan, however, no information is currently available in regard to previous exposure of Sudanese livestock to BTV infection in East Darfur State, Sudan. Aims To determine the prevalence of BTV antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with BTV infection among cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan. Methods A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The serum samples were screened for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Results Serological evidence of BTV infection was observed in 150 out of 224 animals accounting for a 67% prevalence rate among cattle in East Darfur State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01). Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03). Exposure of cattle to the insect vector increased the risk of contracting BTV infection by six times compared to non-exposed cattle (OR = 6.44, CI = 1.53-27.08, p value = 0.01). Conclusion The present study indicated that age, animal source and the intensity of the insect vector are influential risk factors for BTV infection in cattle in the Darfur region. Surveillance for BTV infection should be extended to include other susceptible ruminants and to study the

  3. Production of cattle lacking prion protein.

    PubMed

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP(C), such as PrP(BSE) in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP(CJD) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP(C) expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities. However, the impact of ablating PrP(C) function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrP(C)-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification. PrP(C)-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins.

  4. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-06-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  5. Determinants of reliability in psychiatric surveys of children aged 6-12.

    PubMed

    Fallon, T; Schwab-Stone, M

    1994-11-01

    The reliability of young children's self reports of psychiatric information is a concern of epidemiologists and clinicians alike. This paper explores the determinants of test-retest reliability in a sample of children from the general population using reliability coefficients constructed from a kappa statistic. Age, cognitive ability, and gender are related to consistency of reports in a test-retest paradigm. Controlling for age, cognitive ability and gender, children report more reliably on observable behaviors, and less reliably on questions involving unspecified time, reflections of one's own thoughts, and comparison of themselves with others. The reliability of reports of emotions lies between these two extremes. Surprisingly, sentence length of up to 40 words and psychiatric impairment of the child as measured by the Child Global Assessment Scale did not influence reliability. As might be expected, parents' reports of their children are more reliable than their children's reports.

  6. The "Red Lady" ages gracefully: new ultrafiltration AMS determinations from Paviland.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, R M; Higham, T F G

    2008-11-01

    The "Red Lady" partial human skeleton found at Goat's Hole, Paviland, in south Wales by William Buckland in 1823 is one of the iconic relics of the British Paleolithic. Originally thought to be Roman, a Paleolithic age has been suspected from the middle of the 19th century. Several attempts have been made at directly radiocarbon dating the "Red Lady," and here we report new determinations that suggest that it is, by a significant margin, the oldest of a group of 'rich,' Mid-Upper Paleolithic burials. We list similar Gravettian-aged burials from Europe, which have been dated recently for comparison. In this paper, we also reconsider the chronology of human use of the cave, apart from as a burial location.

  7. Age as a main determinant of renal functional damage in urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, U B; Johansson, S B

    1983-01-01

    Renal function was studied in 61 girls suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections, with at least one febrile infection. Clearance of inulin was determined. Intravenous urography and micturating cystourethrography were performed 1-6 months after the first infection and 0-6 months before or after the function test. A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was found only among children with their first pyelonephritis before the age of 3 years. A low GFR was found mostly in patients with small or scarred kidneys but was also seen in a few patients with normal intravenous urographs. Low GFR as well as radiologically small kidneys at the time of the function test were found independently of the presence or grade of vesicoureteral reflux at first infection. Patients with early onset pyelonephritis (before age 3 years) had a low capacity for early compensatory hypertrophy in contrast to patients with late onset pyelonephritis. PMID:6660895

  8. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  9. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted

  10. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat.

  11. Effects of three dehorning techniques on behavior and wound healing in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Neely, C D; Thomson, D U; Kerr, C A; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-05-01

    Crossbred horned steers and heifers (n = 40; BW = 311.8 ± 4.7 kg) were used to determine the effect of dehorning methods on pain, cattle behavior, and wound healing. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CON), 2) banded using high tension elastic rubber (BAND), 3) mechanically removed (MECH), or 4) tipped (TIP). Vocalization and behavior were recorded during the dehorning process. Wound healing scores, attitude, gait and posture, appetite, and lying were recorded daily. Vocalization scores were highest for MECH cattle and BAND cattle vocalized more than TIP and CON (P < 0.05). Attitude (P = 0.06), gait and posture (P = 0.06), and lying scores (P < 0.05) were higher for BAND cattle in the days following procedures compared to MECH, TIP, and CON cattle. Cattle in the BAND treatment tended (P < 0.13) to have higher appetite scores than the other methods. Wound healing scores (horn bud and bleeding) were higher for BAND cattle than MECH, TIP, and CON cattle (P < 0.05). These data indicate that MECH is a painful procedure for cattle at the time of the procedure. Banding to remove horns from cattle is not recommended based on the data and observations from this study.

  12. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  13. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O. Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A. Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001) and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001). In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions. PMID:27347992

  14. [Child malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Peru: trends and determinants].

    PubMed

    Sobrino, Manuel; Gutiérrez, César; Cunha, Antonio J; Dávila, Miguel; Alarcón, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Analyze malnutrition and anemia trends in Peruvian children under 5 years of age and their association with determinants in the 2000-2011 period. Nutritional indicators for children under 5 years of age from the 2011 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), and their evolution based on data from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 ENDES, were analyzed. Chronic malnutrition (CM) (height/age ≤ 2 SD), acute malnutrition (AM), (height/weight ≤ 2 SD), and anemia trends were estimated. Associations were found with factors such as sex, age, area of residence (urban or rural), region of residence, mother's education, wealth quintile, availability of public water system, sewer availability, altitude, presence of other children in household, birth order, presence of diarrhea in previous 15 days, and presence of cough in previous 15 days. AM, CM, and anemia in Peruvian children under 5 years of age decreased from 2000-2011. This reduction was not uniform for the three conditions, with decreases of 1.1% to 0.4% recorded for AM, 31.6% to 19.6% for CM, and 50.4% to 30.7% for anemia. Although the factors analyzed were related to the prevalence of these three illnesses, calculation of the adjusted odds ratios showed significant differences for CM (mother's education, Sierra region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, presence of two or more children in household, and being the third or successive child) and anemia (child sex [higher in males], children under 2 years of age, Resto de costa region and Selva region, altitude greater than 2 500 m above sea level, availability of public water system, sewer availability, presence of two or more children in household, and presence of diarrhea within 15 days prior to the survey). For AM, differences were observed according to some factors but they were not significant in the adjusted model. In the 2000-2011 period, Peru achieved reduction of its CM, AM, and anemia rates. AM rates decreased to almost one-third, with overall

  15. Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d−1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d−1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d−1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d−1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg−1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg−1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  16. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  17. HEU age determination by the activity ratio 227Th/235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junjie; Zeng, Lina; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Chun; Li, Jiansheng

    2014-02-01

    It is important to measure the age of a highly enriched uranium (HEU) assembly for authentication of the material in the frame of arms control inspections. A new non-destructive gamma spectrometric method for HEU age-dating is reported. This method relies on measuring the daughter/parent activity ratio 227Th/235U by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Only a narrow gamma range of energy of uranium from 230 keV to 242 keV will be used for analysis. The relative efficiency of every characteristic gamma ray changes in a small range because it has a near energy, which makes the results more accurate in theory. It provides a quick and reliable method for HEU age determination. Several gamma spectra of the same HEU assembly have been measured with different conditions (gain settings, distance and measurement time). When a branching ratio of 12.6% was chosen for the 235.96 keV line of 227Th, we obtained the activity ratios of (5.61 ± 0.40) × 10-4, (5.17 ± 0.39) × 10-4, (5.26 ± 0.39) × 10-4, (5.10 ± 0.35) × 10-4, (5.50 ± 0.44) × 10-4 and (5.47 ± 0.42) × 10-4, respectively. These ratios correspond to ages of 52.2 ± 2.4 years, 49.7 ± 2.3 years, 50.1 ± 2.3 years, 49.3 ± 2.2 years, 51.6 ± 2.5 years and 51.5 ± 2.4 years, respectively, which are consistent with the known age of this material and the results of the U-Bi method.

  18. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England.

    PubMed

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-07-23

    This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Community-dwellers across England. Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the 'successful ageing' policy framework. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  20. Host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    1995-03-01

    The usual course of infection by Plasmodium falciparum among adults who lack a history of exposure to endemic malaria is fulminant. The infection in adults living with hyper- to holoendemic malaria is chronic and benign. Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria is the basis of this difference. Confusion surrounds an essential question regarding this process: What is its rate of onset? Opinions vary because of disagreement over the relationships between exposure to infection, antigenic polymorphism and naturally acquired immunity. In this review, Kevin Baird discusses these relationships against a backdrop of host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria.

  1. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo cattle...

  2. Methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Johnson, D E

    1995-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.

  3. Prevalence of bovine dermatophilosis and disease-associated alleles in zebu Goudali cattle and their Italian Simmental crosses ranching in the western highland plateau savannah of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ojong, Bessong Willington; Saccà, Elena; Bessong, Pascal; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-10-01

    Abundance of native pastures makes Cameroon's western highland savannah (WHS) a hotspot for low-input beef-type cattle. Dumbo Ranch is central to cattle seed stock multiplication in WHS and holds that Dermatophilus congolensis infection undermines production. The bovine BoLA-DRB3 has been variously demonstrated as the principal gene of the major histocompatibility locus associated with immunity and resistance to dermatophilosis in cattle. We studied the profile of dermatophilosis prevalence in zebu Goudali (G) and its Simmental composite, SimGoud (SG), at Dumbo Ranch and determined the distribution of a dermatophilosis-associated susceptibility allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We recorded a 42 % prevalence of dermatophilosis in the studied cohort (337 animals). Dermatophilosis was more common in older cattle than in cattle ≤36 months (p ≤ 0.05). G was more affected compared to SG, because of the prevalence of the disease in the oldest animals and the age distribution of the experimental subjects. No susceptible homozygote was observed. About 85 and 15 % of the cohort carried the homozygous resistant and heterozygous condition, respectively. This genotype distribution was not affected by cattle type. The study confirms the presence of dermatophilosis among G and SG cattle in WHS. However, there was no correlation between the presence of the disease-associated susceptible allele considered and clinical manifestation. Screening for this dermatophilosis resistance-associated allele of BoLA-DRB3 gene appeared not useful for selection of G and SG in WHS.

  4. Virus-induced papillomas of the alimentary tract of cattle.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, W F; Murphy, J; O'Neil, B W; Laird, H M

    1978-09-15

    An abattoir survey was carried out to determine the incidence and aetiology of squamous papillomas of the alimentary tract of cattle in Scotland and North England as they were suspected of being involved in the genesis of alimentary carcinoma in certain localized geographical areas. A total of 7,746 cattle of a wide age range was examined. Various subsets of this number were subjected to analyses of certain specific factors. The calculated overall incidence was 19% and the detailed site incidence and tumour multiplicity are given. The sites at which papillomas were found were identical with those at which carcinoma had been noted in animals from a high-cancer area. The number of sites affected by papilloma and the tumour multiplicity were much lower in the general population than in the high-cancer area. Inclusion bodies, identified by electronmicroscopy as virus, were found in tumour cell nuclei and a typical papilloma virus was purified from the tumours. The structure of the tumours is described and the possible plurality of bovine papilloma-viruses is discussed in the light of recent findings in the human viruses. The general interest of a naturally occurring and geographically localized oncogenic system, in which an environmental carcinogen and a virus might be involved, is extended.

  5. Cation-ratio dating: A new rock varnish age-determination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    1983-07-01

    Rock varnish coats many surfaces of geomorphic and archaeologic interest in arid lands. All varnish dating techniques are limited by the time lag between the exposure of a surface to subaerial processes and the onset of varnishing. They are valid only where manganese is not remobilized after deposition, for example, in most arid environments. The premise of a new age-determination method, cation-ratio dating, is that the ratio of the more mobile cations (e.g., K and Ca) to titanium in varnish decreases with time. Although there are many inherent assumptions and potential limitations, cation-ratio dating has been verified on relative age-sequences from a Death Valley debris cone, Negev Desert talus flatirons, and prehistoric lake levels at Searles Lake in California. Varnish cation ratios have been calibrated to independently dated surfaces in the Coso volcanic field and vicinity in California. Tentative absolute dates have been assigned to geomorphic surfaces in the Coso area. Cation ratios have been used to distinguish relative ages of archaeologic artifacts in southwestern North America and to demonstrate that varnish at the South Stoddard locality, Mojave Desert, did not form in 25 yr.

  6. Determining Distance, Age, and Activity in a New Benchmark Cluster: Ruprecht 147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2009-08-01

    This proposal seeks 0.7 night of time on Hectochelle to observe the F, G, and K dwarfs of Ruprecht 147, recently identified as the closest old stellar cluster. At only ~ 200 pc and at an age of ~ 1-2 Gyr, this will be an important benchmark in stellar astrophysics, providing the only sample of spectroscopically accessible old, late-type stars of determinable age. Hectochelle is the ideal instrument to study this cluster, with a FOV, fiber count, and telescope aperture well matched to the cluster's diameter (~ 1°), richness (~ 100 identified members), and distance modulus (6.5-7 mag., putting the G and K dwarfs at B=11-15). Hectochelle will measure the Ca II line strengths of members to establish, for the first time, the chromospheric activity levels of a statistically significant sample of single, G and K dwarfs of this modest age. Hectochelle will also vet background stars for suitability as astrometric reference stars for a forthcoming HST FGS proposal to robustly measure the cluster's distance.

  7. Reddening and age for 13 southern Galactic open clusters determined from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.; Torres, M. C.

    2001-10-01

    In this study we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3800-6800 Å for 13 concentrated open clusters with Galactic longitudes between 219deg and 316deg, nine of which have not been previously studied. Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra of Magellanic Clouds and Galactic star clusters with known parameters, we derive both foreground interstellar reddening values and age. For nine clusters these two parameters have been determined for the first time, while for the rest of the sample the results show good agreement with previous studies. The present analysis indicates four very young (Hogg 11, NGC 5606, vdB-RN 80 and Pismis 17), seven moderately young (ESO 429-SC13, Hogg 3, Hogg 12, Haffner 7, BH 87, NGC 2368 and Bochum 12) and two intermediate-age (Berkeley 75 and NGC 2635) open clusters. The derived foreground interstellar reddening values are in the range 0.00 <= E(B-V) <= 0.38. The age and reddening distributions of the present sample of relatively faint open clusters match those of open clusters with known parameters in a 90deg sector centered at l = 270deg. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  8. Can chlorofluorocarbon sorption to black carbon (char) affect groundwater age determinations?

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2010-06-15

    Although adsorption is not generally considered important in low f(oc) (fraction organic carbon) aquifers, we show that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) adsorption to black carbon (BC) is sufficiently large to retard transport and affect groundwater ages obtained with CFCs. Sorption isotherms of CFC-11, -12, and -113 to synthetic wood char were nonlinear (Freundlich n = 0.71-0.94) while humic acid isotherms were linear. Moreover, sorption to char was 10-1000 times greater than to humic acid for all three CFCs at the lowest observed concentrations, C(w)/S approximately 10(-8)-10(-7). We used the observed isotherms for char and humic acid to represent sorption to BC and amorphous organic matter, respectively, in a dual mode model to estimate retardation factors for a low f(oc) aquifer (= 0.06% gC g(-1)). The estimated retardation factors for the char-containing aquifer (presumed BC fraction = 9% of f(oc)) were approximately 6.8-10.6 at C(w)/S = 10(-8) and >5 times those estimated assuming amorphous organic matter partitioning only. The results indicate that unless CFC adsorption to BC is evaluated in transport, the groundwater age determined may be biased toward older than true ages. The CFC data archived in BC-containing aquifers may contain information about its adsorbent properties that could be useful to predict retardation of other chlorinated organic contaminants.

  9. DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Chasman, Daniel I.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Elks, Cathy; Albrecht, Eva; Andrulis, Irene L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bergmann, Sven; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brown, Judith; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Corre, Tanguy; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tõnu; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flyger, Henrik; Fraser, Abigail; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Giles, Graham; Guenel, Pascal; Hägg, Sara; Hall, Per; Hayward, Caroline; Hopper, John; Ingelsson, Erik; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kasiman, Katherine; Knight, Julia A.; Lahti, Jari; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Margolin, Sara; Marsh, Julie A.; Metspalu, Andres; Olson, Janet E.; Pennell, Craig E.; Polasek, Ozren; Rahman, Iffat; Ridker, Paul M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rudan, Igor; Rudolph, Anja; Salumets, Andres; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Smith, Erin N.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Southey, Melissa; Stöckl, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Truong, Therese; Ulivi, Sheila; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Qin; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F.; Zgaga, Lina; Ong, Ken K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Karasik, David; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to ∼50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P = 1.9 × 10−9), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility. PMID:24357391

  10. A Million Years Young: Determining the Ages of 11 Suspected Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Ellie; DiTomasso, Victoria; Riedel, Adric R.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs continuously cool and fade with time, so knowing an object's age is necessary in order to estimate its mass. One of the most reliable ways to constrain the age is to identify objects as members of coeval moving groups with reliable ages based on higher mass members. Confirming membership requires knowledge of an object's parallax distance, proper motion, and radial velocity (RV), which requires a high-resolution spectrum. We obtained high-resolution NIRSPEC J-band data and measured radial velocities for a sample of 11 suspected young, nearby M and L dwarfs. We combined these RV values with previously calculated parallax distances and proper motions to determine the likelihood of young moving group membership using the LACeWING code (Riedel et al. 2015). We confirmed memberships in the Argus Association (~40 Myr) and Tucana-Horologium (~30 Myr) with a probability of >66.7% for two of the 11 brown dwarfs. Another one of the dwarfs had a >79.5% probability of membership in both the AB Doradus (110 Myr) and Hercules-Lyra (257 Myr) groups, which will require further inquiry to resolve. We also compare spectra of our 11 brown dwarfs to spectra of established young and field brown dwarfs in order to further understand spectral indicators of youth at high spectral resolution.

  11. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    PubMed Central

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  12. Rear-Facing Car Safety Seat Use for Children 18 Months of Age: Prevalence and Determinants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ashley T; Hoffman, Benjamin D; Gallardo, Adrienne R; Gilbert, Tess A; Carlson, Kathleen F

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential determinants of rear-facing car safety seat use among children approximately 18 months of age born at a university hospital. We administered a telephone survey to caregivers of children 17-19 months of age who were born between November 2013 and May 2014. The survey was designed to assess the prevalence of rear-facing car safety seat use and estimate the likelihood of rear-facing car safety seat use, compared with forward-facing car seat use, in reference to hypothesized determinants. aORs and 95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. In total, 56% of potentially eligible caregivers (491/877) completed the survey; 62% of these reported rear-facing car safety seat use. Race, education, rurality, and household income were associated with rear-facing car safety seat use after controlling for potential confounders. Additionally, caregivers who reported having discussed car seats with their child's provider (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.6); receiving their child's primary care in pediatrics compared with family practice clinics (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-2.6); and being aware of the American Academy of Pediatrics rear-facing recommendation (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.1) were significantly more likely to report rear-facing car safety seat use. Conversely, caregivers who previously used a car seat with another child were less likely to have their child rear facing at 18 months of age (aOR 0.6; 95% CI  0.4-0.9). A large proportion of children were forward facing at 18 months of age. Future efforts focused on encouraging providers to discuss car seats during patient visits, increasing awareness of the American Academy of Pediatrics' rear-facing recommendation, and targeting high-risk populations may improve the prevalence of children who remain rear facing until 2 years of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social determinants of malnutrition among Serbian children aged <5 years: ethnic and regional disparities.

    PubMed

    Brcanski, Jelena; Jović-Vraneš, Aleksandra; Marinković, Jelena; Favre, Dragana

    2014-10-01

    To assess the association between growth indicators of Serbian children aged <5 years of Roma and non-Roma populations and social determinants of health. This study used a cross-sectional secondary data analysis design to measure national and Roma population samples from the MICS 4 (UNICEF) performed in 2010 in Serbia. A total of 4,978 questionnaires were observed with children aged <5 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify association between social determinants of health and growth indicators. Roma children were more than three times more likely to exhibit stunted and/or severely stunted than non-Roma children from the lowest wealth quintile. Non-Roma children residing outside of the Belgrade region had a lower risk of stunted compared to children residing within the Belgrade region, while the risk of stunted among Roma children was nearly twofold greater than those residing in southern and eastern Serbia than in the Belgrade region. Our findings clarified the necessity to establish ethnically and regionally sensitive programs to solve the malnutrition problems.

  14. Genetic associations between weight at maturity and maturation rate with ages and weights at first and second calving in Canchim beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gaviolli, V R N; Buzanskas, M E; Cruz, V A R; Savegnago, R P; Munari, D P; Freitas, A R; Alencar, M M

    2012-08-01

    Genetic parameters for weight at maturity (WM), maturation rate (MR), age and weight at first calving (AFC and WFC) and second calving (ASC and WSC) were estimated for females of the Canchim breed. The number of records per trait ranged from 1440 to 1923. The restricted maximum likelihood method was used and the statistical model included the fixed effect of contemporary group and the additive genetic and residual as random effects. The mean heritability estimate and respective standard errors were 0.34±0.05 (WM), 0.13±0.04 (MR), 0.14±0.04 (AFC), 0.44±0.06 (WFC), 0.16±0.06 (ASC) and 0.39±0.06 (WSC). The heritability estimate for WM and MR suggested that it would be possible to achieve changes in the animals' growth curve through selection, but the genetic correlation between these two traits suggested that there would be antagonism between them. Selection for WM would result in animals with later growth and would also affect individuals' sexual precocity. This was also seen from the genetic correlations between WM and the other traits, which ranged from 0.37 to 0.98; and between MR and the other traits, which ranged from -0.83 to -0.25. Selection to modify WM would be expected to result in correlated responses in AFC, WFC and WSC and a moderate response in ASC. Although the heritability estimate for MR was low, selection aimed for its increase might cause a large decrease in AFC, ASC and WFC and a moderate change in WSC, and this could be an alternative for improving the progeny's overall performance.

  15. No H- and L-type cases in Belgium in cattle diagnosed with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (1999-2008) aging seven years and older.

    PubMed

    Dobly, Alexandre; Langeveld, Jan; van Keulen, Lucien; Rodeghiero, Caroline; Durand, Stéphanie; Geeroms, Riet; Van Muylem, Patrick; De Sloovere, Jessica; Vanopdenbosch, Emmanuel; Roels, Stefan

    2010-05-21

    The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic presented homogeneity of the phenotype. This classical BSE (called C-type) was probably due to the contamination of the food chain by a single prion strain. However, due to the active surveillance and better techniques, two rare variants of BSE have been recently reported in different continents without a clear correlation to the BSE epidemic. These emerging types behave as different strains of BSE and were named H-type and L-type according to the high and low molecular mass of the unglycosylated fragment of their proteinase K resistant prion protein (PrPres). In these types, the proportion of the un-, mono- and di-glycosylated fragments of PrP (glycoprofile) is also atypical and represents an effective diagnostic parameter. This study evaluated the presence of such types in bovine of 7 years and older in Belgium. The Belgian BSE archive contained 41 bovines of at least 7 years of age. The biochemical features of their PrPres were analyzed by Western blot with five antibodies recognising different regions of PrPres, from N- to C-terminus: 12B2, 9A2, Sha31, SAF84 and 94B4. All antibodies clearly detected PrPres except 12B2 antibody, which is specific for N-terminal region 101-105, a PrP region that is only retained in H-types. The glycoprofiles did correspond to that of C-type (with more than 55% of diglycosylated PrPres using antibody 94B4). Therefore, all cases have the features of C-type BSE. This study supports that, among the BSE cases of 7 years and older identified in Belgium, none was apparently of the H- or L- type. This is consistent with the very rare occurrence of atypical BSE and the restricted dimension of Belgium. These results shed some light on the worldwide prevalence of atypical BSE.

  16. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Methods Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS•+ radical. Results The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13 ± 7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99 ± 0.23 μg/ml). Conclusion The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s. PMID:24188320

  17. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ndlovu, Gugulethu; Fouche, Gerda; Tselanyane, Malefa; Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2013-11-05

    Aging is an inevitable process for all living organisms. During this process reactive oxygen species generation is increased which leads to the activation of hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase, which can further contribute to skin aging. Four southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties. Anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and anti-hyaluronidase activities of twenty-eight samples, consisting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the four plants, were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Radical scavenging activity was determined by the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge the ABTS•+ radical. The majority of the samples in the anti-elastase assay and nine in the anti-collagenase assay showed more than 80% inhibition. The ethyl acetate extract of S. brachypetala bark and leaves of P. capensis inhibited elastase activity by more than 90%. The methanol extract of S. brachypetala bark contained the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity (75.13 ± 7.49%) whilst the ethyl acetate extract of P. africanum bark exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 1.99 ± 0.23 μg/ml). The free radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory activity of the plant extracts investigated suggests that they can help restore skin elasticity and thereby slow the wrinkling process. P. africanum was the plant with the most promising activity and will be subjected to further testing and isolation of the active compound/s.

  18. Diagnostic considerations for evaluating nutritional problems in cattle.

    PubMed

    Maas, John

    2007-11-01

    The advances in testing methodology and in our understanding of the normal nutritional physiology of cattle have given veterinarians valuable tools to assess the nutritional status of cattle. By taking a representative number of appropriate samples, it is now relatively easy and inexpensive to determine the nutritional status of an individual or a group of animals. Also, the effectiveness of supplementation programs can be measured over time as part of an overall preventive medicine program.

  19. Age-independent and age-dependent sex differences in gait pattern determined by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Hobara, Hiroaki; Heldoorn, Thijs A; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Although various studies have reported significant sex differences in pelvic and/or hip-joint motion during normal walking in healthy adults, it is still unclear whether such differences are among the most dominant age-independent sex differences. This study was conducted to analyze the whole waveform of lower-extremity joint kinematics obtained from 191 healthy adults using a principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 955×1212 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (five trials of 191 participants×101 data points×4 angles×3 axes). Two-way (age×sex) analyses of variance were conducted on the principal component scores (PCSs) of principal component vectors (PCVs) 1 through 6, each of which explained more than 5% of the variance. We identified a PCV that exhibits a significant age-sex interaction (PCV 1). The characteristics of sex differences reported in previous studies could be observed in the reconstructed waveforms of this PCV. Thus, we can conclude that the sex differences in the gaits reported in previous studies are not consistent across age groups. Furthermore, we also found a PCV that exhibited only a significant sex difference (PCV 6). This PCV was the first and only PCV to exhibit a sex difference without any age-related effect or age-sex interaction. Therefore, we concluded that the movement related to this PCV is age-independent and is the most dominant sex difference in the gaits observed during normal walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lunar basalt chronology, mantle differentiation and implications for determining the age of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J.; Anand, Mahesh; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite more than 40 years of studying Apollo samples, the age and early evolution of the Moon remain contentious. Following the formation of the Moon in the aftermath of a giant impact, the resulting Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is predicted to have generated major geochemically distinct silicate reservoirs, including the sources of lunar basalts. Samples of these basalts, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to characterize these reservoirs. However, the precise timing and extent of geochemical fractionation is poorly constrained, not least due to the difficulty in determining accurate ages and initial Pb isotopic compositions of lunar basalts. Application of an in situ ion microprobe approach to Pb isotope analysis has allowed us to obtain precise crystallization ages from six lunar basalts, typically with an uncertainty of about ± 10 Ma, as well as constrain their initial Pb-isotopic compositions. This has enabled construction of a two-stage model for the Pb-isotopic evolution of lunar silicate reservoirs, which necessitates the prolonged existence of high-μ reservoirs in order to explain the very radiogenic compositions of the samples. Further, once firm constraints on U and Pb partitioning behaviour are established, this model has the potential to help distinguish between conflicting estimates for the age of the Moon. Nonetheless, we are able to constrain the timing of a lunar mantle reservoir differentiation event at 4376 ± 18 Ma, which is consistent with that derived from the Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotopic systems, and is interpreted as an average estimate of the time at which the high-μ urKREEP reservoir was established and the Ferroan Anorthosite (FAN) suite was formed.

  1. Determination of an ageing factor for lead/acid batteries. 1. Kinetic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta-Deu, C.; Donaire, T.

    The capacity of lead/acid batteries decreases with the number of cycles. This process is known as ageing. The reduction of capacity affects not only the operation time but also the performance of the accumulator and of the system attached to the battery. One of the main procedures affected by the battery ageing is the determination of the state-of-charge. In this paper, a parameter called 'ageing factor', fa, which represents the reduction of the available energy in lead/acid batteries, is introduced. A method to calculate this factory and its incidence on battery performance has also been developed. The method is intended to predict 'ageing' effects on lead/acid batteries as a non-destructive method, as well as on-line battery operation. The method is based on the effective reduction in electrolyte specific gravity in a fully charged lead/acid battery computed from the change of the slope of the electrolyte density during charge with the number of cycles, and the subsequent reduction in discharge time. A correlation process between the reduction of the energy delivered by the electrochemical cell, the reduction of the discharge time, and the apparent change of the slope of electrolyte density has been developed, resulting in an analytical expression that may be used to compute the effective reduction in available energy in lead/acid batteries. The results of the experiments have proven the merit of the proposed system: the predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error in the a estimation being lower than 9%, a result which has been considered acceptable to validate the proposed method.

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking among people aged 50 or over in England

    PubMed Central

    Iparraguirre, José

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of human genes differentially expressed with age are enriched for determinants of longevity.

    PubMed

    Sutphin, George L; Backer, Grant; Sheehan, Susan; Bean, Shannon; Corban, Caroline; Liu, Teresa; Peters, Marjolein J; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Murabito, Joanne M; Johnson, Andrew D; Korstanje, Ron

    2017-04-12

    We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported. The five genes with the greatest impact on lifespan (>20% extension) encode the enzyme kynureninase (kynu-1), a neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein (iglr-1), a tetraspanin (tsp-3), a regulator of calcineurin (rcan-1), and a voltage-gated calcium channel subunit (unc-36). Knockdown of each gene extended healthspan without impairing reproduction. kynu-1(RNAi) alone delayed pathology in C. elegans models of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Each gene displayed a distinct pattern of interaction with known aging pathways. In the context of published work, kynu-1, tsp-3, and rcan-1 are of particular interest for immediate follow-up. kynu-1 is an understudied member of the kynurenine metabolic pathway with a mechanistically distinct impact on lifespan. Our data suggest that tsp-3 is a novel modulator of hypoxic signaling and rcan-1 is a context-specific calcineurin regulator. Our results validate C. elegans as a comparative tool for prioritizing human candidate aging genes, confirm age-associated gene expression data as valuable source of novel longevity determinants, and prioritize select genes for mechanistic follow-up.

  4. Development of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on ear notch tissue samples in cattle infected persistently.

    PubMed

    Bedeković, Tomislav; Lemo, Nina; Lojkić, Ivana; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Cač, Zeljko; Madić, Josip

    2011-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes a disease that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Cattle infected persistently, as a continuing source of the virus and the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds, are the main source of BVDV and a primary factor in the epidemiology of the disease. To determine whether a BVDV infection is persistent, two samples should be taken at 3-4 week intervals and tested for the virus antigen. Animal sera, whole blood, organ and ear notch tissue samples can be used for BVDV diagnosis. In ear notch tissue, viral antigen can be detected by an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This paper describes the development and implementation of an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method using ear notch tissue samples for diagnosis of cattle infected persistently. Results obtained by this method show that IF is a good alternative to RT-PCR and antigen ELISA and can be a quick and accurate method in diagnosis of BVDV in cattle infected persistently with this virus.

  5. Thorite in an Apollo 12 granite fragment and age determination using the electron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddio, Stephen M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first quantitative compositional analysis of thorite in a lunar sample. The sample, a granitic assemblage, also contains monazite and yttrobetafite grains, all with concentrations of U, Th, and Pb sufficiently high to determine reliably with the electron microprobe. The assemblage represents the first documented occurrence of these three minerals together and only the second reported occurrence of thorite in a lunar rock. Sample 12023,147-10 is a small, monomict rock fragment recovered from an Apollo 12 regolith sample. It comprises graphic intergrowths of K-feldspar and quartz, and plagioclase and quartz, along with minor or accessory hedenbergite, fayalite, ilmenite, zircon, yttrobetafite, thorite, monazite, and Fe metal. Thorite, ideally ThSiO4, occurs in the assemblage adjacent to quartz and plagioclase, and includes a 12% xenotime ([Y,HREE]PO4) component. From quantitative electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Th, U, and Pb in thorite, assuming that all of the measured Pb is radiogenic, we calculate an age of 3.87 ± 0.03 Ga. Yttrobetafite and monazite, which contain lesser concentrations of U, Th, and Pb than the thorite, yield ages of 3.78 ± 0.06 Ga and 3.9 ± 0.3 Ga, respectively. These dates are consistent with formation of the granitic material around 3.8-3.9 Ga, possibly associated with, or after, the formation of the Imbrium basin. This age falls within a group of younger ages for granitic samples, measured mainly by ion microprobe analysis of zircon, compared to a suite of older ages, ca. 4.20-4.32 Ga, also from zircons (Meyer et al., 1996). A 3.8-3.9 Ga age may reflect an origin following the Imbrium event whereby granitic melt formed as a result of heating and melting, and was mobilized and emplaced along an Imbrium-related ring-fracture system. Silicic volcanic or exposed intrusive materials occur in several circum-Imbrium locations such as the Mairan and Gruithuisen Domes and in ejecta excavated by Aristarchus crater. Perhaps

  6. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  7. Frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in naturally infected cattle in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; Neta, Elza de Souza Muniz; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of species of the genus Eimeria species in naturally infected bovines in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study population comprised 117 Zebu crossbred cattle that belonged to 10 dairy herds with extensive or semi-extensive production systems. The modified Gordon and Whitlock technique was used to determine positive samples and number of oocysts per gram of feces. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test with Yates correction and a 95% confidence interval. Thirty-nine cattle (33.33%) were positive, and ten different species were identified in infected animals: E. bovis (24.79%); E. canadensis (8.55%); E. zuernii (6.83%); E. ellipsoidalis (5.99%); E. cylindrica (3.42%); E. auburnensis (3.42%); E. brasiliensis (2.56%); E. bukidnonensis (1.71%); E. alabamensis (0.85%), and E. subspherica (0.85%). Higher parasitism was observed in animals up to one year of age (p = 0.005), but no animal presented clinical signs of the disease. As the presence of clinical eimeriosis was not evidenced and all animals were Zebu crossbred cattle from extensive or semi-extensive production systems, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of these factors on disease development.

  8. Age-Related Response of Rumen Microbiota to Mineral Salt and Effects of Their Interactions on Enteric Methane Emissions in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Li, X H; Chen, Y X; Cheng, Z H; Duan, Q H; Meng, Q H; Tao, X P; Shang, B; Dong, H M

    2017-04-01

    of Succiniclasticum to Prevotella and Prevotellaceae in adults suggests a response of microbiota to mineral salt that contributes to higher propionate production, which competes for hydrogen utilized by methanogens. Our data collectively indicate that a mineral salt diet can alter interactions of bacterial taxa that result in enteric methane reduction, and this effect is also influenced in an age-dependent manner.

  9. The pathological and molecular but not clinical phenotypes are maintained after second passage of experimental atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura J; Clifford, Derek; Chaplin, Melanie J; Cawthraw, Saira; Stack, Michael J; Simmons, Marion M

    2014-10-02

    Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs), classified as H-type and L-type BSE based on the Western immunoblot profiles, are naturally occurring diseases in cattle, which are phenotypically different to classical BSE. Transmission studies in cattle using the intracerebral route resulted in disease where the phenotypes were maintained irrespective of BSE type but clinically affected cattle with a shorter survival time displayed a nervous form whereas cattle with a longer survival time displayed a dull form. A second transmission study is reported here where four cattle were intracerebrally inoculated with brain tissue from experimentally infected cattle presenting with either the nervous or dull form of H- or L-type BSE to determine whether the phenotype is maintained. The four inoculated cattle were culled at 16.5-19.5 months post inoculation after presenting with difficulty getting up, a positive scratch response (all) and dullness (three cattle), which was not observed in two non-inoculated control cattle, each housed with either group of inoculated cattle. Only the inoculated cattle had detectable prion protein in the brain based on immunohistochemical examination, and the Western immunoblot profile was consistent with the H-type or L-type BSE of the respective donor cattle. Second passage of H-type and L-type BSE in cattle produced a TSE where the majority of cattle displayed the dull form regardless of clinical disease form of the donor cattle. The pathological and molecular phenotypes of H- and L-type BSE were maintained.

  10. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  11. [Determinants of weight and linear growth deficits in children under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valterlinda Alves de; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria Conceição; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2006-10-01

    To identify determinants of protein-energy malnutrition resulting in weight and linear growth deficits in children. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,041 children (under two years of age) from 10 municipalities in Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, during 1999-2000. Both logistic regression and a hierarchical approach were used to identify factors associated with the anthropometric measures. The basic determinant found in the final model for linear growth retardation was having up to two household appliances (OR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.74-4.90); as an underlying determinant, not attending prenatal visits (OR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.47-4.97); and, among immediate determinants were low birth weight (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.72-7.70) and reported hospitalization within 12 months before the interview (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.42-4.10). Determinants of weight deficit at the basic, underlying and immediate levels were: per capita monthly income of less than one-fourth of the minimum wage (OR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.41-8.16), not attending prenatal visits (OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.03-4.35) and low birth weight (OR=4.8; 95% CI: 2.00-11.48) respectively. Children's weight and linear deficits were accounted for the overlapping of poor material living conditions, limited access to health care and disease burden. Interventions aimed at improving living conditions and better access to health care programs are strategies towards equity in children's health and nutrition.

  12. Metaphylactic antimicrobial therapy for bovine respiratory disease in stocker and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J

    2010-07-01

    This article provides an overview of implementing metaphylactic antimicrobial protocols to certain classes of cattle on arrival to stocker and feedlot production systems. The goal of this management practice is to reduce the negative health and performance effects induced by bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This article emphasizes the multiple factors that influence the decision for mass medication, including weight (age) of the cattle, distance traveled, environmental conditions, previous health history, visual inspection of the cattle at arrival, and prediction of the risk of disease. Current data suggest that metaphylactic programs significantly reduce negative health effects and improve feed performance that can be observed in cattle stricken with BRD.

  13. Age determinations and growth rates of Pacific ferromanganese deposits using strontium isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingram, B.L.; Hein, J.R.; Farmer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    87Sr 86Sr ratios, trace element and REE compositions, and textural characteristics were determined for three hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts, one hydrothermal deposit, and two mixed hydrothermalhydrogenetic crusts from the Pacific. The Sr isotope data are compared to the Sr seawater curve for the Cenozoic to determine the ages and growth rates of the crusts. The 87Sr 86Sr in the crusts does not increase monotonically with depth as expected if the Sr were solely derived from seawater and perfectly preserved since deposition. This indicates post-depositional exchange of Sr or heterogeneous sources for the Sr originally contained in the crusts. Textures of hydrogenetic crusts generally correlate with Sr isotopic variations. The highest porosity intervals commonly exhibit the highest 87Sr 86Sr ratios, indicating exchange with younger seawater. Intervals with the lowest porosity commonly have lower 87Sr 86Sr and may preserve the original Sr isotopic ratios. Minimum ages of crust growth inception were calculated from dense, low porosity intervals. Growth of the hydrogenetic crusts began at or after 23 Ma, although their substrates are Cretaceous. Estimated average growth rates of the three hydrogenetic crusts vary between 0.9 and 2.7 mm/Ma, consistent with published rates determined by other techniques. Within the Marshall Islands crust, growth rates for individual layers varied greatly between 1.0 and 5.4 mm/Ma. For one crust, very low 87Sr 86Sr ratios occurred in detrital-rich intervals. Hydrothermal Fe-Mn oxide from the active Lau Basin back-arc spreading axis (Valu Fa Ridge) has an 87Sr 86Sr ratio with a predominantly sea