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Sample records for cattle feedlot waste

  1. Monitoring bacterial indicators and pathogens in cattle feedlot waste by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marcus; Brown, Leearna; van den Akker, Ben; Peters, Gregory M; Stuetz, Richard M; Roser, David J

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative microbial health risk assessment requires accurate enumeration of pathogens in hazard-containing matrices as part of the risk characterization process. As part of a risk management-oriented study of cattle feedlot waste contaminants, we investigated the utility of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for surveying the microbial constituents of different faecal wastes. The abundance of Escherichia coli and enterococci were first estimated in five cattle feedlot waste types from five localities. Bacteria were quantified using two culture methods and compared to the number of genome copies detected by qPCR targeted at E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bacterial numbers detected in the different wastes (fresh faeces, pen manure, aged manure, composted manure, carcass manure compost) ranged from 10-(7) to 10(2)g(-1) (dry weight). Both indicator groups were detected by qPCR with a comparable sensitivity to culture methods across this range. qPCR measurements of E. coli and E. faecalis correlated well with MPN and spread plate data. As a second comparison, we inoculated green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled reference bacteria into manure samples. GFP labeled E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected by qPCR in concentrations corresponding to between 18% and 71% of the initial bacterial numbers, compared to only 2.5-16% by plating. Our results supported our selection of qPCR as a fast, accurate and reliable system for surveying the presence and abundance of pathogens in cattle waste. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chapter 9.5: Electromagnetic induction to manage cattle feedlot waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter summarizes results of waste management research that utilized electromagnetic induction (EMI) tools for the purposes of: 1) collection of solid waste from feedlot surfaces to be utilized by crops 2) control and utilization of nutrient laden liquid runoff, and 3) feedlot surface man...

  3. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils.

  4. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  5. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.

  6. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  7. Influence of feedlot pen surface layers and distillers' grain diets on microbial community structure associated with beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle feedlots on the Southern High Plains annually produce approximately 7 million beef cattle accounting for 30% of the total U.S. fed beef cattle production. The high density of beef cattle results in concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) in manure wastes and may create an environment favorab...

  8. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a herd of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Heider, L C; McClure, J T; Leger, E R

    2001-03-01

    Fifty-two feedlot cattle exhibited clinical signs suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum type D organisms were recovered from ruminal fluid of 4 of the 5 affected animals tested and were isolated from bakery waste fed to the cattle. Clostridium botulinum type D has not been reported previously in Canadian cattle.

  10. Presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a herd of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Heider, L C; McClure, J T; Leger, E R

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two feedlot cattle exhibited clinical signs suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum type D organisms were recovered from ruminal fluid of 4 of the 5 affected animals tested and were isolated from bakery waste fed to the cattle. Clostridium botulinum type D has not been reported previously in Canadian cattle. PMID:11265191

  11. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  12. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  13. Feedlot cattle susceptibility to heat stress: an animal specific model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extreme effects of heat stress in a feedlot situation can cause losses exceeding 5% of all the cattle on feed in a single feedlot. These losses can be very devastating to a localized area of feedlot producers. Animal stress is a result of the combination of three different components: environm...

  14. Antibiotic resistance genes and residual antimicrobials in cattle feedlot surface soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic residues and resistant bacteria in cattle feedlot manure may impact antibiotic resistance in the environment. This study investigated common antimicrobials (tetracyclines and monensin) and associated resistance genes in cattle feedlot soils over time. Animal diets and other feedlot soil...

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from a commerical cattle feedlot in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming a concern. Research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots, however, has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify the N2O emission rate from pen surfaces in a com...

  16. Concentrations of particulate matter in large cattle feedlots in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Air quality in communities surrounding cattle feedlots is a growing public concern. Our objective was to quantify emission patterns and weather effects on particulate matter (PM) transport upwind and downwind from two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas. The concentrations of PM2.5 (particles...

  17. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  18. Microbial Population of Feedlot Waste and Associated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R. A.; Hrubant, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative determination was made every 2 months for a year of the microflora of beef cattle waste and runoff at a medium-sized midwestern feedlot. Counts were obtained for selected groups of organisms in waste taken from paved areas of pens cleaned daily and, therefore, reflect the flora of raw waste. Overall, in terms of viable count per gram dry weight, the feedlot waste contained 1010 total organisms, 109 anaerobes, 108 gram-negative bacteria, 107 coliforms, 106 sporeformers, and 105 yeasts, fungi, and streptomycetes. The specific numbers and pattern of these groups of organisms varied only slightly during the study in spite of a wide variation in weather. Data indicate that little microbial growth occurs in the waste as it exists in the feedlot. Runoff from the pens contained the same general population pattern but with greater variation attributable to volume of liquid. Comparable determinations of an associated field disposal area (before and after cropping), stockpiled waste, and elevated dirt areas in the pens indicate that fungi, and especially streptomycetes, are the aerobic organisms most associated with final stabilization of the waste. Yeasts, which are the dominant type of organism in the ensiled corn fed the cattle, do not occur in large numbers in the animal waste. Large ditches receiving runoff and subsurface water from the fields have a population similar to the runoff but with fewer coliforms. PMID:16349931

  19. Bacterial Community Structure of a Cattle Feedlot Pen Surface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal variation in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-o...

  20. Chemical contaminants in feedlot wastes: concentrations, effects and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Khan, S J; Roser, D J; Davies, C M; Peters, G M; Stuetz, R M; Tucker, R; Ashbolt, N J

    2008-08-01

    Commercial feedlots for beef cattle finishing are potential sources of a range of trace chemicals which have human health or environmental significance. To ensure adequate protection of human and environmental health from exposure to these chemicals, the application of effective manure and effluent management practices is warranted. The Australian meat and livestock industry has adopted a proactive approach to the identification of best management practices. Accordingly, this review was undertaken to identify key chemical species that may require consideration in the development of guidelines for feedlot manure and effluent management practices in Australia. Important classes of trace chemicals identified include steroidal hormones, antibiotics, ectoparasiticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals and dioxins. These are described in terms of their likely sources, expected concentrations and public health or environmental significance based on international data and research. Androgenic hormones such as testosterone and trenbolone are significantly active in feedlot wastes, but they are poorly understood in terms of fate and environmental implications. The careful management of residues of antibiotics including virginiamycin, tylosin and oxytetracycline appears prudent in terms of minimising the risk of potential public health impacts from resistant strains of bacteria. Good management of ectoparasiticides including synthetic pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones, fluazuron, and amitraz is important for the prevention of potential ecological implications, particularly towards dung beetles. Very few of these individual chemical contaminants have been thoroughly investigated in terms of concentrations, effects and attenuation in Australian feedlot wastes.

  1. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  2. Energy production from biosolids: A cattle feedlot demonstration system

    SciTech Connect

    Fedler, C.B.; Parker, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    About 5 million head of cattle are produced annually from about 200 feedlots in the Texas High Plains with about 3.5 million head standing. Annually, the 3.5 million head of cattle produce about 28 millions metric tons of were manure (88% water). If anaerobically digested, the manure would yield about 1.4 million m{sup 3} of biogas, or about 4.4 million kWh daily. With cogeneration and nutrient recovery, the sum of the revenue sources in over $500 million annually and does no include the value of water or other byproducts such as fish and plants that could be produced from an integrated system. A demonstration unit to treat the waste from a 1000-head cattle and a 280 sow farrow-to-finish swine operation is constructed. This system employs a 6 m deep anaerobic pit for production and capture of biogas integrated with a facultative pond, a shallow pond for production of aquatic plants, and a pond for production of fish or other aquatic species. The resulting related agribusinesses would not only produce additional revenues, but would also produce energy, improve the environment though extraction of nitrogen compounds, capture of gaseous emissions, reduction of odor, and creation of wildlife habitat in consturcted wetlants.

  3. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimenta...

  4. Water Spray Cooling During Handling of Feedlot Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g. sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental...

  5. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect air quality in local communities. The purpose of this study was to identifying key odorants using both analytical (odor activity values, OAV) and gas chromatrography GC-O (olfactometry) techniques, compare odor threshold databases, and track the movement ...

  6. Characterizing odors from cattle feedlots with different odor techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect local communities. The purpose of this study was to characterize odors and odorants using different odor sampling techniques. Odors were characterized with field olfactometers (Nasal Ranger®), sensory techniques (GC-O) and analytical techniques (sorbent t...

  7. Associations between feedlot management practices and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-06-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between factors related to feedlot management and risk of BRD. In total, 35,131 animals in 170 pens (cohorts) inducted into 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow separate estimation of total and direct effects. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. The placement of pen water troughs such that they could be accessed by animals in adjoining pens was associated with markedly increased risk of BRD (OR 4.3, 95% credible interval: 1.4-10.3). Adding animals to pens over multiple days was associated with increased risk of BRD across all animals in those pens compared to placing all animals in the pen on a single day (total effect: OR 1.9, 95% credible interval: 1.2-2.8). The much attenuated direct effect indicated that this was primarily mediated via factors on indirect pathways so it may be possible to ameliorate the adverse effects of adding animals to pens over multiple days by altering exposure to these intervening factors (e.g. mixing history). In pens in which animals were added to the pen over multiple days, animals added ≥7 days (OR: 0.7, credible interval: 0.5-0.9) or 1-6 days (OR: 0.8, credible interval: 0.7-1.0) before the last animal was added were at modestly reduced risk of BRD compared to the animals that were added to the pen on the latest day. Further research is required to disentangle effects of cohort formation patterns at animal-level and higher levels on animal-level risk of BRD. Vaccination against Bovine herpesvirus 1 at feedlot entry was investigated but results were inconclusive and further research is required to evaluate vaccine efficacy. We conclude that there are practical interventions available to

  8. Coarse particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots in Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Chen, D; Crenna, B; Denmead, O T; Naylor, T; Rowell, D

    2010-01-01

    Open cattle feedlots are a source of air pollutants that include particular matter (PM). Over 24 h, exposure to ambient concentrations of 50 microg m(-3) of the coarse-sized fraction PM (aerodynamic diameter <10 microm [PM(10)]) is recognized as a health concern for humans. The objective of our study was to document PM(10) concentration and emissions at two cattle feedlots in Australia over several days in summer. Two automated samplers were used to monitor the background and in-feedlot PM(10) concentrations. At the in-feedlot location, the PM(10) emission was calculated using a dispersion model. Our measurements revealed that the 24-h PM(10) concentrations on some of the days approached or exceeded the health criteria threshold of 50 microg m(-3) used in Australia. A key factor responsible for the generation of PM(10) was the increased activity of cattle in the evening that coincided with peak concentrations of PM(10) (maximum, 792 microg m(-3)) between 1930 and 2000 h. Rain coincided with a severe decline in PM(10) concentration and emission. A dispersion model used in our study estimated the emission of PM(10) between 31 and 60 g animal(-1) d(-1). These data contribute to needed information on PM(10) associated with livestock to develop results-based environmental policy.

  9. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  10. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, J A; Urech, R; Green, P E; Skerman, A; Elson-Harris, M M; Bright, R L; Brown, G W

    2012-03-01

    Species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern Queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. Similar data were collected on feedlots in central New South Wales and central Queensland. The fly species recovered in the highest numbers were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and Physiphora clausa Macquart (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. Houseflies preferred the warmer months from October to June, but stable flies preferred the cooler months and peaked in spring (September-November) and autumn (March-May). Larval abundance ratings recorded in the feedlot and numbers of larvae extracted in the laboratory from corresponding samples followed similar trends. Larvae of M. domestica were most abundant in the hospital and induction area and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of M. domestica were abundant in the hospital and induction area and drains, but least abundant in horse stables and yards. Larvae of S. calcitrans were most abundant in drains and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of S. calcitrans were most numerous in drains and least numerous in old cattle pens. Feedlot design and management had little effect on fly reduction.

  11. Using Experts to Validate an Animal Specific Heat Stress Model for Feedlot Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The extreme effects of heat stress in a feedlot situation can cause losses exceeding 5% of all the cattle on feed in a single feedlot. These losses can be very devastating to a localized area of feedlot producers. Animal stress is a result of the combination of three different components: environm...

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  13. Nutrition of Newly Received Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Chris; Thomson, Daniel U

    2015-07-01

    The stress of transition from pasture to the feedlot environment creates unique and variable nutritional challenges. The factors that are used to assign a risk category for the likelihood of developing bovine respiratory disease include time in transit from their origin, which is likely to be highly correlated with the amount of time away from quality feed and water. A high risk of developing respiratory disease is likely to correlate well with the animals' suppressed appetite immediately after arrival. This article discusses 2 distinctive categories of feeder animals (high-risk calves and yearlings) and their nutritional needs.

  14. Effects of tail docking on behavior of confined feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Daigle, C L; Metz, K; Ladoni, M

    2014-10-01

    Tail tip injuries occur in some feedlot cattle housed in slatted-floor facilities typically found in the midwestern United States. The practice of tail docking cattle on entry into these feedlot facilities was initiated to prevent tail injuries. Tail docking is a welfare concern from the standpoint that an important method of fly avoidance is removed and the tail docking procedure is painful and often excludes local anesthesia or extended analgesia. The primary objective of this study was to describe the behavioral responses of feedlot cattle following tail docking. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All calves received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. A portion of the tail of DK calves was removed using pruning shears. An elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis and tail tips were sprayed with fly spray. IceQube accelerometers collected step counts, motion index, lying time, lying bouts, and lying bout duration during d -4 through 13. Direct observations of cattle behavior were performed on d 0, 1, and 2. Step counts of DK calves were increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 13, and motion index of DK calves was also increased (P < 0.05) on d 0, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Docked cattle performed rear foot stomp behavior more (P < 0.001) than CN on d 0, 1, and 2. Forty-eight hours after tail docking, DK calves had increased lying bouts per hour (1.7 vs. 0.9 on d 0; P < 0.001; 1.1 vs. 0.8 on d 1; P < 0.01) but reduced lying bout durations (12.6 vs. 47.1 min on d 0; P < 0.001; 22.6 vs. 44.7 min on d 1; P < 0.001). On d 0, DK calves twitched tails more (P < 0.05) and ruminated less (P < 0.001). Despite provision of perioperative and postoperative analgesia, we identified altered behavior in DK cattle that may reflect a compromised welfare state for tail-docked feedlot cattle. We recommend

  15. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  16. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fine particulate matter (PM) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2,813 crossbre...

  17. Evaluation of objective and subjective mobility variables in feedlot cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on mobility in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. Cattle were weighed and scan...

  18. Nitrous oxide fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming an environmental concern; however, research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify N2O emission fluxes as affected by...

  19. Determination of particulate matter emissions from cattle feedlots using windtrax and flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large commercial cattle feedlots are significant sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. This research compared WindTrax and the flux-gradient technique in estimating emissions of PM with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) from cattle feedlots. Meteorological conditions were measured and PM10...

  20. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  1. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed using a sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) and software designed for salt mapping (ESAP, Riverside, CA). The combination al...

  2. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  3. Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas.

    PubMed

    Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.

  4. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P < 0.01), but during the finishing phase, DMI was similar for both diets (8.3 kg/d). The DMI was decreased to 6.3 kg/d with no effect of diet or phase while the cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P < 0.05) for corn than for barley during the finishing phase (9.2 vs. 13.1 g/kg of DMI; 2.81 vs. 4.03% of GE). The results indicate the

  5. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Clawson, Michael L

    2011-05-01

    The surface of beef cattle feedlot pens is commonly conceptualized as being packed uncomposted manure. Despite the important role that the feedlot pen may play in the transmission of veterinary and zoonotic pathogens, the bacterial ecology of feedlot surface material is not well understood. Our present study characterized the bacterial communities of the beef cattle feedlot pen surface material using 3647 full-length 16S rDNA sequences, and we compared the community composition of feedlot pens to the fecal source material. The feedlot surface composite was represented by members of the phylum Actinobacteria (42%), followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (24%), and Proteobacteria (9%). The feedlot pen surface material bacterial communities were clearly distinct from those of the feces from animals in the same pen. Comparisons with previously published results of feces from the animals in the same pen reveal that, of 139 genera identified, only 25 were present in both habitats. These results indicate that, microbiologically, the feedlot pen surface material is separate and distinct from the fecal source material, suggesting that bacteria that originate in cattle feces face different selection pressures and survival challenges during their tenure in the feedlot pen, as compared to their residence in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on blood gas, electrolyte balance, and pH in feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on blood gas, electrolyte balance and pH in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. C...

  7. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  8. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat.

  9. Antibiotic resistance genes and residual antimicrobials in cattle feedlot surface soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle feedlot soils receive manure containing both antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria. The fates of these constituents are largely unknown with potentially serious consequences for increased antibiotic resistance in the environment. Determine if common antimicrobials (tetracycl...

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of heterogeneous variances in average daily weight gain of commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; Xiang, S; White, B J; Bello, N M

    2013-06-01

    Variability in ADG of feedlot cattle can affect profits, thus making overall returns more unstable. Hence, knowledge of the factors that contribute to heterogeneity of variances in animal performance can help feedlot managers evaluate risks and minimize profit volatility when making managerial and economic decisions in commercial feedlots. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate heteroskedasticity, defined as heterogeneity of variances, in ADG of cohorts of commercial feedlot cattle, and to identify cattle demographic factors at feedlot arrival as potential sources of variance heterogeneity, accounting for cohort- and feedlot-level information in the data structure. An operational dataset compiled from 24,050 cohorts from 25 U. S. commercial feedlots in 2005 and 2006 was used for this study. Inference was based on a hierarchical Bayesian model implemented with Markov chain Monte Carlo, whereby cohorts were modeled at the residual level and feedlot-year clusters were modeled as random effects. Forward model selection based on deviance information criteria was used to screen potentially important explanatory variables for heteroskedasticity at cohort- and feedlot-year levels. The Bayesian modeling framework was preferred as it naturally accommodates the inherently hierarchical structure of feedlot data whereby cohorts are nested within feedlot-year clusters. Evidence for heterogeneity of variance components of ADG was substantial and primarily concentrated at the cohort level. Feedlot-year specific effects were, by far, the greatest contributors to ADG heteroskedasticity among cohorts, with an estimated ∼12-fold change in dispersion between most and least extreme feedlot-year clusters. In addition, identifiable demographic factors associated with greater heterogeneity of cohort-level variance included smaller cohort sizes, fewer days on feed, and greater arrival BW, as well as feedlot arrival during summer months. These results support that

  11. Direct measurements of methane emissions from grazing and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Harper, L A; Denmead, O T; Freney, J R; Byers, F M

    1999-06-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from animals represent a significant contribution to anthropogenically produced radiatively active trace gases. Global and national CH4 budgets currently use predictive models based on emission data from laboratory experiments to estimate the magnitude of the animal source. This paper presents a method for measuring CH4 from animals under undisturbed field conditions and examines the performance of common models used to simulate field conditions. A micrometeorological mass difference technique was developed to measure CH4 production by cattle in pasture and feedlot conditions. Measurements were made continuously under field conditions, semiautomatically for several days, and the technique was virtually nonintrusive. The method permits a relatively large number of cattle to be sampled. Limitations include light winds (less than approximately 2 m/s), rapid wind direction changes, and high-precision CH4 gas concentration measurement. Methane production showed a marked periodicity, with greater emissions during periods of rumination as opposed to grazing. When the cattle were grazed on pasture, they produced .23 kg CH4 x animal(-1) x d(-1), which corresponded to the conversion of 7.7 to 8.4% of gross energy into CH4. When the same cattle were fed a highly digestible, high-grain diet, they produced .07 kg CH4 x animal(-1) x d(-1), corresponding to a conversion of only 1.9 to 2.2% of the feed energy to CH4. These measurements clearly document higher CH4 production (about four times) for cattle receiving low-quality, high-fiber diets than for cattle fed high-grain diets. The mass difference method provides a useful tool for "undisturbed" measurements on the influence of feedstuffs and nutritional management practices on CH4 production from animals and for developing improved management practice for enhanced environmental quality.

  12. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots.

  13. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  14. Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure in North American Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Neary, J M; Booker, C W; Wildman, B K; Morley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest the incidence of right-sided congestive heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle is increasing; however, the rate of occurrence and risk factors are largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk of RHF over time and among feedlots, to characterize some of the risk factors for RHF, and to investigate how risk factors may affect the timing of RHF occurrence. The population at risk consisted of 1.56 million cattle that were placed in 10 Canadian feedlots during the years 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012, and 5 US feedlots during the year 2012. A retrospective observational study was conducted. Variables, including year of feedlot entry, were evaluated for association with RHF using zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models. Factors affecting time to RHF were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyzes. Death from digestive disorders (DD) served as a control. The risk of RHF in Canadian feedlots doubled from the year 2000 to the year 2012 (P = .003). For every 10,000 cattle entering US feedlots in 2012, 11 cattle died from RHF and 45 cattle died from DD. The median time to RHF was 19 weeks. Cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease were 3 times more likely to die from RHF, and they died earlier in the feeding period. A doubling of the incidence of RHF over a short time period is concerning, particularly for US feedlots situated at moderate altitudes in the High Plains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Methodological comparisons for antimicrobial resistance surveillance in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to objectively compare methodological approaches that might be utilized in designing an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance program in beef feedlot cattle. Specifically, four separate comparisons were made to investigate their potential impact on estimates for prevalence of AMR. These included investigating potential differences between 2 different susceptibility testing methods (broth microdilution and disc diffusion), between 2 different target bacteria (non-type-specific E. coli [NTSEC] and Mannheimia haemolytica), between 2 strategies for sampling feces (individual samples collected per rectum and pooled samples collected from the pen floor), and between 2 strategies for determining which cattle to sample (cattle that were culture-positive for Mannheimia haemolytica and those that were culture-negative). Results Comparing two susceptibility testing methods demonstrated differences in the likelihood of detecting resistance between automated disk diffusion (BioMIC®) and broth microdilution (Sensititre®) for both E. coli and M. haemolytica. Differences were also detected when comparing resistance between two bacterial organisms within the same cattle; there was a higher likelihood of detecting resistance in E. coli than in M. haemolytica. Differences in resistance prevalence were not detected when using individual animal or composite pen sampling strategies. No differences in resistance prevalences were detected in E. coli recovered from cattle that were culture-positive for M. haemolytica compared to those that were culture-negative, suggesting that sampling strategies which targeted recovery of E. coli from M. haemolytica-positive cattle would not provide biased results. Conclusions We found that for general purposes, the susceptibility test selected for AMR surveillance must be carefully chosen considering the purpose of the surveillance since the ability to detect resistance appears to vary between these tests

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting.

    PubMed

    Hao, X; Chang, C; Larney, F J; Travis, G R

    2001-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) during feedlot manure composting reduces the agronomic value of the final compost and increases the greenhouse effect. A study was conducted to determine whether GHG emissions are affected by composting method. Feedlot cattle manure was composted with two aeration methods--passive (no turning) and active (turned six times). Carbon lost in the forms of CO2 and CH4 was 73.8 and 6.3 kg C Mg-1 manure for the passive aeration treatment and 168.0 and 8.1 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active treatment. The N loss in the form of N2O was 0.11 and 0.19 kg N Mg-1 manure for the passive and active treatments. Fuel consumption to turn and maintain the windrow added a further 4.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active aeration treatment. Since CH4 and N2O are 21 and 310 times more harmful than CO2 in their global warming effect, the total GHG emission expressed as CO2-C equivalent was 240.2 and 401.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for passive and active aeration. The lower emission associated with the passive treatment was mainly due to the incomplete decomposition of manure and a lower gas diffusion rate. In addition, turning affected N transformation and transport in the window profile, which contributed to higher N2O emissions for the active aeration treatment. Gas diffusion is an important factor controlling GHG emissions. Higher GHG concentrations in compost windrows do not necessarily mean higher production or emission rates.

  17. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  18. Managing thermal stress in feedlot cattle: environment, animal susceptibility and management options from a U.S. perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extreme summer time conditions can have a devastating impact on livestock, especially those animals who are typically housed outdoors without shelter, such as feedlot cattle. The effect of heat stress on feedlot cattle can vary from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in ...

  19. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of dust-control effectiveness of pen surface treatments for cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Auvermann, Brent W

    2011-01-01

    Emission of particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air quality concerns for large beef cattle feedlots. Effective treatments on the uncompacted soil and manure mixture of the pen surface may help in reducing PM emission from feedlots. A laboratory apparatus was developed for measuring dust-emission potential of cattle feedlot surfaces as affected by pen surface treatments. The apparatus was equipped with a simulated pen surface, four mock cattle hooves, and samplers for PM with equivalent aerodynamic diam. ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)). The simulated pen surface had a layer of dry, loose feedlot manure with a compacted soil layer underneath. Mock hooves were moved horizontally on the manure layer to simulate horizontal action of cattle hooves on the pen surface. High-volume PM samplers were used to collect emitted dust. Effects of hoof speed, depth of penetration, and surface treatments with independent candidate materials (i.e., sawdust, wheat straw, hay, rubber mulch, and surface water application) on PM(10) emission potential of the manure layer were investigated. Our laboratory study showed PM(10) emission potential increased with increasing depth of penetration and hoof speed. Of the surface treatments evaluated, application of water (6.4 mm) and hay (723 g m(-2)) exhibited the greatest percentage reduction in PM(10) emission potential (69 and 77%, respectively) compared with the untreated manure layer. This study indicated application of hay or other mulch materials on the pen surface might be good alternative methods to control dust emission from cattle feedlots.

  1. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing <400kg at induction (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.5-0.7). Animals inducted into feedlots during summer (OR: 2.4, 95% credible interval: 1.4-3.8) and autumn (OR: 2.1, 95% credible interval: 1.2-3.2) were at markedly increased risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  2. Potential use of feedlot cattle manure for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Vancov, T; Schneider, R C S; Palmer, J; McIntosh, S; Stuetz, R

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on processing options for the conversion of feedlot cattle manures into composite sugars for ethanol fermentation. Small-scale anaerobic digestion trials revealed that the process significantly reduces the content of glucan and xylan (ca. 70%) without effecting lignin. Moreover, anaerobic digestate (AD) fibres were poor substrates for cellulase (Cellic® CTec 2) saccharification, generating a maximum combined sugar yield of ca. 12% per original dry weight. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzyme saccharification of raw manures significantly improved total sugar recoveries, totalling 264 mg/g (79% theoretical). This was attained when manures were pretreated with 2.5% H2SO4 for 90 min at 121°C and saccharified with 50 FPU CTec 2/g glucan. Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude hydrolysates within 6 h, yielding 7.3 g/L ethanol, representing glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 70%. With further developments (i.e., fermentation of xylose), this process could deliver greater yields, reinforcing its potential as a biofuel feedstock.

  3. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  4. A new heat load index for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L; Holt, S M; Lisle, A

    2008-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of extreme climatic variables on livestock is important in terms of welfare and performance. An index combining temperature and humidity (THI) has been used for more than 4 decades to assess heat stress in cattle. However, the THI does not include important climatic variables such as solar load and wind speed (WS, m/s). Likewise, it does not include management factors (the effect of shade) or animal factors (genotype differences). Over 8 summers, a total of 11,669 Bos taurus steers, 2,344 B. taurus crossbred steers, 2,142 B. taurus x Bos indicus steers, and 1,595 B. indicus steers were used to develop and test a heat load index (HLI) for feedlot cattle. A new HLI incorporating black globe (BG) temperature ( degrees C), relative humidity (RH, decimal form), and WS was initially developed by using the panting score (PS) of 2,490 Angus steers. The HLI consists of 2 parts based on a BG temperature threshold of 25 degrees C: HLI(BG>25) = 8.62 + (0.38 x RH) + (1.55 x BG) - (0.5 x WS) + e((2.4-WS)), and HLI(BG<25) = 10.66 + (0.28 x RH) + (1.3 x BG) - WS, where e is the base of the natural logarithm. A threshold HLI above which cattle of different genotypes gain body heat was developed for 7 genotypes. The threshold for unshaded black B. taurus steers was 86, and for unshaded B. indicus (100%) the threshold was 96. Threshold adjustments were developed for factors such as coat color, health status, access to shade, drinking water temperature, and manure management. Upward and downward adjustments are possible; upward adjustments occur when cattle have access to shade (+3 to +7) and downward adjustments occur when cattle are showing clinical signs of disease (-5). A related measure, the accumulated heat load (AHL) model, also was developed after the development of the HLI. The AHL is a measure of the animal's heat load balance and is determined by the duration of exposure above the threshold HLI. The THI and THI-hours (hours above a THI

  5. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (P<0.05) of Micrococcaceae (day 0 only), Lachnospiraceae (≥60 days), Lactobacillaceae (day 0), and Bacillaceae (day 0) in healthy cattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. 'Cysticercosis storm' in feedlot cattle in north-west New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Brown, G K; Traub, R J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the cause of an outbreak of bovine cysticercosis (Taenia saginata) infection on a cattle property in north-western New South Wales (NSW). Cystic lesions were detected in the muscles of cattle during routine meat inspection at slaughter. These lesions were confirmed to be cysticerci of T. saginata through histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data on cattle maintenance were obtained through interviews with feedlot owners and staff. A suspect feed supplement was investigated. Between 5 July to 13 December 2010, 390 feedlot cattle from north-western NSW were slaughtered in abattoirs in NSW and Queensland. Of these, 138 animals had been maintained exclusively in feedlot enclosures from 80 to 300 days. Bovine cysticercosis was discovered in 80 cattle (58%, 26 carcasses were condemned). Another 18 cattle spent 24 h in the feedlot before being moved onto pasture and 1 of them was found to be infected. During the 5 months following the initial outbreak, a further 275 cattle were slaughtered; 2 of 51 heifers retained in the feedlot for a further 100 days were infected. None of the 234 animals grazed exclusively on pasture on the property were infected. Bovine cysticercosis was confirmed through examination of histological sections of muscle lesions and PCR using DNA extracted from cysticerci. No eggs of T. saginata were recovered from the feed supplement using a standard flotation method. The source of infection arose from rations contaminated with human faeces. All possibilities for local contamination were eliminated during the investigation. The suspected source of infection was imported copra meal, which was used as a feed supplement. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of two years, leafy greens were planted to nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 meters from a cattle feedlot (3 plots each distance). Leafy greens, feedlot manure, and bioaerosol ...

  8. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-09-07

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m(-3) at 50 m to 36 μg N m(-3) at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr(-1) in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition.

  9. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m‑3 at 50 m to 36 μg N m‑3 at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m‑2 s‑1 at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m‑2 s‑1 at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr‑1 in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition.

  10. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m−3 at 50 m to 36 μg N m−3 at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m−2 s−1 at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m−2 s−1 at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr−1 in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition. PMID:27600433

  11. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M.; Eigenberg, Roger A.; Nienaber, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the increase in body temperature, it was beneficial to the

  12. Metaphylactic antimicrobial therapy for bovine respiratory disease in stocker and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J

    2010-07-01

    This article provides an overview of implementing metaphylactic antimicrobial protocols to certain classes of cattle on arrival to stocker and feedlot production systems. The goal of this management practice is to reduce the negative health and performance effects induced by bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This article emphasizes the multiple factors that influence the decision for mass medication, including weight (age) of the cattle, distance traveled, environmental conditions, previous health history, visual inspection of the cattle at arrival, and prediction of the risk of disease. Current data suggest that metaphylactic programs significantly reduce negative health effects and improve feed performance that can be observed in cattle stricken with BRD.

  13. Interactions of organic acids with Salmonella strains from feedlot water-sprinkled cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic acids are commonly used as a carcass wash to remove bacteria during food production. In this study, the interactions of four organic acids with 145 Salmonella strains comprised of six different serovars from feedlot water-sprinkled cattle were studied. The pH was determined at the molar MI...

  14. Determining ammonia emissions from a cattle feedlot with an inverse dispersion technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An inverse-dispersion technique is used to calculate ammonia (NH3) gas emissions from a cattle feedlot. The technique relies on a simple backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model to relate atmospheric NH3 concentration to the emission rate Qbls. Because the wind and the source configurat...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas during fall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research measuring emission fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane from ope...

  16. Runoff, erosion, and size distribution of sediment from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The size distribution of sediment affects erosion rates, settling velocity, and the transport of chemical constituents. Little information is currently available concerning the size distribution of materials transported in runoff from beef cattle feedlots. The objectives of this study were to: a) me...

  17. Experimental research on the effects of water application on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of water application (e.g., through rainfall or sprinkler system) on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from pen surfaces of open-lot beef cattle feedlots was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil/ma...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of surface amendments for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pen surface amendments for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from beef cattle feedlots, were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Amendments were organic residues (i.e., sorghum straw, prairie grass, wo...

  19. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens...

  20. Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Dabak, Murat; Kizil, Omer

    2010-11-01

    As thiamine status of ruminants is adversely affected by rumen acidity, this study investigated whether or not thiamine deficiency occurs in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet. Fifty 1- to 2-year-old feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet (75% barley) for at least 3 mo (high concentrate diet group) and 15 healthy feedlot cattle of similar ages (control group) that were fed a low concentrate diet (30% barley) were used. Rumen fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis and their pH was determined with a portable pH meter. Blood samples taken from all animals from a jugular vein were used to determine erythrocyte transketolase enzyme activity, and hence thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect. Odor and mean pH values of ruminal fluid samples from the high concentrate diet and control group were acidic (pH 5.3) and aromatic (pH 6.1), respectively. The mean TPP effect % in the high concentrate diet group (47.2 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than in the control group (19.53 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001). The study provides evidence of a TPP effect in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide and methane from open-lot beef cattle feedlots is an increasing concern given the current and potential future reporting requirements for GHG emissions. Research concerning nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from the manure...

  2. Temporal nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure following a simulated rainfall event

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A pilot-scale, recirculating-flow-through, non-steady-state (RFT-NSS) chamber system was designed for quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens. The system employed five 1 square meter steel pans. A lid was placed systematically on each pan and heads...

  3. Environmental load of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from cattle manure in feedlots from the central and western United States.

    PubMed

    Atwill, Edward R; Pereira, Maria Das Gracas C; Alonso, L Herrera; Elmi, Cyrus; Epperson, William B; Smith, Robert; Riggs, Walter; Carpenter, Linda V; Dargatz, David A; Hoar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The first step in assessing the risk of water contamination by Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from feedlot cattle (Bos taurus) production systems is to quantify the number of C. parvum oocysts present in the fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle. Our primary objective for this project was to estimate the daily environmental load of C. parvum oocysts in fecal material deposited by feedlot cattle from across the central and western USA. Our secondary goal was to genotype isolates of C. parvum from feedlot cattle to help facilitate proper identification of mammalian sources of waterborne C. parvum. Based on 5274 fecal samples from 22 feedlots in seven states (California, Washington, Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, and South Dakota), we estimated a point prevalence of C. parvum of 0.99 to 1.08% in fecal material from feedlot pens from a wide range of climates and a diverse range of feedlot management systems. On average, fresh fecal material from throughout feedlot systems (recent arrivals to nearing slaughter) contained about 1.3 to 3.6 oocysts/g feces, which roughly translates to about 2.8 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(5) oocysts/animal per day.

  4. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  5. Environmental sources and transmission of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Berg, J; Potter, A; Hancock, D; Besser, T; Rice, D; LeJeune, J; Klashinsky, S

    2001-09-01

    A study was conducted in 2 feedlots in southern Alberta to identify environmental sources and management factors associated with the prevalence and transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated in preslaughter pens of cattle from feces (0.8%), feedbunks (1.7%), water troughs (12%), and incoming water supplies (4.5%), but not from fresh total mixed rations. Fresh total mixed rations did not support the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli from bovine feces following experimental inoculation. Within a feedlot, the feces, water troughs, and feedbunks shared a few indistinguishable subtypes of E. coli O157:H7. A few subtypes were repeatedly isolated in the same feedlot, and the 2 feedlots shared a few indistinguishable subtypes. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in water troughs of preslaughter cattle in 1 feedlot was associated with season, maximum climatic temperatures the week before sampling; total precipitation the week before sampling, and coliform and E. coli counts in the water trough.

  6. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Cattle Feces in United States Feedlots in 2011.

    PubMed

    Dargatz, David A; Kopral, Christine A; Erdman, Matthew M; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from feces of cattle in feedlots in the United States. Fecal samples were collected from up to three pens of cattle in each of 68 feedlots in 12 states. Samples included up to 25 individual fecal pats from the pen floors and up to five composite samples from the floors of the same pens. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples was 9.1% (460/5050) and 11.3% (114/1009) for individual and composite samples, respectively. The prevalences of Salmonella at the pen level were 35.6% (72/202) and 22.8% (46/202) for individual and composite samples, respectively. Dietary factors, including inclusion of cottonseed hulls, coccidiostats, and antimicrobial drugs, were associated with differences in prevalence of Salmonella isolation. Overall, 32 serotypes of Salmonella were identified, but six serotypes accounted for 69.1% (495/716) of the isolates. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%, 44/68) of feedlots had at least one positive sample. All isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. Most isolates (74.4%, 533/716) were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs in the panel. When resistance was detected, it was most commonly to tetracycline (21.7%, 155/716 of isolates) or sulfisoxazole (12.4%, 89/716 of isolates). Less than 10% of the isolates were resistant to any other antimicrobials in the panel. The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in individual fecal samples was less than 10%, but that Salmonella is widely distributed among feedlot cattle. Furthermore, when Salmonella is present in feedlot cattle, there is a low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance with the exception of tetracycline and sulfisoxazole. More research is indicated to understand the ecology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, when present, in cattle-feeding operations.

  7. Optimized batch fermentation of cheese whey. Supplemented feedlot waste filtrate to produce a nitrogen-rich feed supplement for ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Reddy, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been shown to be valuable as nitrogenous feed supplements for ruminants. The utilization of substrate carbohydrate at pH 7.0 and 43 degrees C was greater than 94% within 8 h, and the crude protein (total N X 6.25) content of the product was 70 to 78% (dry weight basis). About 66 to 69% of the crude protein was in the form of ammonia nitrogen. Lactate and acetate were the predominant acids during the first 6 to 8 hours of fermentation, but after 24 hours, appreciable levels of propionate and butyrate were also present. The rate of fermentation and the crude protein content of the product were optimal at pH 7.0 and decreased at a lower pH. For example, fermentation did not go to completion even after 24 hours at pH 4.5. Fermentation proceeded optimally at 43 degrees C, less so at 37 degrees C, and considerably more slowly at 23 and 50 degrees C. Concentrations of up to 15 g of cheese whey per 100 ml of feedlot waste filtrate were fermented efficiently. Fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate obtained from animals fed low silage-high grain, high silage-low grain, or dairy rations resulted in similar products in terms of total nitrogen and organic acid composition.

  8. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: predictability of feedlot cattle growth performance.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; DiLorenzo, N; McMeniman, J P; Defoor, P J

    2011-06-01

    Predicting performance is vital to management and marketing decisions in commercial feedlots. Agreement between performance predicted from NE equations or empirical regression relationships and actual performance is generally very good, suggesting that factors affecting performance by finishing cattle are fairly well documented. The challenge for feedlot managers is to predict performance with limited information at the start of the feeding period. Data on sex and initial shrunk BW (ISBW) are typically available when cattle start on feed. Relationships between ISBW, sex, and performance were evaluated using 3,363 pen records collected over 4 yr from 3 commercial feedlots in the Texas Panhandle. Mixed-model regression was used to account for random effects of feedlot × season × year and fixed effects of ISBW (range = 227 to 451 kg), sex (steer or heifer), and ISBW × sex (P < 0.10 for all variables evaluated). Previously developed equations indicated that with intercept and slope adjustments for sex, ISBW accounted for 76 and 84% of the variation in DMI and final shrunk BW (FSBW), respectively. Similarly, newly developed regression equations that included ISBW, sex, and ISBW × sex accounted for 46 and 81% of the variation in ADG and HCW, respectively. Initial BW was negatively related to G:F (R(2) = 0.22). Including early DMI data (DMI from d 8 to 28) increased R(2) and decreased prediction error for DMI, indicating that updating predictions with interim intake data might prove beneficial. An independent data set (781 lots of steers and heifers) collected during 1 yr from 2 Texas Panhandle feedlots was used to validate equations developed with the larger database. Dry matter intake predicted from ISBW and sex accounted for 69% of the variation in observed DMI (SE of prediction = 0.47; mean bias = 0.42 kg). Predicting DMI with ISBW, sex, and DMI from d 8 to 28 of the feeding period increased r(2) to 0.76 and slightly decreased the SE of prediction (0.42 kg), but

  9. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  10. Water spray cooling during handling of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Eigenberg, Roger A; Nienaber, John A

    2010-11-01

    Activities involved in receiving or working (e.g., sorting, dehorning, castration, weighing, implanting, etc.) of feedlot cattle cause an increase in body temperature. During hot weather the increased body temperature may disrupt normal behaviors including eating, which can be especially detrimental to the well-being and performance of the animals. Sprinkle cooling of animals has been successfully employed within the pen; however, added moisture to the pens' surface increases odor generation from the pen. A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility instead of in the pen, which could potentially provide extra evaporative cooling to offset the added heat produced by activity. Sixty-four cross-bred heifers were assigned to one of eight pens on the basis of weight. On four separate occasions during hot conditions (average temperature 28.2 ± 1.9°C, 29.1 ± 2.0°C, 28.9 ± 3.0°C, and 26.8 ± 1.6°C; with the temperature ranging from 22.6 to 32.5°C during the trials), the heifers were moved from their pens to and from the working facility (a building with a scale and squeeze chute located 160-200 m away). While in the squeeze chute, four of the pens of heifers were sprinkle cooled and the remaining four pens were worked as normal. The heifers that were treated had a body temperature that peaked sooner (31.9 ± 0.63 min compared to 37.6 ± 0.62) with a lower peak body temperature (39.55 ± 0.03°C compared to 39.74 ± 0.03°C), and recovered sooner (70.5 ± 2.4 min compared to 83.2 ± 2.4 min). The treated animals also had a lower panting score, a visual assessment of level of cattle heat stress (1.1 ± 0.2 compared to 1.16 ± 0.2). The behavior measurements that were taken did not indicate a change in behavior. It was concluded that while a single instance of wetting an animal within the working facility did not completely offset the

  11. Distribution of sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle.

    PubMed

    Aust, Marc-Oliver; Godlinski, Frauke; Travis, Greg R; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Leinweber, Peter; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2008-12-01

    Feedlots are potential point sources for the flow of antibiotics into the environment due to common use of antibiotics such as sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hence soils and manures originating from a grassland control, an experimental and a commercial feedlot were analyzed and mass balances were calculated for these antibiotics. Up to 9990 microg kg(-1) sulfamethazine and 401microg kg(-1) chlortetracycline on a dry matter basis were determined in feedlot manure. Soil concentrations were two orders of magnitude smaller. This corresponds to 7-40% of the calculated residual amount. In the commercial feedlot chlortetracycline was found down to soil depths of -40 cm; sulfamethazine was still detectable 1 year after medication. Sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline were additionally determined in manure of a control treatment in the experimental feedlot where cattle never received antibiotics. This was attributed to runoff from upslope pens. Consequently, antibiotics partially persist within feedlots and may be dislocated into the surrounding environment by vertical transport and runoff.

  12. Effect of mass medication with antibiotics at feedlot entry on the health and growth rate of cattle destined for the Australian domestic market.

    PubMed

    Cusack, P M V

    2004-03-01

    To examine the effectiveness of mass medication with long acting antibiotics at feedlot entry on lot-fed Australian domestic cattle during a period of high risk for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Systematic allocation at feedlot entry of tilmicosin, long acting oxytetracycline or no antibiotic treatment, to cattle lot fed for the Australian domestic market. Comparisons of growth rate, disease occurrence and mortality were made between the groups at the conclusion of the feeding period. Cattle medicated with tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg body weight on entry to the feedlot grew 0.08 kg/d faster than cattle medicated with oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight and non-medicated cattle. There was no significant difference in growth rate between oxytetracycline medicated cattle and cattle not medicated with antibiotic at feedlot entry. Cattle medicated with tilmicosin at feedlot entry had 8 fewer cases of disease per 100 animals compared with cattle not medicated with antibiotic at feedlot entry. There was no significant difference in disease occurrence between oxytetracycline medicated cattle and those not medicated with antibiotic at feedlot entry. Mass medication with tilmicosin at feedlot entry of cattle destined for the Australian domestic market may be used to reduce disease occurrence and increase growth rate during periods of high risk for BRD.

  13. Concentrations of particulate matter emitted from large cattle feedlots in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L

    2011-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emitted from cattle feedlots are thought to affect air quality in rural communities, yet little is known about factors controlling their emissions. The concentrations of PM (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulates or TSP) upwind and downwind at two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas were measured with gravimetric samplers from May 2006 to October 2009 (at KS1) and from September 2007 to April 2008 (at KS2). The mean downwind and net (i.e., downwind - upwind) mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP varied seasonally, indicating the need for multiple-day, seasonal sampling. The downwind and net concentrations were closely related to the moisture content of the pen surface. The PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/TSP ratios at the downwind sampling location were also related to the moisture content of the pen surface, humidity, and temperature. Measurement of the particle size distribution downwind of the feedlot with a cascade impactor showed geometric mean diameter ranging from 7 to 18 microm, indicating that particles that were emitted from the feedlots were generally large in size.

  14. Concentrations of Particulate Matter Emitted from Large Cattle Feedlots in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L

    2011-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emitted from cattle feedlots are thought to affect air quality in rural communities, yet little is known about factors controlling their emissions. The concentrations of PM (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulates or TSP) upwind and downwind at two large cattle feedlots (KS1, KS2) in Kansas were measured with gravimetric samplers from May 2006 to October 2009 (at KS1) and from September 2007 to April 2008 (at KS2). The mean downwind and net (i.e., downwind - upwind) mass concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP varied seasonally, indicating the need for multiple-day, seasonal sampling. The downwind and net concentrations were closely related to the moisture content of the pen surface. The PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/TSP ratios at the downwind sampling location were also related to the moisture content of the pen surface, humidity, and temperature. Measurement of the particle size distribution downwind of the feedlot with a cascade impactor showed geometric mean diameter ranging from 7 to 18 μm, indicating that particles that were emitted from the feedlots were generally large in size. [Box: see text].

  15. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of three anthelmintics on weight gain of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Waldhalm, D G; Hall, R F

    1977-09-01

    Three groups of 50 heavy feedlot steers were treated with 1 of 3 anthelmintics (haloxon, tramisol, or thiabendazole). One group of 50 steers was not treated and served as a control. The initial degree of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes was light and decreased during the course of the study. There were no significant differences in weight gains among any of the groups at the end of a 113-day feeding period.

  17. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Sherry J; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A; Townsend, Hugh G G

    2009-10-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10,000 to > 40,000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86-88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86-90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85-88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66-71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58-70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67-72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta.

  18. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  19. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( < 0.01) compared to that of the EXC cohorts. Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and

  20. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Thomas, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  1. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mitloehner, Frank M.; Dailey, Jeff W.; Morrow, Julie L.; McGlone, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Fine particulate matter (with less than 2.5 microns diameter; aka PM2.5) are a human and animal health concern because they can carry microbes and chemicals into the lungs. Particulate matter (PM) in general emitted from cattle feedlots can reach high concentrations. When feedlot cattle were given an altered feeding schedule (ALT) that more closely reflected their biological feeding times compared with conventional morning feeding (CON), PM2.5 generation at peak times was substantially lowered. Average daily generation of PM2.5 was decreased by 37% when cattle behavior was redirected away from PM-generating behaviors and toward evening feeding behaviors. Behavioral problems such as agonistic (i.e., aggressive) and bulling (i.e., mounting each other) behaviors also were reduced several fold among ALT compared with CON cattle. Intake of feed was less and daily body weight gain tended to be less with the altered feeding schedule while efficiency of feed utilization was not affected. Although ALT may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle had fewer behavioral problems and reduced PM2.5 generation when feed delivery times matched with the natural drive to eat in a crepuscular pattern. Abstract Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion

  2. Longitudinal concentrations of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in feces do not correspond to the patterns of antibiotic use at a cattle feedlot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of antibiotics at cattle feedlots increases the concentrations of Escherichia coli resistant to antibiotics of critical importance to human medicine. However, the impact of therapeutic use of antibiotics at cattle feedlots on levels of anti...

  3. Influence of beta-agonists (ractopamine HCI and zilpaterol HCI) on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of two beta-agonists [ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx**R) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax**R)], recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve performance traits and carcass leanness, were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Fecal samples (...

  4. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Recovered from Feedlot Cattle and Associations with Antimicrobial Use

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Katharine M.; Gow, Sheryl P.; McAllister, Tim A.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hannon, Sherry J.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Noyes, Noelle R.; Morley, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Recovered from Feedlot Cattle and Associations with Antimicrobial Use.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Katharine M; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Booker, Calvin W; Hannon, Sherry J; Checkley, Sylvia L; Noyes, Noelle R; Morley, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to investigate the associations between exposures to antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and AMR in fecal non-type specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) recovered from a large population of feedlot cattle. Two-stage random sampling was used to select individually identified cattle for enrollment, which were sampled at arrival and then a second time later in the feeding period. Advanced regression techniques were used to estimate resistance prevalences, and to investigate associations between AMD exposures in enrolled cattle and penmates and AMR identified in NTSEC recovered from the second sample set. Resistance was most commonly detected to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole, and was rarely identified for critically important AMDs. All cattle were exposed to AMDs in feed, and 45% were treated parenterally. While resistance prevalence generally increased during the feeding period, most AMD exposures were not significantly associated with AMR outcomes. Exposures of enrolled cattle to tetracycline were associated with increased resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim sulfa, while beta-lactam exposures were associated with decreased likelihood of detecting streptomycin resistance. Pen-level AMD exposure measures were not associated with resistance outcomes. These findings suggest that tetracycline treatment of feedlot cattle can be associated with modest increases in risk for recovery of resistant NTSEC, but the numerous treatments with an advanced macrolide (tulathromycin) were not associated with detectable increases in resistance in NTSEC. All cattle were exposed to in-feed treatments of tetracycline and this could limit the ability to identify the full impact of these exposures, but these exposures varied for enrolled cattle varied, providing an opportunity to evaluate a dose response. While AMD exposures were not associated with detectably increased risks for

  7. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot.

  8. Factors Associated with the Presence of Coliforms in the Feed and Water of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael W.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Renter, David G.; Griffin, D. Dee; Smith, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate coliform counts in feedlot cattle water and feed rations and their associations with management, climate, fecal material, and water Escherichia coli O157 using a cross-sectional study design. Coliform counts were performed on feed samples from 671 pens on 70 feedlots and on water samples from 702 pens on 72 feedlots in four U.S. states collected between May and August 2001. Management and climate factors were obtained by survey and observation. Month of sampling (higher in May and June), presence of corn silage in the ration (negative association), temperature of the feed 1 in. (ca. 2.5 cm) below the surface at the time of sampling (negative association), and wind velocity at the time of sampling (positive association) were significantly associated with log10 coliform levels in feed. Month of sampling (lower in May versus June July and August), water pH (negative association), and water total solids (positive association) were significantly associated with log10 water coliform levels. Coliform counts in feed and water were not associated with prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces or water. Management risk factors must be interpreted with caution but the results reported here do not support the use of coliform counts as a marker for E. coli O157 contamination of feed or water. PMID:16204517

  9. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments

  10. Resistance status of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from southeastern Nebraska beef cattle feedlots to selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Marçon, Paula C R G; Thomas, Gustave D; Siegfried, Blair D; Campbell, John B; Skoda, Steven R

    2003-06-01

    The status of resistance to three insecticides (permethrin, stirofos, and methoxychlor), relative to a laboratory-susceptible colony, was evaluated in field populations of house flies, Musca domestica L., collected from two beef cattle feedlots in southeastern Nebraska. Topical application and residual exposure to treated glass surfaces were suitable methods for determining the resistance status of house flies to permethrin, stirofos, or methoxychlor. However, in most cases, residual exposure was more sensitive in resistance detection (i.e., higher resistance ratios). The field populations tested were moderately resistant to permethrin (RR = 4.9-fold and RR = 7.3-fold, for topical application and residual exposure, respectively) and extremely resistant to stirofos and methoxychlor (not accurately quantifiable because of low mortality at the highest possible concentrations or doses). Probable explanations for the resistance status of these house fly populations and implications for global feedlot fly management are discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  12. Sorption of atmospheric ammonia by soil and perennial grass downwind from two large cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Chang, Chi; Janzen, H Henry; Clayton, George; Hill, Brett R

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manure in feedlots releases ammonia (NH3), which can be sorbed by nearby soil and plants. Ammonia sorption by soil and its effects on soil and perennial grass N contents downwind from two large cattle feedlots in Alberta, Canada were investigated from June to October 2002. Atmospheric NH3 sorption was measured weekly by exposing air-dried soil at sampling points downwind along 1700-m transects. The amount of NH3 sorbed by soil was 2.60 to 3.16 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1) near the source, declining to about 0.25 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1) 1700 m downwind, reflecting diminishing atmospheric NH3 concentrations. Ammonia sorption at a control site away from NH3 sources was much lower: 0.085 kg N ha(-1) wk(-1). Based on these rates, about 19% of emitted NH3 is sorbed by soil within 1700 m downwind of feedlots. Field soil and grass samples from the transect lines were analyzed for total N (TN) and KCl-extractable N content (soil only). Nitrate N content in field soil followed a trend similar to that of atmospheric NH3 sorption. Soil TN contents, because of high background levels, showed no clear pattern. The TN content of grass, downwind of the newer feedlot, followed a pattern similar to that of NH3 sorption; downwind of the older feedlot, grass TN was correlated to soil TN. Our results suggest that atmospheric NH3 from livestock operations can contribute N to local soil and vegetation, and may need to be considered when determining fertilizer rates and assessing environmental impact.

  13. Model for estimating enteric methane emissions from United States dairy and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Johnson, K A; Archibeque, S L; Pape, D; Wirth, T

    2008-10-01

    Methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle is one of the major sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission in the United States and worldwide. National estimates of methane emissions rely on mathematical models such as the one recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC). Models used for prediction of methane emissions from cattle range from empirical to mechanistic with varying input requirements. Two empirical and 2 mechanistic models (COWPOLL and MOLLY) were evaluated for their prediction ability using individual cattle measurements. Model selection was based on mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient, and residuals vs. predicted values analyses. In dairy cattle, COWPOLL had the lowest root MSPE and greatest accuracy and precision of predicting methane emissions (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.75). The model simulated differences in diet more accurately than the other models, and the residuals vs. predicted value analysis showed no mean bias (P = 0.71). In feedlot cattle, MOLLY had the lowest root MSPE with almost all errors from random sources (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.69). The IPCC model also had good agreement with observed values, and no significant mean (P = 0.74) or linear bias (P = 0.11) was detected when residuals were plotted against predicted values. A fixed methane conversion factor (Ym) might be an easier alternative to diet-dependent variable Ym. Based on the results, the 2 mechanistic models were used to simulate methane emissions from representative US diets and were compared with the IPCC model. The average Ym in dairy cows was 5.63% of GE (range 3.78 to 7.43%) compared with 6.5% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. In feedlot cattle, the average Ym was 3.88% (range 3.36 to 4.56%) compared with 3% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. Based on our simulations, using IPCC values can result in an overestimate of about 12.5% and underestimate of emissions by about 9.8% for

  14. Temporal prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp. from beef cattle in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A; Entz, T; Olson, M E; Yanke, L J; Read, R R

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (< or =4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  15. Effect of sprinkling on feedlot microclimate and cattle behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, T. L.; Davis, M. S.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate strategies designed to reduce heat stress of cattle. In the first experiment, cattle were sprinkled for 20 min every 1.5 h between 1000 hours and 1750 hours (WET) versus not sprinkled (DRY). In a second experiment, treatments consisted of: (1) control, no water application; (2) water applied to the pen surfaces between 1000 hours and 1200 hours (AM); and (3) water applied to pen surfaces between 1400 hours and 1600 hours (PM). In both experiments, sprinkling lowered ( P < 0.05) mid-afternoon temperatures. In the first experiment, relative humidity (RH) of WET versus DRY pens differed ( P < 0.05) and averaged 72.4 and 68.9%, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index (THI) in WET pens was 0.5 units lower ( P < 0.05), than the THI in DRY pens. In the second experiment, RH in sprinkled pens was also greater ( P < 0.05) than RH in control (CON) pens However, THI differed ( P < 0.05) among treatments, being 81.5, 80.9, and 80.3, respectively for CON, AM, and PM. Pens with sprinklers had a larger percentage of steers in areas where sprinkling took place, even on days when sprinkling had not occurred. Based on differences in percentage of cattle panting in sprinkled and non-sprinkled treatments, sprinkling was found to have a positive effect on cattle feeding area microclimate and to reduce the susceptibility of cattle to hyperthermia. However, cattle acclimatization to being sprinkled can result in slight hyperthermia even during cooler days when sprinkling would normally not be utilized.

  16. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, Frank M; Dailey, Jeff W; Morrow, Julie L; McGlone, John J

    2017-03-01

    Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion). PM2.5 samplers measured respirable particles with a mass median diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) every 15 min over a period of 7 d in April and May. Simultaneously, the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, air pressure, and solar radiation were measured with a weather station. Elevated downwind PM2.5 concentrations were measured at dusk, when cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedule, demonstrated less PM2.5-generating behaviors (p < 0.05). At dusk, steers on ALT vs. CON feeding schedules ate or were waiting to eat (standing in second row behind feeding cattle) at much greater rates (p < 0.05). Upwind PM2.5 concentrations were similar between the treatments. Downwind PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 24 h were lower from ALT compared with CON pens (0.072 vs. 0.115 mg/m³, p < 0.01). However, dry matter intake (DMI) was less (p < 0.05), and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be less (p < 0.1) in cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedules, whereas feed efficiency (aka gain to feed, G:F) was not affected. Although ALT feeding may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle exhibited fewer PM2.5-generating behaviors and

  17. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Edwards, T A

    2010-07-01

    Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.

  18. Efficiency Analysis of Caspian Cattle Feedlot Farms by Data Envelopment Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Ali; Jaafar, Azmi Bin; Lee, Lai Soon

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an excellent approach for evaluating the performance of decision making units (DMUs) that use multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. This research utilizes the DEA to analyze the operating efficiency of Caspian cattle feedlot farms in Iran. The inputs utilized by the farms are number of calve, number of labors, total metabolizable energy intake, total crude protein intake and total cost of hygiene-treatment of calve; and the output considered is total live weigh gain of calve. By using two DEA models, the efficiency score for each farm is calculated and the efficient farms are ranked.

  19. The risks and prevention of contamination of beef feedlot cattle: the perspective of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Griffin, D D; Dargatz, D A

    1997-08-01

    There are currently no scientifically defined critical management points or critical control points to manage foodborne pathogens at the pre-harvest level. Research is ongoing: much of the pre-harvest research is funded by producer organisations. The beef industry has Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) programmes in place and these are dynamic. Groups of cattlemen have made a very strong commitment to reducing foodborne pathogens in beef. Fewer Escherichia coli O157:H7 organisms are shed by feedlot cattle near the end of the feeding period than by newly arrived cattle. Moreover, there is less shedding of the organisms in cattle of slaughter age than in younger cattle. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle is similar to that in range cattle. This suggests that concentrating cattle in feedlot dirt pens does not increase the risk of shedding E. coli organisms. Pen maintenance, considered a good management practice, appears to be an adequate means of keeping pathogen levels in pens low. It is not likely that pre-harvest food safety programmes will eliminate the threat of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella. The management of foodborne pathogens will become part of an integrated programme to enhance food safety which includes the producer, the packer, the distributors, retailers and the consumer. The feedlot industry initiated a residue avoidance programme several years ago. As a result, the risk of chemical residues in beef from feedlots in the United States of America is near zero. Hazard analysis and critical control point-type prevention programmes, using scientifically based critical management points, will help ensure that the risk remains negligible.

  20. A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Hao, Xiying

    2007-12-01

    Composting is gaining increased acceptance as a management alternative for the large volumes of manure produced by southern Alberta's beef cattle feedlots. Research on windrow composting of feedlot manure was initiated at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996. Early studies looked at physical and chemical changes during composting. Studies have also been conducted on greenhouse gas emissions during composting and the effect of composting on reduction of pathogens, parasites and weed seed viability. The quality of commercially-produced composts at southern Alberta feedlots has been examined as has the mineralization rates of soil-applied composts. This paper reviews results from our feedlot manure composting research program.

  1. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Somavilla, Adriana L.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Mokry, Fabiana B.; Mudadu, Mauricio A.; Tizioto, Polyana C.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Souza, Marcela M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Munari, Danísio P.

    2017-01-01

    Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS) could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV) for average daily weight gain (ADG) in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP), BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively)]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44) and sample size (568 animals in the training population). Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs. PMID:28391242

  2. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Somavilla, Adriana L; Regitano, Luciana C A; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Mokry, Fabiana B; Mudadu, Mauricio A; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Souza, Marcela M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Munari, Danísio P

    2017-06-07

    Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS) could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV) for average daily weight gain (ADG) in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP), BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively)]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44) and sample size (568 animals in the training population). Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs. Copyright © 2017 Somavilla et al.

  3. The diagnosis and prevalence of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in South African feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Thelma; Prozesky, Leon; Du Preez, Eben R; Verwoerd, Dirk J

    2011-08-24

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection is an important viral infection affecting the cattle industry today. The prevalence of this infection in South African feedlots is unknown. Ear notch biopsies were collected from chronic poor doers and animals that appeared unthrifty upon entering feedlots, as well as animals entering the hospital pen with respiratory disease for the first time. A total of 1690 samples were collected: 1074 from the former category and 616 from the latter. A routine immunohistochemistry staining protocol showed that 49 animals tested positive, of which 43 (4%) came from the feedlot entry group and six (1%) from the hospitalised group. The prevalence of persistently infected cattle from this selected, nonrandom sample entering six large South African feedlots was found to be 2.9%, which is higher than the international rule of thumb that 0.5% of all cattle entering feedlots are persistently infected. There was no clear correlation between persistent infection and respiratory disease. Serum samples were also collected when possible and 10 positive cases were found. Results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen and antibody performed on these sera correlated well with those from the immunohistochemistry staining method in six cases, but in four cases the animals tested falsely positive owing to nonspecific staining. Immunohistochemistry staining on ear notch biopsies is thus a reliable diagnostic method to identify persistently infected animals with BVDV, but the pathologist should be aware of nonspecific positive staining.

  4. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  5. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-04-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels.

  6. The lesions of toe tip necrosis in southern Alberta feedlot cattle provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Lana A.; Paetsch, Chad D.; Jelinski, Murray D.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Gross and histologic postmortem studies were performed on the hind feet of feedlot cattle that had, or were free from, lesions of toe tip necrosis. The hind feet of feedlot cattle were collected by 3 veterinary feedlot practices in southern Alberta, Canada. Three studies of these feet were conducted: i) prediction of disease based on the presence or absence of apical white line separation, ii) gross assessment of the distribution and severity of lesions within affected claws, and iii) microscopic evaluation of the distal phalanx and surrounding soft tissues of affected claws. Prediction of toe tip necrosis based on the presence of apical white line separation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). This, combined with a pattern of lesions indicative of an ascending infection of the distal phalanx and the absence of other lesions, suggests that the pathogenesis involves bacterial infection originating from the most distal aspect of the toe, at the apical white line. PMID:26538666

  7. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  8. Chemical and physical changes following co-composting of beef cattle feedlot manure with phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Larney, Francis J; Nichol, Connie K; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; Demaere, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss during beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot manure composting may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and increase ammonia (NH(3)) in the atmosphere while decreasing the fertilizer value of the final compost. Phosphogypsum (PG) is an acidic by-product of phosphorus (P) fertilizer manufacture and large stockpiles currently exist in Alberta. This experiment examined co-composting of PG (at rates of 0, 40, 70, and 140 kg PG Mg(-1) manure plus PG dry weight) with manure from feedlot pens bedded with straw or wood chips. During the 99-d composting period, PG addition reduced total nitrogen (TN) loss by 0.11% for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate. Available N at the end of composting was significantly higher for wood chip-bedded (2180 mg kg(-1)) than straw-bedded manure treatments (1820 mg kg(-1)). Total sulfur (TS) concentration in the final compost increased by 0.19 g kg(-1) for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate from 5.2 g TS kg(-1) without PG addition. Phosphogypsum (1.6 g kg(-1) P) addition had no significant effect on total phosphorus (TP) concentration of the final composts. Results from this study demonstrate the potential of PG addition to reduce overall N losses during composting. The accompanying increase in TS content has implications for use of the end-product on sulfur-deficient soils. Co-composting feedlot manure with PG may provide an inexpensive and technologically straightforward solution for managing and improving the nutrient composition of composted cattle manure.

  9. Effects of body weight loss during transit from sale barns to commercial feedlots on health and performance in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Renter, D G; Babcock, A H; Kelly, L; Slattery, R

    2012-06-01

    Body weight loss during transport or shrink (SHK) is a common occurrence in feeder cattle that results from a physiological, complex process. Previous studies have assessed the effects of environmental and dietary stressors on transport-associated BW loss; however, data on associations between shrink and subsequent health and performance parameters in feeder cattle are limited. Operational data from 13 U.S. commercial feedlots (n = 16,590 cattle cohorts) were used to quantify how SHK was associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity and overall mortality risks, HCW and ADG in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots during 2000 to 2008. Multivariable mixed-effects negative binomial and linear regression models were employed to determine these associations while accounting for other cohort-level demographic variables. The median SHK among the study cohorts was 3.0% with a mean (± SEM) of 2.4 ± 0.02%. The mean (± SEM) cumulative BRD morbidity was 10.0% ± 0.09% (median = 5.8%; range 0 to 100%) and the mean (± SEM) overall cumulative mortality was 1.3% ± 0.01% (median = 0.9%; range: 0 to 25.6%). The mean and median number of days on feed of cohorts experiencing initial BRD cases was 143 and 150 d (range = 23 to 288 d). The effects of SHK were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BRD morbidity, overall mortality, HCW and ADG, and these effects were significantly (P < 0.05) modified by gender, season and mean arrival BW of the cohort. Combining data on BW loss during transport with cohort demographics could allow a more precise prediction of health and performance of feedlot cattle.

  10. Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 β-stigmastanol and epi-5 β-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

  11. Epidemiology of toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) of North American feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Fenton, Kent; Perrett, Tye; Paetsch, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Toe Tip Necrosis Syndrome (TTNS) is predominantly a hind limb lameness of feedlot cattle that develops early in the feeding period. Retrospective analyses of feedlot health records were conducted in order to describe the epidemiology of the disease at the level of the individual animal, lot, and feedyard. Analysis of 1904 lots (cohorts of > 100 head) of cattle, from 48 feedyards, found that TTNS occurred sporadically, but clustered by both lots and feedyards. Only 3.8% of lots had ≥ 1 case of TTNS; however, 26.4% of these lots were associated with 1 feedyard. Analysis of 702 cases of TTNS found that the disease clusters early in the feeding period; the mean (median; range) number of days on feed at death was 42.3 d (27.0 d; 4 to 302 d). The disease occurred in all months of the year and affected calves, yearlings, steers, and heifers. It was equivocal as to whether the source of the animals was associated with how quickly they died of TTNS in the feedyard. PMID:27493280

  12. Disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella strains from feedlot water-sprinkled cattle: hides and feces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 145 Salmonella strains obtained from feedlot water sprinkled cattle were determined. A low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed; resistance was primarily observed to streptomycin (29.7%) and sulfamethoxazole (8.3%). ...

  13. Effects of dietary crude protein and supplemental urea concentrations on nitrogen and phosphorus utilization by feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three dietary crude protein (CP) levels (11.5, 13.0, and 14.5% of DM) and 3 supplemental urea levels (100, 50, and 0% of supplemental N) were used in a completely randomized block design experiment conducted at 2 locations to determine N and P balance and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of feedlot cattle....

  14. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  15. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G; Bai, J; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar's test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  16. Escherichia coli O104 in Feedlot Cattle Feces: Prevalence, Isolation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Shridhar, Pragathi B.; Noll, Lance W.; Shi, Xiaorong; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Renter, David G.; Bai, J.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4, an hybrid pathotype of Shiga toxigenic and enteroaggregative E. coli, involved in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle feces. Serogroup O104 with H type other than H4 has been reported to cause human illnesses, but their prevalence and characteristics in cattle have not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of E. coli O104 in feces of feedlot cattle, by culture and PCR detection methods, and characterize the isolated strains. Rectal fecal samples from a total of 757 cattle originating from 29 feedlots were collected at a Midwest commercial slaughter plant. Fecal samples, enriched in E. coli broth, were subjected to culture and PCR methods of detection. The culture method involved immunomagnetic separation with O104-specific beads and plating on a selective chromogenic medium, followed by serogroup confirmation of pooled colonies by PCR. If pooled colonies were positive for the wzxO104 gene, then colonies were tested individually to identify wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated genes of the hybrid strains. Extracted DNA from feces were also tested by a multiplex PCR to detect wzxO104-positive serogroup and associated major genes of the O104 hybrid pathotype. Because wzxO104 has been shown to be present in E. coli O8/O9/O9a, wzxO104-positive isolates and extracted DNA from fecal samples were also tested by a PCR targeting wbdDO8/O9/O9a, a gene specific for E. coli O8/O9/O9a serogroups. Model-adjusted prevalence estimates of E. coli O104 (positive for wzxO104 and negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a) at the feedlot level were 5.7% and 21.2%, and at the sample level were 0.5% and 25.9% by culture and PCR, respectively. The McNemar’s test indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) between the proportions of samples that tested positive for wzxO104 and samples that were positive for wzxO104, but negative for wbdDO8/O9/O9a by PCR and culture methods. A total of 143

  17. Prevalence Rates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella at Different Sampling Sites on Cattle Hides at a Feedlot and Processing Plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The distributions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on cattle hides were mapped at a feedlot and a processing plant. Sponge samples were collected from six hide surface sites at the feedlot (left and right shoulders, left and right ribs, back, and belly) and four sites at the processing pla...

  18. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria among cattle from Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim

  19. Comparison of antemortem antimicrobial treatment regimens to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of postmortem lung isolates from feedlot cattle with bronchopneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Love, Brenda C; Krehbiel, Clint R; Johnson, Nicholas J; Step, Douglas L

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed to compare the treatment regimens in feedlot cattle that died with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) to the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the microorganisms isolated from lungs. Forty-three cattle submitted by the Willard Sparks Beef Research Center (WSBRC) to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for postmortem examination during 2007 had bronchopneumonia (acute = 16, subacute = 5, or chronic = 22). Lungs from cattle were cultured aerobically (40 cattle) and for Mycoplasma spp. (34 cattle). Susceptibility panels were performed. At least 1 BRD pathogen (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, or Arcanobacterium pyogenes) was isolated from 39 cattle, and 77% (30/39) had multiple organisms recovered. Mycoplasmal infections were common (25/34) and a major component of mixed infections (24/25). The majority (60%) of the M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and H. somni isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Most of the H. somni isolates (67%) were susceptible to tilmicosin (Ti), enrofloxacin (En), ceftiofur (Ce), and florfenicol, despite extensive treatment with Ti, En, and Ce (75% of isolates were from cattle that received each antimicrobial once). Most of the M. haemolytica (65%) and P. multocida (79%) isolates were susceptible to En and Ce, despite antemortem treatment of cattle with these antimicrobials. Hence, the current study reports a discrepancy between the antemortem treatment of clinical BRD and the susceptibility patterns of the bacteria isolated from lungs postmortem. Based on these findings, factors other than antimicrobial resistance are playing a role in the death of feedlot cattle with BRD.

  20. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab of Feedlot Cattle for Detection and Enumeration of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Schmidt, John W; Wang, Rong; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M

    2016-04-01

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence Salmonella shedding in cattle. Fecal grab (FG) samples have been the predominant method used to identify cattle colonized or infected with Salmonella; however, FG sampling can be impractical in certain situations, and rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) are a more convenient sample type to collect. Despite a lack of studies comparing FG and RAMS for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella fecal shedding, RAMS is perceived as less sensitive because a smaller amount of feces is cultured. In a cross-sectional study to address these concerns, paired RAMS and FG samples were collected from 403 adult feedlot cattle approximately 90 days prior to harvest. Samples were processed for Salmonella enumeration (direct plating) and detection (enrichment and immunomagnetic separation). In all, 89.6% of RAMS and 98.8% of FG samples were positive for Salmonella, and concordant prevalence outcomes were observed for 90.8% of samples. Mean enumeration values were 3.01 and 3.12 log CFU/ml for RAMS and FG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RAMS were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.5 to 93%) and 100% (95% CI: 48 to 100%), respectively, for Salmonella detection. Furthermore, RAMS Salmonella enumeration was substantially concordant (ρc = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.91) with FG values. We conclude that RAMS are a reliable alternative to FG for assessing cattle Salmonella fecal shedding status, especially for cattle shedding high levels of Salmonella.

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in surface water near cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Tanaro, José D; Piaggio, Mercedes C; Galli, Lucía; Gasparovic, Alejandra M C; Procura, Francisco; Molina, Demián A; Vitón, Mauro; Zolezzi, Gisela; Rivas, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Between April 2009 and July 2011, 311 surface water samples in 48 cattle feedlots distributed in an area of about 67,000 km(2) were analyzed to examine the environmental dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were taken inside and outside the pens, exposed and not exposed to runoff from corrals, near the feedlots. Two types of samples were defined: (1) exposed surface waters (ESW; n=251), downstream from cattle pens; and (2) nonexposed surface waters (NESW; n=60), upstream from cattle pens. By multiplex PCR, 177 (70.5%) ESW samples were rfb(O157)-positive, and 62 (24.7%) E. coli O157, and 32 (12.7%) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated. In the NESW samples, 36 (60.0%) were rfb(O157)- positive, and 9 (15.0%) E. coli O157, and 6 (10.0%) STEC O157:H7 strains were isolated. These results showed that the environmental surface waters exposed to liquid discharges from intensive livestock operations tended to be contaminated with more STEC O157:H7 than NESW. However, no significant difference was found. This fact emphasizes the relevance of other horizontal routes of transmission, as the persistence of E. coli in the environment resulting from extensive livestock farming. By XbaI-PFGE, some patterns identified are included in the Argentine Database of E. coli O157, corresponding to strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases, food, and animals, such as AREXHX01.0022, second prevalent pattern in Argentina, representing 5.5% of the total database. In the study area, characterized by the abundance of waterways, pathogens contained in feedlot runoff could reach recreational waters and also contaminate produce through irrigation, increasing the potential dissemination of STEC O157:H7 and the risk of human infections. The control of runoff systems from intensive livestock is necessary, but other alternatives should be explored to solve the problem of the presence of E. coli O157 in the aquatic rural environment.

  3. Genome-wide association study for feedlot average daily gain in Nellore cattle (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Utsunomiya, Y T; Neves, H H R; Gomes, R C; Garcia, J F; Fukumasu, H; Silva, S L; Leme, P R; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-06-01

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) results are presented for average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle. Phenotype of 720 male Bos indicus animals with information of ADG in feedlots and 354,147 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from a database added by information from Illumina Bovine HD (777,962 SNPs) and Illumina BovineSNP50 (54,609) by imputation were used. After quality control and imputation, 290,620 SNPs remained in the association analysis, using R package Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression method GRAMMAR-Gamma. A genomic region with six significant SNPs, at Bonferroni-corrected significance, was found on chromosome 3. The most significant SNP (rs42518459, BTA3: 85849977, p = 9.49 × 10(-8)) explained 5.62% of the phenotypic variance and had the allele substitution effect of -0.269 kg/day. Important genes such as PDE4B, LEPR, CYP2J2 and FGGY are located near this region, which is overlapped by 12 quantitative trait locus (QTLs) described for several production traits. Other regions with markers with suggestive effects were identified in BTA6 and BTA10. This study showed regions with major effects on ADG in Bos indicus in feedlots. This information may be useful to increase the efficiency of selecting this trait and to understand the physiological processes involved in its regulation.

  4. Predictors of differences in the perception of antimicrobial resistance risk in the treatment of sick, at-risk, and high-risk feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; McIntosh, Wm Alex; Dean, Wesley; Scott, H Morgan

    2012-09-01

    Concerns exist that some uses of antimicrobials in cattle may lead to the emergence, proliferation, dissemination and persistence of resistant pathogenic bacteria in animal agriculture, which in turn can infect humans via the food supply. The degree of perceived risk varies with the clinical indication for which the antimicrobial in question is used. In this study, four uses of antimicrobials are considered, including in acutely sick, chronically sick, at-risk, and high-risk cattle, contrasting the degree of risk among these uses. Using a random sample of 103 feedlot cattle veterinarians and variables drawn from the theory of planned behavior, we predict differences in risk perception by clinical indication with differences in perceived efficacy of antimicrobials, social pressures to use antimicrobials, and moral obligations to use antimicrobials. In most models, veterinarians who perceived that others in the feedlot industry (i.e., other feedlot veterinarians, nutritionists, feedlot clients, and retained owners of cattle) were more likely to expect them to use antimicrobials in one situation versus another, the less likely those veterinarians perceived the risk of antimicrobial risk to be greater in the former versus the latter situation. Only two of these contrasts contained influences outside the immediate feedlot relationships. This exception involves the 'downstream' public: meat packers, retailers, and consumers. Veterinarians who believe that using antimicrobials for acutely sick cattle is more beneficial than using antimicrobials for chronically sick cattle were more likely to believe that antimicrobial resistance was a less probable outcome in acutely sick cattle than in chronically sick cattle.

  5. Use of pattern recognition techniques for early detection of morbidity in receiving feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Silasi, R; McAllister, T A; Genswein, B; Crowe, T; Marti, S; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2015-07-01

    Two groups of cattle were used to develop (model data set: 384 heifers, 228 ± 22.7 kg BW, monitored over a 225-d feeding period) and to validate (naïve data set: 384 heifers, 322 ± 34.7 kg BW, monitored over a 142-d feeding period) the use of feeding behavior pattern recognition techniques to predict morbidity in newly arrived feedlot cattle. In the model data set, cattle were defined as morbid (MO) if they were removed from their pen to be treated due to visual observation of clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease and healthy (HL) if they remained within their pen and lacked lung lesions at slaughter. Individual feeding behavior parameters collected with a GrowSafe automated feeding behavior monitoring system were reduced via principal component analysis to 5 components that captured 99% of the variability in the data set. Combinations of clustering and cluster classification strategies applied to those components, along with pattern recognition techniques over different time windows, produced a total of 105 models from which precision, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated by comparing its predictions with the actual health status of individual cattle as determined by visual assessment. When the models with the best specificity (models 79 and 87), sensitivity (models 33 and 66), and accuracy (models 3 and 14) in the model data set were used in a naïve data set, models 79 and 87 were not able to predict any MO heifers (0%), with all animals (100%) being predicted as HL. Model 33 predicted 58.3% of the HL and 66.7% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers identified 3.1 ± 1.64 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 66 predicted 50.0% of the HL and 75.0% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers predicted 3.1 ± 1.76 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 3 predicted 100% of the HL and 50.0% of the MO cattle, with MO cattle predicted 1 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 14 predicted 83.3% of the HL and 58

  6. Fate of chlorate present in cattle wastes and its impact on Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Christy E; Magelky, Barbara K; Bauer, Marc L; Cheng, Fu-Chih; Caton, Joel S; Hakk, Heldur; Larsen, Gerald L; Anderson, Robin C; Smith, David J

    2008-08-13

    Chlorate salts are being developed as a feed additive to reduce the numbers of pathogens in feedlot cattle. A series of studies was conducted to determine whether chlorate, at concentrations expected to be excreted in urine of dosed cattle, would also reduce the populations of pathogens in cattle wastes (a mixture of urine and feces) and to determine the fate of chlorate in cattle wastes. Chlorate salts present in a urine-manure-soil mixture at 0, 17, 33, and 67 ppm had no significant effect on the rates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium inactivation from batch cultures. Chlorate was rapidly degraded when incubated at 20 and 30 degrees C with half-lives of 0.1 to 4 days. Chlorate degradation in batch cultures was slowest at 5 degrees C with half-lives of 2.9 to 30 days. The half-life of 100 ppm chlorate in an artificial lagoon system charged with slurry from a feedlot lagoon was 88 h. From an environmental standpoint, chlorate use in feedlot cattle would likely have minimal impacts because any chlorate that escaped degradation on the feedlot floor would be degraded in lagoon systems. Collectively, these results suggest that chlorate administered to cattle and excreted in wastes would have no significant secondary effects on pathogens present in mixed wastes on pen floors. Lack of chlorate efficacy was likely due to low chlorate concentrations in mixed wastes relative to chlorate levels shown to be active in live animals, and the rapid degradation of chlorate to chloride at temperatures of 20 degrees C and above.

  7. Risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle: use of a causal diagram-informed approach to estimate effects of animal mixing and movements before feedlot entry.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2014-11-01

    A nationwide longitudinal study was conducted to investigate risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle in Australian feedlots. After induction (processing), cattle were placed in feedlot pens (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50 days on feed. Data from a national cattle movement database were used to derive variables describing mixing of animals with cattle from other farms, numbers of animals in groups before arrival at the feedlot, exposure of animals to saleyards before arrival at the feedlot, and the timing and duration of the animal's move to the vicinity of the feedlot. Total and direct effects for each risk factor were estimated using a causal diagram-informed process to determine covariates to include in four-level Bayesian logistic regression models. Mixing, group size and timing of the animal's move to the feedlot were important predictors of BRD. Animals not mixed with cattle from other farms prior to 12 days before induction and then exposed to a high level of mixing (≥4 groups of animals mixed) had the highest risk of developing BRD (OR 3.7) compared to animals mixed at least 4 weeks before induction with less than 4 groups forming the cohort. Animals in groups formed at least 13 days before induction comprising 100 or more (OR 0.5) or 50-99 (OR 0.8) were at reduced risk compared to those in groups of less than 50 cattle. Animals moved to the vicinity of the feedlot at least 27 days before induction were at reduced risk (OR 0.4) compared to cattle undergoing short-haul transportation (<6h) to the feedlot within a day of induction, while those experiencing longer transportation durations (6h or more) within a day of induction were at slightly increased risk (OR 1.2). Knowledge of these risk factors could potentially be used to inform management decisions to reduce the risk of BRD in feedlot cattle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a cattle feedlot on ground-water quality in the South Platte River Valley near Greeley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borman, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in water quality in an alluvial aquifer resulting from the operation of a feedlot stocked with 90,000 cattle have been minimal. Monitoring water quality in 19 observation wells from April 1974, prior to the operation of the feedlot, to June 1978, after about 4 years of operation, indicates that chloride concentrations have increased slightly in one well downgradient from a runoff-retention pond. Chemical analyses of water from two lysimeters installed in the unsaturated zone indicate that leachate from the feedlot has percolated to a depth of at least 5 feet but has not percolated to a depth of 20 feet. The small changes in ground-water quality caused by the feedlot are likely the result of the limited available recharge, a relatively impermeable manure pack, soil clogging under the cattle pens resulting in slow vertical movement of leachate through the unsaturated zone, soil clogging under the unlined runoff-retention ponds, and denitrification in the unsaturated zone. (USGS)

  9. Liver abscesses in cattle: A review of incidence in Holsteins and of bacteriology and vaccine approaches to control in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Nagaraja, T G

    2016-04-01

    Liver abscesses are the primary liver abnormality of feedlot cattle at slaughter. The incidence of liver abscesses is highly variable, but generally ranges from 10% to 20%. The incidence of total and the proportion of severely abscessed livers (A+) are greater in Holsteins fed for beef production and culled dairy cows than in beef breeds. The reason for the greater incidence of liver abscesses in Holstein steers is not known, but one of the reasons is likely because of increased days on feed. The high prevalence in cull cows is likely because no specific intervention, such as use of tylosin in the feed, is approved for use in dairy cows. Liver abscesses are generally a sequela to ruminal acidosis and rumenitis in cattle fed diets high in readily-fermentable carbohydrates and low in roughages; thus, the term "acidosis-rumenitis-liver abscess complex." Liver abscesses are almost always polymicrobial infections with Gram negative anaerobes constituting the predominant flora. Almost all studies have concluded that , a ruminal bacterium, is the primary causative agent and (formerly ) is the secondary pathogen. A limited number of studies have been done on the bacterial flora of liver abscesses of culled dairy cows and Holstein feedlot steers. A recent study has reported on isolation of from liver abscesses of Holstein cattle. The control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle has depended on the use of antibiotics, particularly tylosin, in the feed combined with sound nutritional management to minimize occurrence of acidosis and subsequent rumenitis. Although there is no evidence of resistance development in , the future of tylosin use as a feed additive in feedlot cattle is uncertain. Regardless, beginning January 2017, the use of tylosin in feedlot cattle for the prevention of liver abscesses will be under veterinary oversight. Although tylosin is widely used in the feedlot industry, there is considerable interest in evaluating antibiotic alternatives, such as essential

  10. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Klima, Cassidy L; Alexander, Trevor W; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), bla ROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the bla ROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and

  11. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Alexander, Trevor W.; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A.

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), blaROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P < 0.001) in M. haemolytica collected from cattle with BRD (37%) compared with those that were healthy (2%). Overall, tetracycline resistance (18%) was the most prevalent resistant phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant M. haemolytica encoded tet(H). Ampicillin resistance (6%) and neomycin resistance (15%) were detected and corresponded to the presence of the blaROB-1 and aphA-1 genes, respectively. Tilmicosin resistance (6%) was also detected, but the resistance genes responsible were not identified. The virulence genes lktC, ahs, gs60, and gcp

  12. Incidence of lameness and association of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on six commercial beef feedlots.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Shane P; Reinhardt, Christopher D; Larson, Connie K; Vahl, Christopher I; Thomson, Daniel U

    2017-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the incidence of specific causes of lameness and the associations of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on commercial feedlots. DESIGN Dynamic population longitudinal study. ANIMALS Cattle on 6 commercial feedlots in Kansas and Nebraska during a 12-month period (mean daily population, 243,602 cattle; range, 223,544 to 252,825 cattle). PROCEDURES Feedlot personnel were trained to use a standardized diagnostic algorithm and locomotion score (LMS) system to identify and classify cattle by cause and severity of lameness. Information regarding lameness cause, severity, and treatments was recorded for individual cattle. Cattle were monitored until they left the feedlot (ie, outcome; shipped with pen mates [shipped], culled prematurely because of lameness [realized], or euthanized or died [died]). Incidence rates for various causes of lameness, LMSs, and outcomes were calculated. The respective associations of cause of lameness and LMS with outcome were evaluated. RESULTS Lameness was identified in 2,532 cattle, resulting in an overall lameness incidence rate of 1.04 cases/100 animal-years. Realized and mortality rates were 0.096 cattle/100 animal-years and 0.397 deaths/100 animal-years, respectively. Injury to the proximal portion of a limb was the most frequently identified cause of lameness followed by undefined lameness, septic joint or deep digital sepsis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). As the LMS (lameness severity) at lameness detection increased, the percentage of cattle that died but not the percentage of cattle that were realized increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided clinically useful prognostic guidelines for management of lame feedlot cattle.

  13. A multivariable assessment quantifying effects of cohort-level factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk in cohorts of U.S. commercial feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Babcock, A H; Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Dubnicka, S R; Thomson, D U; Ives, S E; Scott, H M; Milliken, G A; Renter, D G

    2013-01-01

    Economic losses due to cattle mortality and culling have a substantial impact on the feedlot industry. Since criteria for culling may vary and may affect measures of cumulative mortality within cattle cohorts, it is important to assess both mortality and culling when evaluating cattle losses over time and among feedlots. To date, there are no published multivariable assessments of factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk. Our objective was to evaluate combined mortality and culling losses in feedlot cattle cohorts and quantify effects of commonly measured cohort-level risk factors (weight at feedlot arrival, gender, and month of feedlot arrival) using data routinely collected by commercial feedlots. We used retrospective data representing 8,904,965 animals in 54,416 cohorts from 16 U.S. feedlots from 2000 to 2007. The sum of mortality and culling counts for each cohort (given the number of cattle at risk) was used to generate the outcome of interest, the cumulative incidence of combined mortality and culling. Associations between this outcome variable and cohort-level risk factors were evaluated using a mixed effects multivariable negative binomial regression model with random effects for feedlot, year, month and week of arrival. Mean arrival weight of the cohort, gender, and arrival month and a three-way interaction (and corresponding two-way interactions) among arrival weight, gender and month were significantly (P<0.05) associated with the outcome. Results showed that as the mean arrival weight of the cohort increased, mortality and culling risk decreased, but effects of arrival weight were modified both by the gender of the cohort and the month of feedlot arrival. There was a seasonal pattern in combined mortality and culling risk for light and middle-weight male and female cohorts, with a significantly (P<0.05) higher risk for cattle arriving at the feedlot in spring and summer (March-September) than in cattle arriving during fall, and

  14. Effects of purified lignin on in vitro rumen metabolism and growth performance of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A.; Lora, Jairo H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL) on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. Methods In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50) forage mixture (48 h) and barley grain (24 h) with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL of rumen fluid (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet). Productions of CH4 and total gas, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD) and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) or starch were measured. Sixty Hereford-Angus cross weaned steer calves were individually fed a typical barley silage-barley grain based total mixed ration and supplemented with SHDL at 0, 4, 8, and 16 g/kg DM for 70 (growing), 28 (transition), and 121 d (finishing) period. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass traits were assessed. Results With forage, SHDL linearly (p<0.001) reduced 48-h in vitro DMD from 54.9% to 39.2%, NDF disappearance from 34.1% to 18.6% and the acetate: propionate ratio from 2.56 to 2.41, but linearly (p<0.001) increased CH4 production from 9.5 to 12.4 mL/100 mg DMD. With barley grain, SHDL linearly increased (p<0.001) 24-h DMD from74.6% to 84.5%, but linearly (p<0.001) reduced CH4 production from 5.6 to 4.2 mL/100 mg DMD and NH3 accumulation from 9.15 to 4.49 μmol/mL. Supplementation of SHDL did not affect growth, but tended (p = 0.10) to linearly reduce feed intake, and quadratically increased (p = 0.059) feed efficiency during the finishing period. Addition of SHDL also tended (p = 0.098) to linearly increase the saleable meat yield of the carcass from 52.5% to 55.7%. Conclusion Purified lignin used as feed additive has potential to improve feed efficiency for finishing feedlot cattle and carcass quality. PMID:27456424

  15. Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arias, R A; Mader, T L

    2011-01-01

    Records from 7 studies conducted during 1999 to 2005 were utilized to assess the effects of environmental factors on daily water intake (DWI) of finishing cattle. Data from unshaded feedlot pens (up to 24 pens utilized per study; 6 to 9 animals·pen(-1)) containing predominantly Angus crossbred cattle were obtained by dividing total water intake by the number of animals utilizing that waterer. Each waterer was shared by 2 pens; therefore, data were derived from a database containing 72 experimental units comprising 144 pen records. Climatic data were compiled from weather stations located at the feedlot facility. The database included daily measures of mean ambient (Ta), maximum (Tmax), and minimum (Tmin) temperature (°C), precipitation, relative humidity (%), wind speed (m•s(-1)), solar radiation (SR, W•m(-2)), and temperature-humidity index (THI), as well as DMI (kg•d(-1)) and DWI (L•d(-1)). Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted by season and for the overall data set. Results confirmed that DWI increases during the summer (P < 0.01). When seasons were combined and analyzed by linear regression, the best predictors of DWI were THI (r(2) = 0.57), Ta (r(2) = 0.57), Tmin (r(2) = 0.56), and Tmax (r(2) = 0.54). In multiple regression analyses, smaller coefficients of determination (R(2) < 0.25) were found within summer and winter seasons. Across season, the largest R(2) (0.65) were obtained from the following prediction equations: 1) DWI = 5.92 + (1.03•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.45•Tmin); and 2) DWI = -7.31 + (1.00•DMI) + (0.04•SR) + (0.30•THI). In conclusion, Ta, Tmin, and THI were found to be the primary factors that influence DWI in finishing cattle, whereas SR and DMI were found to have a smaller influence on DWI.

  16. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed different levels of macadamia oil cake.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, O; Mikasi, M S; Benyi, K; Amey, A K A

    2008-04-01

    Eighteen cattle (six Bonsmara males, seven Simmanteler x Beefmaster males and five Simmanteler x Beefmaster females) were assigned to three diets containing 0% (Control), 10% and 20% Macadamia oil cake to evaluate the effects of different levels of Macadamia oilcake (MOC) on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Differences in average feed intake were not significant (P > 0.05). Average daily gains on the 0% and 20% MOC diets were not significantly different (P < 0.05) but were significantly higher than the average gain on 10% MOC (P < 0.05). The inclusion of 20% MOC increased feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the other two treatments. The control group had significantly heavier warm carcasses than the 10% and 20% MOC groups and the 20% MOC group had significantly heavier carcasses than the 10% MOC group. The inclusion of MOC did not significantly affect the dressing percentage and conformation scores of the animals (P > 0.05). There were no condemned livers, suggesting that either there were no toxic factors in the feed or, even if present, were probably inactive in the liver.

  17. Effect of enrofloxacin therapy on shipping fever pneumonia in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Lekeux, P; Art, T

    1988-08-20

    The effect of enrofloxacin therapy was investigated in 110 male double-muscled cattle weighing 275 +/- 3 kg, during a spontaneous outbreak of shipping fever occurring 11 +/- 2 days after they arrived in the feedlot. Forty-six diseased animals were divided randomly into three groups A, B and C, containing 17, 19 and 10 animals, respectively; the animals in group A were injected intramuscularly once daily for three consecutive days with 2.5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin, those in group B with 5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin and those in group C with 10 mg/kg of oxytetracycline. Clinical, serological, production and respiratory functional observations were recorded. The animals were clinically cured after the three day treatment except for three in group A and two in group C. These five animals made a clinical recovery after a three day booster treatment with a dose of 5 mg/kg enrofloxacin. The changes in respiratory gas exchange values induced by shipping fever were completely reversed 15 days later, suggesting that there had been no irreversible lung damage. The daily weight gains and the arterial blood gas values of the three groups of treated cattle were not significantly different. The high efficacy of the low dosage of enrofloxacin in this clinical syndrome may be explained by its antibacterial activity against Pasteurella species and Mycoplasma species. This field trial supports the in vitro studies which suggested than enrofloxacin is an appropriate therapy in cases of shipping fever.

  18. Prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter in rumen contents and feces in pasture and feedlot-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C; Krueger, Wimberley K; Horne, Willy J; Wesley, Irene V; Callaway, Todd R; Edrington, Tom S; Carstens, Gordon E; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2008-10-01

    Campylobacter are important human foodborne pathogens known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. The incidence of Campylobacter in cattle may be seasonal and may vary among age groups and type (beef versus dairy). Less is known about other factors that could influence the prevalence, colonization site, and shedding of Campylobacter in cattle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and enumerate Campylobacter at two sites along the digestive tract of beef and dairy type cattle consuming either grass or feedlot diets. In an initial study, Campylobacter was not recovered from rumen samples of any of 10 ruminally cannulated (six dairy and four beef type) pasture-reared cattle and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between cattle types on fecal Campylobacter recovery, with 50% of each type yielding culture-positive feces (overall mean +/- SE, 0.75 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) colony-forming units [CFU]/g feces). When calculated from Campylobacter culture-positive animals only, mean fecal concentrations were 1.50 +/- 0.001 SEM log(10) CFU/g. In a follow-up study with feedlot and pasture-reared cattle (n = 18 head each), 78% of rumen and 94% of fecal samples from pastured cattle were positive for Campylobacter while 50% of the rumen and 72% of the fecal samples were positive in concentrate-fed animals. Overall mean concentration of Campylobacter was greater in feces than ruminal fluid (p < 0.05). When only Campylobacter-positive animals were analyzed, concentrations recovered from feces were higher (p < 0.05) in concentrate-fed than in pasture-fed cattle (4.29 vs. 3.34 log(10) CFU/g, respectively; SEM = 0.29). Our results suggest that the rumen environment and its microbial population are less favorable for the growth of Campylobacter and that concentrate diets may provide a more hospitable lower gastrointestinal tract for Campylobacter.

  19. Evaluation of Fecal Indicators and Pathogens in a Beef Cattle Feedlot Vegetative Treatment System.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Miller, Daniel N; Snow, Daniel D; Henry, Christopher G; Santin, Monica; Woodbury, Bryan L

    2017-01-01

    Runoff from open-lot animal feeding areas contains microorganisms that may adversely affect human and animal health if not properly managed. One alternative to full manure containment systems is a vegetative treatment system (VTS) that collects runoff in a sediment basin and then applies it to a perennial vegetation (grass) treatment area that is harvested for hay. Little is known regarding the efficacy of large-scale commercial VTSs for the removal of microbial contaminants. In this study, an active, pump-based VTS designed and built for a 1200-head beef cattle feedlot operation was examined to determine the effects of repeated feedlot runoff application on fecal indicator microorganisms and pathogens over short-term (2 wk) and long-term (3 yr) operations and whether fecal bacteria were infiltrating into deeper soils within the treatment area. In a short-term study, fecal bacteria and pathogen numbers declined over time in soil. Measurements of total coliforms and Enterococcus counts taken on control soils were not effective as fecal indicators. The repeated application of manure-impacted runoff as irrigation water did not enrich the pathogens or fecal indicators in the soil, and no evidence was seen to indicate that pathogens were moving into the deeper soil at this site. These results indicate that large-scale, active VTSs reduce the potential for environmental contamination by manure-associated bacteria. Also, this study has implications to full-containment systems that apply runoff water to land application areas (cropland) and the fate of pathogens in the soils of land application sites.

  20. Bacterial Communities Associated with Shiga-Toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in Beef Cattle Feedlot Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The life cycle of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in beef cattle feedlots involves two habitats: the warm, nutrient rich primary habitat of the lower gastrointestinal tract of cattle and the generally cool, nutrient limiting secondary habitat outside of the animal, including...

  1. Effects of tail docking on health and performance of beef cattle in confined, slatted-floor feedlots.

    PubMed

    Kroll, L K; Grooms, D L; Siegford, J M; Schweihofer, J P; Metz, K; Rust, S R

    2014-09-01

    Tail docking of feedlot cattle is a management practice used in some confined, slatted-floor feedlots of the midwestern United States. Justification for tail docking in these management systems is to reduce tail injuries and their sequelae and improve performance, but limited evidence exists to support these claims. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of tail docking on performance, carcass traits, and health parameters after tail docking in feedlot cattle raised in slatted-floor feedlots. Three separate trials were performed. Trial 1 consisted of 140 Angus-cross (370-kg) yearling steers that spent 144 to 160 days on feed (DOF). Trial 2 consisted of 137 Angus-cross (255-kg) weaned steers that spent 232 DOF. Trial 3 consisted of 102 Holstein steers (370 kg) that spent 185 to 232 DOF. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: docked (DK) or control (CN). All steers received an epidural following surgical preparation of the sacrococcygeal area and postoperative intravenous flunixin meglumine. Approximately two-thirds of the tail of DK calves was removed and an elastrator band was placed near the tail tip for hemostasis. Performance parameters collected included daily gain, final weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency. Carcass data included HCW, subcutaneous fat thickness, LM area, KPH percent, marbling, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. Morbidity, mortality, incidence of lameness, and incidence of tail lesions were recorded. Across all 3 trials, there was no significant effect (P < 0.05) of treatment on performance parameters, carcass traits, or health parameters. In all 3 trials, tail tip injuries occurred in 60 to 76% of undocked (CN) calves, developed while living in the slatted-floor environment, compared to 100% of DK calves, whose injuries were a result of the tail docking procedure. We were unable to identify a performance or significant health advantage to tail docking. However, tail tip injuries still

  2. Evaluation of essential oils in beef cattle manure slurries and applications of select compounds to beef feedlot surfaces to control zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Berry, E D; Guerini, M N; Varel, V H

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate natural terpene compounds for antimicrobial activities and determine whether these compounds could be used to control microbial activities and pathogens in production animal facilities. Thymol, geraniol, glydox, linalool, pine oil, plinol and terpineol were tested in laboratory studies for ability to control the production of odorous volatile fatty acid compounds and reduce pathogen levels in manure slurry preparations. Thymol is a terpene phenolic compound and was most effective for reducing fermentation products and pathogen levels (P < 0.05), followed by the extracts linalool, pine oil and terpineol, which are terpene alcohols. Select compounds thymol, linalool and pine oil were further evaluated in two separate studies by applying the agents to feedlot surfaces in cattle pens. Feedlot surface material (FSM; manure and soil) was collected and analysed for fermentation products, levels of coliforms and total Escherichia coli, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria and L. monocytogenes. The reduction in fermentation products but not pathogens was dependent on the moisture present in the FSM. Treatment with 2000 ppm thymol reduced the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 but not Listeria. In a separate study, treatment with 4000 ppm pine oil reduced E. coli O157:H7, Listeria and Campylobacter (P < 0.05). Linalool was tested at two levels (2000 and 4000 ppm) and did not affect pathogen levels at either concentration. Natural compounds bearing terpenes can control pathogenic bacteria in treated manures and when applied to the feedlot surface in production cattle systems. Pine oil is a cheaper alternative to thymol and may be a useful treatment for controlling pathogens. The control of bacterial pathogens in animal productions systems is an important step in preharvest food safety. Waste products, such as pine oil extract, from the pulp wood industry may have application for treating feedlot pens and manures to reduce the

  3. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Effects of purified lignin on in vitro rumen metabolism and growth performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A; Lora, Jairo H

    2016-07-14

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL) on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50) forage mixture (48 h) and barley grain (24 h) with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of incubation (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet), with three independent runs of incubations for each substrate. Productions of methane and total gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia, dry matter (DM) disappearance (DMD) and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) or starch were measured. With forage, inclusion of SHDL linearly (p < 0.001) reduced 48-h in vitro DMD from 54.9 to 39.2%, NDF disappearance from 34.1 to 18.6% and the acetate: propionate ratio (A:P) from 2.56 to 2.41, but linearly (p < 0.001) increased CH4 production from 9.5 to 12.4 mL/100 mg DMD. With barley grain, addition of SHDL linearly increased (p < 0.001) 24-h DMD from74.6 to 84.5% , but linearly reduced CH4 production from 5.6 to 4.2 mL/100 mg DMD (p < 0.001) and NH3 accumulation from 9.15 to 4.49 µmol/mL (p < 0.001). A feedlot experiment was conducted with 60 Hereford-Angus cross weaned steer calves with SHDL included at 0, 4, 8 and 16 g/kg of diet DM. Steers were housed in individual pens and fed a typical barley silage-barley grain based total mixed ration once daily. The experiment comprised a 70-d growing, a 28-d transition and a 121-d finishing period. All cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass traits were assessed. Supplementation with increasing levels of SHDL did not affect growth, but tended (p = 0.10) to linearly reduce feed intake, and quadratically increased (p = 0.059) feed efficiency during the finishing period (0.135, 0.137, 0.149 and 0.141 for SHDL supplemented at 0, 4, 8 and 16 g/kg DM respectively). Addition of SHDL also tended (p = 0.098) to linearly increase the

  5. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; Donk, Simon J van; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2012-02-07

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. A two-year controlled study was conducted in which beef cattle were administered steroid hormones via subcutaneous implants and feed additives and the occurrence of 16 endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones and metabolites was evaluated in runoff from beef cattle feedlots and in manure and soil collected from feedlot surfaces. Samples were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometryfor metabolites of the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, for the nonsteroidal semisynthetic estrogen agonist, α-zearalanol, and the synthetic progesterone melengesterol acetate, as well as a wide range of endogeneous estrogens, androgens, and fusarium metabolites. Synthetic steroids including trenbolone metabolites and melengestrol acetate were detected in fresh manure and in feedlot surface soils from cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations up to 55 ± 22 ng/g dry weight (dw) (17α-trenbolone) and 6.5 ± 0.4 ng/g dw (melengesterol acetate). Melengesterol acetate was detected in 6% of runoff samples from feedlots holding cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations ranging up to 115 ng/L. The presence of melengesterol acetate in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations has not been previously reported. Synthetic steroids were not detected in manure or runoff from control cattle. A wide range of endogenous hormones were detected in runoff and feedlot surface soils and manure from cattle given synthetic steroids and from control cattle, with no statistically significant differences in concentration. These results indicate that runoff from

  6. Effect of Proximity to a Cattle Feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Contamination of Leafy Greens and Evaluation of the Potential for Airborne Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wells, James E.; Bono, James L.; Woodbury, Bryan L.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N.; Suslow, Trevor V.; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the 1.8% of positive samples per plot at 180 m, indicating a decrease in contamination as distance from the feedlot was increased. Although E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from air samples at any distance, total E. coli was recovered from air samples at the feedlot edge and all plot distances, indicating that airborne transport of the pathogen can occur. Results suggest that risk for airborne transport of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle production is increased when cattle pen surfaces are very dry and when this situation is combined with cattle management or cattle behaviors that generate airborne dust. Current leafy green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination. PMID:25452286

  7. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Bono, James L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N; Suslow, Trevor V; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D

    2015-02-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the 1.8% of positive samples per plot at 180 m, indicating a decrease in contamination as distance from the feedlot was increased. Although E. coli O157:H7 was not recovered from air samples at any distance, total E. coli was recovered from air samples at the feedlot edge and all plot distances, indicating that airborne transport of the pathogen can occur. Results suggest that risk for airborne transport of E. coli O157:H7 from cattle production is increased when cattle pen surfaces are very dry and when this situation is combined with cattle management or cattle behaviors that generate airborne dust. Current leafy green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination.

  8. Effect of Direct-Fed Microbial Dosage on the Fecal Concentrations of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M

    2016-04-01

    Contamination of beef products by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a concern for food safety with a particular subset, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), being the most relevant to human disease. To mitigate food safety risks, preharvest intervention strategies have been implemented with the aim to reduce EHEC in cattle. One class of interventions that has been widely used in feedlots is direct-fed microbials (DFMs), which can contain various dosing rates of probiotic bacteria. Here we compare the use of two different doses of a commercially available DFM on total EHEC load in a commercial feedlot setting. The DFMs used were the standard 10(9) Propionibacterium freudenreichii and 10(6) Lactobacillus acidophilus colony forming units (CFUs)/head/day dose of Bovamine(®) (Nutrition Physiology Company, Guymon, OK) and the higher dose, Bovamine Defend™ (Nutrition Physiology Company), which is dosed at 10(9) P. freudenreichii and 10(9) Lactobacillus acidophilus CFUs/head/day. To analyze the total EHEC fecal concentration, 2200 head of cattle were assigned a DFM feed regimen lasting approximately 5 months. At harvest, 480 head of cattle were sampled using rectoanal mucosal swabs. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay targeting ecf1 was used to enumerate the total EHEC fecal concentration for 240 head fed the low-dose DFM and 240 head fed the high-dose DFM. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the fecal concentration of total EHEC was observed between the two doses. This suggests that using an increased dosage provides no additional reduction in the total EHEC fecal concentration of feedlot cattle compared to the standard dosage.

  9. Restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping differentiate Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 isolates from cattle within a feedlot.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, G L; Robinson, L C; Burrows, G E

    1993-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 isolates were collected from cattle within a feedlot during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease. Genetic heterogeneity among the isolates was examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), ribotyping, and analysis of plasmid content. The susceptibilities of isolates to several antibiotics were also examined. Five different REA patterns and three different ribotypes were observed among the isolates. Fifty percent of the isolates had an identical REA type, ribotype, and plasmid profile. Examination of the plasmid content of the isolates revealed that most (73%) carry a single plasmid which encodes beta-lactamase, 13.5% carry two plasmids, and 13.5% carry no plasmid. The data reveal the presence of genetic differences among isolates of P. haemolytica A1, associated with shipping fever pneumonia within a closed feedlot, and suggest that a combination of REA, ribotyping, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic susceptibility determination will be useful in analyzing the molecular epidemiology of this disease. Images PMID:7691872

  10. Modelling considerations in the analysis of associations between antimicrobial use and resistance in beef feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Noyes, N R; Benedict, K M; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Reid-Smith, R J; Booker, C W; McAllister, T A; Morley, P S

    2016-04-01

    A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 1·1-3·2]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 1·4-2·5); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 0·03-0·2). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience.

  11. Changes in nitrogen isotopic compositions during composting of cattle feedlot manure: effects of bedding material type.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Choi, Woo-Jung; Lim, Sang-Sun; Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X; Kim, Han-Yong; Yoon, Kwang-Sik; Ro, Hee-Myong

    2008-09-01

    Temporal changes in delta(15)N of cattle feedlot manure during its composting with either rice hull (RHM) or sawdust (SDM) as bedding materials were investigated. Regardless of the bedding material used, the delta(15)N of total N in the manure increased sharply from +7.6 per thousand to +9.9 per thousand and from +11.4 per thousand to +14.3 per thousand, respectively, in RHM or SDM, within 10 days from the commencement of composting. Such increases could be attributed primarily to N loss via NH(3) volatilization and denitrification based on the very high delta(15)N values (greater than +20 per thousand) of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) in the co-composted manure. The delta(15)N of total N in RHM was substantially lower (by more than 3 per thousand) than that in SDM, suggesting that the delta(15)N of the composted manure was affected not only by N loss but also by the type of bedding material used. Specifically, the higher N concentration in the rice hull than in the saw dust could lead to a greater (15)N isotope dilution.

  12. In vitro enantioselective pharmacodynamics of Carprofen and Flunixin-meglumine in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Miciletta, M; Cuniberti, B; Barbero, R; Re, G

    2014-02-01

    The activity of the anti-inflammatory agents Flunixin-meglumine (FLU), RS (±) Carprofen (CPF) and S (+) CPF on bovine cyclooxygenases (COXs) has been characterized in feedlot calves using an in vitro whole blood model. The drugs showed equivalent efficacy in their inhibitory activity on COXs, and the rank order of potency for both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition was FLU > S (+) CPF > RS (±) CPF. Our results indicated that FLU is a nonselective inhibitor of bovine COXs, whereas RS (±) CPF and S (+) CPF exhibited different degrees of preferential inhibition of COX-2 isoenzyme. The rank order of IC50 COX-1: IC50 COX-2 potency ratios was in fact S (+) CPF (51.882) > RS (±) CPF (13.964) > FLU (0.606), and the calculated percentage inhibition of COX-1 corresponding to COX-2 inhibition values comprised between 80% and 95% was comprised between 57.697 and 79.865 for FLU, 33.373 and 51.319 for RS (±) CPF, and 0.230 and 4.622 for S (+) CPF, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the prediction of the clinical relevance of COX inhibition by the test drugs in cattle.

  13. Rising fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from feedlot cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yizhi; Sahin, Orhan; Pavlovic, Nada; LeJeune, Jeff; Carlson, James; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-03-29

    Antibiotic resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in the major foodborne pathogen Campylobacter is considered a serious threat to public health. Although ruminant animals serve as a significant reservoir for Campylobacter, limited information is available on antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter of bovine origin. Here, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 320 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli isolates obtained from feedlot cattle farms in multiple states in the U.S. The results indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance reached to 35.4% in C. jejuni and 74.4% in C. coli, which are significantly higher than those previously reported in the U.S. While all fluoroquinolone resistant (FQ(R)) C. coli isolates examined in this study harbored the single Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA, FQ(R) C. jejuni isolates had other mutations in GyrA in addition to the Thr-86-Ile change. Notably, most of the analyzed FQ(R) C. coli isolates had similar PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) patterns and the same MLST (multilocus sequence typing) sequence type (ST-1068) regardless of their geographic sources and time of isolation, while the analyzed C. jejuni isolates were genetically diverse, suggesting that clonal expansion is involved in dissemination of FQ(R) C. coli but not C. jejuni. These findings reveal the rising prevalence of FQ(R) Campylobacter in the U.S. and provide novel information on the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter in the ruminant reservoir.

  14. Morphological study of bacterial pneumonia of feedlot cattle: Determination of age of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    1989-01-01

    Lungs from 48 feedlot cattle that had died from bacterial pneumonia were examined grossly and microscopically. Criteria based on microscopic lesions were adopted to age these pneumonias. In 38 cases, pneumonic lesions were of relatively uniform age throughout the affected tissue. In eight other cases, the presence of older lesions confined to one or two lobes suggested a previous episode of pneumonia. The aging criteria adopted were in agreement with the duration of the observed clinical signs in 26 cases. In 13 other cases, the pneumonia was estimated to be of longer duration than suggested by the history, whereas in the remaining nine cases, it was estimated to be more recent. Areas of tan discoloration of the parenchyma surrounded by white or yellow borders were considered the best areas to examine microscopically since they offered the best chances of revealing necrosis and fibrosis, the main lesions used to age the pneumonia. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423236

  15. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle feeds in Midwestern feedlots.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Charles C; Sanderson, Michael W; Sargeant, Jan M; Nagaraja, T G; Oberst, Richard D; Smith, Robert A; Griffin, D Dee

    2003-09-01

    Comparisons of enrichment methods (with or without antibiotics and with or without a preenrichment step) using gram-negative (GN) broth or tryptic soy broth (TSB) were conducted with feeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. TSB was more sensitive than GN broth, and TSB with a preenrichment step followed by TSB with antibiotics was more sensitive than plain TSB enrichment, in detecting E. coli O157 in inoculated feeds. Feed samples were collected from feed bunks from 54 feedlots to determine the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feeds. TSB preenrichment followed by TSB with antibiotics and the standard GN broth enrichment were used for each feed sample. All samples underwent immunomagnetic separation and were plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar with cefixime and potassium tellurite. Identification of E. coli O157 was based on indole production, positive latex agglutination for O157 antigen, API 20E test strip results, PCR for the eaeA gene, and the presence of at least one Shiga toxin. E. coli O157 was detected in 52 of 504 feed samples (10.3%) by using GN broth enrichment and in 46 of 504 feed samples (9.1%) by using TSB followed by TSB supplemented with cefixime and vancomycin. E. coli O157 was detected in 75 of 504 feed bunk samples (14.9%) by one or both methods. There was no correlation between E. coli O157 prevalence and generic coliform counts in feeds. The prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feed warrants further studies to increase our knowledge of the on-farm ecology of E. coli O157 in order to develop strategies to prevent food-borne disease in humans.

  16. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration.

  17. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. PMID:26733733

  18. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride duration of feeding on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Elam, N A; Vasconcelos, J T; Hilton, G; VanOverbeke, D L; Lawrence, T E; Montgomery, T H; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Galyean, M L

    2009-06-01

    Four trials, each with a randomized complete block design, were conducted with 8,647 beef steers (initial BW = 346 +/- 29.6 kg) in 3 different locations in the United States to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. Treatments consisted of feeding ZH (8.33 mg/kg of dietary DM) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, at the end of the feeding period, followed by a 3-d withdrawal period before slaughter. Cattle were weighed on d 0 and 50 before slaughter (in 3 of the 4 studies), and on the day of slaughter. Data from the 4 trials were pooled for statistical analyses. No differences (P > or = 0.78) were detected among treatments for ADG and G:F from the start of the study until the final 50 d on feed. Final BW was greater for the average of the 3 ZH-treated groups (P < 0.01) than for the 0-d group. Average daily gain was greater for ZH-treated vs. control cattle during the final 50 d on feed (P < 0.01) and for the entire feeding period (P < 0.01). No differences in DMI were noted for any periods of the experiment (P > or = 0.42) for ZH-treated cattle vs. controls. No differences were noted for DMI among the ZH-treated groups for the final 50 d on feed (P = 0.81) or for the overall feeding period (P = 0.31). Feeding ZH for any length of time increased G:F (P < 0.01) for the final 50 d and overall compared with 0-d cattle. In addition, a linear increase with more days of ZH feeding was observed for G:F during the period that ZH was fed (P = 0.01), as well as for the overall feeding period (P = 0.01). The ZH-treated cattle had heavier HCW (P < 0.01), greater dressing percent (P < 0.01), reduced marbling scores (P < 0.01), less 12th-rib fat (P < 0.01), larger LM area (P < 0.01), less KPH (P = 0.01), and a lower USDA yield grade (P < 0.01) than the 0-d cattle, regardless of the duration of ZH feeding. Dressing percent increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increased duration of ZH feeding, whereas 12th-rib fat (P = 0

  19. Analysis of risk factors associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from U.S. feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Alice L; Dargatz, David A; Wagner, Bruce A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Ladely, Scott R; Kopral, Chris A

    2010-07-01

    Contamination can occur at a number of stages during farm-to-fork processing. Preharvest intervention is an ongoing area of interest in reduction of risk of foodborne illness. This study examined risk factors associated with detection of Salmonella from cattle in U.S. feedlots. During two visits to 73 feedlots, 25 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of three pen floors. Associations between management and demographic factors and culture status were evaluated using logistic regression. Factors positively associated with culture-positive status included brewers' grains (odds ratio [OR] = 26.35; confidence interval [CI], 10.33-67.20), corn gluten (OR = 10.35; CI, 5.98-17.91), or cottonseed hulls (OR = 8.34; CI, 3.58-19.42) in the ration, and sourcing animals in a pen from multiple herds of origin (OR = 5.17; CI, 2.32-11.51). Factors negatively associated with positive culture status included urea (OR = 0.27; CI, 0.16-0.44), alfalfa, clover, or sorghum silage (OR = 0.31; CI, 0.12-0.79), and antimicrobials of the tetracycline class in the ration (within 2 weeks before sampling, OR = 0.04 and CI, 0.02-0.09; more than 2 weeks before sampling, OR = 0.23 and CI, 0.06-0.80). Since 18.3% of positive samples were on a single operation, a second model was constructed after excluding data from this operation. Three additional variables were retained in the second model, including grain-processing method (OR for dry roll, cracked, or unprocessed grain = 2.99; CI, 1.55-5.75), soybean meal (OR = 2.74; CI, 1.58-4.75), and use of a coccidiostat in the ration (OR for no coccidiostat = 4.50; CI, 2.03-10.01). Considering the increasing use of by-products of the biofuel industry as feeds, further investigation of the association between feeding brewers' grains and corn gluten and Salmonella recovery is warranted.

  20. Cross-sectional Study Examining Salmonella enterica Carriage in Subiliac Lymph Nodes of Cull and Feedlot Cattle at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Gragg, Sara E.; Loneragan, Guy H.; Brashears, Mindy M.; Arthur, Terrance M.; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wang, Rong; Schmidt, John W.; Brooks, J. Chance; Shackelford, Steven D.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Brown, Tyson R.; Edrington, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs), including subiliac LNs, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica, when adipose trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in peripheral LNs of feedlot and cull cattle, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which 3327 subiliac LNs were collected from cattle at harvest in seven plants, located in three geographically distinct regions of the United States. Samples were collected in three seasons: Fall 2010, Winter/Spring 2011, and Summer/Fall 2011. A convenience sample of 76 LNs per day, 2 days per season (approximately 1 month apart), was collected per plant, from carcasses held in the cooler for no less than 24 h. Every 10th carcass half on a rail was sampled, in an attempt to avoid oversampling any single cohort of cattle. Median point estimates of S. enterica contamination were generally low (1.3%); however, median Salmonella prevalence was found to be greater in subiliac LNs of feedlot cattle (11.8%) compared to those of cull cattle (0.65%). Enumeration analysis of a subset of 618 feedlot cattle LNs showed that 67% of those harboring S. enterica (97 of 144) did so at concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 1.8 log10 CFU/g, while 33% carried a higher burden of S. enterica, with levels ranging from 1.9 to >3.8 log10 CFU/g. Serotyping of S. enterica isolated identified 24 serotypes, with the majority being Montevideo (44.0%) and Anatum (24.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined for all isolates, and the majority (86.1%) were pansusceptible; however, multidrug-resistant isolates (8.3%) were also occasionally observed. As Salmonella contained within LNs are protected from carcass interventions, research is needed to define opportunities for mitigating the risk of Salmonella contamination in LNs of apparently healthy cattle. PMID:23566273

  1. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2001-12-01

    suggests a balance between protein consumption and new bacterial biomass production. We conclude that the types of substrates in cattle manure and the feedlot soils where they are deposited are significant factors in the production of odors.

  2. Flaking corn: processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Owens, F N; Ware, R A

    2002-05-01

    Based on performance of feedlot cattle, steam flaking increases the value of corn by 18%, considerably more than is suggested by tabular values. Tabular values underestimate the energy availability of flaked corn by failing to account for digestibility of the nonstarch OM that is increased by flaking by the same magnitude (10%) as starch. Correcting for improvement in digestibility of nonstarch OM increases the NEg value of steam-flaked corn to 1.70 Mcal/kg, a value very close to values calculated from cattle performance trials. Digestibility of starch from corn grain is limited by the protein matrix that encapsulates starch granules, and by the compact nature of the starch itself. Disruption of the protein matrix (by shear forces on hot grain during flaking) is the first limiting step toward optimizing starch digestion. Five critical production factors influence the quality of steam-flaked corn: steam chest temperature, steaming time, roll corrugation, roll gap, and roll tension. For optimal shear, it is important that rolls be hot and that kernels be hot when flaked. Steam chests should be designed to allow a steaming time of at least 30 min at maximum roller mill capacity producing a flake of 0.31 kg/L (24 lb/bushel). As little as 5% moisture uptake during steaming appears adequate. The rate of flaking and distribution of kernels across the rolls also are critical. Quality standards for steam-flaked corn include measurements of flake thickness, flake density, starch solubility, and enzyme reactivity. Flake density, the most common quality standard, closely associated with starch solubility (r2 = 0.87) and enzyme reactivity (r2 = 0.79), still explains only 63% of the variability in percentage fecal starch and 52% of the variability in starch digestibility. Direct determination of fecal starch can explain 91% of the variability in starch digestion. The NEg value of corn can be predicted from fecal starch: NEg= 1.78 - 0.0184FS. Starch digestion is a Kappa Curve

  3. Temporal and spatial trends in adult nuisance fly populations on Australian cattle feedlots.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  4. A genetic analysis of post-weaning feedlot performance and profitability in Bonsmara cattle.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J; Schoeman, S J

    2009-02-25

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing profitability in a feedlot environment and to estimate genetic parameters for and between a feedlot profit function and productive traits measured in growth tests. The heritability estimate of 0.36 for feedlot profitability shows that this trait is genetically inherited and that it can be selected for. The genetic correlations between feedlot profitability and production and efficiency varied from negligible to high. The genetic correlation estimate of -0.92 between feed conversion ratio and feedlot profitability is largely due to the part-whole relationship between these two traits. Consequently, a multiple regression equation was developed to estimate a feed intake value for all performance-tested Bonsmara bulls, which were group fed and whose feed intakes were unknown. These predicted feed intake values enabled the calculation of a post-weaning growth or feedlot profitability value for all tested bulls, even where individual feed intakes were unknown. Subsequently, a feedlot profitability value for each bull was calculated in a favorable economic environment, an average economic environment and in an unfavorable economic environment. The high Pearson and Spearman correlations between the estimate breeding values based on the average economic environment and the other two environments suggested that the average economic environment could be used to calculate estimate breeding values for feedlot profitability. It is therefore not necessary to change the carcass, weaned calf or feed price on a regular basis to allow for possible re-rankings based on estimate breeding values.

  5. Attenuation of runoff and chemical loads in grass filter strips at two cattle feedlots, Minnesota, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, Stephen Charles; Hansen, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    Attenuation of cattle feedlot runoff in two grass-covered filter strips in Minnesota was estimated by measuring chemical loads into and out of the strips. Filter strips of the Bock and Sanborn sites were 60-m long and 20-m wide and received runoff from cattle feedlots that supported 35 and 225 cattle, respectively. Feedlot and filter-strip runoff were measured using flumes with stage sensors. Water samples were collected using automated samplers. Attenuation values were calculated from four storm-runoff events. Ground water sampled beneath and outside the filter strips indicated some infiltration losses of sulfate, chloride, and nitrogen at the Bock site where soil permeability was greater than at the Sanborn site. Chemical constituents in filter-strip runoff, and their corresponding ranges of attenuation were as follows: chemical oxygen demand, 30–81 percent; dissolved chloride, 6–79 percent; dissolved sulfate, -3–82 percent; dissolved ammonia nitrogen, 33–80 percent; suspended ammonia plus organic nitrogen, 29–85 percent; dissolved organic nitrogen, 14–75 percent; suspended phosphorus, 24–82 percent; dissolved phosphorus, 14–72 percent; and fecal coliform bacteria, 18–79 percent. The ranges seem to be affected by barriers of direct contact of the runoff water with the soil. This varies seasonally by coverage of the soil by ice in winter and vegetation in summer months. Greater attenuation values occurred in October and May when mats of wilted, flat-lying grass covered the filter strips; attenuation values were less during the summer when tall growing grass covered the filter strips.

  6. Using Sweet Bran instead of forage during grain adaptation in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huls, T J; Luebbe, M K; Watson, A K; Meyer, N F; Griffin, W A; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A; Erickson, G E

    2016-03-01

    ). Treatments were applied only during grain adaptation (26 d) and all steers were finished on a common diet containing 35% Sweet Bran for an additional 147 d. Steers adapted using SB had greater ( ≤ 0.01) final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW compared with steers adapted using CON, even though treatments differed only the first 26 d. Grain adaptation treatment had no effect ( ≥ 0.13) on carcass quality. These results indicate that Sweet Bran can be used to adapt cattle to finishing diets instead of forage and improves ADG and G:F while decreasing the forage needs of feedlots.

  7. Flint corn grain processing and citrus pulp level in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, V N; Batistel, F; Souza, J; Chagas, L J; Sitta, C; Campanili, P R B; Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-02-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of flint corn processing and the replacement of corn with citrus pulp (CiP) in diets for Nellore feedlot cattle. In a 103-d finishing trial, 216 Nellore bulls (350 ± 24 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 2 processing methods, either ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (FC), with CiP replacing each corn type at 4 levels (0, 25, 50, and 75% of DM). All diets contained 12% sugarcane bagasse and 88% concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were also evaluated in metabolism trials, in which 10 ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (389 ± 37 kg) were assigned to 2 independent but simultaneous 5 × 5 Latin squares, each using 1 method of corn processing (GC and FC). Interactions ( < 0.05) between corn processing and CiP inclusion level were observed for final BW, DMI, ADG, G:F, and HCW. With FC-based diets, added CiP linearly decreased final BW ( = 0.04), whereas with GC-based diets, added CiP quadratically increased final BW ( = 0.002). With FC-based diets, the inclusion of CiP linearly increased DMI ( = 0.03) and linearly decreased ADG ( = 0.03) and G:F ( = 0.001). Increasing CiP in GC-based diets quadratically increased DMI ( = 0.001), ADG ( = 0.005), and HCW ( = 0.003). In FC-based diets, CiP inclusion had no effect on HCW ( = 0.21). Dressing percent, LM area, and 12th-rib fat were not affected by diet ( ≥ 0.05). For steers fed GC diets, CiP inclusion in the diet quadratically decreased the molar proportion of isovalerate ( = 0.001) but linearly increased ruminal butyrate ( = 0.006). No differences ( ≥ 0.16) were observed for total VFA concentrations, acetate:propionate ratio, and ruminal NH-N as CiP replaced GC. For steers fed FC diets, the molar proportion of acetate linearly increased ( = 0.002) whereas the proportion of propionate was linearly decreased ( < 0.001), resulting in a linear increase ( = 0.001) in the

  8. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  9. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531) were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen) in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON), or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T), chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS), or virginiamycin (5 pens-V) for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments), however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT), exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B) efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively) whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant) isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66.7, 80.3, and 100

  10. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  11. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m−2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head−1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head−1 yr−1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots. PMID:26584639

  12. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Denmead, Owen T.; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-01

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m-2 lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head-1 in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head-1 yr-1, based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  13. A new cost-effective method to mitigate ammonia loss from intensive cattle feedlots: application of lignite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deli; Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian

    2015-11-20

    In open beef feedlot systems, more than 50% of dietary nitrogen (N) is lost as ammonia (NH3). Here we report an effective and economically-viable method to mitigate NH3 emissions by the application of lignite. We constructed two cattle pens (20 × 20 m) to determine the effectiveness of lignite in reducing NH3 emissions. Twenty-four steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. The treatment pen surface was dressed with 4.5 kg m(-2) lignite dry mass while no lignite was applied in the control pen. We measured volatilised NH3 concentrations using Ecotech EC9842 NH3 analysers in conjunction with a mass balance method to calculate NH3 fluxes. Application of lignite decreased NH3 loss from the pen by approximately 66%. The cumulative NH3 losses were 6.26 and 2.13 kg N head(-1) in the control and lignite treatment, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits of reduced NH3 losses, the value of retained N nutrient in the lignite treated manure is more than $37 AUD head(-1) yr(-1), based on the current fertiliser cost and estimated cost of lignite application. We show that lignite application is a cost-effective method to reduce NH3 loss from cattle feedlots.

  14. Efficacy of the Salmonella siderophore receptor protein vaccine against lymph node carriage and fecal shedding of Samonella in commercial feedlot cattle: A randomized complete block design study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of the Salmonella Newport siderophore receptor protein (SRP)® vaccine for reducing lymph node (LN) carriage and fecal shedding of Salmonella at harvest was investigated in a study of commercial feedlot cattle. The study was designed as a randomized complete block with pen as the experi...

  15. Prevalence of lactose fermenting coliforms resistant to third generation cephalosporins in cattle feedlot throughout a production cycle and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Increases in incidence of human infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (3GC) have become a public health concern. The 3GC ceftiofur is commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of feedlot cattle but the impact this practice has on public h...

  16. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: Feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distiller's grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestion of nutrients, and marker retention time. In Experiment 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete bloc...

  17. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 +/- 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumPropionate0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; ...

  18. Effects of in-feed copper and tylosin supplementations on copper and antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Amachawadi, R G; Scott, H M; Aperce, C; Vinasco, J; Drouillard, J S; Nagaraja, T G

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to investigate whether in-feed supplementation of copper, at elevated level, co-selects for macrolide resistance in faecal enterococci. The study was conducted in cattle (n = 80) with a 2 × 2 factorial design of copper (10 or 100 mg kg(-1) of feed) and tylosin (0 or 10 mg kg(-1) of feed). Thirty-seven isolates (4·6%; 37/800) of faecal enterococci were positive for the tcrB and all were Enterococcus faecium. The prevalence was higher among cattle fed diets with copper and tylosin (8·5%) compared to control (2·0%), copper (4·5%) and tylosin (3·5%) alone. All tcrB-positive isolates were positive for erm(B) and tet(M) genes. Median copper minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for tcrB-positive and tcrB-negative enterococci were 20 and 4 mmol l(-1) , respectively. Feeding of elevated dietary copper and tylosin alone or in combination resulted in an increased prevalence of tcrB and erm(B)-mediated copper and tylosin-resistant faecal enterococci in feedlot cattle. In-feed supplementation of elevated dietary copper has the potential to co-select for macrolide resistance. Further studies are warranted to investigate the factors involved in maintenance and dissemination of the resistance determinants and their co-selection mechanism in relation to feed-grade antimicrobials' usage in feedlot cattle. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  20. Associations among methane emission traits measured in the feedlot and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Velazco, J I; Arthur, P F; Hegarty, R F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers. The cattle became older and heavier as they went through the different phases of the experiment, but their feed intake (expressed as DMI) and daily emission of enteric methane (methane production rate; MPR) did not increase proportionally, as feed offered was restricted in the respiration chamber tests. Methane emissions by individual animals relative to their DMI were calculated as methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI) and as 2 measures of residual methane production (RMP and RMP), which were calculated as the difference between measured MPR and that predicted from feed intake by 2 different equations. Within each test regime, MPR was positively correlated ( = 0.28 to 0.61) with DMI. Phenotypic correlations for MY, RMP, and RMP between the feedlot test and the restricted grain test ( = 0.40 to 0.43) and between the restricted grain test and the restricted roughage test were moderate ( = 0.36 to 0.41) and moderate to strong between the feedlot test and the restricted roughage test ( = 0.54 to 0.58). These results indicate that the rankings of animals for methane production relative to feed consumed are relatively stable over the 3 test phases. Feedlot feed conversion ratio and RFI were not correlated with MPR in the feedlot test and grain-based chamber test but were negatively correlated with MPR in the chamber roughage test ( = -0.31 and -0.37). Both were negatively correlated with MY and RMP in the feedlot test ( = -0.42 to -0.54) and subsequent

  1. Abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes in wastewater lagoons at cattle feedlots with different antibiotic use strategies.

    PubMed

    Peak, Nicholas; Knapp, Charles W; Yang, Richard K; Hanfelt, Margery M; Smith, Marilyn S; Aga, Diana S; Graham, David W

    2007-01-01

    The abundance of six tetracycline resistance genes tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tet(B) and tet(L), were quantified over time in wastewater lagoons at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) to assess how feedlot operation affects resistance genes in downstream surface waters. Eight lagoons at five cattle feedlots in the Midwestern United States were monitored for 6 months. Resistance and 16S-rRNA gene abundances were quantified using real-time PCR, and physicochemical lagoon conditions, tetracycline levels, and other factors (e.g. feedlot size and weather conditions) were monitored over time. Lagoons were sorted according to antibiotic use practice at each site, and designated as 'no-use', 'mixed-use' or 'high-use' for comparison. High-use lagoons had significantly higher detected resistance gene levels (tet(R); 2.8 x 10(6) copies ml(-1)) relative to no-use lagoons (5.1 x 10(3) copies ml(-1); P < 0.01) and mixed-use lagoons (7.3 x 10(5) copies ml(-1); P = 0.076). Bivariate correlation analysis on pooled data (n = 54) confirmed that tet(R) level strongly correlated with feedlot area (r = 0.67, P < 0.01) and 'total' bacterial 16S-rRNA gene level in each lagoon (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), which are both characteristic of large CAFOs. tet(M) was the most commonly detected gene, both in absolute number and normalized to 16S-rRNA gene level, although tet(O), tet(Q) and tet(W) levels were also high in the mixed and high-use lagoons. Finally, resistance gene levels were highly seasonal with abundances being 10-100 times greater in the autumn versus the summer. Results show that antibiotic use strategy strongly affects both the abundance and seasonal distribution of resistance genes in associated lagoons, which has implications on water quality and feedlot management practices.

  2. An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M J; Tait, R G; Busby, W D; Reecy, J M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex on economically important production traits with the use of health records in combination with lung lesion scores obtained at slaughter. Records from 5,976 animals were used in this study from cattle that were managed in Midwestern feedlots. Average daily gain for 3 different feeding periods (acclimation, on-test, and overall test) along with final BW were evaluated as performance measures. Hot carcass weight, LM area, subcutaneous fat cover, and marbling score were collected at slaughter. All calves were monitored by experienced feedlot personnel and treated according to the specific health protocol of each feedlot. Incidence of BRD was observed at a rate of 8.17%, and lung lesions at slaughter were present in 61.9% of cattle from a subpopulation (n = 1,665). From this group of cattle, the overall incidence of BRD, which was defined as cattle that had lung lesions, that were treated for BRD in the feedlot, or both, was 64.4%. Incidence of BRD in the feedlot decreased ADG during both the acclimation period (0.37 +/- 0.03 kg) and the overall test period (0.07 +/- 0.01 kg). Incidence of BRD also had significant effects on HCW and marbling score with reduction of 8.16 +/- 1.38 kg and 0.13 +/- 0.04, respectively, in treated cattle. The adverse effects on production traits tended to increase as the number of treatments increased. Potential decrease in performance and carcass merit observed in this study were associated with a decline of $23.23, $30.15, and $54.01 in carcass value when comparing cattle never treated with cattle treated once, twice, or 3 or more times, respectively. The presence of lung lesions did not have a significant effect on any of the traits; however, there was an association between the presence of active bronchial lymph nodes and less productivity of feedlot cattle.

  3. Effects of feeding elevated concentrations of copper and zinc on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, J Trent; Nagaraja, T G; Drouillard, James S; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2010-06-01

    Cattle are fed elevated concentrations of copper and zinc for growth promotion. The potential mechanisms of growth promotional effects of these elements are attributed to their antimicrobial activities, similar to that of antibiotics, in that gut microbial flora are altered to reduce fermentation loss of nutrients and to suppress gut pathogens. Copper and zinc fed at elevated concentrations may select for bacteria that are resistant not only to heavy metals but also to antibiotics. Our objectives were to determine the effects of feeding elevated copper and zinc on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Twenty heifers, fed corn-based high-grain diets, were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 1X or 10X National Research Council recommended copper and/or zinc. Feces, collected on days 0, 14, and 32, were cultured for commensal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) to determine their susceptibilities to copper, zinc, and antibiotics. Fecal DNA was extracted to detect tcrB gene and quantify erm(B) and tet(M) genes. In E. coli and Enterococcus sp., minimal differences in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of copper, zinc, and antibiotics were noticed. The mean copper MIC for E. coli increased (p < 0.05) between days 0 and 32 and days 14 and 32. The only treatment effect detected was increased zinc MIC of E. coli isolates (p < 0.01). The tcrB gene was not detected in feces or in enterococcal isolates. Proportions of erm(B) and tet(M) were unaffected by copper or zinc supplementation. However, the proportion of tet(M) increased (p < 0.05) between days 0 and 14. Feeding elevated copper and/or zinc to feedlot cattle had marginal effects on antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal E. coli and enterococci.

  4. Effect of shade on animal welfare, growth performance, and carcass characteristics in large pens of beef cattle fed a beta agonist in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Thomson, D U

    2016-12-01

    Feedlot cattle ( = 1,395; BW = 568 ± 43 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of shade on animal welfare, growth performance, and carcass quality during the summer of 2013 in a Kansas commercial feedlot. Seven lots of predominately black steers and heifers (4 and 3, respectively) visually determined to be approaching the final mo on feed were identified, randomly gate-sorted, and allocated to pens located across the feed alley from each other to receive 1 of 2 treatments: 1) Shade (mean shade area = 1.5 m/ animal) or 2) No shade. Shade was provided using a 13-ounce polyethylene fabric and pens were oriented northwest to southeast. The mean starting date was June 13 and the mean days on feed for lots while on the study was 38 d. Cattle were fed a 77.67% DM steam-flaked corn-based diet and had ad libitum access to water throughout the duration of the trial. Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZIL) was included in the finishing ration at an inclusion rate of 8.3 mg/kg of DM for the last 20 d on feed with a 3 d withdrawal period. Pen floor temperatures (PFT) were measured using an infrared thermometer and prevalence of cattle open-mouth breathing (OMB) was recorded on a pen basis. In addition to shade treatment, the effect of temperature humidity index (THI) on PFT and OMB was analyzed by classifying days as either "Alert" (THI < 79) or "Danger" (THI > 79). On the day of slaughter, pens within a replicate were kept separate through all stages of the marketing channel from loading at the feedlot until stunning at the plant. Pen served as the experimental unit for all measurements. There was a THI × shade treatment interaction for PFT and OMB ( < 0.001) where days classified as "Danger" increased PFT and prevalence of OMB compared to "Alert" days in unshaded but not shaded cattle. Shaded cattle had greater DMI ( = 0.01); however, unshaded cattle had greater G:F ( = 0.05) and therefore no differences were observed in ADG ( = 0.39). Shaded cattle had greater dressing percentage

  5. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B

    2016-11-09

    Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-tested young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-tested young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-tested young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-tested young bulls is

  6. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  7. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K.; Markham, Philip F.; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S.; Firestone, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots. PMID:26912757

  8. Evaluation of an IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Serological Assay for Detection of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wawegama, Nadeeka K; Markham, Philip F; Kanci, Anna; Schibrowski, Meghan; Oswin, Sally; Barnes, Tamsin S; Firestone, Simon M; Mahony, Timothy J; Browning, Glenn F

    2016-05-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a pathogen of emerging significance in cattle throughout the world that is causing a range of diseases, including mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. The limited availability and efficacy of current diagnostic and prophylactic tools for its control and its increasing antimicrobial resistance are contributing to its increasing importance in beef and dairy cattle. We have developed an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant fragment of the MilA protein and have shown its potential as an effective diagnostic tool. To more comprehensively estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this IgG ELISA for detection of infection with M. bovis in cattle and to define a suitable cutoff for use in the field, we further assessed its performance in experimentally infected calves in a closed beef herd and by applying Bayesian latent class modeling to laboratory testing results from 7,448 cattle entering Australian feedlots. The most effective cutoff points were estimated to be 68.6 antibody units (AU) for experimentally infected calves and to be 58.7 AU for a closed adult herd. Under field conditions, in feedlot cattle the globally optimal cutoff was estimated to be 105 AU. At this cutoff, the diagnostic sensitivity was 94.3% (95% probability interval [PI], 89.9% to 99.6%) with a diagnostic specificity of 94.4% (95% PI, 90.3% to 99.6%). Applying this 105 AU cutoff, 13.1% of cattle were seropositive for infection with M. bovis on entry into feedlots, and 73.5% were seropositive when followed up approximately 6 weeks later suggesting a high risk of infection shortly after entry into feedlots.

  9. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    PubMed

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P < 0.05) metaphylactic cost, ADG, shrunk final BW, dressed carcass yield, HCW, 12th rib fat, calculated empty body fat (EBF), and gross revenue, concurrent with reduced (P < 0.05) BRD treatment costs and financial losses from BRD death and railed cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P < 0.05) HCW, KPH, 12th rib fat, calculated yield grades, marbling scores, and calculated EBF as compared to steers without lung lesions. Steers pulled for BRD had increased (P < 0.01) incidence of advanced lung lesions, mortality, and railers with decreased (P < 0.05) HCW, 12th rib fat, KPH, marbling score, calculated EBF, and percentage choice carcasses when compared to non-BRD event steers. From

  10. Examination of predictors of Salmonella enterica contamination in cattle feedlot environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To identify a “predictor” or “environmental marker” that can be used to estimate Salmonella prevalence in a given feedlot environment. Further, to examine the correlation between environmental Salmonella contamination, Salmonella fecal shedding status, and prevalence of Salmonella in per...

  11. Subsurface Sensing Methods Applied to Vegetative Treatment Areas Used to Manage Cattle Feedlot Runoff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monitoring alternative feedlot runoff control technology effectiveness, especially vegetative treatment systems (VTS), is of interest to both cattlemen and regulatory agencies. Producers have constructed VTS in several mid-western states under an agreement with the Iowa Cattlemen Association and th...

  12. Associations between weather conditions during the first 45 days after feedlot arrival and daily respiratory disease risks in autumn-placed feeder cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; Renter, D G; White, B J; Babcock, A H; Fox, J T

    2012-04-01

    Data on associations between weather conditions and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity in autumn-placed feedlot cattle are sparse. The goal of our study was to quantify how different weather variables during corresponding lag periods (considering up to 7 d before the day of disease measure) were associated with daily BRD incidence during the first 45 d of the feeding period based on a post hoc analysis of existing feedlot operational data. Our study population included 1,904 cohorts of feeder cattle (representing 288,388 total cattle) that arrived to 9 US commercial feedlots during September to November in 2005 to 2007. There were 24,947 total cases of initial respiratory disease (animals diagnosed by the feedlots with BRD and subsequently treated with an antimicrobial). The mean number of BRD cases during the study period (the first 45 d after arrival) was 0.3 cases per day per cohort (range = 0 to 53.0), and cumulative BRD incidence risks ranged from 0 to 36% within cattle cohorts. Data were analyzed with a multivariable mixed-effects binomial regression model. Results indicate that several weather factors (maximum wind speed, mean wind chill temperature, and temperature change in different lag periods) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased daily BRD incidence, but their effects depended on several cattle demographic factors (month of arrival, BRD risk code, BW class, and cohort size). In addition, month and year of arrival, sex of the cohort, days on feed, mean BW of the cohort at entry, predicted BRD risk designation of the cohort (high or low risk), cohort size, and the interaction between BRD risk code and arrival year were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with daily BRD incidence. Our results demonstrate that weather conditions are significantly associated with BRD risk in populations of feedlot cattle. Defining these conditions for specific cattle populations may enable cattle health managers to predict and potentially manage

  13. Adaptation of a speciation sampling cartridge for measuring ammonia flux from cattle feedlots using relaxed eddy accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K. A.; Ham, J. M.

    Improved measurements of ammonia losses from cattle feedlots are needed to quantify the national NH 3 emissions inventory and evaluate management techniques for reducing emissions. Speciation cartridges composed of glass honeycomb denuders and filter packs were adapted to measure gaseous NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+ fluxes using relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). Laboratory testing showed that a cartridge equipped with four honeycomb denuders had a total capture capacity of 1800 μg of NH 3. In the field, a pair of cartridges was deployed adjacent to a sonic anemometer and an open-path gas analyzer on a mobile tower. High-speed valves were attached to the inlets of the cartridges and controlled by a datalogger so that up- and down-moving eddies were independently sampled based on direction of the vertical wind speed and a user-defined deadband. Air flowed continuously through the cartridges even when not sampling by means of a recirculating air handling system. Eddy covariance measurement of CO 2 and H 2O, as measured by the sonic and open-path gas analyzer, were used to determine the relaxation factor needed to compute REA-based fluxes. The REA system was field tested at the Beef Research Unit at Kansas State University in the summer and fall of 2007. Daytime NH 3 emissions ranged between 68 and 127 μg m -2 s -1; fluxes tended to follow a diurnal pattern correlated with latent heat flux. Daily fluxes of NH 3 were between 2.5 and 4.7 g m -2 d -1 and on average represented 38% of fed nitrogen. Aerosol NH 4+ fluxes were negligible compared with NH 3 emissions. An REA system designed around the high-capacity speciation cartridges can be used to measure NH 3 fluxes from cattle feedlots and other strong sources. The system could be adapted to measure fluxes of other gases and aerosols.

  14. Impact of management practices and distillers' grains feeding on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ryan C; Popowski, Jackie M; Anderson, Jon E; Dahlberg, Johanna L; Kalyanikutty, Sudha; Crawford, Grant I; DiCostanzo, Alfredo; Cox, Ryan B; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated ground beef and is shed naturally in cattle feces. Recent reports indicated that feeding distillers' grains (DG) to cattle increased fecal shedding and prevalence of E. coli O157. In Minnesota, feeding DG with solubles (DGS) to livestock became widespread within the last 10 years, but there is no report about the prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef cattle in this state. This study was undertaken to survey the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle fed diets containing DG and its association with environmental conditions and management practices. Fecal samples were collected from three feedlots during a 1-year period. All animals in those feedlots were fed different DGS levels. E. coli O157 presence was determined using a combination of enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar, and confirmation of isolates by immunoassay and multiplex virulence genes polymerase chain reaction analysis. Overall, E. coli O157 was confirmed in 9.7% of samples. Prevalence during summer was 30% and declined to less than 10% the rest of the year. In animals grouped by dietary DGS concentration, no significant difference in prevalence (12.0 and 5.5%) was detected between the low and the high average groups (less and more than 20%). Previous feeding of DGS before arriving to the feedlot also had no influence on fecal prevalence. The presence of several interacting variables, uncontrolled in a real-life feedlot environment, was the likely reason for our observation and suggested that at the levels studied, DGS had no effect on the STEC O157 prevalence in cattle populations.

  15. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2012-01-01

    Feedlot pen soil is a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM). A feedlot pen was identified in which naturally occurring E. coli O157:H7 was prevalent and evenly distributed in the FSM. Forty plots 3 by 3 m were randomly assigned such that five plots of each of the solarization times of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks were examined. Temperature loggers were placed 7.5 cm below the surface of each plot, and plots to be solarized were covered with clear 6-mil polyethylene. At each sampling time, five FSM samples were collected from each of five solarized and five unsolarized plots. E. coli concentrations and E. coli O157:H7 presence by immunomagnetic separation and plating were determined for each FSM sample. Initial percentages of E. coli O157:H7-positive samples in control and solarized FSM were 84 and 80%, respectively, and did not differ (P > 0.05). E. coli O157:H7 was no longer detectable by 8 weeks of solarization, but was still detected in unsolarized FSM at 10 weeks. The average initial concentration of E. coli in FSM was 5.56 log CFU/g and did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05). There was a 2.0-log decrease of E. coli after 1 week of solarization, and a >3.0-log reduction of E. coli by week 6 of solarization (P, 0.05). E. coli levels remained unchanged in unsolarized FSM (P > 0.05). Daily peak FSM temperatures were on average 8.7°C higher for solarized FSM compared with unsolarized FSM, and reached temperatures as high as 57°C. Because soil solarization reduces E. coli O157:H7, this technique may be useful for reduction of persistence and transmission of this pathogen in cattle production, in addition to remediation of E. coli O157:H7-contaminated soil used to grow food crops.

  16. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  17. Diversity and distribution of commensal fecal Escherichia coli bacteria in beef cattle administered selected subtherapeutic antimicrobials in a feedlot setting.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tet(r) E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, bla(TEM1), tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  18. Prevalence and Quinolone Susceptibilities of Salmonella Isolated from the Feces of Preharvest Cattle Within Feedlots that Used a Fluoroquinolone to Treat Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley B; Renter, David G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen and antimicrobial resistance can be a human health concern. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (1) determine the prevalence and quinolone susceptibility of Salmonella in feces of preharvest commercial feedlot cattle and (2) determine if the prevalence and susceptibility of Salmonella isolates were associated with previous fluoroquinolone use within pens. Five feedlots in western Kansas and Texas were selected based on their use of a commercially licensed fluoroquinolone for initial treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Twenty pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 10 pens from each feedlot during early summer of 2012. Salmonella isolation was performed and microbroth dilution was used to determine susceptibility of isolates to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Prior antimicrobial treatment data were retrieved from feedlots' operational data. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess associations between Salmonella prevalence and the number of fluoroquinolone treatments within pens while taking into consideration cattle demographic and management factors, as well as the hierarchical structure of the data. Overall, cumulative fecal prevalence of Salmonella was 38.0% (380/1000), but prevalence varied significantly (p < 0.01) among the five feedlots: 0.5% (1/200), 17.5% (35/200), 37.0% (74/200), 58.5% (117/200), and 76.5% (153/200). Salmonella serogroups included C1 (49.3%), E (36.4%), C2 (13.8%), and D (0.6%). There was no significant association (p = 0.52) between Salmonella prevalence and the frequency of fluoroquinolone treatments within a pen. All Salmonella isolates (n = 380) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, while one isolate exceeded the human breakpoint (≥32 μg/mL) for nalidixic acid. In conclusion, Salmonella fecal prevalence in preharvest cattle was highly variable among feedlots. Nearly all Salmonella isolates were susceptible to quinolones

  19. Androgenic and estrogenic activity in water bodies receiving cattle feedlot effluent in Eastern Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Calabro, Janine M; Prechtl, Nancy V; Yau, Alice Y; Orlando, Edward F; Daxenberger, Andreas; Kolok, Alan S; Guillette, Louis J; le Bizec, Bruno; Lange, Iris G; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Studies reveal that surface waters worldwide are contaminated with hormonally active agents, many released from sewage treatment plants. Another potential source of aquatic hormonal contamination is livestock feedlot effluent. In this study, we assessed whether feedlot effluent contaminates watercourses by measuring a) total androgenic [methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalents] and estrogenic (17beta-estradiol equivalents) activity using the A-SCREEN and E-SCREEN bioassays and b) concentrations of anabolic agents via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and enzyme-based immunoassays. Water samples were collected over 3 years from up to six sites [all confluent with the Elkhorn River, Nebraska, USA: a feedlot retention pond (site 1), a site downstream from site 1 (site 2), a stream with intermediate livestock impact (site 3), and three sites with no observable livestock impact (sites 4-6)] and two sources of tap water. In 1999, samples from site 1 contained 9.6 pM R1881 equivalents and 1.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Site 2 samples had estrogen levels similar to those in site 1 samples but lower androgen levels (3.8 pM R1881 equivalents). Androgen levels in site 3 samples were similar to those in site 2 samples, whereas estrogen levels decreased to 0.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. At site 6, androgen levels were approximately half those found at site 3, and estrogen levels were comparable with those at site 3. Sampling in later years was limited to fewer sites because of drought and lack of permission to access one site. Instrumental analysis revealed estrone but no significant levels of resorcylic acid lactones or trenbolone metabolites. Tap water was devoid of hormonal activity. We conclude that feedlot effluents contain sufficient levels of hormonally active agents to warrant further investigation of possible effects on aquatic ecosystem health.

  20. Performance and carcass characteristics of commercial feedlot cattle from a study of vaccine and direct-fed microbial effects on Escherichia col O157:H7 fecal shedding.

    PubMed

    Cull, C A; Renter, D G; Bello, N M; Ives, S E; Babcock, A H

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify cattle performance and carcass characteristics associated with administration of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM), which were originally evaluated for their impact on O157:H7 fecal shedding in a commercial feedlot population. Cattle (P = 17,148) were randomly allocated into 40 pens grouped by allocation dates into 10 complete blocks; pens within block were randomly allocated to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC + DFM treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The DFM (Bovamine) was fed daily at the labeled dose of 10 cfu/animal of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the duration of the intervention period (mean = 86.6 d). The VAC cattle were vaccinated on Days 0 and 21 whereas unvaccinated cattle were not given a placebo or rehandled on Day 21. Data were analyzed using general and generalized linear mixed models that accounted for the study design. Main effects of DFM and VAC are reported as there were no significant treatment interactions for any of the outcomes evaluated. Vaccinated cattle had lower total weight gain (P < 0.01), ADG (P = 0.03), and cumulative DMI during the intervention period (P < 0.01) compared with unvaccinated cattle, whereas the DFM increased total weight gain (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.05) during the intervention period. Daily DMI was decreased (P < 0.01) in vaccinated pens compared with unvaccinated pens during a 5-d period immediately following revaccination. After the intervention period was completed, cattle were sorted following the standard operating procedure for the feedlot and all cattle were fed the DFM from that point until harvest. Each steer was individually identified through harvest. At harvest, vaccinated cattle had more total days on feed (P < 0.01) with a larger HCW (P = 0.01) than nonvaccinated cattle, whereas cattle not fed the DFM during the intervention period had a significantly larger HCW (P < 0.01) than those fed the DFM

  1. Use of zilpaterol hydrochloride to reduce odor and gas production from the feedlot surface when beef cattle are fed diets with or without ethanol byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many malodorous compounds emitted from the feedlot surface of beef finishing facilities result from protein degradation. The inclusion of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) in beef finishing diets has been shown to increase odorous compounds in waste due to excess nitrogen excretion. Zilpater...

  2. Use of zilpaterol hydrochloride to reduce odors and gas production from the feedlot surface when beef cattle are fed diets with or without ethanol byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many malodorous compounds emitted from the feedlot surface of beef finishing facilities result from protein degradation. The inclusion of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) in beef finishing diets has been shown to increase odorous compounds in waste due to excess nitrogen excretion. Zilpater...

  3. Effects of three dehorning techniques on behavior and wound healing in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Neely, C D; Thomson, D U; Kerr, C A; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-05-01

    Crossbred horned steers and heifers (n = 40; BW = 311.8 ± 4.7 kg) were used to determine the effect of dehorning methods on pain, cattle behavior, and wound healing. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CON), 2) banded using high tension elastic rubber (BAND), 3) mechanically removed (MECH), or 4) tipped (TIP). Vocalization and behavior were recorded during the dehorning process. Wound healing scores, attitude, gait and posture, appetite, and lying were recorded daily. Vocalization scores were highest for MECH cattle and BAND cattle vocalized more than TIP and CON (P < 0.05). Attitude (P = 0.06), gait and posture (P = 0.06), and lying scores (P < 0.05) were higher for BAND cattle in the days following procedures compared to MECH, TIP, and CON cattle. Cattle in the BAND treatment tended (P < 0.13) to have higher appetite scores than the other methods. Wound healing scores (horn bud and bleeding) were higher for BAND cattle than MECH, TIP, and CON cattle (P < 0.05). These data indicate that MECH is a painful procedure for cattle at the time of the procedure. Banding to remove horns from cattle is not recommended based on the data and observations from this study.

  4. Comparison of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of relapse of undifferentiated fever/bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Schunicht, Oliver C; Wildman, Brian K; Hannon, Sherry J; Jim, G Kee; Ward, Tracy I; Booker, Calvin W

    2012-01-01

    This commercial field trial compared the efficacy of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur sodium in beef cattle at high risk of developing undifferentiated fever (UF), also known as bovine respiratory disease (BRD) that received tilmicosin at feedlot arrival, were diagnosed and initially treated for UF with tilmicosin, and subsequently required a second UF treatment (first relapse). Feedlot cattle (n = 463) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: ENRO or CEF. Second UF relapse, 3rd UF relapse, overall case fatality and BRD case fatality rates were lower in the ENRO group than in the CEF group (P < 0.05). There were no differences in average daily gain (allocation to re-implant date), chronicity, histophilosis case fatality or miscellaneous case fatality rates between the groups (P ≥ 0.05). A per-animal economic advantage of Can$57.08 was calculated for the ENRO group versus the CEF group. In feedlot cattle in western Canada at high risk of developing UF, it was more cost effective to administer enrofloxacin than ceftiofur sodium for treatment of UF relapse.

  5. Impacts of individual animal response to heat and handling stresses on Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding by feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Arthur, Terrance M; Nienaber, John A

    2009-09-01

    The reduction of foodborne pathogens in cattle destined for human consumption will require knowledge of the factors that impact the carriage and shedding of these organisms. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of heat and handling stress levels on the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli by feedlot cattle. In year 1, 128 feedlot heifers were evaluated for heat tolerance five times per week during the 84-day finishing period from May through August. Heat stress measurements included respiration rate, panting score, and visual assessments. In year 2, panting scores were taken for a group of 256 finishing feedlot heifers on days in July and August for which the temperature humidity index (THI) was predicted to be in the "emergency" category (THI > or = 84). For both years, animals were weighed and temperament scored to assess handling stress on a 28-day schedule. At the same time, rectal fecal samples were collected from each animal individually. The presence and concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 and concentrations of generic E. coli in feces were determined. There were no clear trends between the heat stress levels or temperament scores (as an indicator of response to handling) with either fecal generic E. coli concentrations or E. coli O157:H7 concentrations or prevalence in feces, indicating that neither heat nor handling stress contributes to the food safety risk associated with E. coli O157:H7-positive cattle.

  6. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02). Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Gertonson, Arnold; Bridges, Marc; Raths, Dick; Dargatz, David; Wagner, Bruce; Boughton, Alice; Knoop, Doug; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-06-01

    A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale.

  8. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility in a population of Escherichia coli isolated from feedlot cattle administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid.

    PubMed

    Lowrance, T Courtney; Loneragan, Guy H; Kunze, David J; Platt, Tammy M; Ives, Samuel E; Scott, H Morgan; Norby, Bo; Echeverry, Alejandro; Brashears, Mindy M

    2007-05-01

    To determine effects of administration of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) on antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in feedlot cattle. 61 feedlot steers. A cohort study was conducted. Steers were housed in pens (5 pens with 10 steers and 1 pen with 11 steers). Five steers in each pen were administered CCFA, and 5 served as control steers (1 pen had 6 control steers). The CCFA administration included a single-dose regimen (6.6 mg/kg, SC, on day 0), two-thirds-dose regimen (4.4 mg/kg, SC, on day 0), and 3-dose regimen (6.6 mg/kg, SC, on days 0, 6, and 13). Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, and 28. Fecal samples were collected immediately before CCFA administration. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15 antimicrobials were determined for 3 E coli isolates/fecal sample. Escherichia coli were enumerated by use of direct-plating techniques. Resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials was detected in 986 of 1,441 (68.4%) isolates recovered. Administration of CCFA was associated with a transient increase in the population of ceftiofur-resistant isolates. Susceptibility returned to day 0 values (ie, samples collected immediately before CCFA administration) approximately 2 weeks after completion of CCFA administration. Agreement between ceftiofur resistance and co-resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline was almost perfect (kappa 0.97). We did not detect variation in susceptibility of E coli recovered from commingled control steers. Administration of CCFA provided selection pressure that favored transient expansion of multiple-resistant variants.

  10. Transient Fecal Shedding and Limited Animal-to-Animal Transmission of Clostridium difficile by Naturally Infected Finishing Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P < 0.001), and remained low (<3.6%) until immediately prior to shipment for harvest (1.2%). Antimicrobial use did not increase fecal shedding, despite treatment of 53% of animals for signs of respiratory disease. Animals shedding C. difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation to determine efficacy of euthanasia of yearling feedlot cattle by use of various firearm-ammunition combinations.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Daniel U; Wileman, Benjamin W; Rezac, Darrel J; Miesner, Matt D; Johnson-Neitman, Jennifer L; Biller, David S

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate with CT the efficacy of various combinations of firearms and ammunitions to penetrate and disrupt the brain tissue of cadaveric heads of feedlot steers. 42 fresh cadaveric heads of 12- to 18-month-old Bos taurus steers. For each of 7 combinations of firearms and ammunitions (.22-caliber rifle firing a long rifle 30-grain plated lead solid- or hollow-point round, .223-caliber carbine firing a 50-grain ballistic-tip round, 9-mm pistol firing a 124-grain total metal jacket round, .45-caliber automatic Colt pistol [ACP] firing a 230-grain full metal jacket round, and 12-gauge shotgun firing a 2.75-inch 1.25-ounce No. 4 birdshot shell or a 1-ounce rifled slug), 6 cadaveric heads were shot at an identical distance (3 m), angle, and anatomic location. Heads were scanned with third-generation CT, and images were evaluated to determine extent of penetration, projectile fragmentation, cranial fracture, and likelihood of instantaneous death (≥ 30% destruction of brain tissue or a brainstem lesion). RESULTS-41 of 42 skulls were penetrated by the projectile. Instantaneous death was considered a likely consequence for 83% (25/30) of heads shot with a rifle-fired .22-caliber solid-point round, pistol-fired .45-caliber ACP round, carbine-fired .223-caliber round, and shotgun-fired birdshot and slug. Of the 18 heads shot with pistol-fired 9-mm and .45-caliber ACP rounds and rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds, only 6 had brainstem lesions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results suggested that gunshots delivered by all firearm-ammunition combinations except rifle-fired .22-caliber hollow-point rounds and pistol-fired 9-mm rounds were viable options for euthanasia of feedlot cattle.

  12. Effect of subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Alexander, T W; Yanke, L J; Topp, E; Olson, M E; Read, R R; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in 300 feedlot steers receiving subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics was investigated through the collection of 3,300 fecal samples over a 314-day period. Antibiotics were selected based on the commonality of use in the industry and included chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine (TET-SUL), chlortetracycline (TET), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin, or no antibiotic supplementation (control). Steers were initially fed a barley silage-based diet, followed by transition to a barley grain-based diet. Despite not being administered antibiotics prior to arrival at the feedlot, the prevalences of steers shedding TET- and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant E. coli were >40 and <30%, respectively. Inclusion of TET-SUL in the diet increased the prevalence of steers shedding TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli and the percentage of TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli in the total generic E. coli population. Irrespective of treatment, the prevalence of steers shedding TET-resistant E. coli was higher in animals fed grain-based compared to silage-based diets. All steers shed TET-resistant E. coli at least once during the experiment. A total of 7,184 isolates were analyzed for MIC of antibiotics. Across antibiotic treatments, 1,009 (13.9%), 7 (0.1%), and 3,413 (47.1%) E. coli isolates were resistant to AMP, gentamicin, or TET, respectively. In addition, 131 (1.8%) and 143 (2.0%) isolates exhibited potential resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, as indicated by either ceftazidime or cefpodoxime resistance. No isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The findings of the present study indicated that subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline in combination with sulfamethazine increased the prevalence of tetracycline- and AMP-resistant E. coli in cattle. However, resistance to antibiotics may be related to additional environmental factors such as diet.

  13. Fresh, stockpiled, and composted beef cattle feedlot manure: nutrient levels and mass balance estimates in Alberta and Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Buckley, Katherine E; Hao, Xiying; McCaughey, W Paul

    2006-01-01

    The fate of manure nutrients in beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlots is influenced by handling treatment, yet few data are available in western Canada comparing traditional practices (fresh handling, stockpiling) with newer ones (composting). This study examined the influence of handling treatment (fresh, stockpiled, or composted) on nutrient levels and mass balance estimates of feedlot manure at Lethbridge, Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba. Total carbon (TC) concentration of compost (161 kg Mg(-1)) was lower (P < 0.001) than stockpiled (248 kg Mg(-1)), which was in turn lower (P < 0.001) than fresh manure (314 kg Mg(-1)). Total nitrogen (TN) concentration was not affected by handling treatment while total phosphorus (TP) concentration increased with composting at Lethbridge. The percent inorganic nitrogen (PIN) was lower (P < 0.01) for compost (5.1%) than both fresh (24.7%) and stockpiled (28.9%) manure. Composting led to higher (P < 0.05) dry matter (DM) losses (39.8%) compared to stockpiling (22.5%) and higher (P < 0.05) total mass (water + DM) losses (65.6 vs. 35.2%). Carbon (C) losses were higher (P < 0.01) with composting (66.9% of initial) than with stockpiling (37.5%), as were nitrogen (N) losses (46.3 vs. 22.5%, P < 0.05). Composting allowed transport of two times as much P as fresh manure and 1.4 times as much P as stockpiled manure (P < 0.001) on an "as is" basis. Our study looked at one aspect of manure management (i.e., handling treatment effects on nutrient concentrations and mass balance estimates) and, as such, should be viewed as one component in the larger context of a life cycle assessment.

  14. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for bioaerosol and pest fly transmission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent foodborne outbreaks linked to spinach and lettuce emphasize the need for information regarding E. coli O157:H7 dissemination from cattle production. Project objectives were to evaluate the impact of proximity to a cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and to examine...

  15. Management and nutritional factors associated with the detection of Salmonella sp. from cattle fecal specimens from feedlot operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Losinger, W C; Garber, L P; Smith, M A; Hurd, H S; Biehl, L G; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Thomas, L A; Ferris, K

    1997-08-01

    In a convenience sample of 100 feedlot operations (included in the United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 1994 Cattle on Feed Evaluation), up to 25 cattle fecal samples were collected and tested for the presence of Salmonella from each of two pens (the pen which contained the most-recent arrivals, and the pen with cattle that had been on feed the longest). One or more Salmonella spp. were recovered from 38 (38.0%) of the 100 feedlots, 52 (26.0%) of the 200 pens and 273 (5.5%) of the 4977 fecal samples collected. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that feeding tallow and feeding whole cottonseed or cottonseed hulls within seven days prior to fecal sample collection was associated with an increased risk of finding Salmonella in a pen. Variables not found to be significantly associated with the detection of Salmonella in a pen included region, operation size, use of sprinklers, time on feed, type of cattle in the pen, number and concentration of cattle in a pen, feeding probiotics, and various other feeds.

  16. Nutritional management of feedlot cattle to optimize performance and minimize environmental impact

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle feeding industry is a new but rapidly growing industry in Brazil and other parts of South America. This presentation/ manuscript provides a brief overview of potential environmental issues faced by concentrated cattle feeding operations, and methods to minimize adverse effects on the envi...

  17. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef is an important food safety concern. Cattle are a natural reservoir of this pathogen, and the life-cycle of E. coli O157:H7 involves cycling between the warm, nutrient-rich cattle large intestine and the generally cool, nutrient-limiting f...

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of rectoanal mucosal swab of feedlot cattle for detection and enumeration of Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence cattle shedding of Salmonella. Fecal grab (FG) samples hav...

  19. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems.

  20. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials on ruminal fermentation, blood variables, and the microbial populations of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, G R; Morgavi, D P; Beauchemin, K A; Leedle, J A Z

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) could be used to minimize the risk of acidosis in feedlot cattle receiving high concentrate diets. Six ruminally cannulated steers, previously adapted to a high concentrate diet, were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square to study the effects of DFM on feed intake, ruminal pH, and ruminal and blood characteristics. Steers were provided ad libitum access to a diet containing steam-rolled barley, barley silage, and a protein-mineral supplement at 87, 9, and 4% (DM basis), respectively. Treatments were as follows: control, Propionibacterium P15 (P15), and Propionibacterium P15 and Enterococcus faecium EF212 (PE). The bacterial treatments (10(9) cfu/g) plus whey powder carrier, or whey powder alone for control, were top-dressed once daily at the time of feeding (10 g/[steer/d]). Periods consisted of 2 wk of adaptation and 1 wk of measurements. Ruminal pH was continuously measured for 6 d using indwelling electrodes. Dry matter intake and ruminal pH (mean, minimum, hours, and area pH < 5.8 or < 5.5) were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementation with P15 increased protozoal numbers (P < 0.05) with a concomitant increase in ruminal NH3 concentration (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the number of amylolytic bacteria (P < 0.05) compared with the control. Streptococcus bovis, enumerated using a selective medium, was numerically reduced with supplementation of PE. Although blood pH and blood glucose were not affected by DFM supplementation, steers fed PE had numerically lower concentrations of blood CO2 than control steers, which is consistent with a reduced risk of metabolic acidosis. Although the bacterial DFM used in this study did not induce changes in DMI or ruminal and blood pH, some rumen and blood variables indicated that the bacterial DFM used in this study may decrease the risk of acidosis in feedlot cattle.

  1. Biogas and energy production from cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthi, J.

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is one of the longest used energy sources employed in human activity. The bioconversion of organic matter to biogas is a complex anaerobic fermentation process involving the action of microorganisms such as methane producing bacteria. In this paper, biogas and energy production from cattle waste is investigated. There are two significant reasons that motivate this study. First, treating animal waste with the technology of anaerobic digestion can reduce environmental pollution and generate a relatively cheap and easily available source of energy in dairy farms. The gas produced can be used for space and water heating of farm houses, cooking, lighting, grain drying and as a fuel for heating greenhouses during cold weather. It also has the potential to run other small industries. Second, it is an effective way of managing cattle waste as well as producing a quick acting, non-toxic fertilizer for agricultural use. A working model of biogas plant is studied in this paper and its economic value as an alternative energy source is examined. An alternative to direct generation of electricity, is to convert the methane from the biomass to methanol. Methanol is an excellent fuel for internal combustion engines and can easily compete with gasoline in many nations where gasoline costs over $4 per US gallon.

  2. Influence of Therapeutic Ceftiofur Treatments of Feedlot Cattle on Fecal and Hide Prevalences of Commensal Escherichia coli Resistant to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins, and Molecular Characterization of Resistant Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dee; Kuehn, Larry A.; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, the blaCMY-2 gene contained within incompatibility type A/C (IncA/C) plasmids is frequently identified in extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant (ESCr) Escherichia coli strains from both human and cattle sources. Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of ceftiofur in cattle may increase the prevalence of ESCr E. coli. We report that herd ESCr E. coli fecal and hide prevalences throughout the residency of cattle at a feedlot, including during the period of greatest ceftiofur use at the feedlot, were either not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) or significantly less (P < 0.05) than the respective prevalences at arrival. Longitudinal sampling of cattle treated with ceftiofur demonstrated that once the transient increase of ESCr E. coli shedding that follows ceftiofur injection abated, ceftiofur-injected cattle were no more likely than untreated members of the same herd to shed ESCr E. coli. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, screening for presence of the blaCMY-2 gene, and plasmid replicon typing were performed on 312 ESCr E. coli isolates obtained during six sampling periods spanning the 10-month residence of cattle at the feedlot. The identification of only 26 unique PFGE genotypes, 12 of which were isolated during multiple sampling periods, suggests that clonal expansion of feedlot-adapted blaCMY-2 E. coli strains contributed more to the persistence of blaCMY-2 than horizontal transfer of IncA/C plasmids between E. coli strains at this feedlot. We conclude that therapeutic use of ceftiofur at this cattle feedlot did not significantly increase the herd prevalence of ESCr E. coli. PMID:23354706

  3. Utilizing single particle Raman microscopy as a non-destructive method to identify sources of PM10 from cattle feedlot operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; McConnell, Laura L.; Razote, Edna; Schmidt, Walter F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Torrents, Alba; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Trabue, Steven L.; Prueger, John; Ro, Kyoung S.

    2013-02-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) pose a potential threat to the health of humans and livestock. Current efforts to characterize PM emissions from AFOs generally examine variations in mass concentration and particle size distributions over time and space, but these methods do not provide information on the sources of the PM captured. Raman microscopy was employed as a non-destructive method to quantify the contributions of source materials to PM10 emitted from a large cattle feedlot. Raman spectra from potential source materials (dust from unpaved roads, manure from pen surface, and cattle feed) were compiled to create a spectral library. Multivariate statistical analysis methods were used to identify specific groups composing the source library spectra and to construct a linear discriminant function to identify the source of particles collected on PM10 sample filters. Cross validation of the model resulted in 99.76% correct classification of source spectra in the training group. Source characterization results from samples collected at the cattle feedlot over a two-day period indicate that manure from the cattle pen surface contributed an average of 78% of the total PM10 particles, and dust from unpaved roads accounted for an average of 19% with minor contributions from feed. Results of this work are promising and provide support for further investigation into an innovative method to identify agricultural PM10 sources accurately under different meteorological and management conditions.

  4. Hierarchal clustering yields insight into multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from a cattle feedlot wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Ramler, Ivan P; Holder, Edith; Hayes, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two percent of Escherichia coli and 58% of Enterococcus spp. isolated from cattle feedlot runoff and associated infiltration basin and constructed wetland treatment system were resistant to at least one antibiotic of clinical importance; a high level of multidrug resistance (22% of E. coli and 37% of Enterococcus spp.) was observed. Hierarchical clustering revealed a closely associated resistance cluster among drug-resistant E. coli isolates that included cephalosporins (ceftiofur, cefoxitin, and ceftriaxone), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, and amikacin), and quinolone nalidixic acid; antibiotics from these classes were used at the study site, and cross-resistance may be associated with transferrable multiple-resistance elements. For Enterococcus spp., co-resistance among vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin was common; these antibiotics are reserved for complicated clinical infections and have not been approved for animal use. Vancomycin resistance (n = 49) only occurred when isolates were resistant to linezolid, daptomycin, and all four of the MLSB (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B) antibiotics tested (tylosin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and quinipristin/dalfopristin). This suggests that developing co-resistance to MLSB antibiotics along with cyclic lipopeptides and oxazolidinones may result in resistance to vancomycin as well. Effects of the treatment system on antibiotic resistance were pronounced during periods of no rainfall and low flow (long residence time). Increased hydraulic loading (short residence time) under the influence of rain caused antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be flushed through the treatment system. This presents concern for environmental discharge of multidrug-resistant organisms relevant to public health.

  5. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  6. Runoff losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Amarakoon, Inoka D; Zvomuya, Francis; Cessna, Allan J; Degenhardt, Dani; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-03-01

    Veterinary antimicrobials in land-applied manure can move to surface waters via rain or snowmelt runoff, thus increasing their dispersion in agro-environments. This study quantified losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in simulated rain runoff from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle ( L.) feedlot manure (60 Mg ha, wet wt.). Antimicrobial concentrations in runoff generally reflected the corresponding concentrations in the manure. Soil incorporation of manure reduced the concentrations of chlortetracycline (from 75 to 12 μg L for a 1:1 mixture of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine and from 43 to 17 μg L for chlortetracycline alone) and sulfamethazine (from 3.9 to 2.6 μg L) in runoff compared with surface application. However, there was no significant effect of manure application method on tylosin concentration (range, 0.02-0.06 μg L) in runoff. Mass losses, as a percent of the amount applied, for chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine appeared to be independent of their respective soil sorption coefficients. Mass losses of chlortetracycline were significantly reduced with soil incorporation of manure (from 6.5 to 1.7% when applied with sulfamethazine and from 6.5 to 3.5% when applied alone). Mass losses of sulfamethazine (4.8%) and tylosin (0.24%) in runoff were not affected by manure incorporation. Although our results confirm that cattle-excreted veterinary antimicrobials can be removed via surface runoff after field application, the magnitudes of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine losses were reduced by soil incorporation of manure immediately after application.

  7. Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and diversity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from a longitudinal study of beef cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Galland, J C; Hyatt, D R; Crupper, S S; Acheson, D W

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic diversity were determined for Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated over 11 months from four beef cattle feedlots in southwest Kansas. From the fecal pat (17,050) and environmental (7,134) samples collected, 57 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by use of bacterial culture and latex agglutination (C/LA). PCR showed that 26 isolates were eaeA gene positive. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified in at least one of the four feedlots in 14 of the 16 collections by C/LA and in 9 of 16 collections by PCR, but consecutive positive collections at a single feedlot were rare. Overall prevalence in fecal pat samples was low (0.26% by C/LA, and 0.08% by PCR). No detectable differences in prevalence or antibiotic resistance were found between isolates collected from home pens and those from hospital pens, where antibiotic use is high. Resistant isolates were found for six of the eight antibiotics that could be used to treat E. coli infections in food animals, but few isolates were multidrug resistant. The high diversity of isolates as measured by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and other characteristics indicates that the majority of isolates were unique and did not persist at a feedlot, but probably originated from incoming cattle. The most surprising finding was the low frequency of virulence markers among E. coli isolates identified initially by C/LA as E. coli O157:H7. These results demonstrate that better ways of screening and confirming E. coli O157:H7 isolates are required for accurate determination of prevalence.

  8. Dissemination of veterinary antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes from a concentrated swine feedlot along the waste treatment paths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ben, Weiwei; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are an important pollution source of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. This study investigated the dissemination of two classes of commonly-used veterinary antibiotics, namely, tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs), and their corresponding ARGs along the waste treatment paths from a concentrated swine feedlot located in Beijing, China. The highest total TC and total SA concentrations detected were 166.7mgkg(-1) and 64.5μgkg(-1) in swine manure as well as 388.7 and 7.56μgL(-1) in swine wastewater, respectively. Fourteen tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPP), efflux proteins (EFP) and enzymatic inactivation proteins, three sulfonamide resistance genes (SRGs), and two integrase genes were detected along the waste treatment paths with detection frequencies of 33.3-75.0%. The relative abundances of target ARGs ranged from 2.74×10(-6) to 1.19. The antibiotics and ARGs generally declined along both waste treatment paths, but their degree of reduction was more significant along the manure treatment path. The RPP TRGs dominated in the upstream samples and then decreased continuously along both waste treatment paths, whilst the EFP TRGs and SRGs maintained relatively stable. Strong correlations between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs were observed among both manure and wastewater samples. In addition, seasonal temperature, and integrase genes, moisture content and nutrient level of tested samples could all impact the relative abundances of ARGs along the swine waste treatment paths. This study helps understand the evolution and spread of ARGs from swine feedlots to the environment as well as assess the environmental risk arising from swine waste treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157 in market-ready beef cattle from 12 U.S. feedlots.

    PubMed

    Dewell, G A; Ransom, J R; Dewell, R D; McCurdy, K; Gardner, I A; Hill, A E; Sofos, J N; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Salman, M D

    2005-01-01

    Determination of Escherichia coli O157 prevalence immediately prior to shipment and harvest is an important facet of the ecology of this organism, which requires further elucidation. As part of a larger study to measure the effects of within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 on subsequent carcass contamination, fecal samples from 15 pens of cattle in each of 12 different feedlots in three states (Colorado, Nebraska, and Montana) were collected from June through September 2002. Thirty fresh fecal samples were collected from each pen floor within 36 h of shipment to slaughter. Fecal samples underwent standard enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and isolation procedures for E. coli O157. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine which factors best predicted pen-level positive culture results, and to estimate the magnitude of association between each factor and the outcome, while adjusting for other factors in the model. Thirteen (86.7%) of the 15 pens had at least one positive sample, and the within-pen prevalence of E. coli O157 in positive pens ranged from 3.3% to 77.8%. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from cattle fed brewers grains were six times that for cattle not fed brewers grains. The odds of E. coli O157 positive fecal samples from pens of cattle from Central Nebraska was nine times that for pens of cattle from Eastern Colorado. These data demonstrate that the presence of E. coli O157 in fecal samples from finished feedlot cattle is associated with feeding of brewers grain and geographic location. Additional studies to further characterize geographic distribution of E. coli O157 and to investigate pen-level intervention strategies should be conducted.

  10. Relationships of feedlot performance, feeding behavior, rumen morphometrics, and carcass characteristics of Nellore cattle differing in phenotypic residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M C S; Cruz, G D; Arrigoni, M D B; Rigueiro, A L N; Silva, J; Carrara, T V B; Santos, P C S; Cursino, L L; Millen, D D

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of DMI fluctuation, feedlot performance, feeding behavior, rumen morphometrics, and carcass characteristics in Nellore cattle classified by residual feed intake (RFI). One experiment was conducted in 2 consecutive years using individual pens (1.0 × 7.0 m) at the São Paulo State University feedlot, Dracena campus, Brazil. The experiment in year 1 started in June of 2012 with forty-eight 20-mo-old Nellore yearling bulls with an initial BW of 358.2 ± 19.4 kg. The experiment in year 2 started in January of 2013 with sixty 20-mo-old Nellore yearling bulls with an initial BW of 402.5 ± 33.0 kg. Experiments in years 1 and 2 lasted 94 and 84 d, respectively. All yearling bulls were categorized as high RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean, = 25), medium RFI (±0.5 SD from the mean, = 56), and low RFI (<0.5 SD below the mean, = 27). Visual appraisal to collect behavior data was made on d 40 (finishing period) of both years. Yearling bulls were harvested when average across treatment groups achieved a fat thickness of 4 mm at the 12th rib. Low-RFI yearling bulls had lower daily DMI, expressed either in kilograms ( < 0.01) or as percentage of BW ( < 0.01), and improved G:F ( < 0.01) when compared to high-RFI animals. No differences were observed ( > 0.10) for ADG, final BW, or HCW among RFI groups. Also, low-RFI yearling bulls had thinner final 12th rib ( < 0.01) and biceps femoris (P8) fat thickness ( < 0.01). Low-RFI yearling bulls were slower to consume ( = 0.03) and ruminate ( < 0.01) 1 kg of either DM or NDF. No significant ( > 0.10) RFI effect was observed for any ruminal morphometrics variables evaluated, with the exception of papillae area, in which low-RFI Nellore yearling bulls tended to have smaller ( = 0.07) papillae area than medium-RFI animals. In general, low-RFI Nellore yearling bulls consumed more particles larger than 19 and 8 mm and had a similar performance when compared to both medium- and high

  11. Investigations into the beneficial uses of ash from the combustion of manure from beef cattle feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for beneficial uses or co-products from the combustion of beef cattle manure were investigated. Phosphate concentrations indicate some potential for use as an agronomic soil amendment, but the phosphate is not freely released. Greenhouse studies suggest that neither good nor harm occur...

  12. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasolocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. In cattle, dietary amino acids can be extensively catabolized in the rumen and cattlemen often suppleme...

  13. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  14. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  15. Effect of water sprinkling on incidence of zoonotic pathogens in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Morrow, J L; Mitloehner, F M; Johnson, A K; Galyean, M L; Dailey, J W; Edrington, T S; Anderson, R C; Genovese, K J; Poole, T L; Duke, S E; Callaway, T R

    2005-08-01

    Heat stress and dusty conditions are common challenges for cattle during the summer, and a typical method of alleviating these problems involves sprinkling cattle and pens with water. The effect of sprinkling water on the incidence of zoonotic pathogens has not been previously studied. Four pens of heifers (n = 41) were cooled using sprinklers, and four pens (n = 43) served as controls. Heifers were crossbred Charolais, with white and red hair coats. Sprinkling was initiated when cattle were on full concentrate feed (July). Fecal samples, hide swipes, and BW were collected on d 0, 28, 63, 95, and 98. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were calculated, and carcass traits were collected 36 h after processing. Performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and zoonotic pathogen data were analyzed using chi2 analysis. Sprinkling tended (P = 0.054) to increase the incidence of fecal Salmonella spp. populations on d 98, but simultaneously tended to decrease (P = 0.058) the Escherichia coli O157:H7 incidence on hides on d 98. The most prevalent Salmonella serovars in this study were Kentucky, Muenster, Meleagridis, and Cerro. Performance measures and carcass traits did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10). Under our conditions, sprinkling cattle with water did not affect the incidence of zoonotic pathogens in feces or on hides.

  16. Fate of chlorate present in cattle wastes and its impact on Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli 0157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorate salts are being developed as a feed additive to reduce the numbers of pathogens in feedlot cattle. A series of studies was conducted to determine whether chlorate, at concentrations expected to be excreted in urine of dosed cattle, would also reduce the populations of pathogens in cattle wa...

  17. Detection of known and novel adenoviruses in cattle wastes via broad-spectrum primers.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Samuel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Pedersen, Joel A

    2011-07-01

    The critical assessment of bovine adenoviruses (BAdV) as indicators of environmental fecal contamination requires improved knowledge of their prevalence, shedding dynamics, and genetic diversity. We examined DNA extracted from bovine and other animal waste samples collected in Wisconsin for atadenoviruses and mastadenoviruses using novel, broad-spectrum PCR primer sets. BAdV were detected in 13% of cattle fecal samples, 90% of cattle urine samples, and 100% of cattle manure samples; 44 percent of BAdV-positive samples contained both Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus DNA. Additionally, BAdV were detected in soil, runoff water from a cattle feedlot, and residential well water. Overall, we detected 8 of 11 prototype BAdV, plus bovine, rabbit, and porcine mastadenoviruses that diverged significantly from previously reported genotypes. The prevalence of BAdV shedding by cattle supports targeting AdV broadly as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination in aqueous environments. Conversely, several factors complicate the use of AdV for fecal source attribution. Animal AdV infecting a given livestock host were not monophyletic, recombination among livestock mastadenoviruses was detected, and the genetic diversity of animal AdV is still underreported. These caveats highlight the need for continuing genetic surveillance for animal AdV and for supporting data when BAdV detection is invoked for fecal source attribution in environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report natural BAdV excretion in urine, BAdV detection in groundwater, and recombination in AdV of livestock origin.

  18. Effects of restricted vs. step up dietary adaptation for 6 or 9 days on feedlot performance, feeding behaviour, ruminal and blood variables of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, A; Millen, D D; Brichi, A L C; Vicari, D V F; Franzói, M C S; Barducci, R S; Martins, C L; Estevam, D D; Cesar, M T; Arrigoni, M D B

    2017-03-06

    This study was designed to determine effects of quantitatively restricted intake of the final finishing diet as a means of dietary adaptation compared with diets increasing in concentrate (step up) over periods of 6 and 9 days on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behaviour, blood gas profile and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. One hundred twenty 22-month-old Nellore bulls (352 ± 20 kg) were randomly allocated in 24 pens and fed for 84 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: adaptation using either step up protocol for 6 days or 9 days or restriction protocol for 6 days or 9 days, where the pen (five bullocks/pen; six pens/treatment) was considered the experimental unit. Cattle adapted by step up protocol had significantly greater average daily gain throughout the study when compared to those adapted by restriction protocol, regardless of adaptation length. During the adaptation period, a greater dry matter intake fluctuation was observed for animals maintained on restriction programme when compared to those adapted to the finishing diets using step up protocol. In addition, a protocol × length interaction for rumenitis scores was observed, where the level of injuries to the ruminal wall was significantly higher for the cattle adapted by restriction protocol for 9 days and lower for animals submitted for 9 days to the step up programme. Likewise, a protocol × length interaction for mitotic index was observed, in which cattle adapted by step up protocol for 9 days had lower numbers of cells in mitosis. Thus, the step up protocol led to better feedlot performance, and based on this fact, the length of 9 days promoted better rumen epithelium adaptation of Nellore cattle to high-concentrate diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting effects of cattle feedlot effluent on an aquatic sentinel species, the fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Edward F; Kolok, Alan S; Binzcik, Gerry A; Gates, Jennifer L; Horton, Megan K; Lambright, Christy S; Gray, L Earl; Soto, Ana M; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-03-01

    Over the last decade, research has examined the endocrine-disrupting action of various environmental pollutants, including hormones, pharmaceuticals, and surfactants, in sewage treatment plant effluent. Responding to the growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and the pollutants present in their wastewater (e.g., nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed a new rule that tightens the regulation of CAFOs. In this study, we collected wild fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to feedlot effluent (FLE) and observed significant alterations in their reproductive biology. Male fish were demasculinized (having lower testicular testosterone synthesis, altered head morphometrics, and smaller testis size). Defeminization of females, as evidenced by a decreased estrogen:androgen ratio of in vitro steroid hormone synthesis, was also documented. We did not observe characteristics in either male or female fish indicative of exposure to environmental estrogens. Using cells transfected with the human androgen receptor, we detected potent androgenic responses from the FLE. Taken together, our morphologic, endocrinologic, and in vitro gene activation assay data suggest two hypotheses: a) there are potent androgenic substance(s) in the FLE, and/or b) there is a complex mixture of androgenic and estrogenic substances that alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, inhibiting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or gonadotropins. This is the first study demonstrating that the endocrine and reproductive systems of wild fish can be adversely affected by FLE. Future studies are needed to further investigate the effects of agricultural runoff and to identify the biologically active agents, whether natural or pharmaceutical in origin.

  20. Thermophilic methane production from cattle waste.

    PubMed Central

    Varel, V H; Isaacson, H R; Bryant, M P

    1977-01-01

    Methane production from waste of cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated, using four 3-liter-working volume anaerobic digestors at 60 degrees C. At 55 degrees C a start-up culture, in which waste was the only source of bacteria, was generated within 8 days and readily adapted to 60 degrees C, where efficiency of methanogenesis was greater. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 65 degrees C tended to drastically lower efficiency. When feed concentrations of volatile solids (VS, organic matter) were increased in steps of 2% after holding for 1 months at a given concentration, the maximum concentrations for efficient fermentation were 8.2, 10.0, 11.6, and 11.6% for the retention times (RT) of 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. The VS destructions for these and lower feed concentrations were 31 to 37, 36 to 40, 47 to 49 and 51 to 53% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-day RT digestors, respectively, and the corresponding methane production rates were about 0.16, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.22 liters/day per g of VS in the feed. Gas contained 52 to 57% methane. At the above RT and feed concentrations, alkalinity rose to 5,000 to 7,700 mg of CaCo3 per liter (pH to 7.5 to 7.8), NH3 plus NH4+ to 64 to 90 mM, and total volatile acids to 850 to 2,050 mg/liter as acetate. The 3-day RT digestor was quite stable up to 8.2% feed VS and at this feed concentration produced methane at the very high rate of 4.5 liters/day per liter of digestor. Increasing the percentage of feed VS beyond those values indicated above resulted in greatly decreased organic matter destruction and methane production, variable decrease in pH, and increased alkalinity, ammonia, and total volatile acid concentrations, with propionate being the first to accumulate in large amounts. In a second experiment with another lot of waste, the results were similar. These studies indicate that loading rates can be much higher than those previously thought useful for maximizing methanogenesis from cattle waste. PMID:557954

  1. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0

  2. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on feedlot performance of Bos taurus feeder cattle originated from a rangeland-based cow-calf system.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Mills, R R; Bohnert, D W

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on performance of Angus × Hereford feeder cattle reared in extensive rangeland systems until weaning. In Exp. 1, 200 calves (n = 97 for yr 1; n = 103 for yr 2) were evaluated for temperament at weaning (average age ± SE = 152 ± 1 d) by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavior during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning calves a score from 1 (slowest) to 5 (fastest). A temperament score was calculated for each calf by averaging chute and exit scores. Calf temperament was classified according to temperament score as adequate (≤3) or excitable (>3). After weaning, calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning followed by growing (139 d) and finishing (117 d) phases until slaughter. Weaning BW was decreased (P = 0.04) in excitable calves compared with adequate calves. No differences were detected (P ≥ 0.21) for ADG during preconditioning, growing, and finishing phases; hence, excitable calves tended (P = 0.09) to have decreased HCW compared with adequate calves. In Exp. 2, 60 steers (initial age ± SE = 198 ± 2 d) were weighed and evaluated for temperament score 35 d after weaning (d -29). On d -28, steers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive an acclimation treatment or not (control). Acclimated steers were processed through a handling facility twice weekly for 4 wk (d -28 to -1) whereas control steers remained undisturbed on pasture. On d 0, all steers were transported for 24 h and returned to the research facility (d 1). On arrival, steers were ranked by BW within treatment and randomly assigned to 20 feedlot pens for a 28-d feedlot receiving period. Acclimated steers had decreased temperament score and plasma cortisol compared with controls on d 0 (P = 0.02). During feedlot receiving, acclimated steers had decreased ADG (P < 0.01) and G:F (P

  3. Sorghum grain flake density and source of roughage in feedlot cattle diets.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Wanderley, R C; Kattnig, R M; Urias, A; Ghenniwa, G

    1999-05-01

    Feedlot performance was studied in a 262-d trial using 126 crossbred beef steers (182 kg initial BW) to determine whether source of dietary roughage influences performance and carcass characteristics by steers fed growing (112 d) and finishing (150 d) diets with various flake densities (FD) of steam-processed sorghum grain. A 3 x 3 arrangement of treatments (two pens of seven steers each) was used, with dietary roughages being chopped alfalfa hay or 50:50 mixtures (equal NDF basis) of cotton-seed hulls or chopped wheat straw with alfalfa hay; sorghum grain was steam-flaked to densities of 386, 322, and 257 g/L (SF30, SF25, and SF20, reflecting bushel weight in pounds). The effects of these same FD on nutrient digestibilities were determined in three experiments with 24 crossbred steers fed finishing diets containing each of the roughage sources. No interactions between FD and roughage type were detected in any performance or carcass measurements (P > .10). Intake of DM decreased linearly (P < .05) in response to decreased FD. Daily rate and efficiency of gain were not altered (P >.10) by FD. Decreasing FD decreased linearly (P < .05) dressing percentage and fat thickness, but not other carcass measurements. Dietary roughage did not affect (P >.10) daily gains or carcass measurements, but DM intake was lower and feed efficiencies were superior (P < .05) when alfalfa hay was the sole source of roughage. Cottonseed hulls and wheat straw were relatively less valuable in the low roughage finishing diets than in higher roughage growing diets. Digestibilities of starch increased linearly as FD was decreased (P = .02) when steers were fed diets containing wheat straw, but not for alfalfa hay or cottonseed hull diets. Digestibilities of DM did not vary with changes in FD; however, changes in CP, NDF, and ADF digestibilities due to FD seemed to differ among experiments. In conclusion, performance and carcass measurement responses by growing-finishing steers to differences in

  4. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and roughage levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Vasconcelos, J T; Swingle, R S; Defoor, P J; Nunnery, G A; Salyer, G B; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and dietary roughage on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 200; BW = 314 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based diet containing 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing 40% WCGF, with either 9, 4.5, or 0% roughage. A linear (P = 0.04) increase in final BW and DMI (P < 0.01) was observed in diets containing WCGF as dietary roughage increased. Steers fed WCGF and higher levels of roughage had greater (P = 0.01) ADG than steers fed lower levels of roughage. Steers fed the CON diet had lower (P = 0.04) daily DMI and greater (P = 0.03) G:F than those fed WCGF. Most carcass characteristics of steers fed CON did not differ (P > 0.10) from those of steers fed WCGF. Based on feed disappearance and visual scan data, consumption rate did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments; however, feeding intensity (animals present at the bunk after feeding) was greater for steers fed CON (P < 0.01) than for steers fed WCGF. In Exp. 2, yearling crossbred steers (n = 1,983; BW = 339 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based control diet that contained 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing either 20% WCGF and 9% roughage or 40% WCGF with 9 or 4.5% roughage. Steers fed the CON diet tended to have lower final BW (P = 0.14), ADG (P = 0.01), and DMI (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets containing WCGF. Steers fed the 20% WCGF diet had greater (P = 0.08) G:F than steers fed the 40% WCGF diets. With 40% WCGF, increasing roughage from 4.5 to 9% decreased (P < 0.01) G:F and increased (P = 0.06) DMI. Gain efficiency was improved (P < 0.01) for steers fed CON vs. those fed diets containing WCGF, whereas HCW (P = 0.02) and dressing percentage (P < 0.01) were greater for steers fed WCGF. Percentage of

  5. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, B C; Burdick, N C; Rathmann, R J; Carroll, J A; Finck, D N; Jennings, M A; Young, T R; Johnson, B J

    2012-12-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed for 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) would alter glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. Cattle were fitted with jugular catheters on d 52. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an insulin sensitivity test (IST) were conducted on d 53. Blood samples were collected from -60 to 150 min relative to each infusion. Serum was isolated to determine glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations. Throughout GTT, no differences were detected in glucose concentrations, glucose clearance rates (k), or preinfusion insulin concentrations (P > 0.50), but insulin concentrations postinfusion tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for the Cr-supplemented steers. This caused an increase in the insulin to glucose ratio (I:G) from 0 to 150 min postinfusion for the Cr-supplemented steers (P = 0.03). In addition, NEFA concentrations during GTT were lower (P ≤ 0.01) for Cr-supplemented steers both preinfusion and postinfusion. During IST, there was no treatment effect on glucose concentrations preinfusion (P = 0.38), but postinfusion glucose concentrations were greater (P< 0.01) in the Cr-supplemented steers. The k of Cr-supplemented steers tended (P = 0.06) to be faster than Con steers from 30 to 45 min postinfusion. During the same test, there was no treatment effect detected for insulin concentrations (P > 0.33). The I:G were not affected by treatment (P > 0.40).Concentrations of NEFA were reduced (P < 0.01) both preinfusion and postinfusion during IST for Cr-supplemented steers. Results of this study indicate that supplementation of Cr can significantly alter lipid metabolism. This suggests that these steers had less dependence on lipid metabolism for energy or sensitivity of adipose tissue to antilipolytic signals was

  6. Evaluation of the National Research Council (1996) dry matter intake prediction equations and relationships between intake and performance by feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    McMeniman, J P; Defoor, P J; Galyean, M L

    2009-03-01

    Intake prediction equations of NRC based on initial BW and dietary NE(m) concentration were evaluated with a commercial feedlot database consisting of 3,363 pen means collected from 3 feedlots over a 4-yr period. The DMI predicted by NRC equations had significant (P < 0.01) mean and linear biases across the range of observed DMI in the database. In general, DMI was overpredicted by the NRC equations. Adjustment of the NE(m)-based prediction by use of a 12% increase in NE(m) concentration and a 4% decrease in predicted DMI associated with the feeding of monensin decreased bias. Dry matter intake predicted by the NE(m)-based monensin-adjusted, NE(m)- based, and initial BW equations explained 67, 66, and 64% of the variation in observed DMI, respectively. Relationships between ADG and G:F with DMI as a percentage of BW and NE(g) intake also were examined in the same data set. Across the wide range of average shrunk BW in the database (334.4 to 548.0 kg), ADG was positively related to DMI as a percentage of BW (P < 0.01); however, this relationship was not strong (r(2) = 0.17). Likewise, G:F showed little relationship with DMI as a percentage of BW (P < 0.01; r(2) = 0.05). By accounting for differences in maintenance energy requirements of pens with varying average BW, NE(g) intake was strongly and positively related to ADG (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.70); however, G:F showed little relationship with NE(g) intake (P = 0.02; r(2) = 0.01). Our evaluations with measurements of DMI by cattle in commercial feedlots indicated the shortcomings of current published equations for predicting DMI and suggest the need for development of new equations with improved accuracy and precision. Furthermore, our data indicate that increasing NE(g) in- take increased ADG in a quadratic manner but did not affect G:F by pens of cattle in feedlots. These findings suggest a diminishing returns effect of energy intake on energy retention.

  7. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately quantifying emissions of ammonia (NH3) from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is vital not only to the livestock industry, but essential to understanding nitrogen cycling along the Front Range of Colorado, USA, where intensive agriculture, urban sprawl, and pristine ecosystems (e.g., Rocky Mtn Nat'l Park) lie within 100-km of each other. Most observation-based techniques for estimating NH3 emissions can be expensive and highly technical. Many methods rely on concentration observations on location, which implicitly depends on weather conditions. A system for sampling NH3 using on-site weather data was developed to allow remote measurement of NH3 in a simple, cost-effective way. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a typical two-week deployment. Cartridge exposure is robotically managed so they are only visible when winds are 1.4 m/s or greater from the direction of the CAFO. These concentration data can be coupled with stability parameters (measured on-site) in a simple inverse model to estimate emissions (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures). Few studies have directly compared emissions estimates of NH3 using concentration data obtained from multiple measurement systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, in the summer and autumn of 2014, several conditional sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot concomitant with an open-path infrared laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc.) and a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) (G1103, Picarro Inc.) which each measured instantaneous NH3 concentrations. This study will test the sampler technology by first comparing concentration data from the three different methods. In livestock research, it is common to estimate NH3 emissions by using such instantaneous data in a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Sci.) Considering this, NH3 fluxes

  8. Comparison of Techniques to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Time-Averaged and Instantaneous Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) that volatilizes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can form aerosols that travel long distances where such aerosols can deposit in sensitive regions, potentially causing harm to local ecosystems. However, quantifying the emissions of ammonia from CAFOs through direct measurement is very difficult and costly to perform. A system was therefore developed at Colorado State University for conditionally sampling NH3 concentrations based on weather parameters measured using inexpensive equipment. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a two-week deployment period. The samplers are exposed by a robotic mechanism so they are only deployed when wind is from the direction of the CAFO at 1.4 m/s or greater. These concentration data, along with other weather variables measured during each sampler deployment period, can then be used in a simple inverse model (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France) to estimate emissions. There are not yet any direct comparisons of the modeled emissions derived from time-averaged concentration data to modeled emissions from more sophisticated backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) techniques that utilize instantaneous measurements of NH3 concentration. In the summer and autumn of 2013, a suite of robotic passive sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot at the same time as an open-path infrared (IR) diode laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) which continuously measured ammonia concentrations instantaneously over a 225-m path. This particular laser is utilized in agricultural settings, and in combination with a bLs model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Scientific, Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), has become a common method for estimating NH3 emissions from a variety of agricultural and industrial operations. This study will first

  9. Occurrence of the Transferable Copper Resistance Gene tcrB among Fecal Enterococci of U.S. Feedlot Cattle Fed Copper-Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Alvarado, C. A.; Mainini, T. R.; Vinasco, J.; Drouillard, J. S.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Copper, an essential micronutrient, is supplemented in the diet at elevated levels to reduce morbidity and mortality and to promote growth in feedlot cattle. Gut bacteria exposed to copper can acquire resistance, which among enterococci is conferred by a transferable copper resistance gene (tcrB) borne on a plasmid. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the feeding of copper at levels sufficient to promote growth increases the prevalence of the tcrB gene among the fecal enterococci of feedlot cattle. The study was performed with 261 crossbred yearling heifers housed in 24 pens, with pens assigned randomly to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments consisting of dietary copper and a commercial linseed meal-based energy protein supplement. A total of 22 isolates, each identified as Enterococcus faecium, were positive for tcrB with an overall prevalence of 3.8% (22/576). The prevalence was higher among the cattle fed diets supplemented with copper (6.9%) compared to normal copper levels (0.7%). The tcrB-positive isolates always contained both erm(B) and tet(M) genes. Median copper MICs for tcrB-positive and tcrB-negative enterococci were 22 and 4 mM, respectively. The transferability of the tcrB gene was demonstrated via a filter-mating assay. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis revealed a genetically diverse population of enterococci. The finding of a strong association between the copper resistance gene and other antibiotic (tetracycline and tylosin) resistance determinants is significant because enterococci remain potential pathogens and have the propensity to transfer resistance genes to other bacteria in the gut. PMID:23666328

  10. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that persist in feedlot cattle are genetically related and demonstrate an enhanced ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Brandon A; Nightingale, Kendra K; Mason, Gary L; Ruby, John R; Choat, W Travis; Loneragan, Guy H; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N; Belk, Keith E

    2009-09-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the nature of Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of feedlot cattle over the final 100 to 110 days of finishing. Rectal fecal grab samples were collected from an initial sample population of 788 steers every 20 to 22 days and microbiologically analyzed to detect E. coli O157:H7. The identities of presumptive colonies were confirmed using a multiplex PCR assay that screened for gene fragments unique to E. coli O157:H7 (rfbE and fliC(h7)) and other key virulence genes (eae, stx(1), and stx(2)). Animals were classified as having persistent shedding (PS), transient shedding (TS), or nonshedding (NS) status if they consecutively shed the same E. coli O157:H7 genotype (based on the multiplex PCR profile), exhibited variable E. coli O157 shedding, or never shed morphologically typical E. coli O157, respectively. Overall, 1.0% and 1.4% of steers were classified as PS and NS animals, respectively. Characterization of 132 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from PS and TS animals by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing yielded 32 unique PFGE types. One predominant PFGE type accounted for 53% of all isolates characterized and persisted in cattle throughout the study. Isolates belonging to this predominant and persistent PFGE type demonstrated an enhanced (P < 0.0001) ability to adhere to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells compared to isolates belonging to less common PFGE types but exhibited equal virulence expression. Interestingly, the attachment efficacy decreased as the genetic divergence from the predominant and persistent subtype increased. Our data support the hypothesis that certain E. coli O157:H7 strains persist in feedlot cattle, which may be partially explained by an enhanced ability to colonize the intestinal epithelium.

  11. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  12. Predicting phosphorus availability from soil-applied composted and non-composted cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Helgason, Bobbi L; Larney, Francis J; Janzen, H Henry; Akinremi, Olalekan O; Olson, Barry M

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of phosphorus (P) availability from soil-applied composts and manure is important for agronomic and environmental reasons. This study utilized chemical properties of eight composted and two non-composted beef cattle (Bos taurus) manures to predict cumulative phosphorus uptake (CPU) during a 363-d controlled environment chamber bioassay. Ten growth cycles of canola (Brassica napus L.) were raised in pots containing 2 kg of a Dark Brown Chernozemic clay loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic Haploboroll) mixed with 0.04 kg of the amendments. Inorganic P fertilizer (KH2PO4) and an unamended control were included for comparison. All treatments received a nutrient solution containing an adequate supply of all essential nutrients, except P, which was supplied by the amendments. Cumulative P uptake was similar for composted (74 mg kg-1 soil) and non-composted manures (60 mg kg-1 soil) and for the latter and the fertilizer (40 mg kg-1 soil). However, the CPU was significantly higher for organic amendments than the control (24 mg kg-1 soil) and for composted manure than the fertilizer. Apparent phosphorus recovery (APR) from composted manure (24%) was significantly lower than that from non-composted manure (33%), but there was no significant difference in APR between the organic amendments and the fertilizer (27%). Partial least squares (PLS) regression indicated that only two parameters [total water-extractable phosphorus (TPH2O) and total phosphorus (TP) concentration of amendments] were adequate to model amendment-derived cumulative phosphorus uptake (ACPU), explaining 81% of the variation in ACPU. These results suggest that P availability from soil-applied composted and non-composted manures can be adequately predicted from a few simple amendment chemical measurements. Accurate prediction of P availability and plant P recovery may help tailor manure and compost applications to plant needs and minimize the buildup of bioavailable P, which can contribute to

  13. Prevalence of Taenia saginata Larvae (Cysticercus bovis) in Feedlot Cattle Slaughtered in a Federal Inspection Type Abattoir in Northwest México.

    PubMed

    Cueto González, Sergio Arturo; Rodríguez Castillo, José Luis; López Valencia, Gilberto; Bermúdez Hurtado, Rosa María; Hernández Robles, Erika Selene; Monge Navarro, Francisco Javier

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was established using routine postmortem inspection of 52,322 feedlot cattle slaughtered at 1 Federal Inspection Type abattoir (TIF 301) located in the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, México. The study included 31,393 animals (60.0%) purchased and transported to Baja California from stocker operations located in 17 states of México and 20,929 animals (40.0%) native to Baja California. A total of 208 carcasses showed lesions suggestive of cysticercosis, and 109 were confirmed as positive for the parasite with a prevalence of 0.21%, equivalent to 2.1 cases/1000 carcasses inspected, 2.8 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle purchased in other states, and 1.0 cases/1000 carcasses for cattle native from Baja California. The sensitivity of the postmortem inspection, when compared to a gold standard of stereoscopic microscopy, was 52.4%. The prevalence of cysticercosis was 2.8 times higher in cattle from other states compared with those native to Baja California. Cysticerci were most frequently found in the heart, followed by liver and masseter muscles. In cattle from other states, 96.6% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and <4% as viable; in cattle native to Baja California, 29% of cysticerci were classified as calcified and 71% as viable. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis established at TIF 301 was found to be 28% lower than a previous report for Baja California. However, given the sensitivity of the postmortem inspection calculated between 10% and 50%, it is possible that an undetermined number of carcasses pass as being free of cysticerci and that the meat reached both domestic and international wholesale markets, increasing the possibility of human infection and causing substantial economic loss through condemnation of infected meat and trade restrictions for endemic regions.

  14. Associations between the distance traveled from sale barns to commercial feedlots in the United States and overall performance, risk of respiratory disease, and cumulative mortality in feeder cattle during 1997 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Renter, D G; Babcock, A H; Kelly, L; Slattery, R

    2012-06-01

    Most beef cattle are transported at least once during their lives, and this potentially stressful practice may affect subsequent health and performance. Limited research is available quantifying the effects of transport on feedlot performance and health, and particularly the risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD), which is the most common disease of weaned calves after arrival to the feedlot. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine potential associations between distance traveled (DTV) during transportation with health (cumulative BRD morbidity and mortality of all causes) and performance (ADG and HCW) parameters in cattle cohorts (n = 14,601) that arrived to 21 U.S. commercial feedlots from 1997 to 2009. Multivariable mixed-effects negative binomial and linear regression models were employed to determine associations between health and performance outcomes with DTV and other cohort-level demographic variables. Cattle were transported a median of 552 km from origin to feedlot with a mean (± SEM) of 698 ± 4.4 km. The mean (±SEM) cumulative BRD morbidity was 4.9% ± 0.01% (median = 1.1%; range: 0 to 100%) whereas the mean (±SEM) cumulative mortality due to all causes was 1.3% ± 0.01% (median = 0.8%; range: 0 to 28.7%). Distance traveled was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with BRD morbidity, overall mortality, HCW and ADG, and its effects were modified by demographic characteristics (i.e., cohort region of origin, mean arrival BW, gender, and the season of the year) of the cohort. Knowledge of the distance traveled during transportation could allow a more precise prediction of cattle feedlot health and performance.

  15. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P < 0.01) when compared with 25% DDGS inclusion. With 25% DDGS in the diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P < 0.01). A similar response (P < 0.01) occurred for total VFA concentrations at 0 h postfeeding. However, at 3 and 6 h postfeeding, propionate concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in cattle fed the 60% DDGS diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with

  16. Influence of Feeding Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast Cell Wall on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Feedlot Cattle during Periods of Elevated Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Chavira, J.; Arzola, C.; González-Vizcarra, V.; Manríquez-Núñez, O. M.; Montaño-Gómez, M. F.; Navarrete-Reyes, J. D.; Raymundo, C.; Zinn, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In experiment 1, eighty crossbred steers (239±15 kg) were used in a 229-d experiment to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY) cell wall in diets on growth performance feedlot cattle during periods of elevated ambient temperature. Treatments consisted of steam-flaked corn-based diets supplemented to provide 0, 1, 2, or 3 g EHY/hd/d. There were no effects on growth performance during the initial 139-d period. However, from d 139 to harvest, when 24-h temperature humidity index averaged 80, EHY increased dry matter intake (DMI) (linear effect, p<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) (linear effect, p = 0.01). There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on carcass characteristics. In experiment 2, four Holstein steers (292±5 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin Square design experiment to evaluate treatments effects on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion in steers. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid, molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, or estimated methane production. Supplemental EHY decreased ruminal molar proportion of acetate (p = 0.08), increased molar proportion of propionate (p = 0.09), and decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.07) and estimated ruminal methane production (p = 0.09). It is concluded that supplemental EHY may enhance DMI and ADG of feedlot steers during periods of high ambient temperature. Supplemental EHY may also enhance ruminal fiber digestion and decrease ruminal acetate:propionate molar ratios in feedlot steers fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets. PMID:26194225

  17. Retrospective serosurveillance of bovine norovirus (GIII.2) and nebovirus in cattle from selected feedlots and a veal calf farm in 1999 to 2001 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christopher; Jung, Kwonil; Han, Myung-Guk; Hoet, Armando; Scheuer, Kelly; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on the seroprevalence of bovine norovirus (BoNoV) and nebovirus in cattle of the US. In this retrospective study, serum IgG antibodies to two bovine enteric caliciviruses, GIII.2 BoNoV (Bo/CV186-OH/00/US) and genetically and antigenically distinct nebovirus (Bo/NB/80/US), were evaluated in feedlot and veal calves from different regions of the US during 1999-2001. Three groups of 6- to 7-month-old feedlot calves from New Mexico (NM) (n=103), Arkansas (AR) (n=100) and Ohio (OH) (n=140) and a group of 7- to 10-day-old Ohio veal calves (n=47) were studied. Serum samples were collected pre-arrival or at arrival to the farms for the NM, AR and OH calves and 35 days after arrival for all groups for monitoring seroconversion rates during the period. Virus-like particles of Bo/CV186-OH/00/US and Bo/NB/80/US were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and were used in ELISA to measure antibodies. A high seroprevalence of 94-100 % and 78-100 % was observed for antibodies to GIII.2 BoNoV and nebovirus, respectively, in the feedlot calves tested. In the Ohio veal farm, an antibody seroprevalence of 94-100 % and 40-66 % was found for GIII.2 BoNoV and nebovirus, respectively. Increased seropositive rates of 38-85 % for GIII.2 BoNoV and 26-83 % for nebovirus were observed at 35 days after arrival and commingling on farms for all groups. Infection of calves with either GIII.2 BoNoV or nebovirus, or both viruses, appeared to be common in the regions studied in the US during 1999-2001. These two viruses likely remain endemic because no commercial vaccines are available.

  18. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  19. Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Namita; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Torres, Siddartha; Li, Feng; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most costly disease affecting the cattle industry. The pathogenesis of BRD is complex and includes contributions from microbial pathogens as well as host, environmental and animal management factors. In this study, we utilized viral metagenomic sequencing to explore the virome of nasal swab samples obtained from feedlot cattle with acute BRD and asymptomatic pen-mates at six and four feedlots in Mexico and the USA, respectively, in April-October 2015. Twenty-one viruses were detected, with bovine rhinitis A (52.7 %) and B (23.7 %) virus, and bovine coronavirus (24.7 %) being the most commonly identified. The emerging influenza D virus (IDV) tended to be significantly associated (P=0.134; odds ratio=2.94) with disease, whereas viruses commonly associated with BRD such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus were detected less frequently. The detection of IDV was further confirmed using a real-time PCR assay. Nasal swabs from symptomatic animals had significantly more IDV RNA than those collected from healthy animals (P=0.04). In addition to known viruses, new genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus and enterovirus E were identified and a newly proposed species of bocaparvovirus, Ungulate bocaparvovirus 6, was characterized. Ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 was also detected for the first time in North America to our knowledge. These results illustrate the complexity of the virome associated with BRD and highlight the need for further research into the contribution of other viruses to BRD pathogenesis.

  20. Mobile mapping and eddy covariance flux measurements of NH3 emissions from cattle feedlots with a portable laser-based open-path sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Pan, D.; Golston, L.; Stanton, L. G.; Ham, J. M.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Nash, C.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant alkaline species in the atmosphere and an important compound in the global nitrogen cycle. There is a large uncertainty in NH3 emission inventory from agriculture, which is the largest source of NH3, including livestock farming and fertilizer applications. In recent years, a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based open-path sensor has been developed to provide high-resolution, fast-response and high-sensitivity NH3 measurements. It has a detection limit of 150 pptv with a sample rate up to 20 Hz. This sensor has been integrated into a mobile platform mounted on the roof of a car to perform measurement of multiple trace gases. We have also used the sensor for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. The mobile sensing method provides high spatial resolution and fast mapping of measured gases. Meanwhile, the EC flux method offers accurate flux measurements and resolves the diurnal variability of NH3emissions. During the DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPÉ field campaigns in 2014, this mobile platform was used to study NH3 emissions from cattle feedlot near Fort Morgan, Colorado. This specific feedlot was mapped multiple times in different days to study the variability of its plume characteristics. At the same time, we set up another open-path NH3 sensor with LICOR open-path sensors to perform EC flux measurements of NH3, CH4 and CO2 simultaneously in the same cattle feedlot as shown in Fig. 1. NH3/CH4 emission flux ratio show a strong temperature dependence from EC flux measurements. The median value of measured NH3 and CH4 emission flux ratio is 0.60 ppmv/ppmv. In contrast, the median value of ΔNH3/ΔCH4 ratios measured from mobile platform is 0.53 ppmv/ppmv for the same farm. The combination of mobile mapping and EC flux measurements with the same open-path sensors greatly improves understanding of NH3 emissions both spatially and temporally.

  1. Dry-rolled or steam-flaked grain-based diets and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Fox, J T; Depenbusch, B E; Drouillard, J S; Nagaraja, T G

    2007-05-01

    Hindgut is a major colonization site for Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. In this study, diets were formulated to effect changes in hindgut fermentation to test our hypothesis that changes in the hindgut ecosystem could have an impact on fecal shedding of E. coli O157. Feedlot heifers (n = 347) were prescreened for the prevalence of E. coli O157 by fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab cultures. A subset of 40 heifers identified as being positive for fecal shedding of E. coli O157 was selected, housed in individual pens, and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial, with factor 1 consisting of grain type (sorghum or wheat) and factor 2 being method of grain processing (steam-flaking or dry-rolling). Four transition diets, each fed for 4 d, were used to adapt the animals to final diets that contained 93% concentrate and 7% roughage. The grain fraction consisted of dry-rolled sorghum, steam-flaked sorghum, a mixture of dry-rolled wheat and steam-flaked corn, or a mixture of steam-flaked wheat and steam-flaked corn. Wheat diets contained 52% wheat and 31% steam-flaked corn (DM basis). Fecal and rectoanal mucosal swab samples were obtained 3 times a week to isolate (enrichment, immunomagenetic separation, and plating on selective medium) and identify (sorbitol negative, indole production, and agglutination test) E. coli O157. The data were analyzed as repeated measures of binomial response (positive or negative) on each sampling day. Method of processing (dry-rolled vs. steam-flaked), sampling day, and the grain type x day interaction were significant (P < 0.05), but not the method of processing x grain type interaction. The average prevalence of E. coli O157 from d 9 was greater (P < 0.001) in cattle fed steam-flaked grains (65%) compared with those fed dry-rolled grains (30%). Average prevalence in cattle fed sorghum (51%) or wheat (43%) were similar (P > 0.10) on most sampling days. Results from this study indicate that

  2. Evaluation of Commercial β-Agonists, Dietary Protein, and Shade on Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wells, James E; Berry, Elaine D; Kim, Minseok; Shackelford, Steven D; Hales, Kristin E

    2017-08-28

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen commonly associated with cattle feces. Diet, including dietary supplements such as β-agonists, may impact fecal shedding of this pathogen. A series of three experiments were conducted to determine if the β-agonists ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) or zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) would impact the level or prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding. In Experiment 1, dietary RAC did not impact fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 based on the level or prevalence, but the addition of dietary soybean meal (SBM) in the study did reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding. In Experiments 2 and 3, dietary ZH did not affect fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding as determined by enumeration or prevalence, but in Experiment 2 the addition of 30% (dry matter basis) wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the diet tended to increase E. coli O157:H7 shedding. Shade is a potential management tool to reduce heat stress in cattle, and in Experiment 3 the presence of shade over the feedlot pens did not affect E. coli O157:H7 shedding. The use of β-agonists in cattle diets did not significantly affect fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7, and in particular the percentage of animals shedding enumerable levels of the pathogen did not change, indicating that there was not a change in colonization. As has been reported previously and indicated again in this study, the use of WDGS in the diet may increase E. coli O157:H7 shedding. In contrast, the addition of SBM to cattle diets, to increase the dietary crude protein, appeared to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding, but this potential dietary intervention needs to be confirmed with additional research.

  3. Escherichia coli O26 in feedlot cattle: fecal prevalence, isolation, characterization, and effects of an E. coli O157 vaccine and a direct-fed microbial.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Zac D; Renter, David G; Cull, Charley A; Shi, Xiarong; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP(®)) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 10(9) CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii). Cattle were randomly allocated to 40 pens within 10 complete blocks; pens were randomly assigned to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM treatments. Vaccine was administered on days 0 and 21, and DFM was fed throughout the study. Pen-floor fecal samples (30/pen) were collected weekly for the last 4 study weeks. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect O26-specific wzx gene and four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) and to a culture-based procedure that involved immunomagnetic separation and plating on MacConkey agar. Ten presumptive E. coli colonies were randomly picked, pooled, and tested by the multiplex PCR. Pooled colonies positive for O26 serogroup were streaked on sorbose MacConkey agar, and 10 randomly picked colonies per sample were tested individually by the multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of E. coli O26 was higher (p<0.001) by the culture-based method compared to the PCR assay (22.7 versus 10.5%). The interventions (VAC and or DFM) had no impact on fecal shedding of O26. Serogroup O26 was recovered in pure culture from 23.9% (260 of 1089) of O26 PCR-positive pooled colonies. Only 7 of the 260 isolates were positive for the stx gene and 90.1% of the isolates possessed an eaeβ gene that codes for intimin subtype β, but not the bfpA gene, which codes for bundle-forming pilus. Therefore, the majority of the O26 recovered from feedlot cattle feces was

  4. Corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility.

    PubMed

    May, M L; DeClerck, J C; Quinn, M J; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Hales, K E; Galyean, M L

    2010-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn (CDG) and sorghum (SDG) wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestion of nutrients. In Exp. 1, 224 steers were used in a randomized complete block design (initial BW 391.1 +/- 9.51 kg) and fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets consisting of (DM basis) 0% distillers grains (CON), 15% SDG, 30% SDG, 15% CDG, 30% CDG, 15% of a 50:50 blend of SDG and CDG, and 30% of a 50:50 blend of CDG and SDG. Decreased carcass-adjusted final BW and HCW (P < or = 0.05) were noted as the inclusion amount of distillers grains increased in the diet. Body weight gain efficiency did not differ among the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON treatments, but G:F was numerically less with either amount of SDG than for CON, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) as distillers grains were increased from 15 to 30%. Cattle fed CON had greater carcass yield grades than those fed the distillers grain diets (P < or = 0.05). In Exp. 2, crossbred beef steers (n = 36; initial BW 567.3 +/- 53.1 kg) were used in a generalized randomized block design and fed SFC-based diets with 0% distillers grains (CON) and 15% (DM basis) CDG or SDG. Digestibility was determined with a pulse dose of Cr(2)O(3). Feeding steers 15% CDG or SDG increased intakes of CP and NDF (P < or = 0.05), but intakes of DM, OM, and starch did not differ among treatments (P >o r = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and starch (P > or = 0.25) did not differ among the 3 treatments. Fecal pH averaged over all sampling times was not affected by treatment, nor were average fecal pH values for prefeeding samples (0, 24, 48, and 72 h after the pulse dose) or for samples taken after feeding (12, 36, and 60 h after the pulse dose; P > or = 0.11). Results suggest that with 15% distillers grains in the DM, G:F was similar for cattle fed the CDG, 50:50 SDG and CDG blend, and CON diets

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling in Montana yearling cattle entering Alberta feedlots: Fall 2001

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A serologic survey was conducted in yearling cattle imported into Alberta feedlots from Montana during October 2001 to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Anaplasma marginale in Montana yearling cattle. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to BTV when the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was used was 0.37% (21/5608). Test positive cELISA samples were also all positive when tested by virus neutralization (VN) and they reacted to 1 or more BTV serotypes, including 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. The apparent prevalence of antibodies to A. marginale when a recombinant cELISA (rcELISA) was used with a positive cutoff at 30% inhibition was 1.93% (108/5608). When the rcELISA positive cutoff was at 42% inhibition, the apparent prevalence was 0.73% (41/5608). After the reported sensitivity and specificity of the test had been accounted for, the A. marginale antibody results were consistent with a population that was either free of exposure or had a very low prevalence for A. marginale. PMID:15283518

  6. Effects of supplemental lysine and methionine with zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hosford, A D; Hergenreder, J E; Kim, J K; Baggerman, J O; Ribeiro, F R B; Anderson, M J; Spivey, K S; Rounds, W; Johnson, B J

    2015-09-01

    Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with ruminally protected AA was evaluated in a small-pen feeding trial. Crossbred steers ( = 180; initial BW = 366 kg) were blocked by weight and then randomly assigned to treatments (45 pens; 9 pens/treatment). Treatment groups consisted of no ZH and no AA (Cont-), ZH and no AA (Cont+), ZH and a ruminally protected lysine supplement (Lys), ZH and a ruminally protected methionine supplement (Met), and ZH and ruminally protected lysine and methionine (Lys+Met). Zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg DM) was fed for the last 20 d of the finishing period with a 3-d withdrawal period. Lysine and Met were top dressed daily for the 134-d feeding trial to provide 12 or 4 g·hd·d, respectively, to the small intestine. Carcass characteristics, striploins, and prerigor muscle samples were collected following harvest at a commercial facility. Steaks from each steer were aged for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined as an indicator of tenderness. Prerigor muscle samples were used for immunohistological analysis. Cattle treated with Met and Lys+Met had increased final BW ( < 0.3) and ADG ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- and Cont+. Supplementation of Lys, Met, and Lys+Met improved G:F ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- during the ZH feeding period (d 111 to 134) as well as the entire feeding period ( < 0.05). Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass ADG ( < 0.05) when compared to non-ZH-fed steers. Methionine and Lys+Met treatments had heavier HCW ( < 0.02) than that of Cont-. Yield grade was decreased ( < 0.04) for Cont+ steers compared to steers treated with Lys, Lys+Met, and Cont-. Tenderness was reduced ( < 0.05) with ZH regardless of AA supplementation. Lysine, Met, Lys+Met, and Cont+ had less tender steaks ( < 0.05) throughout all aging groups compared to Cont-. Steaks from Lys-treated steers were less tender ( < 0.05) than those of Cont+ during the 7- and 14-d aging periods. Nuclei density was the greatest

  7. Evaluation of fixed sources of variation and estimation of genetic parameters for incidence of bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves and feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M J; Tait, R G; Ruble, M V; Busby, W D; Reecy, J M

    2010-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) incidence in beef calves before weaning and during the finishing phase. The second objective was to investigate the impact of BRD incidence and treatment frequency on performance and carcass traits. Bovine respiratory disease is the biggest and most costly health challenge facing the cattle industry. The 2 populations used consisted of 1,519 preweaned calves and 3,277 head of feedlot cattle. The incidence rate of BRD in preweaned calves was 11.39%, and among treated cattle, 82.1% were treated once, 13.9% were treated twice, and 4.0% were treated 3 times or more. The incidence of BRD (P = 0.35) and the number of treatments (P = 0.77) had no significant effect on weaning BW. Heritability estimates of the entire preweaned population for BRD resistance and number of treatments were 0.11 +/- 0.06 and 0.08 +/- 0.05, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates for BRD incidence with weaning BW and birth BW were low (-0.02 +/- 0.32 and 0.07 +/- 0.27, respectively). The same estimate for the number of BRD treatments with weaning BW and birth BW was 0.25 +/- 0.35 and 0.30 +/- 0.27, respectively. The observed BRD incidence rate for feedlot cattle was observed at 9.43%. Incidence of BRD significantly (P < 0.01) decreased overall and acclimation ADG by 0.06 +/- 0.01 kg/d and 0.28 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. Carcass traits were also significantly (P < 0.05) affected by BRD incidence; untreated cattle had a 9.1 +/- 1.7-kg heavier HCW. Results were similar in the analysis of treatment frequency. The heritability estimate of BRD incidence and the number of treatments were 0.07 +/- 0.04 and 0.02 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of BRD incidence with production traits were -0.63 +/- 0.22 for acclimation ADG, -0.04 +/- 0.23 for on-test ADG, -0.31 +/- 0.21 for overall ADG, -0.39 +/- 0.21 for final BW, -0.22 +/- 0.22 for HCW, -0

  8. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Johnson, Roger P; Alexander, Trevor W; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6-54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated.

  9. Influence of Season and Feedlot Location on Prevalence and Virulence Factors of Seven Serogroups of Escherichia coli in Feces of Western-Canadian Slaughter Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Roger P.; Alexander, Trevor W.; McAllister, Tim A.; Reuter, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Pooled feces collected over two years from 1749 transport trailers hauling western-Canadian slaughter cattle were analysed by PCR for detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sequential immunomagnetic separation was then used to collect bacterial isolates (n = 1035) from feces positive for target serogroups. Isolated bacteria were tested by PCR to confirm serogroup and the presence of eae, ehxA, stx1, and stx2 virulence genes. Based on PCR screening, serogroup prevalence in feces ranged from 7.0% (O145) to 94.4% (O103) with at least 3 serogroups present in 79.5% of samples. Origin of cattle affected serogroup PCR prevalence and O157 was most prevalent in feces from south-west Alberta (P < 0.001). All serogroups demonstrated seasonal variations in PCR prevalence, with O26, O45, O103, O121, and O157 least prevalent (P < 0.001) in cooler winter months, while uncommon serogroups O111 and O145 increased in prevalence during winter (P < 0.001). However, isolates collected during winter were predominantly from serogroups O103 and O45. No seasonal variation was noted in proportion of isolates which were Shiga toxin containing E. coli (STEC; P = 0.18) or positive for Shiga toxin and eae (enterohemorrhagic E. coli; EHEC; P = 0.29). Isolates of serogroups O111, O145, and O157 were more frequently EHEC than were others, although 37.6–54.3% of isolates from other serogroups were also EHEC. Shiga-toxin genes present also varied by geographic origin of cattle (P < 0.05) in all serogroups except O157. As cattle within feedlots are sourced from multiple regions, locational differences in serogroup prevalence and virulence genes imply existence of selection pressures for E. coli and their virulence in western-Canadian cattle. Factors which reduce carriage or expression of virulence genes, particularly in non-O157 serogroups, should be investigated. PMID:27482711

  10. Influence of dry-rolling and tempering agent addition during the steam-flaking of sorghum grain on its feeding value for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Alverez, E G; Montano, M; Salinas-Chavira, J

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of dry-rolling (DRS) and tempering agent (TA) addition during the steam-flaking of grain sorghum (SFS) for feedlot cattle. Five dietary treatments were compared: 1) DRS; 2) SFS, no TA; 3) SFS, 0.275 mg/kg of TA; 4) SFS, 1.375 mg/kg of TA; and 5) SFS, 2.750 mg/kg of TA. Bulk densities of DRS and SFS were 0.48 and 0.36 kg/L, respectively. Diets contained 70.6% grain sorghum (DM basis). One hundred fifty crossbred steers (336 kg of BW) were used in a 115-d finishing experiment to evaluate treatment effects on feedlot performance. Body weight gain averaged 1.49 kg/d and was not affected (P = 0.47) by treatments. The SFS reduced (P < 0.01) DMI (9%) and enhanced (P < 0.01) G:F (13%) and the NE(m) and NE(g) value of the diet (9 and 11%, respectively). Use of a TA before flaking sorghum did not influence (P > 0.20) cattle growth performance or NE(m) or NE(g) value of the diet. Given that the NE(m) and NE(g) values of DRS are 2.00 and 1.35 Mcal/kg, respectively (NRC, 1996), the corresponding values for SFS were 2.28 and 1.59 Mcal/kg. Five steers (397 kg of BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on digestive function. Ruminal digestion of OM and starch was greater (14 and 16%, respectively; P < 0.01) for SFS vs. DRS. Steam-flaking sorghum increased (P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of OM (11%), N (10%), and starch (25%) and total tract digestion (P < 0.01) of OM (8.3%), N (8.2%), and starch (8.9%). Grain processing did not affect (P > 0.20) ruminal pH or VFA molar proportions. There was a cubic component (P < 0.10) to level of TA on ruminal pH and VFA molar proportions, with values being optimal at 1.375 mg/kg of tempering agent. It is concluded that steam-flaking grain sorghum will increase its NE value for maintenance and gain (14 and 18%, respectively) and enhance the MP value of the diet due to greater intestinal N digestion. The use of a TA to

  11. The effects of shade on performance, carcass classes and behaviour of heat-stressed feedlot cattle at the finisher phase.

    PubMed

    Blaine, K L; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2011-03-01

    The study aimed to determine the impact of shade on the performance, carcass class and behaviour using 146 crossbred steers and bulls during the finishing phase on a commercial feedlot in February. Treatments were (1) shade and (2) no shade. Average daily gain (ADG), DMI, and feed efficiency were measured, and hot carcass weight (HCW) and grades were collected at slaughter. The proportion of animals within a pen engaged in various behavioural activities (standing, lying, feeding and panting) was recorded. Five randomly selected individual animals per treatment were monitored every 2 min between 0700 and 1600 hours to determine the time spent on each of the above activities. Shade improved the final body weight (P < 0.0001), ADG (P = 0.079), and HCW by 8.33 kg (P < 0.05). Shade increased (P < 0.05) the feeding activity but decreased (P < 0.05) panting behaviour. Shade conferred an economic benefit of R2.03 head(-1)week(-1), and thus would reduce heat stress and increase the feedlot profitability.

  12. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against type III secreted proteins reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum in beef cattle in commercial feedlots.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Moxley, Rodney A; Peterson, Robert E; Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bretschneider, Gustavo; Berberov, Emil M; Clowser, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    A large-scale clinical vaccine trial of commercially fed cattle was conducted to test the efficacy of a two-dose regimen of a vaccine product against type III secreted proteins of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the probability to detect the same organism from terminal rectal mucosa (TRM) as a measure of gut colonization. Vaccine was administered to all cattle within treated pens at arrival processing and at reimplant processing. At harvest, TRM was collected from a sample of cattle from within vaccinated and nonvaccinated pens. The TRM were collected by scraping the mucosa of the terminal rectum 3-5 cm proximal to the rectoanal juncture. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated and identified from TRM using standard culture methods involving selective enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, and PCR confirmation. The probability to detect E. coli O157:H7 from TRM was modeled using a generalized linear mixed model with a logit link function and accounting for random effects of pen within feedlot. Seven hundred eighteen cattle were tested from within 21 pens of cattle (11 vaccinated and 10 not vaccinated) representing 3683 cattle. E. coli O157:H7 was cultured from 68 of 718 (9.5%) TRM samples. Eleven of 382 (2.9%) vaccinated cattle and 57 of 336 (17.0%) nonvaccinated cattle were TRM culture positive. From the multilevel logistic model, vaccinated cattle were 92% less likely to be colonized with E. coli O157:H7 than nonvaccinated cattle (odds ratio [OR] = 0.07, p = 0.0008). Additional explanatory variables were region of the state (OR = 7.4, p = 0.04), and pens with fewer cattle (OR = 0.22, p = 0.05). We concluded that the two-dose vaccine regimen effectively reduced the probability for E. coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum of commercially fed cattle at harvest.

  13. Interactive effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn and concentration of Sweet Bran on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ≤ 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ≤ 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ≤ 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD

  14. Virulence Gene Profiles and Clonal Relationships of Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates from Feedlot Cattle as Determined by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rump, Lydia V.; Cao, Guojie; Nagaraja, T. G.; Meng, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized mainly into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) O26, carrying a locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and mostly causing mild diarrhea, and Shiga-toxigenic (STEC) O26, which carries the Shiga toxin (STX) gene (stx), responsible for more severe outcomes. stx-negative O26 strains can be further split into two groups. One O26 group differs significantly from O26 EHEC, while the other O26 EHEC-like group shows all the characteristics of EHEC O26 except production of STX. In order to determine the different populations of O26 E. coli present in U.S. cattle, we sequenced 42 O26:H11 strains isolated from feedlot cattle and compared them to 37 O26:H11 genomes available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) showed that O26:H11/H− strains in U.S. cattle were highly diverse. Most strains were sequence type 29 (ST29). By wgMLST, two clear lineages could be distinguished among cattle strains. Lineage 1 consisted of O26:H11 EHEC-like strains (ST29) (4 strains) and O26:H11 EHEC strains (ST21) (2 strains), and lineage 2 (36 strains) consisted of O26:H11 EPEC strains (ST29). Overall, our analysis showed U.S. cattle carried pathogenic (ST21; stx1+ ehxA+ toxB+) and also potentially pathogenic (ST29; ehxA+ toxB+) O26:H11 E. coli strains. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that 70% of the cattle strains carried at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. Our results showed that whole-genome sequence analysis is a robust and valid approach to identify and genetically characterize E. coli O26:H11, which is of importance for food safety and public health. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli O26 is the second most important type of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) worldwide. Serogroup O26 strains are categorized into two groups: enteropathogenic (EPEC) carrying LEE, causing mild diarrhea, and

  15. Genetic parameters for body weight, hip height, and the ratio of weight to hip height from random regression analyses of Brahman feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the genetic control of BW, hip height, and the ratio of BW to hip height (n = 5,055) in Brahman cattle through 170 d on feed using covariance function-random regression models. A progeny test of Brahman sires (n = 27) generated records of Brahman steers and heifers (n = 724) over 7 yr. Each year after weaning, calves were assigned to feedlot pens, where they were fed a high-concentrate grain diet. Body weights and hip heights were recorded every 28 d until cattle reached a targeted fatness level. All calves had records through 170 d on feed; subsequent records were excluded. Models included contemporary group (sex-pen-year combinations, n = 63) and age at the beginning of the feeding period as a covariate. The residual error structure was modeled as a random effect, with 2 levels corresponding to two 85-d periods on feed. Information criterion values indicated that linear, random regression coefficients on Legendre polynomials of days on feed were most appropriate to model additive genetic effects for all 3 traits. Cubic (hip height and BW:hip height ratio) or quartic (BW) polynomials best modeled permanent environmental effects. Estimates of heritability across the 170-d feeding period ranged from 0.31 to 0.53 for BW, from 0.37 to 0.53 for hip height, and from 0.23 to 0.6 for BW:hip height ratio. Estimates of the permanent environmental proportion of phenotypic variance ranged from 0.44 to 0.58 for BW, 0.07 to 0.26 for hip height, and 0.30 to 0.48 for BW:hip height ratio. Within-trait estimates of genetic correlation on pairs of days on feed (at 28-d intervals) indicated lower associations of BW:hip height ratio EBV early and late in the feeding period but large positive associations for BW or hip height EBV throughout. Estimates of genetic correlations among the 3 traits indicated almost no association of BW:hip height ratio and hip height EBV. The ratio of BW to hip height in cattle has previously been used as an

  16. A meta-analysis of zilpaterol and ractopamine effects on feedlot performance, carcass traits and shear strength of meat in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Thompson, John M; Dunshea, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Zilpaterol and Ractopamine Effects on Feedlot Performance, Carcass Traits and Shear Strength of Meat in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Ian J.; Thompson, John M.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality. PMID:25548908

  18. Quantification of the bla(CMY-2) in feces from beef feedlot cattle administered three different doses of ceftiofur in a longitudinal controlled field trial.

    PubMed

    Alali, W Q; Scott, H M; Norby, B; Gebreyes, W; Loneragan, G H

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this longitudinal controlled trial was to quantitatively compare carriage of a gene encoding for ceftiofur-resistance (bla(CMY-2)), standardized to a reference gene (16SrRNA), among total community DNA extracted from fecal samples collected from cattle treated with three different dose regimens of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) versus those untreated (controls). Sixty-one steers were assigned to three treatment regimens and housed in six pens. In each pen, five steers were treated and five were controls (one of the pens had six controls). CCFA administration was as follows: two-thirds dose treatment (4.4 mg/kg, on day 0), single-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on day 0), and three-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on days 0, 6, and 13). Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, and 28. The gene copy numbers/gram of feces for bla(CMY-2) and 16SrRNA were determined in total community DNA samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The relationships between the quantities of standardized bla(CMY-2), nonstandardized bla(CMY-2), and nonstandardized 16SrRNA, and the explanatory variables (treatment, time, and treatment x time) were assessed using repeated measures mixed models. There were significant differences in each of the three models with respect to each explanatory variable. Overall, while steers administered three doses and two-thirds dose of CCFA had significantly higher quantities of nonstandardized bla(CMY-2) than controls, the standardized values were lower. The administration of CCFA in feedlot cattle may provide selection pressure favoring higher levels of bla(CMY-2) carriage, but this may also lead to concurrent reductions in the total bacterial population (as reflected by lowered 16SrRNA) during the treatment period.

  19. Effect of field peas, chickpeas, and lentils on rumen fermentation, digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and feedlot performance in receiving diets for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gilbery, T C; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Bauer, M L; Anderson, V L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of pulse grains in receiving diets for cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein (615 +/- 97 kg of initial BW) and 8 Angus-crossbred steers (403 +/- 73 kg of initial BW) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were blocked by breed and used in a randomized complete block design to assess the effects of pulse grain inclusion in receiving diets on intake, ruminal fermentation, and site of digestion. Experiment 2 was a 39-d feedlot receiving trial in which 176 mixed-breed steers (254 +/- 19 kg of initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of pulse grains on DMI, ADG, and G:F in newly received feedlot cattle. In both studies, pulse grains (field peas, lentils, or chickpea) replaced corn and canola meal as the grain component in diets fed as a total mixed ration. Treatments included 1) corn and canola meal (control); 2) field pea; 3) lentil; and 4) chickpea. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were conducted between control vs. chickpea, control vs. field pea, and control vs. lentil. In Exp. 1, there were no differences among treatments for DMI (11.63 kg/d, 2.32% of BW daily, P = 0.63) or OM intake (P = 0.63). No treatment effects for apparent ruminal (P = 0.10) and total tract OM digestibilities (P = 0.40) were detected when pulse grains replaced corn and canola meal. Crude protein intake (P = 0.78), microbial CP flow (P = 0.46), total tract CP digestibility (P = 0.45), and microbial efficiency (P = 0.18) were also not influenced by treatment. Total-tract ADF (P = 0.004) and NDF (P = 0.04) digestibilities were greater with field pea vs. control. Total VFA concentrations were lower for field pea (P = 0.009) and lentil (P < 0.001) compared with control. Chickpea, field pea, and lentil had lower (P < or = 0.03) acetate molar proportion than control. Ruminal pH (P = 0.18) and NH3 (P = 0.14) were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, calves fed chickpea, field pea, and lentil had greater

  20. Nutrient losses in runoff from feedlot surfaces as affected by unconsolidated surface materials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface materials (USM) (loose manure pack) that accumulate within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. The effects of varying amounts of USM on feedlot runoff water quality are not well defined. The objectives of this field investigation were to: a) compa...

  1. Hydraulic conditions required to not move unconsolidated surface materials located within feedlots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface material that accumulates within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. Runoff from feedlot surfaces is diverted into settling basins. The storage capacity of settling basins will be substantially reduced if large quantities of solid material are tra...

  2. The impact of oral meloxicam prior to transportation on inflammatory mediators and immune function of arriving feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of meloxicam administration prior to shipping on the maintenance of leukocyte function and the reduction of inflammation during and after a long-distance transportation event in cattle. Yearling mixed-breed beef steers (n = 60; 309.5 kg ± 5...

  3. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Total Escherichia coli in Feces and Feedlot Surface Manure from Cattle Fed Diets with and without Corn or Sorghum Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Varel, Vincent H; Hales, Kristin E; Kalchayanand, Norasak

    2017-08-01

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and feedlot pen surfaces of cattle fed WDGS. In the first study, feces from steers fed 0, 20, 40, or 60% corn WDGS were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 0% corn WDGS rapidly decreased (P < 0.05), from 6.28 to 2.48 log CFU/g of feces by day 14. In contrast, the E. coli O157:H7 numbers in feces from cattle fed 20, 40, and 60% corn WDGS were 4.21, 5.59, and 6.13 log CFU/g of feces, respectively, on day 14. A second study evaluated the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in feces from cattle fed 0 and 40% corn WDGS. Feces were collected before and 28 days after the dietary corn was switched from high-moisture corn to dry-rolled corn. Within dietary corn source, the pathogen persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) in 40% corn WDGS feces at day 7 than in 0% WDGS. For 40% corn WDGS feces, E. coli O157:H7 persisted at higher concentrations (P < 0.05) at day 7 in feces from cattle fed high-moisture corn (5.36 log CFU/g) than from those fed dry-rolled corn (4.27 log CFU/g). The percentage of WDGS had no effect on the E. coli O157:H7 counts in feces from cattle fed steam-flaked corn-based diets containing 0, 15, and 30% sorghum WDGS. Greater persistence of E. coli O157:H7 on the pen surfaces of animals fed corn WDGS was not demonstrated, although these pens had a higher prevalence of the pathogen in the feedlot surface manure after the cattle were removed. Both or either the greater persistence and higher numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment of cattle fed WDGS may play a part in the increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle by increasing the transmission risk.

  4. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  5. Effects of urine application on chemistry of feedlot pen surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle feedlots can emit significant quantities of ammonia that may adversely affect air quality and decrease the fertilizer value of manure. The major source of ammonia loss may be urinary urea. We conducted three studies to evaluate the effects of urine on the chemistry of feedlot pen surface...

  6. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P < 0.01) and intake of starch was less (P < 0.01) for the 25DDGS compared with the CON diet. The digestibilities of CP, NDF, ADF, and EE in the total digestive tract were greater (P < 0.05) for 25DDGS vs. CON. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.05) intakes of DM and other nutrients without altering (P=0.40) CP intake. In contrast, digestibilities of DM and other nutrients in the total digestive tract linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing wheat DDGS except for that of EE. Additionally, with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS, mean ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH <5.5 and <5.2, and greater (P=0.01) curve area under pH <5.8 and <5.5 without altering (P > 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively

  7. Feedlot therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Apley, M D; Fajt, V R

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses therapeutic approaches to conditions commonly encountered in feedlots. Challenges discussed include bovine respiratory complex, tracheal edema, atypical interstitial pneumonia, footrot, toe abscesses, mycoplasma arthritis, cardiovascular disease, lactic acidosis, bloat, coccidiosis, central nervous system diseases, abscesses and cellulitis, pregnancy management and abortion, and ocular disease.

  8. Antibiotic resistance and hypermutability of Escherichia coli O157 from feedlot cattle treated with growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Brigitte; Diarra, Moussa S; Giguère, Karine; Roy, Gabriel; Michaud, Sophie; Malouin, François

    2005-11-01

    In a longitudinal study (165 days), we investigated the effect of growth-promoting agents (monensin and trenbolone acetate-estradiol) and an antibiotic (oxytetracycline) on the incidence in feedlot steers of Escherichia coli O157, including antibiotic-resistant and hypermutable isolates. Eighty steers in 16 pens were treated with eight combinations of promoters, and each treatment was duplicated. Fecal samples were collected at nine different sampling times for detection of E. coli O157. Overall, 50 E. coli O157 isolates were detected in treated animals, and none were found in untreated animals. Compared with untreated controls, there was a significant association between the utilization of growth-promoting agents or antibiotics and the shedding of E. coli O157 at day 137 (P = 0.03), when a prevalence peak was observed and 50% of the isolates were detected. Multiplex PCR assays were conducted for some virulence genes. PCR results indicated that all except one isolate possessed at least the Shiga toxin gene stx2. MICs for 12 antibiotics were determined, and eight oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli O157 strains were identified. Antibiotic-resistant strains were considered a distinct subpopulation of E. coli O157 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Seven of these antibiotic-resistant strains were isolated early in the study (on or before day 25), and among them two were also hypermutable as determined by rifampin mutation frequencies. The proportion of hypermutable strains among E. coli O157 isolates remained relatively constant throughout the study period. These results indicate that the use of growth-promoting agents and antibiotics in beef production may increase the risk of environmental contamination by E. coli O157.

  9. Efficacy of vaccination against Fusobacterium necrophorum infection for control of liver abscesses and footrot in feedlot cattle in western Canada

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A randomized and blinded field trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of a Fusobacterium necrophorum bacterin for control of liver abscesses and footrot under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada. Half of the vaccinated and half of the unvaccinated control animals had ad libitum access to a forage-based (ALF) growing diet. The other half of each group was limit-fed a grain-based (LFG) growing diet. The overall prevalence of A and A+ liver abscesses in this trial was 16.7%. A strong association was found between diet group and presence of A or A+ liver abscessation at slaughter. Diet group modified the effect of vaccination on the prevalence of liver abscesses at slaughter, and on the incidence of footrot during the feeding period. The odds that a vaccinated animal in the ALF group would have an A or A+ liver abscess at slaughter were less than 1/3 the odds that an unvaccinated animal in the same diet group would have an A or A+ liver abscess at slaughter (OR = 0.27, [95% CI: 0.07 to 1.02], P = 0.05). The overall incidence of footrot in this trial was 6.5%. The odds that a vaccinated animal in the ALF group would be treated for footrot were less than 1/5 the odds that an unvaccinated animal in the same group would be treated for footrot (OR = 0.18, [95% CI: 0.04 to 0.82], P = 0.03). Within the LFG group there were no differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated animals in the odds of an animal being treated for footrot, or in the odds of having an A or A+ liver abscess score at slaughter. This trial suggests that vaccination against F. necrophorum infection may have applications to decrease the prevalence of severe liver abscesses at slaughter and decrease footrot treatments in certain diet situations. PMID:16363327

  10. Nitrate-nitrogen reduction by established tree and pasture buffer strips associated with a cattle feedlot effluent disposal area near Armidale, NSW Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangmin; Duggin, John A; Nie, Daoping

    2012-05-30

    Vegetated buffer strips have been recognized as an important element in overall agro-ecosystem management to reduce the delivery of non-point source pollutants from agricultural land to inland water systems. A buffer strip experiment consisting of two tree species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Casuarina cunninghamiana) with two planting densities and a pasture treatment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of NO(3)-N removal from a cattle feedlot effluent disposal area at Tullimba near Armidale, NSW Australia. Different management methods were applied for the buffers where grass and weeds were mowed 2-3 times during the second and third years and were not managed during the rest experimental years for the tree buffer, while grass was harvested 1-3 times per year for the pasture buffer. The differences between tree species and planting density significantly affected tree growth, but the growth difference did not significantly affect their capacities to reduce NO(3)-N in soil surface runoff and groundwater. On average for all the tree and pasture treatments, the buffer strips reduced NO(3)-N concentration by 8.5%, 14.7% and 14.4% for the surface runoff, shallow and deep groundwater respectively. The tree and pasture buffer strips were not significantly different in NO(3)-N reduction for both shallow and deep groundwater while the pasture buffer strips reduced significantly more NO(3)-N concentration in surface runoff than the tree buffer strips. Both buffer strips reduced more than 50% of surface runoff volume indicating that both the tree and pasture buffer strips were efficient at removing water and nutrients, mostly through a significant reduction in soil surface runoff volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial populations and antimicrobial resistance genes obtained from environments impacted by livestock and municipal waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal waste water treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact...

  12. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  13. Effects of roughage concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation.

    PubMed

    May, M L; Quinn, M J; Dilorenzo, N; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2011-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) and dietary concentration of alfalfa hay (AH) on performance of finishing beef cattle and in vitro fermentation. In both studies, 7 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial; factors were dietary concentrations (DM basis) of WDG (15 or 30%) and AH (7.5, 10, or 12.5%) plus a non-WDG control diet that contained 10% AH. In Exp. 1, 224 beef steers were used in a randomized complete block (initial BW 342 kg ± 9.03) finishing trial. No WDG × AH interactions were observed (P > 0.12). There were no differences among treatments in final shrunk BW or ADG (P > 0.15), and DMI did not differ with WDG concentration for the overall feeding period (P = 0.38). Increasing dietary AH concentration tended (P < 0.079) to linearly increase DMI, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F and calculated dietary NE(m) and NE(g) concentrations. Carcasses from cattle fed 15% WDG had greater yield grades (P = 0.014), with tendencies for greater 12th-rib fat (P = 0.054) and marbling score (P = 0.053) than those from cattle fed 30% WDG. There were no differences among treatments (P > 0.15) in HCW, dressing percent, LM area, KPH, proportions of cattle grading USDA Choice, and incidence of liver abscesses. In Exp. 2, ruminal fluid was collected from 2 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to a 60% concentrate diet to evaluate in vitro gas production kinetics, H(2)S production, IVDMD, and VFA. Relative to the control substrate, including WDG in substrates increased (P < 0.01) H(2)S production and decreased total gas production (P = 0.01) and rate of gas production (P = 0.03). Increasing substrate WDG from 15 to 30% increased (P < 0.05) H(2)S production and decreased (P < 0.001) total gas production, with a tendency (P = 0.073) to decrease IVDMD and fractional rate of gas production (P = 0.063). Treatments did not significantly affect (P > 0.09) molar proportions or total concentration of VFA

  14. Effects of immunocastration and β-adrenergic agonists on the performance and carcass traits of feedlot finished Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Antonelo, D S; Mazon, M R; Nubiato, K E Z; Gómez, J F M; Brigida, D J; Gomes, R C; Netto, A S; Leme, P R; Silva, S L

    2017-04-26

    β-Adrenergic agonists (β-AA) are non-hormonal growth promoters which promote muscle hypertrophy in supplemented animals. The effects of two β-AA in combination with the immunocastration technique on the performance and carcass traits were evaluated using 96 feedlot Nellore males in a randomized complete block design with two sex conditions (immunocastrated (IC) v. non-castrated (NC)) and three treatments: CON (no β-agonists added), RH (300 mg of ractopamine hydrochloride/day, for 33 days) or ZH (80 mg of zilpaterol·hydrochloride animal/day for 30 days, removed 3 days for required withdrawal period). The trial was carried for 100 days where in the first 70 days animals did not receive β-AA (phase 1) and during the last 30 days they were treated with β-AA (phase 2). The performance and ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT) and rump fat thickness (RFT) were evaluated in both phases. No sex condition v. treatment interactions were observed for any trait. The NC animals had higher average daily gain (ADG) and final BW than the IC animals, but they did not differ in dry matter intake (DMI) and feed efficiency (gain to feed). The NC animals showed greater LMA (P=0.0001) and hot carcass weight (P=0.0006), and smaller BFT (P=0.0007), RFT (P=0.0039) and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat (P<0.0001) when compared with IC animals. The animals fed ZH showed greater ADG (P=0.0002), G : F (P<0.0001) and dressing per cent (P=0.0136) than those fed RH and CON diets. No differences in BW and DMI were observed. A interaction between treatment and time on feed was observed for LMA and BFT, in which the animals fed ZH diet showed greater LMA (P<0.01) and lower BFT (P<0.01) at 100 days than the animals fed RH and CON diets, whereas RH and CON diets did not differ. Immunocastration decreases muscle development and increases carcass finishing. In contrast, β-AA increases muscle and decreases fat deposition. The ZH has a higher

  15. Bovine diseases causing neurological signs and death in Mexican feedlots.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Ramírez-Hernández, Cecilia; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael Julio; Martínez-Burnes, Julio; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The number of large feedlot operations, similar to that of USA and Canada, has notably increased in Mexico in the last three decades. Clinical and laboratory diagnoses of neurological diseases in feedlot cattle are crucial in Mexico and Central America because of the high incidence of bovine paralytic rabies (BPR). Because of its zoonotic potential, BPR must be promptly diagnosed and differentiated from other bovine neurological diseases such as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME), polioencephalomalacia (PEM) and botulism. More recently, BPR and botulism have been diagnosed with increasing frequency in Mexican feedlots. Neither BPR nor botulism has relevant gross lesions, thus post-mortem diagnosis without laboratory support is impossible. Herein, we describe five outbreaks of neurological diseases in Mexican feedlots in which BPR, botulism and PEM were diagnosed either independently or in combination. A diagram illustrating the most conspicuous pathologic findings and ancillary laboratory test required to confirm the diagnoses of these neurological diseases in feedlot cattle is proposed.

  16. Effects of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets fed to growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Bondurant, R G; Luebbe, M K; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-08-01

    Crude glycerin is a by-product of biodiesel production and has recently become more available as a livestock feed with the growth of the biofuel industry. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin (GLY) as a feed ingredient in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based growing diets fed to beef cattle. In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 50; initial BW = 282 ± 2 kg) were used to determine the effects of GLY when included at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% of DM in a growing diet on cattle performance. In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (n = 54; initial BW = 283 ± 1 kg) were used to determine the effects of replacing SFC (REPSFC) or alfalfa hay (REPAH) with 7.5% GLY or a control diet without GLY (CON) on growing steer performance. In Exp. 1, final BW tended to respond in a quadratic manner (P = 0.09) in which it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Dry matter intake did not differ (P > 0.23), yet ADG responded quadratically (P = 0.04), where it increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY and decreased from 7.5 to 10% GLY. Feed efficiency (G:F) decreased linearly (P = 0.05) with increasing GLY concentration. In Exp. 2, final BW was greater for steers fed REPAH than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). Steers fed REPAH had a greater ADG than CON or REPSFC (P = 0.04). When GLY replaced SFC, ADG increased from 0 to 7.5% GLY where it was maximized before decreasing from 7.5 to 10% GLY inclusion. Replacing 7.5% of alfalfa hay (AH) in a growing diet with GLY can be beneficial to animal performance, which is likely the result of GLY being greater in energy than AH.

  17. Technical note: Accuracy of an ear tag-attached accelerometer to monitor rumination and feeding behavior in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Cook, N; Barkema, H W; Orsel, K

    2015-06-01

    Early identification of sick cattle increases treatment success and decreases mortality. Continuous automated records of behavior can be used to identify sick cattle early in the disease process. The objective was to evaluate accuracy of an ear-attached accelerometer (SensOor) that quantified ear movements and estimated feeding and rumination time through a proprietary algorithm. Accelerometers were attached to the ear tag of 18 steers with an initial mean BW of 326 ± 46 kg. The manufacturer's proprietary software was used to determine time spent "feeding," "ruminating," "active," and "resting." Direct visual observation was used to validate the accelerometer. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for rumination and feeding separately. Repeated measures were accounted for using mixed model logistic regression. Single minutes of either feeding or rumination in a run of other behavior minutes were changed to the preceding behavior. Accuracy and precision of hourly recorded feeding and rumination times were assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient adjusted for repeated measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were 95 and 76% for feeding and 49 and 96% for rumination, respectively. Concordance correlation between observations and the sensor were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61 to 0.85) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.23 to 0.60) for feeding and rumination, respectively. There was large variability among steers, with concordance correlations ranging from 0.09 to 0.98 for rumination time and from 0.58 to 0.96 for feeding time. We conclude that the accelerometer is a promising monitoring system for feeding behavior.

  18. Use of soybean hulls as a replacement for dry rolled corn in beef cattle feedlot receiving diets.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C J; Blalock, H M; Pritchard, R H

    2011-12-01

    Consecutive receiving studies were used to evaluate the replacement of starch (dry rolled corn; DRC) with a nonforage fiber source (soybean hulls; SBH) on performance, mineral, and blood metabolite status of newly arrived feedlot steer calves. Steers in yr 1 (Y1; 9 pens/diet, 8 to 10 animals/pen) and yr 2 (Y2; 6 pens/diet, 9 to 10 animals/pen) were blocked by weaning management, and then stratified by BW and randomly assigned to pens. Pens were randomly assigned to an oat silage-based diet containing starch (HS) from DRC or digestible fiber (HF) from SBH. Diets were formulated for 12% CP (DM basis) and to meet or exceed NRC (1996) nutrient requirements for Ca, P, and vitamins A and E. Mineral status was assessed in Y1 only via liver biopsies and serum samples collected on d 3 and 28. Mineral concentrations on d 28 were compared using d 3 concentrations as a covariate. Glucose, NEFA, and plasma urea N status were assessed in Y2 only via blood collections on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 59. Morbidity (<10%) and mortality rates were not different (P > 0.10) between treatments across years. Daily BW gain was similar (P > 0.10) between treatments both during the receiving period and cumulatively across years. Overall, feed intake was greater (P = 0.007) for steers fed HF compared with steers fed HS in Y1, but was not different in Y2 (P = 0.13). Steers consuming the HS diet tended (P = 0.07) to have better BW gain efficiency in Y1 only. Across years, BW gain efficiency and ADG were similar between treatments (P > 0.10), although DMI was greater for steers fed HF (P = 0.003). Based on 2 yr of performance, the calculated ME content of SBH was estimated at 92.5% of the ME value of DRC (2.74 vs. 2.96 Mcal/kg, respectively). Mineral concentrations on d 28 were similar (P > 0.10) for most minerals assayed. There was a steeper (P = 0.005) decline in hepatic Cu concentrations early in the feeding period for steers fed HF, resulting in decreased (P = 0.001) d 28 hepatic concentrations

  19. Chromium supplementation alters the performance and health of feedlot cattle during the receiving period and enhances their metabolic response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, B C; Burdick, N C; Rounds, W; Rathmann, R J; Carroll, J A; Finck, D N; Jennings, M A; Young, T R; Johnson, B J

    2012-11-01

    Crossbred steers (n = 180; 230 ± 6 kg) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly-received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens; 9 pens/treatment; 5 steers/pen) was used. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (Con), 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/kg of Cr to the total diet on a DM basis. No differences were detected on d 0 or after the first 14 d on feed. From d 0 to d 28, DMI (P = 0.07) and ADG increased linearly (P = 0.04) as Cr concentrations increased. From d 0 to d 56, BW (P = 0.08) displayed a tendency to increase linearly, and consequently ADG and G:F increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as Cr concentrations increased. The number of steers treated at least once for respiratory symptoms tended (P = 0.07) to linearly decrease as Cr concentrations increased. Twenty additional steers (235 ± 4 kg) were fed 56 d to determine if supplementing Cr (Con or 0.2 mg/kg Cr) would alter the metabolic response of newly-received cattle to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cattle were fitted with jugular catheters on d 52. On d 55, blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h, and again at 24 h relative to a LPS challenge (0.5 μg/kg BW) at 0 h. Serum glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations were determined from blood samples. Steer BW was also measured at cannulation, and 24 h and 8 d post-LPS. Steer BW did not differ at cannulation (P = 0.37), but 24 h post-LPS, Cr-supplemented steers had lost less BW (P = 0.03). Pre-LPS glucose concentration did not differ (P = 0.97). Post-LPS, there was a time × treatment interaction (P < 0.01) such that glucose concentration peaked earlier (0.5 h) and at a greater concentrations in Cr-supplemented steers (P < 0.01). Insulin concentration did not differ between treatments pre- or post-LPS (P > 0.13). Concentration of NEFA did not differ pre-LPS (P = 0

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical illness for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnosis in beef cattle placed in feedlots: A systematic literature review and hierarchical Bayesian latent-class meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Timsit, E; Dendukuri, N; Schiller, I; Buczinski, S

    2016-12-01

    Diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle placed in feedlots is typically based on clinical illness (CI) detected by pen-checkers. Unfortunately, the accuracy of this diagnostic approach (namely, sensitivity [Se] and specificity [Sp]) remains poorly understood, in part due to the absence of a reference test for ante-mortem diagnosis of BRD. Our objective was to pool available estimates of CI's diagnostic accuracy for BRD diagnosis in feedlot beef cattle while adjusting for the inaccuracy in the reference test. The presence of lung lesions (LU) at slaughter was used as the reference test. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify research articles comparing CI detected by pen-checkers during the feeding period to LU at slaughter. A hierarchical Bayesian latent-class meta-analysis was used to model test accuracy. This approach accounted for imperfections of both tests as well as the within and between study variability in the accuracy of CI. Furthermore, it also predicted the SeCI and SpCI for future studies. Conditional independence between CI and LU was assumed, as these two tests are not based on similar biological principles. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Estimated pooled SeCI and SpCI were 0.27 (95% Bayesian credible interval: 0.12-0.65) and 0.92 (0.72-0.98), respectively, whereas estimated pooled SeLU and SpLU were 0.91 (0.82-0.99) and 0.67 (0.64-0.79). Predicted SeCI and SpCI for future studies were 0.27 (0.01-0.96) and 0.92 (0.14-1.00), respectively. The wide credible intervals around predicted SeCI and SpCI estimates indicated considerable heterogeneity among studies, which suggests that pooled SeCI and SpCI are not generalizable to individual studies. In conclusion, CI appeared to have poor Se but high Sp for BRD diagnosis in feedlots. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity among studies highlighted an urgent need to standardize BRD diagnosis in feedlots.

  1. Comparison of wheat- versus corn-based dried distillers' grains with solubles on meat quality of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Robertson, W M; McAllister, T A; Walter, L J; McKinnon, J J

    2010-03-01

    A considerable amount of information has been generated on the feeding value and impact of corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) on meat quality, whereas little is known about the effects of wheat DDGS on meat quality, and no direct comparison of these two sources of DDGS has been completed. The current study was conducted to examine the objective and subjective carcass and meat quality traits of cattle fed diets containing corn or wheat (20% or 40%) DDGS (DM basis) as compared to a standard barley-based finishing diet (control). In general, meat obtained from animals fed the barley-based control diet was slightly darker in colour (lower chroma and hue at 24 h, P<0.01) and less tender (highest proportion of tough shears at 2 d and lowest proportion of tender shears at 20 d). Meat from corn DDGS was rated as more tender and palatable than control samples (P<0.05), and 20% corn samples were rated better for beef flavour intensity (P<0.01) and desirability (P<0.05) than 40% corn DDGS samples. In contrast, meat from steers fed wheat DDGS showed intermediate characteristics between steers fed control and corn DDGS diets. Hence, feeding wheat DDGS had no negative effects, and feeding corn DDGS had some positive effects on meat quality characteristics of beef. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cattle waste tops cars as source of Southern California smog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    A new study shows that cows, not cars, are the more substantial source of ammonia that leads to ammonium nitrate in California's South Coast Air Basin, the smoggiest place in the United States. Within the region, which consists of the area surrounding and downwind of Los Angeles, a large proportion of the fine-grained particulate matter that makes up smog is formed from ammonium nitrate. Nowak et al. found two main sources of ammonium nitrate: small gas-powered vehicles and dairy farms. Catalytic converters designed to stem the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons from the region's 9.9 million vehicles can produce gaseous ammonia as an unwanted by-product. Bacteria decomposing organic wastes from the region's 298,000 dairy cattle, on the other hand, also account for a sizable source of ammonia emissions.

  3. Feeding value of dried shredded sugarbeets as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, A; Carrasco, R; Salinas-Chavira, J; Montano, M; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the comparative feeding value of dried shredded sugarbeets (DSSB; 0, 20, and 40% of diet DM) as a replacement for steam-flaked corn (SFC) in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 60 calf-fed Holstein steers (476 ± 6.3 kg) were used in a 97-d finishing trial. Substitution of SFC with DSSB did not affect ADG or DMI (P > 0.20). Increasing DSSB decreased gain efficiency (ADG:DMI; linear effect, P = 0.04) and dietary NE (linear effect, P = 0.03). Given that SFC has a NE(m) value of 2.38 Mcal/kg, the replacement NE(m) and NE(g) values for DSSB were 1.94 and 1.29 Mcal/kg, respectively. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 6 cannulated Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on digestion. Ruminal digestion of starch, NDF, and feed N were not affected (P > 0.10) by DSSB, although ruminal OM digestion tended to increase (linear effect, P < 0.08). Replacing SFC with DSSB decreased flow of starch to the small intestine, but it increased flow of microbial N (linear effect, P = 0.05). There were no treatment effects (P > 0.14) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, or feed N or total tract digestion of OM, starch, and N. Substitution of DSSB increased (linear effect, P = 0.05) total tract NDF digestion and decreased (linear effect, P = 0.05) dietary DE (Mcal/kg). Given that SFC has a DE value of 4.19 Mcal/kg, the replacement DE value of DSSB was 3.68 Mcal/kg. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.12) on ruminal pH or total VFA; however, DSSB decreased propionate (linear effect, P = 0.05) and increased acetate (linear effect, P = 0.07), butyrate (linear effect, P = 0.05), valerate (linear effect, P = 0.04), and estimated methane production (linear effect, P = 0.05). We concluded that DSSB may replace SFC in finishing diets at levels of up to 40% without detrimental effects on ADG and carcass characteristics

  4. Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle could be exposed to the agent of chronic wasting disease (CWD) through contact with infected farmed or free-ranging cervids or exposure to contaminated premises. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for CWD derived from elk to transmit to cattle after intracranial inoculation...

  5. Susceptibility of Cattle to First-Passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from Elk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle could be exposed to chronic wasting disease (CWD) from infected farmed or free-ranging cervids. The purpose of this study was to assess the transmissibility of CWD derived from elk to cattle. Intracerebral inoculation of calves (n=14) of approximately 3 months of age was done with 1 ml of a...

  6. Non-inferiority of nitric oxide releasing intranasal spray compared to sub-therapeutic antibiotics to reduce incidence of undifferentiated fever and bovine respiratory disease complex in low to moderate risk beef cattle arriving at a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Regev-Shoshani, G; McMullin, B; Nation, N; Church, J S; Dorin, C; Miller, C

    2017-03-01

    Undifferentiated fever, or bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc), is a challenging multi-factorial health issue caused by viral/bacterial pathogens and stressors linked to the transport and mixing of cattle, negatively impacting the cattle feedlot industry. Common practice during processing at feedlots is administration of antibiotic metaphylaxis to reduce the incidence of BRDc. Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring nano-molecule with a wide range of physiological attributes. This study evaluated the metaphylactic use of intranasal NO releasing spray (NORS) to control BRDc incidence in calves at low-moderate risk of developing BRDc, arriving at a commercial feedlot as compared to conventional antibiotic metaphylaxis. One thousand and eighty crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled, commercial, weaned beef calves were screened, enrolled, randomized and treated upon arrival. Animals appearing sick were pulled (from their pen) by blinded pen keepers then assessed for BRDc symptoms; blood samples were taken for haptoglobin quantification and the animals were rescued with an antibiotic. After 35 days both groups showed no significant difference in BRDc incidence (5.2% of animals from NORS group and 3.2% from antibiotic group). Average daily weight gain of animals at day 150 for the NORS cohort was 1.17kg compared to 1.18kg for the antibiotic group (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in mortality in the first 35 days (p=0.7552), however, general mortality over 150 days trended higher in the antibiotic cohort. NORS treatment was shown to be safe, causing neither distress nor adverse effects on the animals. This large randomized controlled study in low-moderate BRDc incidence risk calves demonstrates that NORS treatment, as compared to conventional metaphylactic antibiotics, is non-inferior based on BRDc incidence and other metrics like weight and mortality. These data justify further studies in higher BRDc incidence risk populations to evaluate NORS as

  7. Effect of anabolic implants on adrenal cortisol synthesis in feedlot beef cattle implanted early or late in the finishing phase.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Branham, K A; Ellison, J O; Gómez, B I; Lemley, C O; Hart, C G; Krehbiel, C R; Bernhard, B C; Maxwell, C L; Goad, C L; Hallford, D M; Hernandez Gifford, J A

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of anabolic steroids to increase growth rate in beef cattle impacts adrenal glucocorticoid production. The mechanism by which combination androgen and estrogen implants reduce cortisol biosynthesis in heifers is not clear. The objective of this study was to identify whether pituitary or adrenal gene expression and liver enzyme activity may contribute to altered serum cortisol concentrations in heifers receiving a combination implant. On d 0 of a 122-d finishing phase, 187 predominantly Angus heifers (361 kg) approximately 14 months old were randomly assigned to one of three implant groups: (1) non-implanted control, (2) implanted at the beginning of the finishing phase (d 0; early implant) with a combination implant (200mg TBA+20mg E2; Revalor 200®), and (3) implanted during the late stage of the finishing phase (d 56; late implant) with Revalor 200®. At d 56, body weight (BW) was greater (P<0.0001) for the early implanted heifers (456 ± 1.9 kg) compared to 437 and 435 (± 1.8) kg for control and late implanted heifers, respectively. Final BW (d 122) was similar between both implanted groups and heavier than non-implanted controls (P<0.0001). Serum cortisol was similar among groups at d 0 (P=0.86) however, by d 28 heifers receiving the combination implant had reduced (P<0.05) serum cortisol concentrations (31.2 ng/mL) compared to controls (49.4 ng/mL) and late (48.2 ng/mL) groups. On d 84 cortisol was similar (P=0.75) among implanted heifers and was less (P<0.01) than non-implanted heifers. Expression of pituitary and adrenal genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis was evaluated at d 28/29 or 84/85; however, despite decreased serum cortisol in implanted heifers, no change in mRNA expression was demonstrated. Liver CYP3A enzyme activity at d 28/29 was decreased 59% in early implanted heifers compared to control heifers (P=0.01). Additionally, at d 84/85 AKR1C activity was greatest (P=0.01) in control heifers compared to both implanted groups. Data

  8. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  9. Clinical efficacy of a single injection of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile injectable suspension versus three daily injections of ceftiofur sodium sterile powder for the treatment of footrot in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Dussault, Marike; Knight, Pete; Byers, Les

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in a feedlot in Alberta, Canada, to compare the clinical efficacy of a single injection of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile injectable suspension with three daily treatments of ceftiofur sodium sterile powder for the treatment of footrot. Use of a long-acting antimicrobial to treat footrot would reduce labor costs and hospital pen space requirements during high-risk periods. Four hundred cattle clinically diagnosed with footrot were systematically randomized to one of two treatment groups. The treatment success rate at 14 days after treatment (99.5% for ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile injectable suspension and 99.0% for ceftiofur sodium sterile powder for injection) was not statistically different (P>.05) between the two drugs.

  10. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  11. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Fox, J T; Narayanan, S K; Drouillard, J S; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-05-01

    Distillers grains, a coproduct of ethanol production from cereal grains, are composed principally of the bran, protein, and germ fractions and are commonly supplemented in ruminant diets. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. Cattle were fed 0 or 25% WDGS in steam-flaked corn-based diets with the addition of no antimicrobials, monensin, or monensin and tylosin. Fecal samples were collected from each animal (n = 370) on d 122 and 136 of the 150-d finishing period and cultured for Escherichia coli O157. Fecal samples were also pooled by pen (n = 54) and cultured for E. coli O157, Salmonella, commensal E. coli, and Enterococcus species. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by determining antimicrobial susceptibilities of pen bacterial isolates and quantifying antimicrobial resistance genes in fecal samples by real-time PCR. Individual animal prevalence of E. coli O157 in feces collected from cattle fed WDGS was greater (P < 0.001) compared with cattle not fed WDGS on d 122 but not on d 136. There were no treatment effects on the prevalence of E. coli O157 or Salmonella spp. in pooled fecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed Enterococcus isolates from cattle fed monensin or monensin and tylosin had greater levels of resistance toward macrolides (P = 0.01). There was no effect of diet or antimicrobials on concentrations of 2 antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB or tetM, in fecal samples. Results from this study indicate that WDGS may have an effect on the prevalence of E. coli O157 and the concentration of selected antimicrobial resistance genes, but does not appear to affect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Enterococcus and generic E. coli isolates.

  12. Summer and Winter Prevalence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in Feces of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, Diana M A; Renter, David G; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Noll, Lance W; Shi, Xiaorong; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2015-08-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has declared seven Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef products. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of these seven serogroups and the associated virulence genes (Shiga toxin [stx1, stx2], and intimin [eae]) in cattle feces during summer (June-August 2013) and winter (January-March 2014) months. Twenty-four pen floor fecal samples were collected from each of 24 cattle pens, in both summer and winter months, at a commercial feedlot in the United States. Samples were subjected to culture-based detection methods that included enrichment, serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation and plating on selective media, followed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for serogroup confirmation and virulence gene detection. A sample was considered STEC positive if a recovered isolate harbored an O gene, stx1, and/or stx2, and eae genes. All O serogroups of interest were detected in summer months, and model-adjusted prevalence estimates are as follows: O26 (17.8%), O45 (14.6%), O103 (59.9%), O111 (0.2%), O121 (2.0%), O145 (2.7%), and O157 (41.6%); however, most non-O157 isolates did not harbor virulence genes. The cumulative model-adjusted sample-level prevalence estimates of STEC O26, O103, O145, and O157 during summer (n=576) were 1.0, 1.6, 0.8, and 41.4%, respectively; STEC O45, O111, and O121 were not detected during summer months. In winter, serogroups O26 (0.9%), O45 (1.5%), O103 (40.2%), and O121 (0.2%) were isolated; however, no virulence genes were detected in isolates from cattle feces collected during winter (n=576). Statistically significant seasonal differences in prevalence were identified for STEC O103 and O157 (p<0.05), but data on other STEC were sparse. The results of this study indicate that although non-O157 serogroups were present, non-O157 STEC were

  13. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  14. Investigations of ash fouling with cattle wastes as reburn fuel in a small-scale boiler burner under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; John M. Sweeten

    2008-04-15

    Fouling behavior under reburn conditions was investigated with cattle wastes (termed as feedlot biomass, FB) and coal as reburn fuels under a transient condition and short-time operation. A small-scale (30 kW or 100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner research facility was used for the reburn experiments. The fuels considered for these experiments were natural gas (NG) for the ashless case, pure coal, pure FB, and blends of coal and FB. Two parameters that were used to characterize the ash 'fouling' were (1) the overall heat-transfer coefficient (OHTC) when burning NG and solid fuels as reburn fuels, and (2) the combustible loss through ash deposited on the surfaces of heat exchanger tubes and the bottom ash in the ash port. A new methodology is presented for determining ash fouling behavior under transient conditions. Results on the OHTCs for solid reburn fuels are compared with the OHTCs for NG. It was found that the growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers OHTC, and the increased concentration of ash in gas phase promotes radiation in high-temperature zones during initial periods while decreasing the heat transfer in low-temperature zones. The ash analyses indicated that the bottom ash in the ash port contained a smaller percentage of combustibles with a higher FB percentage in the fuels, indicating better performance compared with coal because small particles in FB burn faster and the FB has higher volatile matter on a dry ash-free basis promoting more burn out. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Investigations of ash fouling with cattle wastes as reburn fuel in a small-scale boiler burner under transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyukjin; Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M

    2008-04-01

    Fouling behavior under reburn conditions was investigated with cattle wastes (termed as feedlot biomass [FB]) and coal as reburn fuels under a transient condition and short-time operation. A small-scale (30 kW or 100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner research facility was used for the reburn experiments. The fuels considered for these experiments were natural gas (NG) for the ashless case, pure coal, pure FB, and blends of coal and FB. Two parameters that were used to characterize the ash "fouling" were (1) the overall heat-transfer coefficient (OHTC) when burning NG and solid fuels as reburn fuels, and (2) the combustible loss through ash deposited on the surfaces of heat exchanger tubes and the bottom ash in the ash port. A new methodology is presented for determining ash-fouling behavior under transient conditions. Results on the OHTCs for solid reburn fuels are compared with the OHTCs for NG. It was found that the growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers OHTC, and the increased concentration of ash in gas phase promotes radiation in high-temperature zones during initial periods while decreasing the heat transfer in low-temperature zones. The ash analyses indicated that the bottom ash in the ash port contained a smaller percentage of combustibles with a higher FB percentage in the fuels, indicating better performance compared with coal because small particles in FB burn faster and the FB has higher volatile matter on a dry ash-free basis promoting more burn out.

  16. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  17. Nutrient concentrations of runoff as affected by the diameter of unconsolidated material from feedlot surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated material that accumulates on the feedlot surface during a feeding cycle. This study was conducted to measure the effects of varying diameters of unconsolidated surface material and varying flow rates on nutrient concentrations in runoff. Unconsolidated sur...

  18. Soil conductivity and multiple linear regression for precision monitoring of beef feedlot manure and runoff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Open-lot cattle feeding operations face challenges in control of nutrient runoff, leaching, and gaseous emissions. This report investigates the use of precision management of saline soils as found on 1) feedlot surfaces and 2) a vegetative treatment area (VTA) utilized to control feedlot runoff. A...

  19. Energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions, and profitability of thermobarical pretreatment of cattle waste in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Budde, Jörn; Prochnow, Annette; Plöchl, Matthias; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-03-01

    In this study modeled full scale application of thermobarical hydrolysis of less degradable feedstock for biomethanation was assessed in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions, and economy. Data were provided whether the substitution of maize silage as feedstock for biogas production by pretreated cattle wastes is beneficial in full-scale application or not. A model device for thermobarical treatment has been suggested for and theoretically integrated in a biogas plant. The assessment considered the replacement of maize silage as feedstock with liquid and/or solid cattle waste (feces, litter, and feed residues from animal husbandry of high-performance dairy cattle, dry cows, and heifers). The integration of thermobarical pretreatment is beneficial for raw material with high contents of organic dry matter and ligno-cellulose: Solid cattle waste revealed very short payback times, e.g. 9 months for energy, 3 months for greenhouse gases, and 3 years 3 months for economic amortization, whereas, in contrast, liquid cattle waste did not perform positive replacement effects in this analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from a cattle feedlot: effect of proximity on contamination of leafy greens, bioaerosols, and pest flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables have focused attention on cattle as potential sources of contamination, and fueled the need for information regarding the dissemination of this pathogen from cattle production facilities. Questions include: can E...

  1. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids i...

  2. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on the occurrence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7-positive pest flies in a leafy green crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks linked to produce have focused attention on cattle as contamination sources. Cattle pest flies can harbor this pathogen, and may disseminate it to produce. The Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement proposes an interim guidance distance of 400 feet betwee...

  3. Effect of calcium hydroxide application to cattle feedlot pens on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total E. coli in pen surface manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Cattle and beef products are sources of the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lime products have a long history of use in cattle production as disinfectants for sick pens, calving pens, and muddy areas, to control the spread of diseases. Lime may also be useful as a preharvest trea...

  4. Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle.

    PubMed

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Christopher; Greenlee, Justin J; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease-resistant prion protein throughout the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in both lymphatic and excretory tissues - an aspect of prion disease pathogenesis not observed in cattle with BSE. Using seeded amplification through real-time quaking-induced conversion, we investigated whether the bovine host or prion agent was responsible for this aspect of TSE pathogenesis. We blindly examined numerous central and peripheral tissues from cattle inoculated with CWD for prion seeding activity. Seeded amplification was readily detected in the CNS, though rarely observed in peripheral tissues, with a limited distribution similar to that of BSE prions in cattle. This seems to indicate that prion peripheralization in cattle is a host-driven characteristic of TSE infection.

  5. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    PubMed

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    0.52) among diets. Supplementation of microminerals decreased ( < 0.01) plasma Ca concentration; nevertheless, all analyzed blood metabolites were within the reference values. Supplementation of Ca and P increased ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of these minerals. These results indicate that mineral supplementation (Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu) of conventional feedlot diets for Nellore bulls may be not necessary. Dietary reductions in these minerals would represent a decrease in the cost of feedlot diets. Dietary reduction in Ca and P content cause a decrease in fecal excretion of these minerals, which, in turn, represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of feedlot operations.

  6. A third-generation esterase inoculant alters fermentation pattern and improves aerobic stability of barley silage and the efficiency of body weight gain of growing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Addah, W; Baah, J; Okine, E K; McAllister, T A

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of a mixed bacterial inoculant possessing ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity on silage fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and growth performance of growing feedlot steers. Whole-crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) forage (35% DM) was chopped and ensiled without a silage inoculant (UN) or with a mixed bacterial culture containing 1.0 × 10(11) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri LN4017 that produces FAE, 2.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum LP7109, and 1.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus casei LC3200 at a combined rate of 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage (IN) in mini and Ag-Bag (Ag-Bag Int. Ltd., Warrenton, OR) silos. Silages from the mini silos were assessed for the effect of inoculation on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability, whereas silages from Ag-Bags were used to formulate 2 barley silage-based total mixed rations (UN and IN) that were fed to growing feedlot steers for 112 d. The IN silage exhibited a homolactic fermentation during the first 7 d of ensiling as reflected by an increased (P ≤ 0.02) lactic acid concentration and an accelerated rate (P < 0.01) of pH decline. Thereafter, fermentation of IN silage became more heterolactic, resulting in greater concentrations of acetic acid (P < 0.01) and pH (P < 0.01) but less (P < 0.01) lactic acid than UN silage. Inoculation did not affect DM losses (P = 0.52) from mini silos. The IN silage remained stable during 21 d, but temperature and yeasts counts in the UN silage increased after 5 d of aerobic exposure. Growing steers fed the IN silage diet had superior (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency compared with those fed UN silage. Inoculation of whole-crop barley silage with a mixed culture of homolactic lactic acid-producing bacteria and FAE-producing L. buchneri at ensiling changed fermentation from a homolactic to a heterolactic form during ensiling and improved aerobic stability of the silage and efficiency of BW gain of growing feedlot

  7. Susceptibility of cattle to the agent of chronic wasting disease from elk after intracranial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A; Hamir, Amir N

    2012-11-01

    Cattle could be exposed to the agent of chronic wasting disease (CWD) through contact with infected farmed or free-ranging cervids or exposure to contaminated premises. The purpose of the current study was to assess the potential for CWD derived from elk to transmit to cattle after intracranial inoculation. Calves (n = 14) were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from elk with CWD to determine the potential for transmission and to define the clinicopathologic features of disease. Cattle were necropsied if clinical signs occurred or at the end of the study (49 months postinoculation; MPI). Clinical signs of poor appetite, weight loss, circling, and bruxism occurred in 2 cattle (14%) at 16 and 17 MPI, respectively. Accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) occurred in only the 2 clinically affected cattle and was confined to the central nervous system, with the most prominent immunoreactivity in midbrain, brainstem, and hippocampus with lesser immunoreactivity in the cervical spinal cord. The rate of transmission was lower than in cattle inoculated with CWD derived from mule deer (38%) or white-tailed deer (86%). Additional studies are required to fully assess the potential for cattle to develop CWD through a more natural route of exposure, but a low rate of transmission after intracranial inoculation suggests that risk of transmission through other routes is low. A critical finding is that if CWD did transmit to exposed cattle, currently used diagnostic techniques would detect and differentiate it from other prion diseases in cattle based on absence of spongiform change, distinct pattern of PrP(Sc) deposition, and unique molecular profile.

  8. Grazing and feedlot performance of yearling stocker cattle integrated with spring- and fall-calving beef cows in a year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Guretzky, N A Janovick; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2005-11-01

    Effects of calving season and finishing system on forage and concentrate consumption and carcass characteristics of calves were compared. In each of 3 yr, two replicates of three growing and finishing systems were compared including 1) spring calves finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot immediately post-weaning (WF); 2) spring calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten diet over winter for 179 +/- 18 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (SGF); and 3) fall calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten feed diet over winter for 69 +/- 31 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (FGF). During the grazing phase, calves on the SGF and FGF treatments were equally stocked with spring-calving cow-calf pairs before grazing by pregnant fall-calving cows in a first-last rotational stocking system at a rate of 1.9 standard livestock units/ha. As designed, retained calves in the FGF system spent 110 fewer days in the drylot during backgrounding than retained calves in the SGF system (P = 0.01), resulting in less feed provided during winter. A greater (P < 0.01) quantity of hay was fed to SGF calves after weaning over winter (1,305 kg of DM per calf) than the quantity fed to FGF calves (305 kg of DM per calf). Quantity of grain (including commercial starter) fed to SGF calves after weaning did not differ (P = 0.28) from that fed to FGF calves (126 vs. 55 kg of DM per calf); however, calves in the FGF system required 80 and 71 kg of DM per calf more concentrate to finish to an equivalent external fat thickness compared with SGF and WF calves, respectively (P = 0.02). Average daily gains in the feedlot were greater (P < 0.01) for SGF and FGF calves than for WF calves during all 3 yr. There were no differences (P = 0.69) in carcass quality grades among calves in all groups, but SGF calves had greater (P < 0.01) hot

  9. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Escherichia coli O157 isolates from Kansas feedlots.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Shi, X; Sanderson, M W; Renter, D G; Nagaraja, T G

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of Escherichia coli O157 genetic types within and among feedlots using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to separate XbaI-digested DNA. The study population consisted of 300 pens of cattle in 30 feedlots in Kansas that were sampled (feces, water, and water sediment) within a month of being shipped for slaughter. The prevalence of E. coli O157 was 8.5% in feces, 3.1% in water, and 4.5% in water sediment samples. A total of 424 E. coli O157 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 139 subtypes (100% Dice similarity with no band differences) were identified. The majority of subtypes (70/139) was identified only once, but nine were identified 10 or more times. Identical subtypes were recovered from both feces and water tanks in 10 feedlots. The majority of subtypes were identified in only one feedlot, and the number of subtypes ranged from one to 23 within a feedlot and from one to seven within a pen. There were 10 feedlots with at least 15 positive samples. In these 10 feedlots, the most common subtype accounted for 16.9-78.6% of the isolates. Common subtypes differed among feedlots. In eight of the 10 feedlots, the most common subtype was identified in multiple pens. The results support a complex ecology for E. coli O157 in feedlot operations, with factors associated with exposure and transmission likely acting at a common level for multiple feedlots, within feedlots, and within pens of cattle.

  11. Municipal waste compost as an alternative to cattle manure for supplying potassium to lowland rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Chakrabarti, K; Chakraborty, A; Nayak, D C; Tripathy, S; Powell, M A

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the use of potassium in agriculture is increasing in South Asia for making most productive use of the nutrient in terms of economic returns. Nutrient supply traditionally by cattle manure is constrained by its insufficient availability. Municipal waste compost may be an alternative source of nutrient supplements. Field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Calcutta University, West Bengal, India during the wet seasons of 1997, 1998 and 1999 on flooded lowland rice. Potassium fractions in municipal waste compost and cattle manure were determined by sequential extraction and also the potassium uptake by rice to compare the effectiveness of municipal waste compost with traditional manure. Potassium was significantly bound to the organic matter in municipal waste compost. Potassium uptake by rice grain and straw increased significantly with the combined application of organics and fertilizers and it was higher in grain than in straw. Water-soluble and non-exchangeable potassium contents of municipal waste compost and cattle manure were highly correlated with the uptake of potassium by straw and grain. Exchangeable and residual potassium were also significantly correlated with the uptake of potassium by straw and grain of rice. Much higher uptake of K in rice straw and rain resulted from applying the manures in conjunction with fertilizers than when applied singly.

  12. Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry with whey and/or jam wastes.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Kiuru, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Korhonen, Kari; Koivunen, Jari; Ruokojärvi, Arja

    2005-01-01

    Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry and food industrial by-products was studied with the aim to improve hygienic qualities of the slurry so that it could be used as a safe fertiliser for berries to be eaten raw. We also wanted to study if the process would be energetically favourable in an arctic climate. Cattle slurry alone or with whey and/or jam waste was treated. The tests were done in a well heat-insulated reactor with a 10 m(3) volume. Temperature increases up to over 70 degrees C could be recorded in 19 days even though some processes were carried out in winter time when the ambient air temperature was less than 0 degrees C. The heat energy formed was higher than the electrical energy needed to carry out the aeration. The hygienic qualities of the aerated product were good with only minor nitrogen losses. The end product could be useful as a fertiliser and soil improving compound to increase the organic matter content of agricultural soil. Cattle slurry alone was well suited as the raw material if attaining a high temperature was the main goal. A part of slurry could be replaced with food-industrial side products. Whey waste suited better for co-composting than jam waste but the mixture of whey, jam waste, and slurry was optimal for composting.

  13. Interaction between bunk management and monensin concentration on finishing performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal metabolism during an acidosis challenge with feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Milton, C T; Fanning, K C; Cooper, R J; Swingle, R S; Parrott, J C; Vogel, G; Klopfenstein, T J

    2003-11-01

    Two commercial feedlot experiments and a metabolism study were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin concentrations and bunk management strategies on performance, feed intake, and ruminal metabolism. In the feedlot experiments, 1,793 and 1,615 steers were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, in 18 pens for each experiment (six pens/treatment). Three treatments were evaluated: 1) ad libitum bunk management with 28.6 mg/kg monensin and clean bunk management strategies with either 2) 28.6 or 3) 36.3 mg/kg monensin. In both experiments, 54 to 59% of the clean bunk pens were clean at targeted clean time, or 2200, compared with 24 to 28% of the ad libitum pens. However, only 13% of the pens were clean by 2000 in Exp. 1 (summer), whereas 44% of the pens in Exp. 2 (winter) were clean by 2000. In Exp. 1, bunk management and monensin concentration did not affect carcass-adjusted performance. In Exp. 2, steers fed ad libitum had greater DMI (P < 0.01) and carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.01) but feed efficiency (P > 0.13) similar to that of clean bunk-fed steers. Monensin concentration had no effect on carcass-adjusted performance (P > 0.20) in either experiment. A metabolism experiment was conducted with eight fistulated steers in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square acidosis challenge experiment. An acidosis challenge was imposed by feeding 125% of the previous day's DMI, 4 h later than normal. Treatments consisted of monensin concentrations (mg/kg) of 0, 36.7, 48.9, or 36.7 until challenged and switched to 48.9 on the challenge day and 4 d following. Each replicate of the Latin square was managed with separate bunk management strategies (clean bunk or ad libitum). Feeding any concentration of monensin increased number of meals and decreased DMI rate (%/h) (P < 0.12) for the 4 d following the acidosis challenge. Meal size, pH change, and pH variance were lower (P < 0.10) for steers fed monensin with clean bunk management. However, no monensin effect was observed for steers fed

  14. Effects of ruminally degradable N in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 822 +/- 28 lb) were housed in 56 pens (...

  15. Impacts of Individual Animal Response to Heat and Handling Stresses on Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 Fecal Shedding by Feedlot Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The reduction of foodborne pathogens in cattle destined for human consumption will require knowledge of the factors that impact the carriage and shedding of these organisms. The effects of heat and handling stress levels on the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli by feedl...

  16. Effect of cessation of beef cattle pasture-feedlot type backgrounding operation on the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction It is not known how removal of cattle from a backgrounding operation will affect the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Our objective was to investigate the effect of destocking on the persistence and distribution of ARGs in the backgrounding environm...

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The overall objectives of this study were to determine if a correlation exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran®) at the label dose, and if there was a s...

  18. Effects of ruminally degradable nitrogen in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains and steam-flaked corn on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessment of degradable nitrogen (N) needs in diets containing wet corn distiller's grains with solubles (WCDGS) is needed to aid the cattle industry in managing feed costs. Yearling steers (n = 525; initial weight = 373 +/- 13 kg) were housed in 54 pens (9 to 10 steers/pen) and received treatments...

  19. Rapid detection and classification of Salmonella enterica shedding in feedlot cattle utilizing Roka Bioscience Atlas Salmonella detection assay for the analysis of rectoanal mucosal swabs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With an increasing focus on preharvest food safety, rapid methods are required for the detection and quantification of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica in beef cattle. We validated the Atlas Salmonella Detection Assay (SEN), a nucleic acid amplification technology that targets Salmone...

  20. Evaluation of commercial ß-agonists, dietary protein, and shade on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from feedlot cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen commonly associated with cattle feces. Diet, including dietary supplements such as ß–agonists, may impact fecal shedding of this pathogen. A series of 3 experiments was conducted to determine if the ß-agonists ractopamine (RAC) or ziplaterol (ZH) hy...

  1. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect

    Duangchan, Apinya Samart, Chanatip

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  2. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  3. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch.

  4. Effects of feeding combinations of steam-flaked grain sorghum and steam-flaked, high-moisture, or dry-rolled corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huck, G L; Kreikemeier, K K; Kuhl, G L; Eck, T P; Bolsen, K K

    1998-12-01

    The objective of these two feeding trials was to determine the associative effects of feeding steam-flaked grain sorghum (SFGS) in combination with steam-flaked (SFC), dry-rolled (DRC), or high-moisture (HMC) corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, 200 yearling heifers were blocked by weight, allotted to 25 pens, and fed one of five finishing diets (77% grain, 15% corn silage, and 8% supplement on a DM basis) for an average of 137 d. The grain combinations were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 SFC:SFGS, respectively. Treatment had no effect on DMI (P > .05), but ADG, gain efficiency, and final live and hot carcass weights decreased linearly (P < .05) as the proportion of SFGS increased in the diet. Carcass backfat, quality grade, and liver abscess score were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. In Trial 2, 306 yearling steers were blocked by weight, allotted to 30 pens, and fed diets that contained 74.5% grain, 10% corn silage, 7.5% soybean meal, 4% tallow, and 4% supplement (DM basis) for an average of 139 d. The grain and grain combinations were 100% DRC, HMC, SFC, or SFGS and a 67%:33% combination of SFGS: DRC or SFGS:HMC. For steers fed diets containing a single source of grain, those fed SFC gained 7% more live weight and had a 7% higher gain efficiency (P < .05) than those fed DRC or HMC. Growth performance of steers fed SFGS was intermediate. Feeding grain combinations (67% SFGS:33% HMC or DRC) resulted in a 5 to 6% positive associative effect (P < .05) for ADG and gain efficiency. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. We concluded that there were significant benefits (positive associative effects) when SFGS was fed in combination with DRC or HMC, but the effects were smaller when SFGS was fed in combination with SFC.

  5. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: I. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on microbial efficiency and ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibility of dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Sathler, D F T; Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Silva, B C; Filho, S C Valadares; Pacheco, M V C; Amaral, P M; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated intake, microbial efficiency, and ruminal, small and large intestinal, and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF, as well as availability of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Mn, and Zn in Zebu cattle fed with or without supplemental sources of Ca and P or a micromineral premix. Five rumen- and ileum-cannulated Nellore bulls (BW = 200 ± 10.5 kg; 9 mo) were used in the experiment, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The experiment was developed in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design to measure the effects of mineral supplementation on intake, digestibility, and site of nutrient absorption. The factors consisted of 2 Ca and P levels (macromineral factor; CaP+ or CaP-) and 2 microminerals levels (micromineral factor; CuMnZn+ or CuMnZn-). In addition, a treatment with alimentary restriction (REST) was evaluated at 1.7% of BW. Nutrient fluxes were measured in the omasum and ileum, in addition to intake and fecal excretion. Microbial efficiency was estimated using purine derivative excretion. Dry matter, OM, NDF, CP intake, and total digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.058) by the absence of Ca, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation. Intake of Ca, P, and Mg were reduced ( < 0.01) by CaP-. The absence of CuMnZn reduced ( < 0.01) Cu, Mn, and Zn intake. Ruminal recycling of P, Na, and K is significant for increasing the influx of these minerals to the digestive tract; however, influences of treatments were not observed. The small and large intestines contributed to mineral absorption in different proportions ( < 0.05), according to minerals and treatments. Because of the similarity ( > 0.05) of OM, NDF, and CP digestion sites and coefficients, we assume that omitting supplemental sources of Ca, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn may be an option in raising cattle on feedlots. If supplementation is viable, knowledge about the specific absorption site of each mineral could positively impact choices about the supplemental source.

  6. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics for feedlot goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2017-08-22

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8+ 0.46 kg BW) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits studied which goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0, 2, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, LM area, WBSF, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of dry matter in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  7. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly reduced energy production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef feedlot manure of various ages was digested. The study showed that compared with fresh manure gas production at 100%, aged manure produced between 16 and 73% of the gas per kilogram of volatile solids added. More than one-half of the nitrogen was lost after the manure had aged three months. The resulting economic advantage of fresh manure over aged manure for energy and nitrogen recovery would be from $26 to $61/head/y.

  8. Effect of feedlot manure collection techniques on ultimate methane yield

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Hills, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Beef-cattle manure collected from unpaved dirt feedlots has a significantly decreased energy-production potential due to low organic content and dirt contamination. In laboratory batch fermentors beef-feedlot manure of various ages was digested. Compared with fresh manure-gas production at 100%, aged manure produced 16-73% of the gas/kg of volatile solids added. More than 1/2 of the N was lost after the manure had aged 3 months. Economic benefits of CH/sub 4/ and N recovery from manure of different ages are discussed.

  9. Variable efficacy of a vaccine and direct-fed microbial for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; Hannon, Sherry; Booker, Calvin W; Jim, G Kee

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a type-III secreted proteins vaccine and a Lactobacillus-acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, cattle (n=864) were allocated to the following groups: DFM, finishing diets containing 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU)/animal/day L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii; VAC, finishing diets and 2 mL intramuscular injection of vaccine at allocation and 28 days later; or CON, finishing diets only. Cattle within replicates were stratified by initial levels of E. coli O157:H7 and randomized to experimental groups, with 30 pens allocated on June 15, 2011 (AS1), 18 pens allocated on June 28, 2011 (AS2), and 18 cattle per pen. Rectal fecal samples and perineal swabs were collected at 28-day intervals until shipment to slaughter (103-145 days on trial). Numbers of cattle with enumerable E. coli O157:H7 (≥1.6 CFU/g feces) were reduced in AS1 and AS2 by VAC (p=0.008), although interventions had no impact on numbers of E. coli O157:H7 shed. For AS1, VAC reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.04) in the feeding period but not at shipment to slaughter. For AS2, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was not reduced in either feces or perineal swabs by VAC at any time. For AS1, DFM reduced prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in perineal swabs (p=0.01) during the feeding period. For AS2, DFM increased E. coli O157:H7 detection in feces (p=0.03) and perineal swabs (p=0.01) at shipment to slaughter. Seventy-five percent of AS1 E. coli O157:H7 isolates had only stx1, while 87% of AS2 isolates had stx1 and stx2 genes. Of the two interventions, VAC shows the most potential for pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7, but due to variable efficacy of both DFM and VAC, additional product development is necessary to ensure more consistent pre-harvest control of E. coli O157:H7.

  10. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, M K; Patterson, J M; Jenkins, K H; Buttrey, E K; Davis, T C; Clark, B E; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2012-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDG; <15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility. In Exp. 1, six hundred crossbred steers (364 ± 35 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with 8 replications/treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of a dry-rolled corn (DRC) control diet without WDG, a SFC control without WDG, and SFC with 4 WDG concentrations (15, 30, 45, 60% DM basis) replacing SFC, cottonseed meal, urea, and yellow grease. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, and 12th-rib fat depth were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for DRC compared with SFC. Final BW, ADG, G:F, HCW, 12th-rib fat depth, and marbling score decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. In Exp. 2, six ruminally and duodenally cannulated crossbred steers (481 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design using the same diets as Exp. 1. Ruminal, postruminal, and total tract OM and NDF digestibility were not different (P > 0.14) for DRC compared with SFC. Ruminal and total tract starch digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for SFC compared with DRC. Dry matter and OM intake were not different (P ≥ 0.43) among WDG treatments. Ruminal and total tract OM digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Intake, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility of NDF increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Starch intake decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WDG concentration. Ruminal starch digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Total tract starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing concentration of WDG. Feeding SFC improved steer performance compared with DRC. The concentration of WDG and corn

  11. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOEpatents

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  12. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  13. Estimating the comparative clinical and economic consequences of tulathromycin for treatment of present or anticipated outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nautrup, B Poulsen; Van Vlaenderen, I; Gasper, S M; Holland, R E

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of using tulathromycin as first line treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) compared with other commonly used antimicrobials. Two decision trees were developed simulating the consequences of treating cattle at high risk of developing BRD [control model (CM)] or cattle with first clinical BRD episode [treatment model (TM)]. As comparators florfenicol and tilmicosin were considered in both models whereas enrofloxacin was included in the TM because it was only labeled for treatment of BRD at the time of development of the calculators. A total of 5 (CM) and 10 (TM) comparative clinical studies that reported efficacy data for the selected drugs and indications were identified as suitable for model population. The following outcomes were considered: first treatment success, number of subsequent BRD treatments, chronics, and mortalities. Cost parameters were considered from the perspective of the producer and included treatment costs (first treatment and retreatments) and costs of chronics and deaths derived from published sources for 2010 (default). The models allowed the estimation of clinical and economic consequences according to each individual trial outcomes. Treatment with tulathromycin resulted in more first treatment successes and fewer removals (chronics and deaths) in all comparisons. The average total number of antimicrobial treatments required for the management of BRD was also least with tulathromycin as first treatment option. Because of better efficacy, total costs over the entire study periods were always lowest with tulathromycin. Depending on the study selected as the basis for the efficacy evaluation, cost savings with tulathromycin were calculated in the CM between US$21.00 and $47.86 (vs. florfenicol) and $11.37 and $72.64 (vs. tilmicosin); cost savings in the TM ranged between $28.47 and $143.87 (vs. florfenicol) and $7.75 and $84.91 (vs. tilmicosin) as well as between

  14. Methane production by fermentation cultures acclimated to waste from cattle fed monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or avoparcin

    SciTech Connect

    Varel, V.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.

    1982-12-01

    The ability of microorganisms to ferment waste from cattle fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin to methane was determined. Continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 55 degrees C were used; fermentors were fed once per day. Initially, all fermentors were fed waste without antibiotics at 6% volatile solids (VSs, organic matter) and a 20-day retention time (RT) for 60 days. Waste from animals fed monensin, lasalocid, or salinomycin at 29, 20, and 16.5 mg per kg of feed, respectively, was added to duplicate fermentors at the above VSs, and RT. Avoparcin (5 to 45 mg/liter) was not fed to animals but was added directly to duplicate fermentors. Lasalocid and salinomycin had minimal effects of the rate of methane production at RTs of 20 days and later at 6.5 days. Avoparcin caused an increaes in organic acids from 599 to 1,672 mg/liter (as acetate) after 4 weeks, but by 6 weeks, acid concentrations declined and the rate of methane production was similar to controls at 6.5 day RT. The monensin fermentors stopped producing methane 3 weeks after antibiotic addition. However, after a 6-month acclimation period, the microorganisms apparently adapted, and methane production rates of 1.65 and 2.51 liters per liter of fermentor volume per day were obtained with 6% VSs, and RTs of 10 and 6.5 days, respectively. All fermentors that were fed waste containing antibiotics had lower pH values and ammonia and alkalinity concentrations, suggesting less buffering capacity and protein catabolism than in controls. Acclimation results obtained with fermentors at 35 degrees C were similar to those for fermentors at 55 degrees C. These studies indicate that waste from cattle fed these selected growth-promoting antibiotics can be thermophilically fermented to methane at RTs of 6.5 days or longer and VS concentrations of 6%, at rates comparable to waste without antibiotics. (Refs. 21).

  15. Relative contribution of ruminal buffering systems to pH regulation in feedlot cattle fed either low- or high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Chibisa, G E; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2016-07-01

    The relative contribution of ruminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and salivary buffering to pH regulation could potentially change under different dietary conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of altering the ruminal supply of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate (CHO) on absorptive function and salivation in beef cattle. Eight heifers (mean BW±SD=410±14 kg) were randomly allocated to two treatments in a crossover design with 37-day periods. Dietary treatments were barley silage at 30% low forage (LF) or 70% high forage (HF) of dietary dry matter (DM), with the remainder of the diet consisting of barley grain (65% or 25% on a DM basis) and a constant level (5%) of supplement. The LF and HF diets contained 45.3% and 30.9% starch, and 4.1% and 14.0% physically effective fiber (DM basis), respectively. Ruminal pH was continuously measured from day 17 to day 23, whereas ruminal fluid was collected on day 23 to determine SCFA concentration. Ruminal liquid passage rate was determined on day 23 using Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Eating or resting salivation was measured by collecting masticate (days 28 and 29) or saliva samples (days 30 and 31) at the cardia, respectively. On days 30 and 31, the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen technique was used to measure total, and Cl--competitive (an indirect measure of protein-mediated transport) absorption of acetate, propionate and butyrate. As a result of the higher dietary starch content and DM intake, the ruminal supply of rapidly fermentable CHO, total ruminal SCFA concentration (118 v. 95 mM; P<0.001) and osmolality (330 v. 306 mOsm/kg; P=0.018) were greater in cattle fed LF compared with HF. In addition, feeding LF resulted in a longer duration (2.50 v. 0.09 h/day; P=0.02) and a larger area (0.44 v. 0.01 (pH×h)/day; P=0.050) that pH was below 5.5. There was no diet effect on total and Cl--competitive absorption (mmol/h and %/h) of acetate, propionate

  16. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production.

    PubMed

    Marañón, E; Castrillón, L; Quiroga, G; Fernández-Nava, Y; Gómez, L; García, M M

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH(4)/kg VS(feed) for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36°C, for an OLR of 1.2g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55°C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  18. Influence of processed grains on fecal pH, starch concentration, and shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Nagaraja, T G; Sargeant, J M; Drouillard, J S; Loe, E R; Corrigan, M E

    2008-03-01

    Manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a possible preharvest control measure for Escherichia coli O157. Altering hindgut fermentation through diet changes may be a means to reduce fecal shedding of E. coli O157. In Exp. 1, the objective was to determine whether fecal shedding of E. coli O157 was related to fecal starch concentration. Beginning on d 20, and every week thereafter until d 61, steers in 54 pens (6 to 7 steers per pen) were sampled (n = 122) by fecal collection and rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) for E. coli O157 and fecal starch concentration determinations. Escherichia coli O157 prevalence was 3.3% in fecal samples, 4.1% as measured by RAMS, and 4.9% by fecal or RAMS samples. Steers positive for E. coli O157 contained 21% more (P < 0.05) fecal starch than steers that were negative for E. coli O157. In Exp. 2, we attempted to alter the concentration of starch escaping rumen fermentation by feeding finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC) to 30 heifers prescreened for being culture positive for fecal E. coli O157. Beginning on d 13, heifers were sampled (feces and RAMS) weekly to monitor fecal pH and starch concentration, and prevalence of E. coli O157. Prevalence of E. coli O157 remained above 30% for the first 13 d, but declined (P < 0.05) over the entire 7-wk period. Based on RAMS, the prevalence of E. coli O157 tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for heifers fed SFC than for those fed the DRC diet. After d 20, heifers fed DRC had greater (P < 0.05) fecal starch and lower (P < 0.05) fecal pH than heifers fed SFC. Fecal pH was negatively correlated (r = - 0.34; P < 0.05; n = 143) with fecal starch concentration. Fecal starch concentration and pH were not different (P > 0.05) for heifers that were positive or negative for E. coli O157. Our data suggest that fecal shedding of E. coli O157 was not related to fecal pH or starch concentration in cattle fed grain-based diets.

  19. The endocrine activity of beef cattle wastes: do growth-promoting steroids make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sellin, Marlo K; Snow, Daniel D; Gustafson, Sarah T; Erickson, Galen E; Kolok, Alan S

    2009-05-17

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the endocrine activity of wastes from trenbolone acetate:estradiol (TBA:E)-implanted steers to that of wastes from unimplanted steers. To accomplish this, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to urine or fecal slurry from TBA:E-implanted or unimplanted steers for 7 days. Following exposures, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA expression and secondary sexual characteristics were assessed. Among both males and females, there were no differences in vtg mRNA expression between fish exposed to urine from implanted or unimplanted steers at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, concentrations of steroid hormones in the urine of implanted and unimplanted steers were similar. These findings indicate a lack of differences in the endocrine activity of urine from TBA:E-implanted and unimplanted steers. With regard to the fecal slurry exposures, there were no significant differences in vtg mRNA expression among females from any of the groups; however, significant differences in male vtg mRNA expression were detected. Specifically, males exposed to 1600 mg dry feces/L from implanted cattle experienced an 840-fold increase in vtg mRNA expression relative to both unexposed males and males exposed to the corresponding fecal concentration from unimplanted steers. These males also appeared to experience a reduction in male secondary sexual characteristics. These findings suggest that steroids associated with the wastes from TBA:E-implanted steers have both feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male fish. Furthermore, these effects are most likely due to the presence of estrogenic compounds, which were detected in the liquid portion of the fecal slurry from TBA:E-implanted steers, but not in that of unimplanted steers. The findings of this study indicate the presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the urine and feces of cattle and suggest that the implant history of cattle alters the endocrine activity of

  20. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, G; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Negral, L; Rodríguez-Iglesias, J; Ormaechea, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of applying ultrasound pre-treatment in the production of methane when co-digesting mixtures of cattle manure with food waste and sludge. A series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in continuously stirred-tank reactors containing 70% cattle manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge. Ultrasound pre-treatment allows operating at lower HRT, achieving higher volumetric methane yields: 0.85 L CH4/L day at 36°C and 0.82 CH4/L day at 55°C, when cattle manure and sewage sludge were sonicated. With respect to the non-sonicated waste, these values represent increases of up to 31% and 67% for mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, respectively.

  1. Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Imamovic, Lejla; Jofre, Juan; Muniesa, Maite

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in animal environments. bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M) (clusters 1 and 9), and mecA were quantified by quantitative PCR in 71 phage DNA samples from pigs, poultry, and cattle fecal wastes. Densities of 3 to 4 log(10) gene copies (GC) of bla(TEM), 2 to 3 log(10) GC of bla(CTX-M), and 1 to 3 log(10) GC of mecA per milliliter or gram of sample were detected, suggesting that bacteriophages can be environmental vectors for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes.

  2. Surfactants in anaerobic digestion of cheese whey, poultry waste, and cattle dung for improved biomethanation

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M.; Madamwar, D.

    1994-05-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve the anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle dung, poultry waste and cheese whey, with enriched methane content, the effect of various surfactants was studied. Among the surfactants tested, Tween 80 and sodium lauryl sulphate showed the maximum enhancement in gas production as well as methane content, indicating better process performance. The Tween 80 dosed digester (300 {mu}L/L) produced about 3.5 L gas/L of digester/d with 70% methane. Results also indicated increased percent COD reduction in the presence of Tween 80. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Effects of ceftiofur and chlortetracycline treatment strategies on antimicrobial susceptibility and on tet(A), tet(B), and bla CMY-2 resistance genes among E. coli isolated from the feces of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Neena; Scott, H Morgan; Norby, Bo; Loneragan, Guy H; Vinasco, Javier; McGowan, Matthew; Cottell, Jennifer L; Chengappa, Muckatira M; Bai, Jianfa; Boerlin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two sets of treatment strategies on ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance in feedlot cattle. The strategies consisted of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) administered to either one or all of the steers within a pen, followed by feeding or not feeding a therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline (CTC). Eighty-eight steers were randomly allocated to eight pens of 11 steers each. Both treatment regimens were randomly assigned to the pens in a two-way full factorial design. Non-type-specific (NTS) E. coli (n = 1,050) were isolated from fecal samples gathered on Days 0, 4, 12, and 26. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using a microbroth dilution technique. PCR was used to detect tet(A), tet(B), and bla CMY-2 genes within each isolate. Chlortetracycline administration greatly exacerbated the already increased levels of both phenotypic and genotypic ceftiofur resistance conferred by prior CCFA treatment (P<0.05). The four treatment regimens also influenced the phenotypic multidrug resistance count of NTS E. coli populations. Chlortetracycline treatment alone was associated with an increased probability of selecting isolates that harbored tet(B) versus tet(A) (P<0.05); meanwhile, there was an inverse association between finding tet(A) versus tet(B) genes for any given regimen (P<0.05). The presence of a tet(A) gene was associated with an isolate exhibiting reduced phenotypic susceptibility to a higher median number of antimicrobials (n = 289, median = 6; 95% CI = 4-8) compared with the tet(B) gene (n = 208, median = 3; 95% CI = 3-4). Results indicate that CTC can exacerbate ceftiofur resistance following CCFA therapy and therefore should be avoided, especially when considering their use in sequence. Further studies are required to establish the animal-level effects of co-housing antimicrobial-treated and non-treated animals together.

  4. Effects of Ceftiofur and Chlortetracycline Treatment Strategies on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and on tet(A), tet(B), and blaCMY-2 Resistance Genes among E. coli Isolated from the Feces of Feedlot Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Neena; Scott, H. Morgan; Norby, Bo; Loneragan, Guy H.; Vinasco, Javier; McGowan, Matthew; Cottell, Jennifer L.; Chengappa, Muckatira M.; Bai, Jianfa; Boerlin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A randomized controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two sets of treatment strategies on ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance in feedlot cattle. The strategies consisted of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) administered to either one or all of the steers within a pen, followed by feeding or not feeding a therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline (CTC). Eighty-eight steers were randomly allocated to eight pens of 11 steers each. Both treatment regimens were randomly assigned to the pens in a two-way full factorial design. Non-type-specific (NTS) E. coli (n = 1,050) were isolated from fecal samples gathered on Days 0, 4, 12, and 26. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using a microbroth dilution technique. PCR was used to detect tet(A), tet(B), and blaCMY-2 genes within each isolate. Chlortetracycline administration greatly exacerbated the already increased levels of both phenotypic and genotypic ceftiofur resistance conferred by prior CCFA treatment (P<0.05). The four treatment regimens also influenced the phenotypic multidrug resistance count of NTS E. coli populations. Chlortetracycline treatment alone was associated with an increased probability of selecting isolates that harbored tet(B) versus tet(A) (P<0.05); meanwhile, there was an inverse association between finding tet(A) versus tet(B) genes for any given regimen (P<0.05). The presence of a tet(A) gene was associated with an isolate exhibiting reduced phenotypic susceptibility to a higher median number of antimicrobials (n = 289, median = 6; 95% CI = 4–8) compared with the tet(B) gene (n = 208, median = 3; 95% CI = 3–4). Results indicate that CTC can exacerbate ceftiofur resistance following CCFA therapy and therefore should be avoided, especially when considering their use in sequence. Further studies are required to establish the animal-level effects of co-housing antimicrobial-treated and non-treated animals together. PMID

  5. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on internal body temperature and respiration rate of black-hided feedlot steers and heifers during moderate heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the internal body temperature and respiration rate of feedlot cattle during moderate heat stress. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech...

  6. Feces of feedlot cattle contain a diversity of bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Niu, Yan D; Chen, Jinding; Anany, Hany; Ackermann, Hans-W; Johnson, Roger P; Ateba, Collins N; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages that lyse non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from cattle feces. Of 37 non-O157 STEC-infecting phages isolated, those targeting O26 (AXO26A, AYO26A, AYO26B), O103 (AXO103A, AYO103A), O111 (AXO111A, AYO111A), O121 (AXO121A, AXO121B), and O145 (AYO145A, AYO145B) were further characterized. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the 11 isolates belonged to 3 families and 6 genera: the families Myoviridae (types rV5, T4, ViI, O1), Siphoviridae (type T5), and Podoviridae (type T7). Genome size of the phages as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ranged from 38 to 177 kb. Excluding phages AXO26A, AYO103A, AYO145A, and AYO145B, all other phages were capable of lysing more than 1 clinically important strain from serogroups of O26, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, and O128, but none exhibited infectivity across all serogroups. Moreover, phages AYO26A, AXO121A, and AXO121B were also able to lyse 4 common phage types of STEC O157:H7. Our findings show that a diversity of non-O157 STEC-infecting phages are harbored in bovine feces. Phages AYO26A, AYO26B, AXO103A, AXO111A, AYO111A, AXO121A, and AXO121B exhibited a broad host range against a number of serogroups of STEC and have potential for the biocontrol of STEC in the environment.

  7. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the ultrasound pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, food waste and crude glycerine.

    PubMed

    Ormaechea, Pedro; Castrillón, Leonor; Marañón, Elena; Fernández-Nava, Yolanda; Negral, Luis; Megido, Laura

    2017-03-01

    To increase the production of methane, when cattle manure (CM) is digested, pretreatments can be applied and/or the manure can be co-digested with other wastes. In this research work, a mixture of CM, food waste (FW) and raw glycerine (Gly) in a proportion in weight of 87% CM, 10% FW and 3% Gly was digested, (a) without pretreatment and (b) with pretreatment by ultrasound, applying a sonication energy of 1040 kJ/kg total solids. Specific methane production was 290 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) without pretreatment and 520 L CH4/kg VS with pretreatment. With respect to the volumetric methane production, 1.07 L CH4/Lreactor.day was produced in the first case, and in the second case, 1.98 L CH4/Lreactor.day. We can conclude that the application of ultrasound pretreatment significantly improved the production of biogas.

  9. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence.

  10. Effects of dietary inclusion and NaOH treatment of dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Murphy, T A; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    (P = 0.04) in cattle fed 60% DDGS diets at 0 h, but at 3 h postfeeding it tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total lactate was less than 1.30 for all dietary treatments at all time points. Treating DDGS with 2% NaOH may increase rumen pH and decrease H(2)S, thereby alleviating polioencephalomalacia.

  11. [Vitamin B12 supplementation and milk production on farms with 'chronic wasting' cattle].

    PubMed

    Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; Holzhauer, M; Bartels, C J; van Wuijckhuise, L; Vellema, P

    2001-03-15

    From early 1999 onwards, cattle health problems accompanied by chronic wasting of unknown aetiology were reported on a number of dairy farms. An association between these health problems and the compulsory use of gE-negative marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 was presumed by farmers. On one dairy farm an increased milk production of 50% was reported within a few days after parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment on the milk production of dairy herds with wasting cattle. A randomized blind trial was performed in five problem herds and two control herds. On each farm five lactating cows were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg vitamin B12 and paired with five untreated lactating cows. The milk production of treated and untreated animals was measured for 19 days following treatment and compared to pre-treatment production. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on milk production was established on either problem farms or control farms. Neither was a difference detected in the response to vitamin B12 treatment between problem herds and control herds. In a second experiment, parenteral vitamin B12 treatment was applied in three problem herds by local veterinary practitioners. The results of this experiment were in line with the results of the first experiment.

  12. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    SciTech Connect

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the

  13. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E.; Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y.; Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  14. Nutrient excretion and odorant production in manure from cattle fed corn wet distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, M J; Varel, V H

    2009-09-01

    (primarily long- and branched-chain VFA, and phenol) as well as increased ammonia and H(2)S emissions from the feedlot. Increased P concentration in livestock waste will increase the amount of land necessary to utilize manure P. Because of increased urinary P excretion, producers should consider environmental implications of liquid runoff from the feedlot surface as well as solid manure when WDGS are fed to feedlot cattle.

  15. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  16. Effect of temperature and retention time on methane production from beef cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Varel, V.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.

    1980-08-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65/sup 0/C with 5/sup 0/C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 consecutive days. The highest methane production rate (liters/liter of fermentor per day) and methane yield at that rate (liters/gram of volatile solids) were 1.27 and 0.19 at 9 days and 30/sup 0/C, 1.60 and 0.16 at 6 days and 35/sup 0/C, 2.28 and 0.23 at 6 days and 40/sup 0/C, 2.42 and 0.24 at 6 days and 45/sup 0/C, 2.83 and 0.14 at 3 days and 50/sup 0/C, 2.75 and 0.14 at 3 days and 55/sup 0/C, 3.18 and 0.14 at 2.5 days and 60/sup 0/C, and 1.69 and 0.17 at 6 days and 65/sup 0/C. Volatile solids degradation at these retention times and temperatures was between 46 and 54%. The concentrations of volatile acids in the 30 to 55/sup 0/C fermentors were generally below 2000 mg/liter, with the exception of the 3-day retention time. The 60 and 65/sup 0/C fermentors were usually above this level for all retention times. These studies indicate potential rates of methane production from the fermentation of untreated waste of beef cattle fed high-grain finishing diets. This information should serve as preliminary guidelines for various kinetic analyses and aid in economic evaluations of the potential feasibility of fermenting beef cattle waste to methane.

  17. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  18. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia and Salmonella isolates obtained from beef cattle concentrated animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern High Plains are home to numerous cattle feedlots containing approximately 3.5 million beef cattle that account for nearly 30% of the United States fed beef cattle operations. The high density of beef cattle results in a concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) due to the generation of m...

  19. Influence of grain processing on acid-base balance in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Méndez, J; Llena, J; Pereira, V; López-Alonso, M; Benedito, J L

    2006-10-01

    Grain processing (e.g. grinding, steaming, pelleting, flaking) has been reported to modify the incidence of ruminal disturbances in feedlot cattle. This study investigated the effects of two grain processing methods widely used in Spanish feedlots (grinding and pelleting) on animal performance, blood acid-base balance, blood electrolyte levels and serum lactate in a 140-day feedlot experiment with double-muscled Belgian Blue steers. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the way in which these two feeds modify blood acid-base balance, which is closely associated with ruminal pH. In light of our results we conclude that the animals that received the pelleted feed showed a more stable acid-base balance over time than those fed a ground feed. Nevertheless, higher levels of L-lactate and lower base excess (BE) and HCO(3)(-) values for cattle fed pelleted grain reflect a greater risk of grain-acid overload.

  20. Feedlot Nutritionist Boot Camp: An Intensive Short-Course for Commercial Agriculture Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Chris; Hubbert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In the digital age, face-to-face meetings combining didactic and experiential learning are valuable. Beef cattle nutrition graduate students (n = 33) from 11 universities attended a 5-day feedlot nutrition and management short-course. Topics included nutrition, veterinary medicine, feedmill maintenance, and management of the financial and human…

  1. Feedlot Nutritionist Boot Camp: An Intensive Short-Course for Commercial Agriculture Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Chris; Hubbert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In the digital age, face-to-face meetings combining didactic and experiential learning are valuable. Beef cattle nutrition graduate students (n = 33) from 11 universities attended a 5-day feedlot nutrition and management short-course. Topics included nutrition, veterinary medicine, feedmill maintenance, and management of the financial and human…

  2. ASSESSMENT OF AN INFILTRATION BASIN AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS FROM FEEDLOT RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland to treat process wastewater from a cattle feedlot prior to discharge to an adjacent waterway was explored in regards to fecal pathogens. Weekly sampling of typical operating conditions and rainfall-generated runoff during 2...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF AN INFILTRATION BASIN AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR REMOVAL OF PATHOGENS FROM FEEDLOT RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland to treat process wastewater from a cattle feedlot prior to discharge to an adjacent waterway was explored in regards to fecal pathogens. Weekly sampling of typical operating conditions and rainfall-generated runoff during 2...

  4. Yeast probiotic supplementation mitigates some of the negative effects of heat stress in feedlot heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress (HS) in feedlot cattle can be detrimental to performance, health and profitability; however, utilization of feed additives has the potential to mitigate some of these negative effects. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if supplementation of a combination live yeast and ye...

  5. Feedlot research at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (U.S. MARC) conducts research in several areas to support the feedlot industry and the U.S. consumer. Several studies have been conducted to determine the nutrient value of emerging coproduct feeds and their usage in cattle of diverse genetics. The amount of me...

  6. Electromagnetic Induction and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Applied to evaluate contamination at a site of disposal of animal wastes from a feedlot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainato, C. M.; Marquez Molina, J.; Losinno, B.; Urricariet, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    In Argentina, the systems of animal feeding in pens (feedlots) are expanding the production, generating a great quantity of solids and liquid residuals, being a highly risky source of soil and groundwater contamination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relation between soil bulk conductivity and the distribution of concentrations of nitrates and other potential contaminants of groundwater from animal manure. Shallow electromagnetic induction (EMI) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were carried out at a pen of a feedlot at San Pedro , Bs. As. Province , Argentina, where large quantities of manure (3.5 m height) had been placed at the center of them, for a few months of activity. Soil sampling up to 2 m depth was performed for physical and chemical analysis. Wells were drilled for monitoring groundwater level (12 m depth) and water quality. Soil texture was defined as loamy clayey silty. Distribution of electrical conductivity obtained from the two exploration methods was similar, being higher the values at the pen than at the background site, coinciding with laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity of the saturation paste extract. At the center of the pen, bellow the manure accumulation, the highest values of conductivity were found (greater than 120mS/m), decreasing to the surroundings. However, values of N-NO3 in soil were lower at the center of the pen than at the surroundings. Concentration decreases with depth at sites of the pen with high soil compaction. Water content showed a strong influence on values of conductivity. Groundwater values of NO3 concentration do not exceed the level for human consumption although SO4 concentration increases respect to background deeper well.Values of conductivity and N-NO3 were still lower compared with the ones found at another pen with 10 years of use. An EMI survey carried out two years later showed an increase of twice the values of electrical conductivity. We conclude that higher

  7. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate (kg VS/day/1000 kg animal mass) Dairy cows Dairy heifers Feedlot steer Feedlot heifers Nitrogen excretion...

  8. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate (kg VS/day/1000 kg animal mass) Dairy cows Dairy heifers Feedlot steer Feedlot heifers Nitrogen excretion...

  9. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate (kg VS/day/1000 kg animal mass) Dairy cows Dairy heifers Feedlot steer Feedlot heifers Nitrogen excretion...

  10. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate (kg VS/day/1000 kg animal mass) Dairy cows Dairy heifers Feedlot steer Feedlot heifers Nitrogen excretion...

  11. Investigation into possible differences in Salmonella prevalence in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle derived from distinct production systems and of different breed types

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) of feedlot and cull cattle with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to investigate if these differences in Salmonella prevalence in...

  12. Tegoprens in anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey, poultry waste, and cattle dung for improved biomethanation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Sastry, V.; Madamwar, D.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve the anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle dung, poultry waste, and cheese whey, the effect of various doses of Tegoprens: T-3012, T-3099, T-5842, T-5843, T-5851, T-5852 has been studied, in bench-scale digesters. Among them, Tegoprens 3022 showed more than a 45% increase in gas production with higher methane content. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Transport of trace metals in runoff from soil and pond ash feedlot surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, J.R.; Gilley, J.E.; Cottrell, G.L.; Woodbury, B.L.; Berry, E.D.; Eigenbert, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements, and the runoff water-quality effects of feedlot surfaces amended with pond ash are not well defined. For this study, two experimental units (plots) were established in eight feedlot pens. Four of the pens contained unamended soil surfaces, and the remaining four pens had pond-ash amended surfaces. Before each test, unconsolidated surface material was removed from four of the plots for each of the amendment treatments, resulting in eight unamended plots and eight pond-ash amended plots. Concentrations for 23 trace elements were measured in cattle feedlot surface material and in the runoff water from three simulated rainfall events. Trace element concentrations in surface material and runoff did not differ between surface consolidation treatments. Amending the feedlot surface material with pond ash resulted in a significant increase in concentration for 14 of the 17 trace elements. Runoff concentrations for 21 trace elements were affected by pond-ash amendment. Sixteen of 21 trace element concentrations that differed significantly were greater in runoff from unamended soil surfaces. Concentrations in runoff were significantly correlated with concentrations in feedlot surface material for boron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium.

  14. Rainfall Driven Sorting of Soils and Manure in Beef Feedlot Pens, Implications for Steroid Hormone Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has documented elevated estrogenic and androgenic activity in surface waters receiving cattle feedlot effluent, while current research shows that significant concentrations of hydrophobic steroid hormones are transported in the solid phase of feedlot pen surface runoff. Accumulated manure in beef feedlot pens includes organic matter ranging from colloidal particles to partially digested feed, forming a complex soil-manure conglomerate at the pen surface. We hypothesized that the transport of solid phase particles in rainfall runoff on beef feedlots would be influenced but not limited by shield layer development. Soils and manure at a beef feedlot were evaluated before and after rainfall-runoff events to determine changes in soil composition and structure. Runoff samples were also collected during an hour of runoff and analyzed for suspended solids. Results indicate that rainfall actively sorts the soil and manure components through raindrop impact, depression storage and runoff. However, transport of solid phase constituents was found to be elevated throughout the hydrograph. This suggests that the surface shield layer conceptualization applied to other soils should be modified before application to the soil-manure conglomerate found in beef feedlot pens.

  15. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Hancock, Dale; Rogan, Dragan; Potter, Andrew A

    2005-08-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 microg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying significantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no significant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter.

  16. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine field trial in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A feedlot trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine in reducing fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in 218 pens of feedlot cattle in 9 feedlots in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Pens of cattle were vaccinated once at arrival processing and again at reimplanting with either the E. coli O157:H7 vaccine or a placebo. The E. coli O157:H7 vaccine included 50 μg of type III secreted proteins. Fecal samples were collected from 30 fresh manure patties within each feedlot pen at arrival processing, revaccination at reimplanting, and within 2 wk of slaughter. The mean pen prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was 5.0%; ranging in pens from 0% to 90%, and varying signif icantly (P < 0.001) among feedlots. There was no signif icant association (P > 0.20) between vaccination and pen prevalence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 following initial vaccination, at reimplanting, or prior to slaughter. PMID:16187717

  17. Feedlot Euthanasia and Necropsy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2015-11-01

    Timely euthanasia of feeder cattle can minimize suffering of cattle that have little hope of recovery or pain abatement. Euthanasia techniques are described, including primary and secondary steps to ensure humane death. Considerations are discussed to ensure rendered product from euthanized cattle will be safe. A necropsy technique that is time efficient and thorough is outlined. An important aspect is minimizing the number of detached body organs, thereby making it easier to remove the necropsied animal. A necropsy data collection system is discussed that uses check-boxes to record findings. A link to a database that can be downloaded is included.

  18. Sulphur mineralization kinetics of cattle manure and green waste compost in soils.

    PubMed

    Saviozzi, Alessandro; Cardelli, Roberto; Cipolli, Silvia; Levi-Minzi, Renato; Riffaldi, Riccardo

    2006-12-01

    Sulphur mineralization of cattle manure (CM) and green waste compost (GWC) added to six agricultural soils with different chemical properties was monitored over 10 weeks in a laboratory incubation experiment. Although the amount of sulphur was higher in CM than in GWC, the cumulative SO4(2-)-S values in GWC-treated soils were higher than in soil amended with CM. The percentages of mineralized S were always higher in GWC-treated soil (in the range 1.3-8.5%) than in CM-treated soil (in the range 0.9-3.8%). In three of the six soils, particularly for CM, an immobilization of sulphur was observed. Three kinetic models were evaluated for their suitability to describe the mineralization process. The first-order model best described S mineralization for both amended and control soils. The GWC substantially increased the amount of potentially mineralizable S (S0) relative to the controls. In GWC-treated soils, the rates of S mineralization (k) were higher than rates in the controls. The k of CM-amended soils was often lower than the k of control soils. Parameters derived from the model were tested as indices for assessing the relationships between S mineralization and soil characteristics. The S0 was positively correlated to the amount of cumulative SO4(2-)-S and also to the content of organic C, N and S in soil.

  19. Methane from cattle waste: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and influent substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of temperature (35 and 55/sup 0/C), influent volatile solids (VS) concentration (S/sub 0/ = 43, 64, 82, 100, and 128 kg VS/m/sup 3/) and hydraulic retention time (HRT = 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 days) on methane (CH/sub 4/) production from cattle waste were evaluated using 3-dm/sup 3/ laboratory scale fermentors. The highest CH/sub 4/ production rate achieved was 6.11 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4/ m/sup -3/ fermentor day/sup -1/ at 55/sup 0/C, four days HRT, and S/sub 0/ = 100 kg VS/m/sup 3/. Batch fermentations showed an ultimate CH/sub 4/ yield (B/sub 0/) of 0.42 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg VS fed. The maximum loading rates for unstressed fermentation were 7 kg VS m/sup -3/ day/sup -1/ at 35/sup 0/C and 20 kg VS m/sup -3/ day/sup -1/ at 55/sup 0/C. The kinetic parameter (K, an increasing K indicates inhibition of fermentation) increased exponentially.

  20. Occurrence of foodborne bacteria in Alberta feedlots.

    PubMed

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in cattle manure, beef carcasses, catch basin water, and soils receiving manure application was determined in 21 Alberta feedlots. In cattle manure, generic E. coli (98%, 2069/2100) and Campylobacter (76%, 1590/2100) were frequently detected; E. coli O157 (7%, 143/2100) and Salmonella (1%, 20/2100) were less frequently detected. Samples from beef carcasses in the cooler following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point interventions yielded only 1 isolate each of generic E. coli and Campylobacter (1/1653) and no Salmonella (0/1653). Catch basin water specimens were positive for generic E. coli in both the spring (62%, 13/21) and the fall (52%, 11/21). Other bacteria were detected only in the spring water specimens, including E. coli O157 (29%, 6/21), Salmonella (5%, 1/21), and Campylobacter (52%, 11/21). Generic E. coli was frequently isolated from soil specimens (30%, 27/88), but E. coli O157 was not found in soil samples obtained in the spring and was only occasionally detected in the fall samples (9%, 3/32). Salmonella were occasionally found in the soil specimens collected in the spring (3%, 2/56), but not in the fall season (0/32). Campylobacter jejuni was frequent in cattle manure (66%, 1070/1623), but rare in carcass and environmental samples. E. coli O157 and Salmonella were rarely detected in cattle or the environment. Generic E. coli and Salmonella were rarely detected on carcasses.

  1. Use of a resistance meter to locate manure suitable for energy recovery in beef cattle feedyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mineral constituents, i.e., salts, contained in beef feedlot manure alter inherent soil conductivity. Researchers at USMARC have adapted tools such as electromagnetic soil conductivity meters and mapping/modeling software to identify areas where by manure accumulates on beef cattle feedlots. These t...

  2. A new model for phosphorus loss in runoff from outdoor cattle lots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue. For cattle farms, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, and barnyards and feedlots. Barnyards and feedlots can be significant sources of P loss, but there are few modeling tools to estimate that loss. We developed a use...

  3. Feedlot efficiency implications on greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Cooprider, K L; Mitloehner, F M; Famula, T R; Kebreab, E; Zhao, Y; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2011-08-01

    The term sustainable has many meanings, but in agriculture it generally refers to some balance between environmental, social, and economic goals. The objective of this project was to quantify inputs and outputs to assess the sustainability implications of 2 feedlot cattle management systems: Never Ever 3 (NE3) and a conventional (CON) system using metabolic modifiers. Angus-cross steers (n=104) were stratified by BW (337 kg ± 17) and randomly assigned to 4 pens per treatment group. The NE3 cattle received no feed additives or implants, whereas CON were implanted with 100 mg of trenbolone acetate and 14 mg of estradiol benzoate on d 1 and 70, and were additionally fed monensin [330 mg/(animal·d)] and tylosin phosphate [90 mg/(animal·d)] in their ration throughout the course of the study, and ractopamine hydrochloride at 254 mg/(animal·d) for the last 29 d on feed. Cattle were shipped on a constant average pen weight basis (596 kg ± 32 BW). The CON cattle had greater ADG (1.81 vs. 1.35 kg, P < 0.01) and were on feed fewer days (146 vs. 188 d, P < 0.01) than the NE3 cattle. No significant differences were observed in HCW (P = 0.072) or dressing percentage (P=0.62) between treatments (P > 0.05); however, CON carcasses averaged larger ribeye area (87 vs. 80 cm(2), P < 0.01), greater Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement (WBSF; 3.46 vs. 3.19 kg, P < 0.01), and smaller USDA marbling score (5.4 vs. 6.2, P < 0.01), and less backfat thickness (1.64 vs. 1.84 cm, P < 0.05) and yield grade (3.38 vs. 3.95, P < 0.01) than NE3 carcasses. Overall, CON cattle consumed 393 kg less DM in the feedlot (1,250 vs. 1,643 kg; P < 0.05). No treatment effects were observed for daily methane (CH(4); P=0.62) or nitrous oxide (N(2)O; P=0.7) emissions per steer. Assuming a constant emission rate on a DMI basis throughout the course of the feedlot trial, CON feedlot management resulted in a 31% decrease in emissions per finished steer compared with NE3 management. Expressing CH(4) emissions

  4. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively.

  5. Greenhouse gas and alcohol emissions from feedlot steers and calves.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, Kimberly R; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Livestock's contributions to climate change and smog-forming emissions are a growing public policy concern. This study quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) and alcohol emissions from calves and feedlot steers. Carbon dioxide (CO) methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ethanol (EtOH), and methanol (MeOH) were measured from a total of 45 Holstein and Angus steers and 9 Holstein calves representative of four different growth stages commonly present on calf ranches and commercial feedlots. Individuals from each animal type were randomly assigned to three equal replicate groups of nine animals per group. Steers were fed a high concentrate diet and calves a milk replacer and grain supplement. Cattle and calves were housed in groups of three animals in an environmental chamber for 24 h. The CO, NO, EtOH, and MeOH concentrations from the air inlet and outlet of the chamber were measured using an INNOVA 1412 monitor and CH using a TEI 55C methane analyzer. Emission rates (g head h) were calculated. The GHGs were mainly produced by enteric fermentation and respiration and differed across life stages of cattle. Compared with dairy cows, feedlot steers produce relatively less GHG. In general, ethanol and methanol, the most important volatile organic compound (VOC) group in the dairy sector, were below the lower limit of detection of the gas analyzer. The present data will be useful to verify models and to enhance GHG emission inventories for enteric fermentation, respiration, and fresh excreta for numerous cattle life stages across the beef industry. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of feedlot pen surfaces located on moderately coarse- and moderately fine-textured soils in southern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A; Olson, Barry M

    2008-01-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest density of feedlot cattle in Canada, and there is a concern that leaching of water and contaminants may be greater for feedlots located on coarser-textured than finer-textured soils. Our objective was to determine if infiltration and leaching were greater for a 4-yr-old feedlot located on a moderately coarse-textured (MC) soil compared with two feedlots located on moderately fine-textured (MF) soils (5- and 52-yr-old pens). Various soil physical properties of feedlot pen surfaces were measured, including field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(fs)) and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity at -0.9 and -3.9 cm water potential. Selected chemical properties of feedlot soil layers were measured, as well as the chloride content of the soil profile (0-100 cm). Mean K(fs), K(-0.9), and K(-3.9) values were not significantly (P > 0.10) greater at the MC site than the two MF sites, indicating no evidence of greater infiltration on coarser-textured soils. In addition, mean K(fs), K(-0.9), and K(-3.9) values of soils within feedlot pens at all three sites were significantly (P < or = 0.10) reduced by 46 to 78% compared with soil outside the pens. Depth of chloride accumulation was greatest at the 52-yr-old feedlot on MF soil (60-70 cm), followed by 4-yr-old feedlot on MC soil (40-50 cm) and 5-yr-old feedlot on MF soil (30-40 cm). Visual inspection determined that the black interface layer formed within 2 mo of cattle stocking at all three sites.

  7. Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Eickhoff, J

    2012-06-01

    Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P < 0.0001), whereas DMI, temperature the previous day, daily temperature, change in temperature from the previous day, average wind speed, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) were positively related (P < 0.001) to daily WC. There was a trend (P < 0.06) for the cosine of wind direction (1 = due north and -1 = due south) to be negatively related to WC. The multivariate, parsimonious model predicting average daily WC included (P < 0.05) average humidity, average humidity squared, high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from cattle systems: factors affecting emissions and mitigation strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle evolved on a diet consisting primarily of forages. Thus, it is often assumed that the “ideal” system for producing cattle is pasture-based. In contrast to much of the world, beef cattle in North American typically spend a portion of their life in feedlots where they are fed diets high in gr...

  9. Bacteroides paurosaccharolyticus sp. nov., isolated from a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Atsuko; Abe, Kunihiro; Ohtaki, Yoshimi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya; Ueki, Katsuji

    2011-02-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (WK042(T)) was isolated from rice-straw residue in a methanogenic reactor treating waste from cattle farms in Japan. Cells were Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Growth was stimulated well by haemin, and was enhanced by cobalamin (vitamin B(12)). Strain WK042(T) utilized arabinose, xylose, glucose, mannose and aesculin as preferred substrates. Maltose, dextrin, glycogen, starch and pectin were also utilized, although growth on these substrates was much slower. The strain produced acetate, propionate and succinate from these saccharides. The strain was slightly alkaliphilic, with optimum growth at pH 7.7. The temperature range for growth was 10-40 °C, the optimum being 35 °C. The strain was sensitive to bile. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and C(15 : 0). Menaquinone 11 (MK-11) was the major respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 41.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strain in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain WK042(T) was related distantly to the type strains of species in the cluster including Bacteroides massiliensis, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei (91-92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on data from the present phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain WK042(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacteroides, for which the name Bacteroides paurosaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WK042(T) (=JCM 15092(T) =DSM 21004(T)).

  10. Characterization of microbiomes related to respiratory disease in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Respiratory disease is the single largest disease-related issue for the beef cattle industry in the United States, estimated to be responsible for up to 75% of morbidity in beef cattle feedlots. Despite decades of research into this problem, incidence of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) h...

  11. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  12. Shade material evaluation based on physiological response of cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle produced in open feedlots are vulnerable to a variety of weather events; under certain conditions heat events can be especially detrimental. Shade structures are often considered as one method of reducing cattle stress. A variety of shading materials are available; selection of a suitable m...

  13. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  14. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  15. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  16. Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land

    SciTech Connect

    Flessa, H.; Doersch, P.; Beese, F.

    1996-11-01

    Agricultural practices are assumed to contribute significantly to the increase in atmospheric N{sub 2}O concentrations observed in the last decades, and they might influence the consumption of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. We report on measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} exchange of a pasture soil, as influenced by droppings of a grazing cattle (Bos taurus) herd. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture soil were largely determined by the emission rates from cattle excrement with dung patches being hot spots of CH{sub 4} production and urine-affected areas showing extremely high N{sub 2}O release rates. Methane emissions from dung patches (0.778 g CH{sub 4}-C per animal and day) were insignificant when compared with those from the rumen of the cattle. Total N{sub 2}O-N losses from the droppings were equivalent to 3.2% of the nitrogen excreted. Based on global data of total nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and bison during grazing, we estimate the global N{sub 2}O emission from this source to be {approximately}1.18 teragrams N{sub 2}O-N per year, indicating that grazing cattle excretory products are one of the most important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide. Our work suggests that these sources have been drastically underestimated. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii (Shear) Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1976-04-01

    Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii) dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months. The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged.

  18. Methane from cattle waste: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and influent substrate concentration on kinetic parameter (k)

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of temperature (35 and 55 degrees C), influent volatile solids (VS) concentration (So equal to 43, 64, 82, 100, 128 kg VS/cu.m) and hydraulic retention time (HRT equal to 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 days) on methane (CH/sub 4/) production from cattle waste were evaluated using 3-d cu.m laboratory scale fermentors. The highest CH/sub 4/ production rate achieved was 6.11 cu.m CH/sub 4//cu.m fermentor/day at 55 degrees C, four days HRT, and So equal to 100 kg VS/cu.m. Batch fermentations showed an ultimate CH/sub 4/ yield (Bo) of 0.42 cu.m CH/sub 4//kg VS fed. The maximum loading rates for unstressed fermentation were 7 kg VS/cu.m/day at 35 degrees C and 20 kg VS/cu.m/day at 55 degrees C. The kinetic parameter (K, an increasing K indicates inhibition of fermentation) increased exponentially as So increased, and was described by : K equal to 0.8 plus 0.0016e 0.06So. Temperature had no significant effect on K for So between 40 and 100 kg VS/cu.m. The above equation predicted published K values for cattle waste within a mean standard error of 7%. (Refs. 11).

  19. Influence of therapeutic ceftiofur treatments of feedlot cattle on fecal and hide prevalences of commensal Escherichia coli resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular characterization of resistant isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States the bla**CMY-2** gene contained within incompatibility type A/C (IncA/C) plasmids is frequently identified in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCr) from both human and cattle sources. Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of ceftiofur in catt...

  20. Isolation and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157 shed from range and feedlot cattle from postweaning to slaughter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. E. coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 are among the STEC serogroups that cause severe foodborne illness and have been declared as adulterants by the United States Department of Agriculture, Food Sa...

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli in feces and feedlot surface manure from cattle fed diets with or without corn or sorghum wet distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding corn wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to cattle can increase the load of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine a role for the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces and fee...

  2. CH₄ and N₂O emissions from different varieties of forage rice (Oryza sativa L.) treating liquid cattle waste.

    PubMed

    Riya, Shohei; Zhou, Sheng; Watanabe, Yoichi; Sagehashi, Masaki; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate global warming potential (GWP) on livestock waste treatment and biomass production in rice field, methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes from forage rice fields planted with 4 different cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hamasari, Leafstar, Kusahonami and Takanari) were measured. Each of the cultivars were subjected either to basal fertilization alone (control plots) (84 kg N ha(-1)), or to basal fertilization plus topdressing with liquid cattle waste or LCW (treatment plots) (567 kg N ha(-1)). Liquid cattle waste application to the rice field resulted in peak CH(4) fluxes ranging from 22.0 to 32.1 mg m(-1)h(-1) during flooded conditions and large N(2)O fluxes ranging from 526 to 8591 μg m(-1)h(-1) after midsummer drainage and final drainage. The GWP of the control plots was between 1358 and 3872 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1), while the treatment plots ranged between 4503 and 8426 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) and more than 60% of the GWP was from the N(2)O emission in treatment plots. In both the control and treatment plots, the lowest GWPs per ton of above-ground biomass were found to be from the Leafstar cultivar, which had a higher aboveground biomass than other cultivars; 117 kg CO(2)eq t(-1) from the control and 257 kg CO(2)eq t(-1) from the treatment plots. Thus, both forage production and suitable disposal of the LCW may be able to be achieved concomitantly with lower levels of GWP by cultivation of Leafstar in our field.

  3. Flooding event impacts soil pH, Ca, and P concentration distribution in a cattle backgrounding site on karst topography.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle backgrounding in US, function as an intermediate between cow-calf enterprises and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding receives weaned calves of different growth stages from cow-calf operations and prepare them ready for feed lot finishing. Many beef cattle backgrounding operati...

  4. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2015 New Mexico State and Texas Tech University survey.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, K L; Hubbert, M E; Galyean, M L; Löest, C A

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 feedlot consulting nutritionist survey is a collaborative project between New Mexico State University and Texas Tech University that focuses on summarizing the professional practices of consulting feedlot nutritionists and updates a 2007 survey. Forty-nine consulting feedlot nutritionists were asked to participate, of which 24 completed the survey. The nutritionists surveyed service over 14,000,000 cattle annually and were representatives from individual consulting practices (54.2%), corporate cattle feeding companies (20.8%), corporate feed manufacturing companies (20.8%), or a combination of consulting practices (4.2%). The survey was completed using a web-based survey tool and contained 101 questions that were divided into sections regarding general information about the consulting practice; general cattle management; receiving cattle management, diet adaption; mixers, feed mills, and feeding management; grains and grain processing; grain by-product use; roughage use; information about supplements and microingredients; liquid feed use; nutrient formulation; feed additive use; and information used as a basis for nutritional recommendations. In most cases, the results of the current survey were similar to those reported for the 2007 survey, with a few notable exceptions such as shifts in cattle numbers and preferences for specific feedstuffs. The present study introduced a number of new questions not included in the 2007 survey that focused on management strategies used in the receiving period. Data from this survey provide insight into current nutritional and management practices of consulting nutritionists and, as in past surveys, should be useful for informing national committees that make nutritional recommendations for cattle, as well as nutrition and management strategies employed within university research settings.

  5. Growth and Development Symposium: Impacts of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Holland, B P; Mills, R L; Maxwell, C L; Farney, J K; Terrill, S J; Step, D L; Richards, C J; Burciaga Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation caused by bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers and feedlot managers. Inflammation decreases DMI, ADG, and G:F in feedlot calves, decreasing growth rate and increasing days on feed, which results in economic losses during the feeding period. During the past decade, marketing of feedlot animals has changed from selling cattle on a live basis to a grid-based marketing system. When cattle are marketed on a live basis, the economic effects of BRD stop at increased health cost and decreased feedlot performance, carcass weight, and death loss. However, when cattle are marketed in a grid-based system, inflammation has the potential to also affect carcass cutability and quality. The effects of inflammation on feedlot cattle in regards to performance are well understood; however, specific effects on cattle growth and ultimately carcass merit are not as well described. Recent studies in feedlot cattle have indicated that the incidence of BRD decreases both HCW and marbling; however, mechanisms are not understood. Research in other species has demonstrated that during the acute phase response, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote skeletal muscle catabolism to supply AA and energy substrates for immune tissues. Further, during this early immune response, the liver changes its metabolic priorities to the production of acute phase proteins for use in host defense. Together these dramatic shifts in systemic metabolism may explain the detrimental effects on performance and carcass traits commonly associated with BRD in feedlot calves. Moreover, recent studies relative to human health have revealed complex multilevel interactions between the metabolic and immune systems, and highlighted inflammation as being a significant contributor to major metabolic diseases. The objective of this paper is to review data to help explain the economical and physiological effects of inflammation on cattle growth and

  6. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    PubMed

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  7. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  8. The effects of technology use in feedlot production systems on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C L; Bernhard, B C; O'Neill, C F; Wilson, B K; Hixon, C G; Haviland, C L; Grimes, A N; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feedlot production systems with and without the use of a β-adrenergic agonist compared to an all-natural production program on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Crossbred beef steers ( = 336; initial BW = 379 ± 8 kg) were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD; 14 steers/pen; 8 pens/treatment). Treatments consisted of an all-natural treatment (NAT), a conventional treatment (CONV), and a conventional treatment with a β-agonist (CONV-Z). All treatments were fed the same basal diet with NAT cattle receiving no growth promoting technologies. The CONV and CONV-Z cattle were implanted with 40 mg of estradiol and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (TBA) on d 0 and were fed 33 and 9 mg/kg of monensin and tylosin daily, respectively. The CONV-Z cattle were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) at 6.76 mg/kg (90% DM basis) for the last 20 days on feed (DOF) There was no effect of treatment on DMI ( = 0.83); however, CONV-Z steers gained 3.8% faster (1.64 vs. 1.58 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 5.3% more efficient (0.160 vs. 0.152; < 0.01) than CONV steers, and CONV steers gained 32.8% faster (1.58 vs. 1.19 kg/d; < 0.01) and were 26.7% more efficient (0.152 vs. 0.120; < 0.01) than NAT steers. There was a 35.7% improvement in estimated carcass gain (1.29 vs. 0.95 kg/d; < 0.01) and a 32.6% improvement in carcass efficiency (0.126 vs. 0.095; < 0.01) for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers. Hot carcass weight was increased by 8 kg for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (394 vs. 386 kg; = 0.05) and 46 kg compared to NAT steers (394 vs. 348 kg; < 0.01). Longissimus muscle area was increased by 3.6 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to CONV steers (92.29 vs. 88.67 cm; = 0.02) and 12.1 cm for CONV-Z steers compared to NAT steers (92.29 vs. 80.16 cm; < 0.01), resulting in a 9.6% unit increase in USDA yield grade (YG) 1 (15.14 vs. 5.52%; < 0.05) and a 21.6% unit reduction in USDA YG 3 for

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in beef cattle from transport to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Beach, John C; Murano, Elsa A; Acuff, Gary R

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical production practices during the transport of cattle on the resulting incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the feces, on the hides, and on the carcasses of these cattle and in the environment (trucks, holding pens, and knock boxes). Various factors were evaluated, including the type of animal (feedlot cattle vs. adult pasture cattle), the breed of cattle, the body condition of the animal, the age of the animal, the time of feed and water withdrawal, the contamination level of the transport vehicle at the feedlot or farm, the transport time, the time cattle were held in the holding pen at the plant, and the contamination level of the holding pen. Four groups of each type of animal were sampled on different days. Samples were collected from cattle prior to transport and after transport (rectal and hide swabs) as well as from the carcasses of these cattle. Pre- and posttransit samples were also taken from the transport vehicle and from the holding pen and knock box at the slaughter facility. For feedlot cattle, fecal shedding stayed fairly constant for both organisms before and after transport (3 to 5% for Salmonella and 64 to 68% for Campylobacter). However, the shedding rate for adult cattle increased from 1 to 21% for Salmonella but stayed constant for Campylobacter (6 to 7%). Contamination of hides with Salmonella increased for both animal types from a level of 18 to 20% to a level 50 to 56%. For Campylobacter, the contamination level decreased from 25 to 13% for feedlot cattle but remained unchanged for adult animals (1 to 2%). Nineteen percent of feedlot cattle carcasses and 54% of adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Salmonella, while only2% of feedlot cattle carcasses and none of the adult cattle carcasses tested positive for Campylobacter. Thus, for feedlot cattle, the factors considered in this study did not affect the shedding of either organism but did affect the contamination

  10. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  11. Use of FBC ash to stablize dairy barn feedlots, minimize nutrient pollution, and develop new utilization outlets

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.; Stout, W.

    1995-11-01

    Using technology developed by the USDA/ARS and US DOE, the Ahlstrom Ash Development Corporation has been successfully using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash from the Black River Co-Gen plant in Watertown, NY as an agricultural soil amendment. This permitted land application was based primarily on the jointly derived handbook on FBC utilization. During times of the year when ash cannot be spread on crop land, Ahlstrom has been using the ash as a low strength concrete to stabilize dairy barn feedlots. The stabilized feedlots provide a place for cattle to escape from muddy conditions in the spring and fall. Farmer acceptance of these stabilized feedlots is very positive. However, there is a need to provide data on the leachates from and through these barnyard pads.

  12. Effect of cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity on lung respiratory lesions and liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this trial was to use exit velocity as a means of determining temperament of cattle to evaluate the impact of temperament on animal health. At the time of processing, exit velocity and body weight were recorded on 20 pens of cattle (2,877 head) at a commercial feedlot. Infrared sens...

  13. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  14. Investigation of bacterial diversity in the feces of cattle fed different diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to investigate individual animal variation of bovine fecal microbiota including as affected by diets. Fecal samples were collected from 426 cattle fed 1 of 3 diets typically fed to feedlot cattle: 1) 143 steers fed finishing diet (83% dryrolled corn, 13% corn silage, a...

  15. Investigation of microbial diversity in the feces of cattle fed different diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding of the bovine fecal microbiome could contribute to solving issues regarding animal production, cattle health and food safety. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of diet on the fecal microbiome in feedlot cattle. The next-generation pyrosequencing technology was us...

  16. Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease resistant prion protein throughout the central...

  17. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  18. Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Calves From Dams With Different Levels of Winter Supplementation Developed With or Without Feed Restriction During the Postweaning Period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harvested feedstuffs are a major input cost for beef cattle production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot ...

  19. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    PubMed

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow.

  20. Triclosan- resistant bacteria isolated from feedlot and residential soils

    PubMed Central

    WELSCH, TANNER T.; GILLOCK, ERIC T.

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is currently incorporated into hundreds of consumer and medical products. It can be either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent, depending on its formulation. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some viruses and protists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triclosan-resistant bacteria could be isolated from the soil. Soils from cattle feedlots and residential lawns were collected and assayed for the presence of these organisms by plating samples on growth media containing triclosan. Organisms were subsequently identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. All the organisms isolated in this study were Gram-negative rods, with members of genus Pseudomonas being particularly well represented. This result may not be surprising because Gram-negative organisms are generally more resistant to triclosan, and since Pseudomonas bacteria are known to have numerous efflux mechanisms for dealing with harmful substances. PMID:21391038

  1. Triclosan-resistant bacteria isolated from feedlot and residential soils.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanner T; Gillock, Eric T

    2011-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is currently incorporated into hundreds of consumer and medical products. It can be either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent, depending on its formulation. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some viruses and protists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triclosan-resistant bacteria could be isolated from the soil. Soils from cattle feedlots and residential lawns were collected and assayed for the presence of these organisms by plating samples on growth media containing triclosan. Organisms were subsequently identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. All the organisms isolated in this study were Gram-negative rods, with members of genus Pseudomonas being particularly well represented. This result may not be surprising because Gram-negative organisms are generally more resistant to triclosan, and since Pseudomonas bacteria are known to have numerous efflux mechanisms for dealing with harmful substances.

  2. Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung - a study of effect of temperature and retention time

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Madamwar, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  3. A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Zerby, Henry N; Fluharty, Francis L; Loerch, Steve C; Kauffman, Michael D; Bard, Jaime L; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Alteration of the gastro-intestinal tract through manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a preharvest control measure to reduce fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the energy source's moisture content (high moisture corn and dry whole-shelled corn), two natural feed supplements (Saccaromyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell and Aspergillus oryzae-Amaferm), and two levels of vitamin A (2200 IU/kg and no supplementation) on the fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle. One hundred sixty-eight Angus-cross beef steers were randomly allocated to 24 pens, and each pen was assigned 1 of 12 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) and fecal grab samples using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and standard microbiological techniques. On the basis of multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, we found a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in animals fed dry whole-shelled corn in models based on fecal-IMS, and this effect was increased if a super-shedding animal (shedding > 10(4) colony forming units of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of feces) was present in the pen at the time of testing relative to animals fed high moisture corn and nonexposed to super-shedders. However, in similar models based on RAMS-IMS testing, the effect of corn type on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 varied with the type of feed additive used. Being exposed to a super-shedding pen-mate also increased the odds of being positive to E. coli O157:H7 in the RAMS-IMS models. These models demonstrate that the impact of different supplements may vary with the diagnostic test used, and that further research into the biological significance of differences between RAMS- and fecal-IMS test results is warranted.

  4. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were <30 MPN/ml respectively save for environment. This process can reduce 84.70% the amount of molds. The only molds still existed after fermentation was A.fumigatus. The number of protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to

  5. Comparative cost-effectiveness of ivermectin versus topical organophosphate in feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Bauck, Stewart W.; Jim, G. Kee; Guichon, P. Tim; Newcomb, Kathleen M.; Cox, James L.; Barrick, Ruth-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted in a commercial feedlot in western Canada to evaluate the impact of treatment with ivermectin versus a topical organophosphate on growth rate and feed efficiency in calves entering a feedlot at an average 275 kg liveweight. A total of 9527 head of cattle was used. Variables measured included average daily gain, average days occupation, and feed conversion. Ivermectin treated animals gained an average 0.08 kg per day more than those treated with topical organophosphate. In addition, they required an average 0.23 kg less feed/kg gain. Based on an average 227 kg of gain, this would result in 11 fewer days occupation and 52.3 kg less feed for ivermectin treated animals. This equaled a net benefit of $7.04 per head over treatment costs for ivermectin treatment versus topical organophosphate. PMID:17423237

  6. Assessing performance of feedlot operations using epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Marilyn J; Griffin, Dee

    2006-03-01

    The progressive feedlot veterinarian must be well versed not only in individual production animal medicine, but also in population-based medicine. Feedlot health programs must be goal oriented, and evaluation of these goals is accomplished through diligent use of record systems and analytic evaluation of these record systems. Basic feedlot monitoring parameters include health and economic parameters in addition to the use of bench marking parameters between and among feed yards. When these parameters have significant changes, steps should be initiated to begin field investigations. Feedlot epidemiology uses several novel applications such as partial budgeting, risk assessment, and packing plant audits to provide scientifically sound and economically feasible solutions for the feeding industry.

  7. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    , and mean inter-meal interval were associated with a decreased BRD hazard up to 7 d before feedlot staff noticed clinical symptoms (P < 0.001). In conclusion, mean intake per meal as well as mean meal time and frequency of meals could be used to predict the hazard of BRD in feedlot cattle 7 d before visual detection and could be considered in commercial feedlot settings once a predictive algorithm has been developed.

  8. Effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn in diets containing wet corn gluten feed on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Schutz, J S; Gautam, K K; Galyean, M L

    2013-07-01

    The effects of varying bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) have not been defined. In Exp. 1, yearling steers (n = 108; initial BW = 367 ± 1.18 kg) were housed in 27 pens (4 steers/pen) and received 1 of 3 different SFC bulk density treatments in a randomized complete block design. Bulk density treatments were 283, 335, or 386 g/L SFC in diets containing 25% WCGF (% of DM). Steers were fed once daily to provide ad libitum access to feed for an average of 163 d. For a 5-d period before d 70 of the experiment, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected from each pen for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. Varying bulk densities of SFC did not affect (P ≥ 0.233) overall DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live- or carcass-adjusted basis. Dressing percent and LM area increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as bulk density increased, but other carcass traits were not affected by treatments. Intake of DM, OM, and CP during the 5-d digestion phase did not differ among bulk densities; however, starch intake increased linearly (P = 0.004) as bulk density of SFC increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP tended (P ≤ 0.065) to decrease and starch digestibility decreased (P = 0.002) linearly as bulk density of SFC increased. In Exp. 2, a 3 × 3 Latin square design was used for collection of ruminal fluid from 3 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to the same diets used in Exp. 1. Bulk density did not affect NH3 concentrations, VFA molar proportions, ruminal fluid osmolality, and IVDMD of the diets. Total gas production increased linearly (P = 0.003) as bulk density of SFC increased from 283 to 335 g/L, but it decreased (P = 0.002) at 386 g/L. Present data suggest that bulk density can be increased up to 386 g/L in finishing diets containing 25% (DM basis) WCGF without affecting cattle performance and with limited effects on ruminal

  9. Thermophilic co-digestion of cattle manure and food waste supplemented with crude glycerin in induced bed reactor (IBR).

    PubMed

    Castrillón, L; Marañón, E; Fernández-Nava, Y; Ormaechea, P; Quiroga, G

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present research work was to boost biogas production from cattle manure (CM) by adding food waste (FW) and crude glycerin (Gly) from the biodiesel industry as co-substrates. For this purpose, different quantities of FW and Gly were added to CM and co-digested in an induced bed reactor (IBR) at 55 °C. Sonication pre-treatment was implemented in the CM+Gly mixture, applying 550 kJ/kg TS to enhance the biodegradability of these co-substrates. The best results were obtained with mixtures of 87/10/3 (CM/FW/Gly) (w/w) operating at an organic loading rate of 7 g COD/L day, obtaining 92% COD removal, a specific methane yield of 640 L CH4/kg VS and a methane production rate of 2.6L CH4/L day. These results doubled those obtained in the co-digestion of CM and FW without the addition of Gly (330 L CH4/kg VS and 1.2L CH4/L day). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of sulfonamide-, tetracycline-, plasmid-mediated quinolone- and macrolide-resistance genes in livestock feedlots in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Mu, Quanhua; Li, Jin; Sun, Yingxue; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Qing; Luo, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock feedlots deserve attention because they are prone to transfer to human pathogens and thus pose threats to human health. In this study, the occurrence of 21 ARGs, including tetracycline (tet)-, sulfonamide (sul)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone (PMQR)- and macrolide-resistance (erm) genes were investigated in feces and adjacent soils from chicken, swine, and cattle feedlots in Northern China. PMQR and sul ARGs were the most prevalent and account for over 90.0 % of the total ARGs in fecal samples. Specifically, PMQR genes were the most prevalent, accounting for 59.6 % of the total ARGs, followed by sul ARGs (34.2 %). The percentage of tet ARGs was 3.4 %, and erm ARGs accounted for only 1.9 %. Prevalence of PMQR and sul ARGs was also found in swine and cattle feces. The overall trend of ARG concentrations in feces of different feeding animals was chicken > swine > beef cattle in the studied area. In soils, sul ARGs had the highest concentration and account for 71.1 to 80.2 % of the total ARGs, which is possibly due to the widely distributed molecular carriers (i.e., class one integrons), facilitating sul ARG propagation. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of various types of ARGs in livestock feedlots and thus provides a reference for the management of antibiotic use in livestock farming.

  11. Ammonia emissions from cattle, pig and poultry wastes applied to pasture.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, D R; Pain, B F; Klarenbeek, J V

    1989-01-01

    In four field experiments, carried out in The Netherlands, small wind-tunnels were used to make direct measurements of ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization from different types of slurry and manure applied to the surface of grassland. During periods of up to six days following application, losses of NH(3)-N often amounted to more than 40% of the NH(4)-N applied. Percentage loss was highest (83%) from a poultry slurry and least (21%) from an air-dried poultry manure. Losses of NH(3)-N were generally greater from pig slurry (36-78%) than from cattle slurry (41%). In most cases 80% or more of the total NH(3)-N loss occurred within 48 h of application. Estimates were made of total annual NH(3) emissions from four systems of poultry housing. The highest total loss (50% of the N voided in droppings) occurred with a battery house producing a slurry with a low content of dry-matter; most of the loss took place after spreading. With a second battery house, in which the droppings were air-dried, the total loss was only 12%, with much lower emissions from the housing and during spreading.

  12. 9 CFR 78.11 - Cattle moved to a specifically approved stockyard not in accordance with this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... slaughtering establishment if such cattle are “S” branded and accompanied by an “S” brand permit; or (c... an “S” brand permit; or (2) Accompanied by an “S” brand permit and moved in vehicles closed with... numbers must be recorded on the “S” brand permit; or (d) Directly to a quarantined feedlot if such cattle...

  13. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  14. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  15. Effect of dietary melengestrol acetate on the incidence of acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot heifers

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Tim A.; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M.; Yost, Garold S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Over a 3-y period, 906 000 cattle were monitored in 23 feedlots in southern Alberta for symptoms of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Plasma, urine, and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 299 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP and from 156 healthy penmates and analyzed for 3-methylindole (3MI) derivatives and reduced glutathione concentration. From each animal, the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Concentrations of glutathione in lung tissue were reduced (P < 0.001) in animals showing clinical symptoms of AIP as compared with their asymptomatic penmates. Animals histologically confirmed as having AIP had higher levels of 3MI protein adducts in blood and lung tissue (P < 0.05) than did emergency-slaughtered animals without AIP. Within feedlots, where pens of heifers were fed either a standard dosage of melengestrol acetate (MGA) or none, the rate of death attributable to AIP was similar between treatment groups, but emergency slaughter after clinical diagnosis of AIP was done 3.2 times more often (P < 0.001) in the MGA-fed heifers than in the group not fed MGA. Use of MGA did not influence glutathione concentration. As growth performance of heifers given steroidal implants may not be improved by feeding MGA, the most cost-effective method of reducing the incidence of AIP-related emergency slaughter in feedlot heifers may be to eliminate MGA from the diet. PMID:16850945

  16. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; McGill, J L; Pillatzki, A E; Palmer, M V; Ackermann, M R

    2014-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by organisms such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, resulting in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to bovine respiratory disease complex, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from bovine respiratory disease have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. Human and bovine RSV are closely related viruses with similarities in histopathologic lesions and mechanisms of immune modulation induced following infection. Therefore, where appropriate, we provide comparisons between RSV infections in humans and cattle. This review article discusses key aspects of RSV infection of cattle, including epidemiology and strain variability, clinical signs and diagnosis, experimental infection, gross and microscopic lesions, innate and adaptive immune responses, and vaccination strategies.

  17. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis in French calf feedlots.

    PubMed

    Arcangioli, Marie-Anne; Aslan, Hamidé; Tardy, Florence; Poumarat, François; Le Grand, Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major cause of respiratory outbreaks in cattle feedlots. In this study pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to trace field strains and provide information on M. bovis patterns of spread in calf feedlots. The suitability of KpnI, MluI and SmaI restriction enzymes was assessed on different sets of strains. The discriminative power of the first two enzymes was first assessed using 28 epidemiologically unrelated strains; stability was 100% on multiple isolates from in vivo experimental infection. Thirty-nine field isolates from six feedlots were then evaluated. In contrast to the unique fingerprints displayed by the unrelated strains, the isolates from the feedlots showed identical patterns at the time of the outbreak of respiratory disease and 4 weeks later. The PFGE typing results suggest that M. bovis strains follow a clonal epidemic spread pattern at the herd level and that the same strain persists in calves of the herd after the clinical signs have disappeared.

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Saskatchewan cattle: characterization of isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, antibiotic resistance profiles, and pathogenicity determinants.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Korber, Darren R

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 associated with feedlot cattle in Saskatchewan was determined in a 10-month longitudinal study (3 feedlots) and a point prevalence study (20 feedlots). The prevalence of E. coli O157 at the three different sites in the horizontal study varied from 2.5 to 45%. The point prevalence of E. coli O157 among Saskatchewan cattle from 20 different feedlots ranged from 0% to a high of 57%. A statistically significant (P = 0.003) positive correlation was determined to exist between the density of cattle and the E. coli O157 prevalence rate. A significant correlation (P = 0.006) was also found between the E. coli O157 percent prevalence and the number of cattle housed/capacity ratio. All 194 E. coli O157 isolates obtained were highly virulent, and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis revealed that the isolates grouped into 39 different E. coli O157 subtypes, most of which were indigenous to specific feedlots. Two of the most predominant subtypes were detected in 11 different feedlots and formed distinct clusters in two geographic regions in the province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the E. coli O157 isolates revealed that 10 were multidrug resistant and that 73 and 5 were resistant to sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, respectively.

  19. Assessment of antibiotic resistance in runoff from cattle feed