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Sample records for cattle herd identification

  1. [Eradication of Prototheca zopfii infection in a dairy cattle herd].

    PubMed

    Rösler, U; Hensel, A

    2003-09-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds.

  2. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to be...

  3. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to be...

  4. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to be...

  5. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to be...

  6. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  7. Connectedness among herds of beef cattle bred under natural service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A procedure to measure connectedness among herds was applied to a beef cattle population bred by natural service. It consists of two steps: (a) computing coefficients of determination (CDs) of comparisons among herds; and (b) building sets of connected herds. Methods The CDs of comparisons among herds were calculated using a sampling-based method that estimates empirical variances of true and predicted breeding values from a simulated n-sample. Once the CD matrix was estimated, a clustering method that can handle a large number of comparisons was applied to build compact clusters of connected herds of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle. Since in this breed, natural service is predominant and there are almost no links with reference sires, to estimate CDs, an animal model was used taking into consideration all pedigree information and, especially, the connections with dams. A sensitivity analysis was performed to contrast single-trait sire and animal model evaluations with different heritabilities, multiple-trait animal model evaluations with different degrees of genetic correlations and models with maternal effects. Results Using a sire model, the percentage of connected herds was very low even for highly heritable traits whereas with an animal model, most of the herds of the breed were well connected and high CD values were obtained among them, especially for highly heritable traits (the mean of average CD per herd was 0.535 for a simulated heritability of 0.40). For the lowly heritable traits, the average CD increased from 0.310 in the single-trait evaluation to 0.319 and 0.354 in the multi-trait evaluation with moderate and high genetic correlations, respectively. In models with maternal effects, the average CD per herd for the direct effects was similar to that from single-trait evaluations. For the maternal effects, the average CD per herd increased if the maternal effects had a high genetic correlation with the direct effects, but the percentage

  8. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  9. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  10. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    PubMed

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  11. Serological and virological BVDV prevalence and risk factor analysis for herds to be BVDV seropositive in Belgian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Steven; Veldhuis, Anouk; Méroc, Estelle; Vangeel, Ilse; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen; Caij, Ann Brigitte; Piepers, Sofie; Hooyberghs, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; Van Der Stede, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a worldwide spread virus that most commonly infects cattle and can cause considerable economic losses. To determine the prevalence of BVDV in Belgium, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2009 and March 2010. Young stock aged between 6 and 12 months from 773 randomly selected Belgian cattle herds were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen. With a target and maximum of 10 animals per sampled herd, a total of 5246 animals were selected. Additionally a questionnaire including different herd management topics and questions about participation in animal health programmes, including BVDV, was sent to 1100 Belgian cattle herds, including the 773 herds for BVDV testing. This paper focuses on results regarding these 773 herds. The true prevalence of BVDV-specific antibodies and antigen at herd level was respectively 47.4% and 4.4%, while at animal level this was respectively 32.9% and 0.3%. In 44.4% of the herds where BVDV-specific antibodies were detected at least 60% of the sampled young stock was BVDV seropositive. Interestingly, 83.4% of these farmers stated not to have suffered from problems related to BVDV. Moreover, only 8.4% of all farmers who completed the questionnaire (n=895) reported problems possibly related to BVDV the past 3 years. This demonstrates that farmers are often unaware of the presence of BVDV in their herd. Risk factors for a herd to be BVDV seropositive were identified by means of a multivariable logistic regression model. Large herds were significantly more likely to be BVDV seropositive (OR=1.004, p<0.01). The interaction between "Antigen positive animal detected in this study" and "BVDV vaccination in 2009" was significant (p<0.01). In non-vaccinating herds, the detection of antigen positive animals was significantly associated with BVDV seropositive herds (OR=13.8, p<0.01). In herds with no antigen positive animals detected, vaccination resulted in a significant risk factor to

  12. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  13. Risk factors for herd breakdown with bovine tuberculosis in 148 cattle herds in the south west of England.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Villaescusa, A M; Medley, G F; Mason, S; Green, L E

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The disease has a long latent period, heterogenous spread, can infect many species and can persist in the environment. In the UK, the rate of herd breakdowns (HBD) with bTB is increasing. A retrospective cohort study of 148 cattle herds was set up to investigate risk factors for HBD from October 2001 to November 2004. Herds were selected from farms located in the randomised badger culling trial (RBCT) and comprised holdings (24%) that were restocked with cattle after the foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in 2001 and holdings (76%) that were continuously stocked throughout the FMD epidemic. Farmers were interviewed between June 2003 and February 2004. Questions on herd and farm management were asked for the period October 2001 to June 2003. Data on herd testing for bTB were sourced from the VetNet database and historic data from 1995 were used in the analysis. A discrete time survival analysis was used to examine factors associated with the risk of HBD. By the end of the study period, November 2004, 50% of study herds had experienced a HBD with bTB at least once. Farms that were restocked for less than 1 year after FMD had a reduced risk of HBD (P<0.01) compared with continuously stocked farms in the same year. This reduced risk did not persist after 1 year of restocking. Feeding vitamin and mineral lick supplements compared with not feeding these supplements also reduced the risk of HBD. Factors associated with an increased risk of HBD were storing manure and slurry indoors or in a closed container, spreading manure all year round, herds with dairy cattle compared with herds without dairy cattle, increasing herd size, purchase of cattle from markets, location of the farm in the proactive area of the RBCT compared with survey only and location of farms in Somerset and North Devon. The lower risk of HBD in the first year after restocking but not the second or third year suggests that removal of all

  14. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-08-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is influenced by a number of factors such as herd size, herd composition and diagnostic sensitivity. The sensitivity of the test increases with the age of the tested animal, and therefore the general, or "mean effective sensitivity" (defined as the mean of the sensitivities for all animals within a population, MES), for detecting MAP within a herd is dependent upon the age distribution of the herd. For this study we used a dataset of cattle from 4,259 dairy herds and 4,078 non-dairy herds. The aim was to investigate the MES for groups of cattle considered to be reasonable entities for MAP surveillance and control, in order to assist the decision-makers in planning and optimizing these programs economically. We compared six different groups of cattle (three dairy and three non-dairy) in Denmark by calculating the MES for each herd in each group. The distribution of MES showed a large variation within and between groups, and in some groups we found a bimodal distribution of MES. Dairy herds generally showed higher MES than non-dairy herds. Dairy herds in a control programme for paratuberculosis showed a MES similar to all other dairy herds from which animals > 2.0 years were tested (both groups had a median MES = 0.60). For the non-dairy groups, the sensitivity became much higher when animals < 2.0 years and herds with less than 25 cattle were excluded, resulting in a median MES of 0.65. The results showed that MES could indicate the effectivity of testing different cattle groups for MAP, given that the data used are unbiased.

  15. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  16. [Staphylococcus aureus variety hominis in a cattle herd].

    PubMed

    Hummel, R; Meene, G

    1979-01-01

    A site-linked hominis variety of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a cattle herd. The find coincided with accumulated occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows and the affliction of one milker with a nose furuncle. The origin of the strain was not elucidated. The same strain had been isolated throughout three years of observation from clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as from chronic udder affection of cows, but no extraordinary accumulation of clinically manifest mastitis had been observed. The hominis site variety was quite rare among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from other cow herds. Enterotoxin formation was recorded from strains of the hominis site variety and from strains which could not be coordinated with any other of the known site varieties and fell under crystal-violet Type A. No enterotoxin formation was recordable from the strains of the bovis variety. The same applied to the group of staphylococci of crystal-violet Type C which could not be coordinated either with any known site variety and which is assumed to have originated from the hominis site variety. The above findings do not support any conclusion as to whether the cows had been infected by the milker or vice versa.

  17. Relative contributions of neighbourhood and animal movements to Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, Simon; Hoch, Thierry; Widgren, Stefan; Joly, Alain; Lindberg, Ann; Beaudeau, François

    2014-05-01

    Q fever in dairy cattle herds occurs mainly after inhalation of contaminated aerosols generated from excreta by shedder animals. Propagation of Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease between ruminant herds could result from transmission between neighbouring herds and/or the introduction of infected shedder animals in healthy herds. The objective of this study were (i) to describe the spatial distribution C. burnetii-infected dairy cattle herds in two different regions: the Finistère District in France (2,829 herds) and the island of Gotland in Sweden (119 herds) and (ii) to quantify and compare the relative contributions of C. burnetii transmission related to neighbourhood and to animal movements on the risk for a herd to be infected. An enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay was used for testing bulk tank milk in May 2012 and June 2011, respectively. Only one geographical cluster of positive herds was identified in north-western Finistère. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of risk for a herd to test positively with local cattle density (the total number of cattle located in a 5 km radius circle) and the in-degree (ID) parameter, a measure of the number of herds from which each herd had received animals directly within the last 2 years. The risk for a herd to test positively was higher for herds with a higher local cattle density [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-3.2, for herds with a local density between 100 and 120 compared to herds with a local density 60]. The risk was also higher for herds with higher IDs (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2, for herds with ID 3 compared to herds that did not introduce animals). The proportion of cases attributable to infections in the neighbourhood in high-density areas was twice the proportion attributable to animal movements, suggesting that wind plays a main role in the transmission.

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L

    2013-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Association between cattle herd Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and infection of a hare population.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Monti, Gustavo; Sevilla, Iker; Manning, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Paratuberculosis has long been considered a disease of domestic and wild ruminants only. The known host range of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was recently extended to include non-ruminant wildlife species believed to be exposed to spillover of MAP from infected domestic cattle herds. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between cattle herd MAP infection pressure level and the infection level of a hare population in two dairy farms of southern Chile. Fifty hares from a herd A and 42 hares from herd B were captured and sampled for MAP culture. The results showed a statistically significant association between the cattle herds' infection prevalence and the hare infection prevalence.

  20. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses. PMID:21975258

  1. Differential gene expression segregates cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P; Coussens, Paul M; Grooms, Daniel L; Bolin, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

  2. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P.; Coussens, Paul M.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Bolin, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22701814

  3. Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C

    2013-11-23

    National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

  4. Cattle herd vulnerability to rainfall variability: responses to two management scenarios in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Angassa, Ayana; Oba, Gufu

    2013-03-01

    We examine how the system of grazing management of cattle in savanna rangelands affects the herd response to drought. We have used long-term time series data to evaluate the effects of management on drought-induced cattle mortality using traditional livestock management practices. There was no control of stocking densities, as compared to a government ranch where stocking densities would be adjusted in accordance with available pasture. We tested the responses under two scenarios. Scenario 1: Response of cattle herds to inter-annual rainfall variability (IRV) under a regulated grazing management system; this provides more reliable predictions of cattle population and performance in terms of herd mortality and calving rates than does the communal land use system. Scenario 2: Regardless of the management system, similar trends in cattle populations will be observed in response to IRV. The results of the study showed that fluctuations in cattle numbers, herd mortality and calving rates were highly correlated with IRV, with stronger linear impacts in accordance with scenario 2. In both management systems, cattle herd sizes and calving rates declined during periods of drought, followed by slow recovery. Cattle populations in Borana rangelands in southern Ethiopia did not recover for a period of two decades. We conclude that a management system based on control of stocking densities did not improve herd survival, as compared with traditional drought management strategies. This contradicts common expectations. Increased drought frequencies aggravated cattle mortality and lowered calving rates. The implication of the findings is that regardless of adjusted stocking density, livestock populations in the arid savanna ecosystems of southern Ethiopia remain at risk from climate change.

  5. A longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157 in fourteen cattle herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, D. D.; Besser, T. E.; Rice, D. H.; Herriott, D. E.; Tarr, P. I.

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 shedding in 14 cattle herds was determined by faecal culture at intervals of approximately 1 month for up to 13 months. The overall prevalence was 1.0% (113/10832 faecal samples) and 9 of the 14 herds were detected as positive. Herds positive 2 years previously (n = 5) had a higher prevalence of positive cattle (median = 1.9%) than herds which had been negative on a previous sampling (n = 8, median = 0.2%). Weaned heifers had a higher prevalence (1.8%) than did unweaned calves (0.9%) or adults (0.4%). For all herds the highest prevalence occurred in the summer months, which resulted in most of the positive faecal samples being collected on a minority of sampling visits. PMID:9129597

  6. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene'; Toft, Nils; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L; Halasa, Tariq

    2015-03-15

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for F. hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of F. hepatica positive and negative herds to explore environmental indicators of infection. Herd level, trade and environmental risk factors were evaluated for association with infection using logistic regression. Herd infection status as predicted from the final risk factor model was compared with the observed status using heat maps to assess how well the model fitted the observed spatial pattern. During the investigated period (2011-2013), an increase in annual herd prevalence was noted (2011-25.6%; 2012-28.4%; 2013-29.3%). The spatial analysis suggested significant clustering of positive and negative herds. Presence of streams, wetlands and pastures on farms showed a significant association with the presence of infection in cattle herds. Buying animals from positive herds was a risk factor on conventional farms. Additionally, risk of being infected with F. hepatica was higher in non-dairy herds of medium size (≥30 and < 100) when compared to dairy and large (≥100) cattle herds. The observed spatial pattern could be reproduced by predictions of the risk factor model. This study showed an increase in annual herd level prevalence (2011 to 2013

  7. Prevalence and distribution of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle herds in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A simple random survey was conducted in Ireland during 2005 to estimate the ELISA-prevalence of paratuberculosis, commonly called Johne's disease (JD), in the cattle population. Serum samples were collected from all 20,322 females/breeding bulls over 12 months-of-age in 639 herds. All samples were tested using a commercially available absorbed ELISA. The overall prevalence of infected herds, based on the presence of at least one ELISA-positive animal, was 21.4% (95% CI 18.4%-24.9%). Herd prevalence levels amongst dairy herds (mean 31.5%; 95% CI: 24.6%, 39.3%) was higher than among beef herds (mean 17.9%; 95% CI: 14.6%-21.8%). However, the animal level prevalence was similar. The true prevalence among all animals tested, was calculated to be 2.86% (95%CI: 2.76, 2.97) and for animals >= 2 yrs, it was 3.30% (95%CI: 3.17, 3.43). For animals in beef herds, true prevalence was 3.09% (95%CI: 2.93, 3.24), and for those in dairy herds, 2.74% (95%CI: 2.59, 2.90). The majority of herds had only one ELISA-positive infected animal. Only 6.4% (95% CI 4.7%-8.7%) of all herds had more than one ELISA-positive infected animal; 13.3% (CI 8.7%-19.7%) of dairy herds ranging from two to eight ELISA-positive infected animals; and, 3.9% beef herds (CI 2.4%-6.2%) ranging from two to five ELISA-positive infected animals. The true prevalence of herds infected and shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is estimated to be 9.5% for all herd types; 20.6% for dairy herds; and 7.6% for beef herds. If ELISA positive animals <2-years-of-age are excluded, the true herd prevalene reduces to: 9.3% for all herd types; 19.6% for dairy herds; and 6.3% for beef herds based on a test specificity (Sp) of 99.8% and test sensitivity (Se) (i.e., ability to detect culture-positive, infected animals shedding at any level) of 27.8-28.9%. PMID:21851740

  8. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds containing suspects. 77.17 Section 77.17... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.17 Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

  9. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds containing suspects. 77.17 Section 77.17... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.17 Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

  10. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds containing suspects. 77.17 Section 77.17... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.17 Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

  11. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  12. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992,in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of >/=1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Thus, following the outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 1989-1990, herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus had developed rapidly in the breeding cows and heifers. Subsequently, in the next two years, there was a dramatic decline in the number of calves born persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  13. Modeling Tuberculosis Dynamics, Detection and Control in Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Bekara, Mohammed El Amine; Courcoul, Aurélie; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological models are key tools for designing and evaluating detection and control strategies against animal infectious diseases. In France, after decades of decrease of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence, the disease keeps circulating. Increasing prevalence levels are observed in several areas, where the detection and control strategy could be adapted. The objective of this work was to design and calibrate a model of the within-herd transmission of bTB. The proposed model is a stochastic model operating in discrete-time. Three health states were distinguished: susceptible, latent and infected. Dairy and beef herd dynamics and bTB detection and control programs were explicitly represented. Approximate Bayesian computation was used to estimate three model parameters from field data: the transmission parameter when animals are inside (βinside) and outside (βoutside) buildings, and the duration of the latent phase. An independent dataset was used for model validation. The estimated median was 0.43 [0.16–0.84] month−1 for βinside and 0.08 [0.01–0.32] month−1 for βoutside. The median duration of the latent period was estimated 3.5 [2]–[8] months. The sensitivity analysis showed only minor influences of fixed parameter values on these posterior estimates. Validation based on an independent dataset showed that in more than 80% of herds, the observed proportion of animals with detected lesions was between the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles of the simulated distribution. In the absence of control program and once bTB has become enzootic within a herd, the median effective reproductive ratio was estimated to be 2.2 in beef herds and 1.7 in dairy herds. These low estimates are consistent with field observations of a low prevalence level in French bTB-infected herds. PMID:25254369

  14. Molecular and serological in-herd prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in Texas cattle.

    PubMed

    Hairgrove, Thomas; Schroeder, Megan E; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy; Chung, Chungwon; Ueti, Massaro W; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is an infectious, non-contagious disease caused by the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). The organism has a global distribution and infects erythrocytes, resulting in anemia, jaundice, fever, abortions and death. Once infected, animals remain carriers for life. The carrier status provides immunity to clinical disease, but is problematic if infected and naïve cattle are comingled. Knowledge of infection prevalence and spatial distribution is important in disease management. The objective of this study was to assess A. marginale infection in-herd prevalence in Texas cattle using both molecular and serological methods. Blood samples from 11 cattle herds within Texas were collected and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Samples from experimentally infected animals were also analyzed and RT-qPCR detected A. marginale infection up to 15 days before cELISA, providing empirical data to support the interpretation of herd prevalence results. Herds with high prevalence were located in the north Texas Rolling Plains and west Trans-Pecos Desert, with RT-qPCR prevalence as high as 82% and cELISA prevalence as high as 88%. Overall prevalence was significantly higher in cattle in north and west Texas compared to cattle in east Texas (p<0.0001 for prevalence based on both RT-qPCR and cELISA). The overall RT-qPCR and cELISA results exhibited 90% agreement (kappa=0.79) and provide the first A. marginale infection prevalence study for Texas cattle using two diagnostic methods. Since cattle are the most important reservoir host for A. marginale and can serve as a source of infection for tick and mechanical transmission, information on infection prevalence is beneficial in the development of prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis certification in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Barbara; Pouillot, Régis; Durand, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Paratuberculosis has received increasing attention in France because of the important losses this disease may provoke. The use of certification schemes has proven its effectiveness for the protection of healthy herds against diseases transmitted mainly by trade. The economic justification of such schemes in the particular case of paratuberculosis is studied, for French cattle herds, using a cost/benefit approach. The basic economical hypotheses and estimates have been proposed and carefully examined by a working group composed of paratuberculosis experts and field specialists. By adopting the point of view of a breeder that buys animals, we first estimated the benefits resulting from the non-introduction of the disease. They were then compared with the costs resulting from the fact that the vendor reports its own certification costs on the price of the animals he sells. Two average herds (the mean French beef herd and the mean French dairy herd), and two certification levels were studied. The results show that, currently, the use of the certification is not very economically profitable in French cattle herds. This conclusion, however should be reappraised if the certification costs decrease, for example with the commercialization of diagnostic tests on mixtures.

  16. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  17. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of > or = 1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8076288

  19. Regional environmental simulation of African cattle herding societies

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Markin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1986-03-01

    Regional analyses of the interaction between human populations and natural resources must integrate landscape scale environmental problems. An approach that considers human culture, environmental processes, and resource needs offers an appropriate methodology. With this methodology, we analyze problems of food availability in African cattle-keeping societies. The analysis interrelates cattle biomass, forage availability, milk and blood production, crop yields, gathering, food subsidies, population, and variable precipitation. While an excess of cattle leads to overgrazing, cattle also serve as valuable food storage mechanisms during low rainfall periods. Food subsidies support higher population levels but do not alter drought-induced population fluctuations. Variable precipitation patterns require solutions that stabilize year-to-year food production and also address problems of overpopulation.

  20. Costs of raccoon rabies incidents in cattle herds in Hampshire County, West Virginia, and Guernsey County, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Chipman, Richard B; Cozzens, Tyler W; Shwiff, Stephanie A; Biswas, Rita; Plumley, Jewell; O'Quin, Jeanette; Algeo, Timothy P; Rupprecht, Charles E; Slate, Dennis

    2013-12-01

    To determine direct and indirect costs associated with raccoon rabies incidents involving cattle herds in Hampshire County, WV, in 2008 and Guernsey County, Ohio, in 2010. Ex post cost analysis. 1 cattle herd in Hampshire County, WV, in 2008 and 1 cattle herd in Guernsey County, Ohio, in 2010. Data were collected for each incident through telephone and email interviews with 16 federal, state, and county agency personnel involved in the case investigations and coordinated responses for rabies in the cattle herds. To characterize the economic impact associated with rabies in the 2 cattle herds, cost analysis was conducted with 7 cost variables (salary and benefits for personnel involved in the response, human postexposure prophylaxis, indirect patient costs, rabies diagnostic testing, cattle carcass disposal, market value of euthanized cattle, and enhanced rabies surveillance). Estimates of direct costs were determined on the basis of agency records and other relevant data obtained from notes and reports made by agency staff at the time of the incident and from a review of the literature. Primary costs included the market value of euthanized cattle ($51,461 in West Virginia; $12,561 in Ohio), human postexposure prophylaxis ($17,959 in West Virginia; $11,297 in Ohio), and salary and benefits for personnel involved in the response ($19,792 in West Virginia; $14,496 in Ohio). These results should provide a basis for better characterization of the economic impact of wildlife rabies in cattle in the United States.

  1. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in organized and unorganized dairy cattle herds in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Bhutediya, Jitendrakumar M.; Dandapat, Premanshu; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Das, Ratan; Nanda, Pramod Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Biswas, Tapas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim:: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence pattern of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease, in unorganized as well as organized cattle herds in West Bengal. Materials and Methods:: Four organized cattle farms with identical management practice in Nadia (n=3) and South 24 Parganas (n=1) districts and three unorganized cattle herds, one each from three districts, namely, Burdwan, North 24 Parganas, and Purba Midnapur, were selected randomly and screened for paratuberculosis by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results:: Of 191 animals tested by DTH, 57 (29.8%) were found to be positive in comparison to 72 (37.7%) by ELISA. In organized farms, seropositivity varied from 13.3% to 53.1%, whereas in unorganized sector, it ranged from 5% to 6.7% with one area having exceptionally high prevalence, i.e. 53.3%. The range of positivity detected by DTH both in organized farms and backyard sectors varied from 0% to 46.7%. By employing both DTH and ELISA together, the positivity of animals in organized and unorganized herds was 19.9% and 8%, respectively. Conclusion:: The results indicate that animals in organized farms are much more prone to paratuberculosis than others. For screening the herd, both DTH and ELISA should be used simultaneously to increase the test sensitivity in order to minimize its further spread adopting control programs. PMID:28717306

  2. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  3. The Effect of Wind on Coxiella burnetii Transmission Between Cattle Herds: a Mechanistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Nusinovici, S; Hoch, T; Brahim, M L; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F

    2017-04-01

    There is a consensus that wind plays a key role in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, between ruminants and from ruminants to humans. However, no observational study so far has focused on the mechanisms associated with this airborne transmission. This study applied a mechanistic epidemiological approach to investigate the processes underlying the wind effect and to assess its influence on the risk for a dairy herd to become C. burnetii infected. Ninety-five dairy cattle herds located in the Finistère department (western France) were subjected to samplings of bulk tank milk and indoor dust every 4 months over a 1-year period to determine their C. burnetii status using PCR tests. A total of 27 incident herd-periods (negative-tested on both PCR tests and becoming positive-tested at least once at the subsequent sampling time) and 71 negative herd-periods were retained for analysis. Using logistic regression, we assessed the effect of (i) the cumulated number of bacteria in herds located under the main wind direction and (ii) the mean wind speed in this area, on a given herd's risk of becoming incident. Compared to herds in areas with low wind speed (≤5.5 m/s), the risk was significantly higher (OR = 3.7) in herds in areas with high wind speed (>5.5 m/s) and high bacterial load (>10), whereas it was not significantly different from unity in other situations. In agreement with our assumptions, C. burnetii transmission to a previously infection-free herd occurs only when (i) the wind transporting from infected sources and (ii) the load in the contaminated particles/aerosols generated are high enough to act jointly.

  4. Tracing the transmission of bovine coronavirus infections in cattle herds based on S gene diversity.

    PubMed

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R M; Tråvén, Madeleine; Ohlson, Anna; Baule, Claudia; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong; Alenius, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is found worldwide and causes respiratory infections and diarrhoea in calves and adult cattle. In order to investigate the molecular epidemiology of BCoV, 27 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive samples from 25 cattle herds in different parts of Sweden were analysed. A 1038-nucleotide fragment was PCR amplified and directly sequenced. The analysed BCoV strains showed a high sequence identity, regardless of whether they were obtained from outbreaks of respiratory disease or diarrhoea or from calves or adult cattle. Circulation of an identical BCoV strain during a 4-month period was demonstrated in calves in one dairy herd. In a regional epizootic of winter dysentery in Northern Sweden, highly similar BCoV strains were detected. In the Southern and Central regions, several genotypes of BCoV circulated contemporaneously, indicating that in these regions, which had a higher density of cattle than the Northern regions, more extensive transmission of the virus was occurring. Identical BCoV sequences supported the epidemiological data that inter-herd contact through purchased calves was important. Swedish BCoV strains unexpectedly showed a high homology with recently detected Italian strains. This study shows that molecular analysis of the spike (S) glycoprotein gene of BCoV can be a useful tool to support or rule out suspected transmission routes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends of the genetic connectedness measures among Nelore beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, N T; Laloë, D; de Oliveira, H N; Lôbo, R B; Fouilloux, M-N

    2012-02-01

    Validity of comparisons between expected breeding values obtained from best linear unbiased prediction procedures in genetic evaluations is dependent on genetic connectedness among herds. Different cattle breeding programmes have their own particular features that distinguish their database structure and can affect connectedness. Thus, the evolution of these programmes can also alter the connectedness measures. This study analysed the evolution of the genetic connectedness measures among Brazilian Nelore cattle herds from 1999 to 2008, using the French Criterion of Admission to the group of Connected Herds (CACO) method, based on coefficients of determination (CD) of contrasts. Genetic connectedness levels were analysed by using simple and multiple regression analyses on herd descriptors to understand their relationship and their temporal trends from the 1999-2003 to the 2004-2008 period. The results showed a high level of genetic connectedness, with CACO estimates higher than 0.4 for the majority of them. Evaluation of the last 5-year period showed only a small increase in average CACO measures compared with the first 5 years, from 0.77 to 0.80. The percentage of herds with CACO estimates lower than 0.7 decreased from 27.5% in the first period to 16.2% in the last one. The connectedness measures were correlated with percentage of progeny from connecting sires, and the artificial insemination spread among Brazilian herds in recent years. But changes in connectedness levels were shown to be more complex, and their complete explanation cannot consider only herd descriptors. They involve more comprehensive changes in the relationship matrix, which can be only fully expressed by the CD of contrasts.

  6. Suspected botulism in three intensively managed Australian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Trueman, K F; Bock, R E; Thomas, R J; Taylor, J D; Green, P A; Roeger, H M; Ketterer, P J

    1992-05-02

    Serious outbreaks of a paralytic disease in cattle occurring in the spring and summer of 1988 were investigated on three farms in south eastern Queensland, Australia. On one farm 237 (31 per cent) of 770 cattle died, on the second 109 (40 per cent) of 271 cattle died and on the third 30 (8 per cent) of 380 cows died. Botulism was suspected on the basis of the clinical signs, the lack of significant pathology, a failure to incriminate other agents and a positive feeding trial in one sheep. Laboratory tests for the presence of botulinum toxin failed to confirm this diagnosis, and further feeding trials using ingredients of two rations were also negative.

  7. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce

  8. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in intensive cattle herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Bandi, C; Bronzo, V; Ruffo, G; Zecconi, A

    2001-11-26

    The genetic variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 26 Italian field strains collected during the period 1995-2000 in 18 cattle herds. A fragment within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was sequenced directly from gel-purified products obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BVDV-1b (n=14), -1c (n=1), -1d (n=1) and BVDV-2 (n=2) strains have been isolated. Most herds were infected by BVDV-1b. Pairwise similarity and cluster analysis of the remaining BVDV-1 isolates (n=8) did not provide a clear-cut assignation to defined BVDV-1 groups. This is the first time that a BVDV-2 isolation was reported in Italy. Among BVDV-2 reference strains, Italian BVDV-2 isolates showed the highest sequence similarity with the CD87 strain. Both BVDV-2 strains were isolated in two healthy animals from different herds. The 5'-UTR sequence of one of the two BVDV-2 strains was identical to a German BVDV field strain. Complete nucleotide homology was found only among BVDV strains isolated from the same herd, showing a herd-specific clustering. Moreover, 99.6% homology was observed between strains from herds linked by livestock trade. Despite the small number of BVDV isolates analysed, it revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Italian field BVDV strains.

  9. Risk factors for cattle presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, from herds with no evidence of within-herd transmission.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    There has been a national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme (BTBEP) in Ireland for many years. All cattle herds are tested at least annually using the Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT). Further, abattoir surveillance is conducted on all animals at the time of slaughter. In the Irish BTBEP, a substantial number of confirmed bTB lesions are detected in non-reactor animals, to SICTT, from Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) herds at slaughter. In this study we investigate risk factors for non-reactor animals from OTF herds presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter, but with no evidence of within-herd transmission. A case-control study was conducted, with animal as the unit of interest. The case animals were all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012, with a confirmed bTB lesion identified during routine abattoir surveillance and with no evidence of within-herd transmission. Control animals were selected from all SICTT non-reactor animals slaughtered in 2012 from OTF herds where no bTB lesion was found. Four controls matched by age (±1 year) and location (county) were randomly selected for each case. A conditional logistic regression model was developed for univariable and multivariable analysis. The final multivariable model included: number of movements, herd type, herd-size, inconclusive reactor status at any previous test, abattoir and time spent in a herd restricted for bTB. The odds of being a case increased with the number of times an animal had moved herds. Animals from suckler herds were significantly more likely to be a case compared to those from beef herds. The odds of being a case decreased with herd-size and increased as the time spent in a restricted herd increased. There were three key conclusions from this study. Firstly, the main risk factors for animals presenting with a confirmed bTB lesion at slaughter were: previous bTB exposure history, previous inconclusive reactor result at the SICTT, the

  10. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  11. Geographical association between the genotype of bovine tuberculosis in found dead badgers and in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, A V; Watkins, G H; Sayers, A R; Jones, J R; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2012-03-10

    In a survey, 457 badgers that had been found dead in Wales were postmortem-examined, and samples were examined by histology and by extended culture (for up to 12 weeks). Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from 55 badgers (12.0 per cent), and the histology typical of M bovis infection was seen in a further six (1.3 per cent). The prevalence in badgers in each of 10 geographical areas varied between 0 and 26 per cent (P<0.001), and was associated with the incidence of confirmed M bovis infection in cattle herds in the same areas (P<0.01). In northern Wales, bTB was rare in both hosts. An infected badger was 12.3 times more likely to be within 5 km of a confirmed cattle bTB breakdown than an uninfected badger. The M bovis isolates from badgers belonged to one of four genotypes defined by spoligotype and variable number tandem repeat type. These genotypes were also found in 290 concurrent confirmed herd breakdowns, and tended to be similar to the genotypes in badgers in the same geographical areas. When badgers and cattle no more than 30 km apart were compared, the genotype diversity was greater in cattle than in badgers (P=0.016), suggesting that the movement of cattle plays a greater part in the spatial distribution of M bovis than the movement of badgers.

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  13. Evaluation of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' against bovine Johne's disease in endemically infected native cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Brajesh; Srivastav, Abhishek; Yadav, Sharad; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from 'Indian Bison Type' a native bio-type of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strain 'S5' of goat origin (goat based) was evaluated in indigenous cattle herds located in gaushalas (cow shelters), endemic for Bovine Johne's disease. Cows (893) were randomly divided into vaccinated (702 = 626 adults + 76 calves) and control (191 = 173 adults + 18 calves) groups. Response to vaccination was evaluated on the basis of health (mortality, morbidity), productivity (growth rate, reproductive performance, total milk yield), immunological parameters (LTT, ELISA titer), survivability of animals naturally infected with MAP, bacterimia (by specific blood PCR), seroconversion (by indigenous ELISA) and status of shedding of MAP in feces (by microscopy) in the two groups before and after vaccination. Reduction in MAP shedding [to the extent of 100% in Herd A; and from 82.1% (0 DPV) to 10.7% (270 DPV) in Herd C] was the major finding in vaccinated cows. Whereas, the control group cows have shown no improvement. As the first indicator of vaccine efficacy, MAP bacilli disappeared from the blood circulation as early as 15 days post vaccination, however, peak titers were achieved around 90 DPV. Peak titers initially declined slightly but were maintained later throughout the study period. Control animals did not show any pattern in antibody titers. Mortality was low in vaccinated as compared to the control groups. Vaccination of endemically infected native cattle herds with inactivated whole-cell bacterin of novel 'Indian Bison Type' bio-type of goat origin strain 'S5' effectively restored health and productivity and reduced clinical BJD. Application of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' for therapeutic management of BJD in native cattle herds (gaushalas) is the first of its kind.

  14. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  15. Seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in feline population in urban and dairy cattle herds in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talebkhan Garoussi, Massoud; Mehravaran, Mohsen; Abdollahpour, Gholamreza; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2015-01-01

    The importance of cats in the Leptospira epidemiology is due to the possibility of transferring leptospirosis to wild and domesticated animals. The purpose of this survey was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira infection in shorthair cats in different location of Mashhad, Iran. Totally, 147 blood samples were taken from 42 (28.57%), 52 (35.37%) and 53 (36.05%) households, stray and cats which lived in industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad, Iran, respectively. Sera were tested with seven live Leptospira antigens using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera with 50.00% agglutination at the dilution of ≥ 1/100 were considered as positive samples. Agglutination at dilutions of < 1/100 considered as suspected to Leptospira infection. Overall, 19 (12.92%) out of 147 cats showed reaction in MAT. The seroprevalence at a titer ≥ 1:100 and < 1:100 were 10 (6.80%) and 9 (6.12%), respectively. Serum samples showed positive reaction against Leptospira intterogans hardjo (no = 10; 52.63%), pomona (no = 5; 26.31%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (no = 4; 21.05%). Eight cats (42.10%) belong to dairy cattle herds had the most infection only by L. I. hardjo with 1:200 titer. There were no significant differences among the weight‚ age and sex of infected cats. However, there were significant differences between the infected cats in dairy cattle herds and the cats in the urban area (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cats can be infected by Leptospira spp. especially in commercial dairy cattle herds. Cats can be considered as a sanitation hazards in the area for this zoonotic disease. PMID:26973765

  16. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle herds, related swine farms, and humans in contact with herds.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Caprioli, A; Carfora, V; Ianzano, A; Barberio, A; Morandi, S; Casula, A; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples. The prevalence of MRSA was 4.8% (3/63; 95% confidence interval=0-10.2%) and 60% (33/55; 95% confidence interval=47.05-72.95) in farm A and B, respectively. In farm A, MRSA was also isolated from humans, pigs sampled at both farm and slaughterhouse level, and from environmental samples collected at the pig facilities. The dairy cattle facilities of farm A tested negative for MRSA. In farm B, MRSA was isolated from environmental dust samples in both the cattle and pig facilities, whereas nasal swabs collected from cows and from humans tested negative. Sixty-three selected MRSA isolates obtained from different sources in farm A and B were genetically characterized by multilocus sequence typing, spa-typing, ribosomal spacer-PCR, and also tested for the presence of specific virulence genes and for their phenotypical antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution method. Different clonal complex (CC) and spa-types were identified, including CC398, CC97, and CC1, CC already reported in livestock animals in Italy. The MRSA isolates from quarter milk of farm A and B mostly belonged to CC97 and CC398, respectively. Both lineages were also identified in humans in farm A. The CC97 and CC398 quarter milk isolates were also identified as genotype GTBE and GTAF by ribosomal spacer-PCR respectively, belonging to distinct clusters with specific virulence and resistance patterns. The GTBE and GTAF clusters also

  17. Development of a model to simulate infection dynamics of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle herds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Lu, Zhao; Mitchell, Rebecca M.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a mathematical model to simulate infection dynamics of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle herds in the United States and predict efficacy of the current national control strategy for tuberculosis in cattle. Design Stochastic simulation model. Sample Theoretical cattle herds in the United States. Procedures A model of within-herd M bovis transmission dynamics following introduction of 1 latently infected cow was developed. Frequency- and density-dependent transmission modes and 3 tuberculin-test based culling strategies (no test-based culling, constant (annual) testing with test-based culling, and the current strategy of slaughterhouse detection-based testing and culling) were investigated. Results were evaluated for 3 herd sizes over a 10-year period and validated via simulation of known outbreaks of M bovis infection. Results On the basis of 1,000 simulations (1000 herds each) at replacement rates typical for dairy cattle (0.33/y), median time to detection of M bovis infection in medium-sized herds (276 adult cattle) via slaughterhouse surveillance was 27 months after introduction, and 58% of these herds would spontaneously clear the infection prior to that time. Sixty-two percent of medium-sized herds without intervention and 99% of those managed with constant test-based culling were predicted to clear infection < 10 years after introduction. The model predicted observed outbreaks best for frequency-dependent transmission, and probability of clearance was most sensitive to replacement rate. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Although modeling indicated the current national control strategy was sufficient for elimination of M bovis infection from dairy herds after detection, slaughterhouse surveillance was not sufficient to detect M bovis infection in all herds and resulted in subjectively delayed detection, compared with the constant testing method. Further research is required to economically optimize this strategy. PMID:23865885

  18. Multiple hereditary ocular anomalies in a herd of cattle.

    PubMed

    Kaswan, R L; Collins, L G; Blue, J L; Martin, C L

    1987-07-01

    A Brahman x Santa Gertrudis herd of cows bred to a Hereford bull was evaluated because of a 3-year history of several calves born with congenital blindness. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in 2 calves included microphthalmos, microcornea, microcoria, heterochromia iridis, microlentia, cataracts, retinal dysplasia, retinal detachment, anterior segment dysgenesis, acorea, and proliferation of the anterior neuroectoderm. On the basis of the lack of environmental factors and persistence of an intermittent problem when breeding to a single bull, a genetic defect was diagnosed as the probable cause. Dominant inheritance with varied expressivity may have best explained the lack of obvious signs in the bull, with emergence of various anterior and posterior segment defects in offspring from unrelated cows.

  19. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cramer, G; Lissemore, K D; Guard, C L; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine herd-level and cow-level prevalence estimates for 11 foot lesions in Ontario dairy cattle. Foot lesions were recorded by 5 hoof trimmers on 13,530 cows in 204 Ontario dairy herds from March 2004 to May 2005. Significant differences existed between free-stall and tie-stall housing. In free-stall housing systems, 46.4% of cows had a foot lesion, compared with 25.7% of cows in tie-stall barns. Digital dermatitis was the most common lesion in tie stalls, occurring in 9.3% of cows and 69.7% of the herds, whereas in free-stall herds, 22.7% of cows and 96.7% of the herds were affected. The most common hoof horn lesions were hemorrhages and ulcers, at 7.7 and 4.7% in tie-stall housing and 11.0 and 9.2% in free-stall housing, respectively. Foot blocks were used to treat 2.2% of cows in free stalls and 0.3% in tie stalls. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 9.5 to 17.3 for hoof horn lesions and 28.0 to 38.7 for infectious lesions. In summary, foot lesions diagnosed at the time of hoof trimming are common in Ontario, and appropriate treatment for hoof horn lesions is low.

  20. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS, NEOSPOROSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS AMONG CATTLE HERDS IN OYO STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ayinmode, Adekunle; Akinseye, Victor; Schares, Gereon; Cadmus, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey to screen for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus was conducted among 174 cattle in 17 herds. Sera obtained from the cattle were screened for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Results: Overall, herd level prevalence of 52.9%, 23.5% and 23.5% as well as individual prevalence of 7.5%, 3.4% and 3.4% was obtained for toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis, respectively. Antibodies to T. gondii, N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 2 of the 17 herds, T. gondii and N. caninum in 4 herds, and T. gondii and B. abortus in 4 herds. Statistically significant association was only found between seropositivity to T. gondii antibodies and sex (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis are prevalent among cattle herds screened in the study area. Considering the potential impact of these diseases on livestock management and production, extensive surveillance is necessary for development and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies. PMID:28670646

  1. Clinical and Serological Dynamics of Besnoitia besnoiti Infection in Three Endemically Infected Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; García-Lunar, P; Rojo-Montejo, S; Zabala, J; Serrano, M; Alvarez-García, G

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of bovine besnoitiosis were studied in an area where the disease is endemic. A four-year longitudinal study was conducted for the first time in three infected beef cattle herds located in the Urbasa-Andía Mountains (Navarra, Spain). Each herd was visited four to seven times, and clinical and serological prevalence rates and incidence rates were estimated. Clinical inspections to identify compatible clinical signs with the disease stages were conducted at the beginning and end of the study. Serological assessment was initially performed by ELISA. Seronegative animals with clinical signs and seropositive animals with relative index per cent (RIPC) values lower than 30 that did not increase during the study period were analysed by Western blot to optimize the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test. Clinical prevalence rates were slightly higher (62% on average) than the seroprevalence rates (50% on average), and tissue cysts located in the vestibulum vaginae and sclera were the most frequently detected clinical signs. The proportion of seropositive animals with clinical signs varied from 16.7% to 73.6% among the herds, and 17% of cattle with clinical signs proved to be seronegative by both serological tests. An average 22% serological incidence rate was also reported in addition to clinical incidence rates that varied from 12.5% to 16.7%. Additionally, parasitemia was investigated in the herd that showed the highest clinical and seroprevalence rates. Only one PCR positive blood sample was detected. Thus, the role that blood may play in parasite transmission needs to be further investigated. Infected herds maintained both high prevalence and incidence rates in the absence of control measures and a high number of parasite carriers. Finally, economic impact studies on reproductive and productive losses associated with besnoitiosis need to be performed to implement a cost-benefit control programme.

  2. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  3. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  4. Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Klinkenberg, Don; Nielen, Mirjam; Vergu, Elisabeta; Beaudeau, François

    2011-05-23

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd.A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions) and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated.Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

  5. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  6. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-23

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  7. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  8. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360–3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs. PMID:25052335

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  10. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features.

    PubMed

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S

    2016-05-01

    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  11. Estimation of the relative sensitivity of the comparative tuberculin skin test in tuberculous cattle herds subjected to depopulation.

    PubMed

    Karolemeas, Katerina; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Cooper, Roderick; Goodchild, Anthony V; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Conlan, Andrew J K; Mitchell, Andrew P; Hewinson, R Glyn; Donnelly, Christl A; Wood, James L N; McKinley, Trevelyan J

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most serious economic animal health problems affecting the cattle industry in Great Britain (GB), with incidence in cattle herds increasing since the mid-1980s. The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test is the primary screening test in the bTB surveillance and control programme in GB and Ireland. The sensitivity (ability to detect infected cattle) of this test is central to the efficacy of the current testing regime, but most previous studies that have estimated test sensitivity (relative to the number of slaughtered cattle with visible lesions [VL] and/or positive culture results) lacked post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle. The slaughter of entire herds ("whole herd slaughters" or "depopulations") that are infected by bTB are occasionally conducted in GB as a last-resort control measure to resolve intractable bTB herd breakdowns. These provide additional post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle, allowing a rare opportunity to calculate the animal-level sensitivity of the test relative to the total number of SICCT test-positive and negative VL animals identified post-mortem (rSe). In this study, data were analysed from 16 whole herd slaughters (748 SICCT test-positive and 1031 SICCT test-negative cattle) conducted in GB between 1988 and 2010, using a bayesian hierarchical model. The overall rSe estimate of the SICCT test at the severe interpretation was 85% (95% credible interval [CI]: 78-91%), and at standard interpretation was 81% (95% CI: 70-89%). These estimates are more robust than those previously reported in GB due to inclusion of post-mortem data from SICCT test-negative cattle.

  12. Estimation of the Relative Sensitivity of the Comparative Tuberculin Skin Test in Tuberculous Cattle Herds Subjected to Depopulation

    PubMed Central

    Karolemeas, Katerina; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Cooper, Roderick; Goodchild, Anthony V.; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S.; Conlan, Andrew J. K.; Mitchell, Andrew P.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Donnelly, Christl A.; Wood, James L. N.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most serious economic animal health problems affecting the cattle industry in Great Britain (GB), with incidence in cattle herds increasing since the mid-1980s. The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test is the primary screening test in the bTB surveillance and control programme in GB and Ireland. The sensitivity (ability to detect infected cattle) of this test is central to the efficacy of the current testing regime, but most previous studies that have estimated test sensitivity (relative to the number of slaughtered cattle with visible lesions [VL] and/or positive culture results) lacked post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle. The slaughter of entire herds (“whole herd slaughters” or “depopulations”) that are infected by bTB are occasionally conducted in GB as a last-resort control measure to resolve intractable bTB herd breakdowns. These provide additional post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle, allowing a rare opportunity to calculate the animal-level sensitivity of the test relative to the total number of SICCT test-positive and negative VL animals identified post-mortem (rSe). In this study, data were analysed from 16 whole herd slaughters (748 SICCT test-positive and 1031 SICCT test-negative cattle) conducted in GB between 1988 and 2010, using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The overall rSe estimate of the SICCT test at the severe interpretation was 85% (95% credible interval [CI]: 78–91%), and at standard interpretation was 81% (95% CI: 70–89%). These estimates are more robust than those previously reported in GB due to inclusion of post-mortem data from SICCT test-negative cattle. PMID:22927952

  13. Within herd transmission and evaluation of the performance of clinical and serological diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in partially immune cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, J L; Barrientos, M A; Quiroga, J L; Ardaya, D; Daza, O; Martinez, C; Orozco, C; Crowther, J; Paton, D J

    2014-10-29

    The control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in vaccinated populations relies upon surveillance activities such as clinical inspections (CI) and serological monitoring. New evidence to refine current surveillance guidelines has been provided by evaluating (1) the diagnostic performance of CI and serological tests for detection of FMD virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP), and (2) the within-herd transmission of the virus in partially immune cattle. Data came from 23 affected herds during an epidemic of FMDV type O in Bolivia, in 2007. All cattle (n=957) in these herds were clinically inspected and serum samples were collected one month after the last animal with clinical signs was detected. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against NSP using the PANAFTOSA 3ABC-ELISA test and a subset of samples were tested using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB). Data from clinical and serological diagnoses were analysed using a Bayesian model. The sensitivity Se and specificity Sp of the tests, as well as the prevalence and the within-herd reproduction ratio R of FMDV were estimated. In addition, risk factors for infection were identified. The Se of CI, the 3ABC-ELISA and the EITB tests were estimated to be 0.30, 0.88 and 0.96 respectively. The estimated Sp, in the same order, were 0.88, 0.93 and 0.97. The within-herd prevalence of infected animals ranged from 0.04 to 0.91 and R ranged from 1.02 to 2.68. It was observed that cattle coming from areas with high vaccination coverage had a lower risk of becoming infected than home-bred cattle from the affected herds, where vaccination coverage was thought to be low. Although these estimates come from herds kept under specific conditions, they provide a reference for future surveillance design and can inform simulation models for surveillance and control of FMD in similar cattle populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lungworm Infections in German dairy cattle herds--seroprevalence and GIS-supported risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Schunn, Anne-Marie; Conraths, Franz J; Staubach, Christoph; Fröhlich, Andreas; Forbes, Andrew; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910) BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2) values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model) and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors) or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

  15. Impact of meteorological and environmental factors on the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in beef cattle herds in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Novobilský, Adam; Novák, Jakub; Björkman, Camilla; Höglund, Johan

    2015-06-09

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite with a significant impact on ruminant livestock production. Previous studies in north-west Europe have described its geographical distribution and determined potential predictors of fasciolosis using geographical information system (GIS) and regression modelling. In Sweden, however, information about the distribution of fasciolosis is limited. This study examined the geographical distribution of F. hepatica and identified high-risk areas for beef cattle in Sweden and sought to characterise potential predictors. Beef cattle serum samples were collected during winter 2006-2007 from 2135 herds which were examined for F. hepatica antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fasciolosis distribution maps were created using GIS based on postcode location of seropositive herds. Spatial scan analysis (SaTScan) was performed to determine high-risk areas. Using datasets on animal density, temperature, precipitation and Corine land cover data, including soil type and soil mineral concentrations in Sweden, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out in R software to reveal potential predictors of F. hepatica infection. Overall herd seroprevalence of F. hepatica in beef cattle was 9.8 % (95 % CI: 8.6-11.1). An irregular spatial distribution of F. hepatica, with two main clusters, was observed in south-west Sweden. The most northerly occurrence of F. hepatica in the world was documented. The final model explained 15.8 % of the variation in F. hepatica distribution in study herds. Absence of coniferous forest was the variable with the highest predictive value. Precipitation in July-September, Dystric Cambisol, Dystric Regosol, and P and Cu concentrations in soil were other negative predictors. Beef cattle herd density, Dystric Leptosol and Fe concentration were positive predictors. The spatial distribution of F. hepatica in Swedish beef cattle herds is influenced by multi-factorial effects. Interestingly

  16. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H. Morgan; Sorensen, Ole; Wu, John T.Y.; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Manninen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in Alberta was conducted. The seroprevalence of MAP in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. Using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–23.4%). Seroprevalence of MAP differed by agroecological region; specifically, cattle and herds in areas with high soil pH (> 7.0), southern latitudes, and arid climates had a moderately reduced risk of infection (P < 0.10). Seroprevalence of NC infection was 9.7% among adult beef cattle province-wide — these levels also varied by agroecological region — with 91.0% of herds infected overall. PMID:17494367

  17. Prevalence of cattle herds with ivermectin resistant nematodes in the hot sub-humid tropics of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canul-Ku, H L; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Pérez-Cogollo, L C; Ojeda-Chi, M M

    2012-02-10

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of semi-intensive Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle herds with ivermectin (IVM) resistant nematodes in a sub-humid tropical zone of Mexico using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Thirty-three herds (28 beef and 5 dual purpose herds) were monitored in a period of 6 months (September 2008 to February, 2009). Only 14 of the 33 herds were included in the trial. The other herds had not enough animals with sufficient nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) to be included in a FECRT. Some farms were visited twice trying to find more animals with egg counts higher than 150 EPG. In the 14 surveyed herds the calves were randomly distributed into two groups: (a) treatment group received 0.2mg of IVM/kg BW sc on day 0, and (b) control group without treatment. Faecal samples were obtained from each animal on days 0 and 14 post-treatment. Reduction percentages (% R) and 95% CI were calculated. The prevalence of cattle herds with IVM resistant nematodes was 78.6%. Those suspected of IVM resistance were 21.4%. All surveyed herds used IVM from two to three times a year (mainly beginning and end of the wet season) during 1-11 consecutive years. The farm with stronger resistance used IVM for 11 consecutive years (% R=0%; 95% CI=0-47%). Genera of nematodes resistant to IVM were: Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Cooperia and Trichostrongylus. A considerable effort is needed to perform FECRT in cattle herds under hot sub-humid tropical conditions.

  18. The occurrence of dermatosparaxis in a commercial Drakensberger cattle herd in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Holm, D E; van Wilpe, E; Harper, C K; Duncan, N M

    2008-03-01

    Dermatosparaxis is a heritable collagen dysplasia causing skin extensibility and fragility. In Belgian Blue cattle this mutation has been described as a 3 base pair (bp) change followed by a 17bp deletion in the gene coding for procollagen 1 N-Proteinase (pNPI). An outbreak in a commercial Drakensberger herd in South Africa followed the introduction in late 2000 of a 3-year-old bull that developed skin lesions in 2001 and was culled in 2002. Some of his offspring were similarly affected, 1 of which was kept as a breeding bull after his sire's death. Two affected calves were referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital in October 2005. Detailed examination revealed only skin abnormalities limited to the lateral extremities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, viz. either acute lacerations of varying sizes, slow healing defects or thin scars in chronic cases. During a subsequent farm visit, 13 animals with similar wounds were seen in the herd of 146 animals. Electron microscopic examination of skin biopsies revealed haphazard arrangement and loose packing of dermal collagen fibrils within collagen fibres. The fibrils showed size variation and slightly irregular outlines on cross-section, consistent with mild dermatosparaxis. DNA samples of affected calves were analysed using primers designed to amplify the region of the pNPI gene that contained the mutation described in Belgian Blue cattle, but this mutation could not be demonstrated in any of the animals tested. It is concluded that a form of dermatosparaxis with a different gene mutation from that described in Belgian Blue cattle exists in Drakensberger cattle in South Africa. This possibly also explains the milder and more delayed clinical signs and the milder dermal collagen ultrastructural abnormalities.

  19. Herd outbreak of bovine tuberculosis illustrates that route of infection correlates with anatomic distribution of lesions in cattle and cats.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hollinger, Charlotte; Mullaney, Thomas P; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S; Tilden, John; Smith, Rick; Averill, James; Kaneene, John B

    2016-03-01

    An outbreak of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a Michigan dairy herd resulted in quarantine, depopulation, pathology, and epidemiologic investigations. This herd, compared to other TB-infected herds in Michigan, was unusual in the long-term feeding of waste milk to its replacement calves. The herd had 80 cattle with positive results on caudal fold test or gamma interferon testing, which were reclassified as suspects because the herd had never been known to be tuberculous previously. Autopsy revealed striking variation in the anatomic distribution of gross anatomic lesions, microscopic lesions, and culture-positive lymph nodes between the adult cattle, the calves, and the domestic cats present on the farm. Adult cattle had lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes predominantly within the thoracic lymph nodes, whereas cats had 50% of their lesions and culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens, and 50% of positive calves had culture-positive lymph nodes in their abdomens. This difference in anatomic distribution correlated with the likely routes of infection, which are believed to be by direct airborne transmission in adult cattle and indirect ingestion of contaminated milk in both calves and cats. Although TB literature over the past 100-plus years states that the route of infection may manifest itself in differences in lesion anatomic distribution, our team has been working with TB for over 20 years, and we have never encountered such striking variation between different groups of animals on the same farm. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. [Identification of species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma diversum from Argentinian dairy herds].

    PubMed

    Sosa, Camila; Tirante, Liliana; Chaves, Javier; Pol, Martín; Ambrogi, Arnaldo; Giraudo, José Angel; Tamiozzo, Pablo

    2017-09-27

    Several species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma diversum can cause diseases in dairy cattle, which can be associated or not with clinical manifestations. In our country, the presence of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum and Mycoplasma canadense has been detected, being the only mycoplasma species identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify other species of the Mycoplasmataceae family. Thirty-five Mycoplasma spp.-like isolates obtained from different samples from cattle, with or without clinical symptoms, from eight herds located in the provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba, Buenos Aires and San Luis were utilized in the present study. Through the use of species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma bovirhinis and U. diversum were identified and through amplification and further sequencing of the 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions, Mycoplasma arginine and M. californicum were identified. The identification of these species represents an important advance in knowledge in order to include these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of certain clinical and pathological entities of cattle from Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii in German cattle herds and factors influencing oocyst excretion.

    PubMed

    Bangoura, Berit; Mundt, Hans-Christian; Schmäschke, Ronald; Westphal, Bernhard; Daugschies, Arwid

    2012-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenic coccidia species Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii in shed-reared animals in German dairy and fattening facilities. Samples were obtained from 65 cattle farms distributed randomly across all the regions of Germany regardless of the occurrence of clinical problems. The samples were obtained rectally. Faecal consistency and the total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) were determined, along with the OPG values for E. bovis and E. zuernii. A questionnaire was completed for each farm to record information about herd size and management, along with individual animal data. Eimeria oocysts were detected in 62 of these farms, which give a prevalence of 95.4%. The farm prevalence of the pathogenic species was 76.9% for E. bovis and 83.1% for E. zuernii. The number of oocysts excreted could not be correlated significantly with farm type or farm management but depended on the floor type, the age of the calves and the time after rehousing. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between OPG and the observation of diarrhoea. E. zuernii had a greater influence on the occurrence of diarrhoea than E. bovis. This study confirms that herd management frequently does not meet the requirements of effective coccidia control despite the fact that the pathogenic coccidia E. bovis and E. zuernii are ubiquitous in German cattle populations.

  2. Association of Histophilus somni with spontaneous abortions in dairy cattle herds from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Voltarelli, Daniele; de Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Filho, Luiz Carlos Negri; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the participation of infectious agents in spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems at eight dairy cattle herds from three geographical regions of Brazil. Fourteen aborted fetuses and the organ sections of one cow with history of repeated abortions were received for pathological evaluations and molecular diagnostics. PCR/RT-PCR assays targeted specific genes of abortifacient agents of cattle: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and Histophilus somni. Six fetuses were adequate for pathological investigations; one of these did not demonstrate remarkable pathological alterations. Significant histopathological findings included vasculitis, hemorrhage, and fibrinous thrombosis of the cerebrum (n = 4); necrotizing myocarditis (n = 3); and hemorrhagic enteritis (n = 3). The placenta and uterus of the cow as well as the kidney, pancreas, and liver of her aborted fetus contained H. somni DNA and demonstrated histopathological evidence of histophilosis. All fetuses contained H. somni DNA in multiple organs. Coinfections of H. somni with B. abortus (n = 2), N. caninum (n = 2), BVDV (n = 1), and BoHV-1 (n = 1) were identified; two fetuses demonstrated three pathogens. These findings suggest that H. somni was associated with the spontaneous abortions and reproductive problems of these herds. However, the exact cause of fetal death might not be attributed only to H. somni in all aborted fetuses, since some of these were infected with other abortifacient agents.

  3. Application of an integrated outbreak management plan for the control of leptospirosis in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, L; Bonfanti, L; Natale, A; Comin, A; Ferronato, A; La Greca, E; Patregnani, T; Lucchese, L; Marangon, S

    2014-06-01

    Two outbreaks of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infection in dairy cattle herds were managed through the application of enhanced biosecurity measures, whole-herd antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Micro-agglutination test antibody titres were determined in paired serum samples at 3 weeks (T1: n = 125, 97% seropositivity, median 800, range 100-12 800) and 24 weeks (T2: n = 110, 88% seropositivity, median 200, range 100-6400) after vaccination and studied in relation to cows' age, herd of origin and sampling time. From T1 to T2, vaccine-elicited antibody titres decreased by 84·7% (95% CI 76·2-90·1). Consistent with increasing immunocompetence in calves (aged <12 months) and immunosenescence in adult cows (aged >36 months) associated with ageing, antibody titres correlated positively with calves' age and negatively with adult cows' age. No cow had cultivable, (histo)pathologically detectable and/or PCR-detectable leptospires in urine or kidney samples after treatment and vaccination. Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis.

  4. Epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, P C; Collins, J K; Spraker, T R; DeMartini, J C

    2000-11-01

    Three bison herds in Colorado experienced high mortality from malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In comparison with cattle, the bison had a more rapidly progressive disease, fewer clinical signs, and milder inflammatory histologic lesions. There was consistent association with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2). Contact with sheep was not consistent. Of 17 animals in herd A, 15 died of acute MCF; 1 was slaughtered while healthy; and 1 developed clinical signs of MCF, was treated with corticosteroids and antibiotics, and died of fungal abomasitis and rhinitis after 5 months. In herds B and C, approximately 300 of 900 and 18 of 20 died of MCF following brief clinical disease. The nearest sheep were 1 mile away from herd A, but direct contact with sheep could be documented in herds B and C. Complete gross and histologic examinations were conducted on 34 animals, including all animals in herd A, and MCF was diagnosed in 31. In addition, field necropsies were performed on all dead animals in herd B and most in herd C and MCF was diagnosed on the basis of the gross lesions in most animals. Clinical signs of each animal in herd A were recorded. Illness was brief, usually 8-48 hours. Clinical signs were subtle; separation from the herd was often observed. In all 3 herds, hemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal ulceration of the alimentary tract were consistently found at necropsy. Mild lymphocytic vasculitis was present in multiple organs. Ovine herpesvirus-2 was found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 71 of 105 formalin-fixed tissue specimens from 29 of 31 animals with MCF. In herd A, blood samples from 13 animals were collected at 5 time points and tested by PCR for the presence of OHV-2 viral sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes. Nine bison with a positive PCR test and 4 with negative results prior to clinical illness died of MCF.

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus strains and examination of exposure factors associated with seropositivity of cattle herds in Nigeria during 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Folorunso O; Connell, Dana R; Talabi, Oladele A; Lazarus, David D; Adeleke, Gabriel A; Olusanya, Taiwo P; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2013-05-01

    New outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle herds in Nigeria during 2007-2009. The objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify current FMD virus strains circulating in cattle herds and (ii) to identify exposure factors associated with a seropositive diagnosis of FMD in cattle herds. This study provides evidence that FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT-2 were co-circulating in cattle herds in Nigeria during 2007-2009. Cattle herds in a neighborhood affected with FMD had higher odds of being classified as seropositive to FMD, compared to herds that were in a neighborhood not affected with FMD (OR=16.27; 95% CI=3.61, 18.74; P<0.01). Cattle herds that share water points along the trek routes with other cattle herds had higher odds of being classified as seropositive to FMD (adjusted OR=4.15; 95% CI=0.92, 18.74; P<0.06). Results from this study can be used by veterinary services in Nigeria and neighboring countries to evaluate current or future FMD control and eradication programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  8. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  9. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  10. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...

  11. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus antibodies among the industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran.

    PubMed

    Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Haghparast, A; Hajenejad, M R

    2009-04-01

    Mashhad is a major dairy production in Iran. The subject of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection using an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran. Totally, 141 serum samples were tested. None of the herds had been vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA kit was used. The herds divided to 3 sizes as cow population. They were included: small, medium and large herds. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Ninety-seven (68.79%) cows were ELISA seropositive. However, the true BVDV seroprevalence was 72.25%. All of the herds were antibody positive against BVDV. The prevalence ranged from 66 to 100% within the herds. There were no significant differences between the presence of antibodies to BVDV and the herd size (P > 0.05). The prevalence in animals lower than 2 years old differed significantly with cows higher than 2 years old (P < 0.05). According to the results, it is concluded that it is likely the presence of persistently infection (PI) animal(s) within the herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran, which is responsible for the presence antibody.

  12. Identification of a Novel Hepacivirus in Domestic Cattle from Germany

    PubMed Central

    Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Postel, Alexander; Baron, Anna Lena; Offinger, Jennifer; Becker, Kathrin; Beineke, Andreas; Rehage, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent one of the most significant threats to human health. In recent years, HCV-related sequences have been found in bats, rodents, horses, and dogs, indicating a widespread distribution of hepaciviruses among animals. By applying unbiased high-throughput sequencing, a novel virus of the genus Hepacivirus was discovered in a bovine serum sample. De novo assembly yielded a nearly full-length genome coding for a polyprotein of 2,779 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the virus represents a novel species within the genus Hepacivirus. Viral RNA screening determined that 1.6% (n = 5) of 320 individual animals and 3.2% (n = 5) of 158 investigated cattle herds in Germany were positive for bovine hepacivirus. Repeated reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses of animals from one dairy herd proved that a substantial percentage of cows were infected, with some of them being viremic for over 6 months. Clinical and postmortem examination revealed no signs of disease, including liver damage. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR from different organs and tissues, together with the presence of an miR-122 binding site in the viral genome, strongly suggests a liver tropism for bovine hepacivirus, making this novel virus a promising animal model for HCV infections in humans. IMPORTANCE Livestock animals act as important sources for emerging pathogens. In particular, their large herd size and the existence of multiple ways of direct and food-borne infection routes emphasize their role as virus reservoirs. Apart from the search for novel viruses, detailed characterization of these pathogens is indispensable in the context of risk analysis. Here, we describe the identification of a novel HCV-like virus in cattle. In addition, determination of the prevalence and of the course of infection in cattle herds provides valuable insights into the biology of this novel virus. The results presented here form a basis for future

  13. Schmallenberg Virus in Belgium: Estimation of Impact in Cattle and Sheep Herds.

    PubMed

    Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected cattle and BVDV subtypes in affected cattle in beef herds in south central United States

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Robert W.; Whitley, Evan M.; Johnson, Bill J.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Kapil, Sanjay; Burge, Lurinda J.; Cook, Billy J.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination. PMID:20046630

  15. Acute photosensitisation and mortality in a herd of dairy cattle in Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Moss, N; Rogers, G; Jackson, B; Gannon, N; Wong, Ptw; Lean, I J

    2017-01-01

    A herd of Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein-Jersey cross lactating cattle of mixed ages presented with a sudden drop in milk yield in 94/678 cows on 3 October 2014 (Day 0). The herd was located in Gretna in the Derwent Valley (Tasmania, Australia) and had been grazing dryland pasture. On Day 0 the cows variably showed recumbency, peracute photosensitisation, inflamed coronary bands, conjunctival erythema, periauricular oedema, distress indicated by kicking at the flank, bruxism, discomfort, weight shifting, vocalisation indicating pain and depression. Blood samples collected on Day 4 from five clinically affected cows showed high activities of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Morbidity, based on the number of treated cases within 72 hours of clinical onset, was estimated at 165/678 cows (24.3%). Mortality over the first 30 days was 19/678 cows (2.8%). Necropsies of two cows on Day 4 showed marked distension of the gall bladder and extensive icterus. Necropsies of another two cows on Day 5 showed enlarged livers with severe damage and oedema of the distal abomasum. Severe ulcerative abomasal gastritis was present in both cows. Hepatic histopathology was consistent with chronic cholangiohepatitis. Fifty-five different mycotoxins were detected from a barley grass (Hordeum murinum) sample from the presumably contaminated pasture. Concentrations of B-trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone metabolites from this sample were remarkably high. The leaf smut, Jamesdicksonia dactylidis, that has not been previously reported in Tasmania, was identified from the sample of barley grass, but it is not known whether the smut can produce toxins. Probably an undescribed peracute mycotoxicosis associated with the ingestion of contaminated dryland pasture. A definitive diagnosis could not be reached in this case of acute photosensitisation and mortality in dairy cattle grazing possibly contaminated dryland pasture. The findings

  16. Production of recombinant albumin by a herd of cloned transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Echelard, Yann; Williams, Jennifer L; Destrempes, Margaret M; Koster, Julie A; Overton, Susan A; Pollock, Daniel P; Rapiejko, Karen T; Behboodi, Esmail; Masiello, Nicholas C; Gavin, William G; Pommer, Jerry; Van Patten, Scott M; Faber, David C; Cibelli, Jose B; Meade, Harry M

    2009-06-01

    Purified plasma derived human albumin has been available as a therapeutic product since World War II. However, cost effective recombinant production of albumin has been challenging due to the amount needed and the complex folding pattern of the protein. In an effort to provide an abundant source of recombinant albumin, a herd of transgenic cows expressing high levels of rhA in their milk was generated. Expression cassettes efficiently targeting the secretion of human albumin to the lactating mammary gland were obtained and tested in transgenic mice. A high expressing transgene was transfected in primary bovine cell lines to produce karyoplasts for use in a somatic cell nuclear transfer program. Founder transgenic cows were produced from four independent cell lines. Expression levels varying from 1-2 g/l to more than 40 g/l of correctly folded albumin were observed. The animals expressing the highest levels of rhA exhibited shortened lactation whereas cows yielding 1-2 g/l had normal milk production. This herd of transgenic cattle is an easily scalable and well characterized source of rhA for biomedical uses.

  17. Tuberculosis in cattle herds are sentinels for Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles): the Irish Greenfield Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Collins, D M; McGrath, G; Sovsic, E; Costello, E; Corner, L A L

    2011-07-05

    In Ireland badgers are removed in response to tuberculosis (TB) breakdowns in cattle herds (focal culling). Prevalence studies, conducted using a detailed post mortem and bacteriological examination, showed that 36-50% of badgers were infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Focal culling forms part of the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB in cattle and is based on the premise that badgers in areas with herd breakdowns have a higher prevalence of infection than the badger population at large. However, the hypothesis that cattle can be used as sentinels for infection in the badger population has never been formally tested. In this study we tested the hypothesis by determining the infection prevalence in badgers in areas where there had been historically, a consistently low prevalence of infection in cattle. Low cattle TB prevalence areas were defined as those herds with ≤ 2 standard reactors in the annual round of skin testing over the preceding 5 years (Greenfield sites). Using GIS, and adjusting for variation in land use, previous culling and cattle density, 198 Greenfield sites were identified and surveyed, and 138 areas with badger setts or signs of badger activity were identified. A single badger was removed from 87 sites and all were examined using detailed post mortem and bacteriological procedures. A prevalence of M. bovis infection of 14.9% was found in the Greenfield site badgers. This prevalence was significantly lower (P<0.001) than in badgers removed during focal culling (36.6%). The results validate the use of cattle as sentinels for TB in badgers and support the medium term national strategy for the control of bovine TB. The geographic variation in M. bovis infection prevalence in the Irish badger populations will be used when devising strategies for the incorporation of badger vaccination into the long term bovine TB control programme.

  18. Metabolic profile of Japanese Black breeding cattle herds: usefulness in selection for nutrient supplementation to enhance reproductive performance and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Urara; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Tshering, Chenga; Okamoto, Koji

    2013-05-02

    The study aims were (1) to confirm the effects of nutritional improvement in prepartal and postpartal periods, monitored using the serum metabolic profile test (MPT) and reproductive performance, and (2) to clarify regional characteristics of the MPT results within our jurisdiction by using our MPT database. Experiment 1: Among 42 breeding cattle herds in our jurisdiction mainly fed home-pasture roughage, 3 experimental herds showing subnormal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were selected and compared with 1 representative excellent herd. Dietary remedial measures were implemented from feed analysis in each herd. BUN concentration in all 3 herds increased significantly, and open days postpartum in 2 of the herds were significantly reduced, compared with values before dietary supplementation. Experiment 2: Thirty-seven herds within our jurisdiction were grouped into 3 categories (Area 1, 2 and 3) by location and soil condition of the herd pastureland. The MPT and reproductive performance in cows whose blood samples were collected at both prepartum (60-20 days before calving) and postpartum (30-90 days after calving) were compared among the 3 areas. Significant regional differences were found in prepartal albumin, total cholesterol, BUN, and glucose and postpartal BUN, glucose and open days (P<0.05). Overall, the MPT (especially BUN) might be useful for determining the metabolic nutritional status of breeding cattle herds, particularly those fed home-pasture roughage. Additionally, poor/unsatisfactory reproductive performance of beef breeding cattle herds probably reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet, possibly arising from regional pastureland differences.

  19. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  20. Reproductive performance of Japanese Black cattle: Association with herd size, season, and parity in commercial cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Uematsu, Mizuho; Kitahara, Go; Osawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Black is the most common breed of beef cattle in Japan. However, only limited data are available on the associations of season, parity, and herd size with reproductive performance in Japanese Black cattle. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the associations of these factors with reproductive performance parameters, such as the calving to first service interval (CFSI) and first service conception rate in Japanese Black cattle. Data were collected from 34,763 calvings in 13,186 animals from 826 commercial cow-calf operations in the Miyazaki prefecture, which is located on the south eastern coast of Kyushu, Japan. This region has a temperate climate with warm humid summers and cold winters. All cattle were reared intensively, and the animals were housed in free stalls throughout their lives. The mean number of cows per farm was 18 (range, 1-454). All animals were bred by artificial insemination. Herds were classified into three groups based on size: small (≤10 cows), intermediate (11-50 cows), and large (≥51 cows). The mean (±SD) parity, CFSI, and the first service conception rate were 4.9 ± 2.9, 80.0 ± 46.2 days, and 53.5 ± 49.9%, respectively. Cows that calved in the spring (March to May) and winter (December to February) had the longest CFSI (P < 0.05). The CFSI in first-parity cows was shorter than in cows at parity 7 or higher (P < 0.05). Cows in large herds had an approximately 10 days shorter mean CFSI than those in small herds (P < 0.05). Cows inseminated in the winter or spring had an approximately 5% points lesser first-service conception rate (FSCR) than those inseminated during the summer (June to August) or autumn (September to November; P < 0.05). As parity increased from 1 to 9, FSCR decreased from 60.0% to 43.1% (P < 0.05). Cows in small herds had a lesser FSCR than those in intermediate and large herds (P < 0.05). In summary, decreased reproductive performance in intensively reared

  1. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibodies in bulk tank milk of industrial dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran.

    PubMed

    Garoussi, M Talebkhan; Haghparast, A; Estajee, H

    2008-04-17

    Bulk milk for the presence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from 38 industrial dairy cattle herds complexes with 250-3000 Holstein dairy cows in suburb of Mashhad-Iran was tested. None of the herds were vaccinated against BVDV. Commercial indirect ELISA-kit for the detection of specific antibodies was used. The result could be read visually where the optical density (OD) was measured at 450 nm. The percent positivity (PP) values >or=7 and <7 interpreted positive and negative, respectively. According to this study the apparent and the true prevalence of BVDV antibody-positive herds was 89.47 and 93.98%, respectively. The range of PP was 1.59-107.66 among the herds. The OD in 52.63% bulk milk of the herds was very high. It is concluded that exposure to BVD virus was widely distributed in the dairy cattle herds in suburb of Mashhad-Iran.

  2. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  3. Variable within- and between-Herd Diversity of CTX-M Cephalosporinase-Bearing Escherichia coli Isolates from Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F.; Weeman, Matthew F.; Daniels, Joshua B.; Abley, Melanie J.; Mathews, Jennifer L.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2012-01-01

    blaCTX-M beta-lactamases confer resistance to critically important cephalosporin drugs. Recovered from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, blaCTX-M was first reported in U.S. livestock in 2010. It has been hypothesized that veterinary use of cephalosporins in livestock populations may lead to the dissemination of beta-lactamase-encoding genes. Therefore, our objectives were to estimate the frequency and distribution of coliform bacteria harboring blaCTX-M in the fecal flora of Ohio dairy cattle populations. In addition, we characterized the CTX-M alleles carried by the isolates, their plasmidic contexts, and the genetic diversity of the bacterial isolates themselves. We also evaluated the association between ceftiofur use and the likelihood of recovering cephalosporinase-producing bacteria. Thirty fresh fecal samples and owner-reported ceftiofur use data were collected from each of 25 Ohio dairy farms. Fecal samples (n = 747) yielded 70 blaCTX-M-positive Escherichia coli isolates from 5/25 herds, 715 blaCMY-2 E. coli isolates from 25/25 herds, and 274 Salmonella spp. from 20/25 herds. The within-herd prevalence among blaCTX-M-positive herds ranged from 3.3 to 100% of samples. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, plasmid replicon types, and CTX-M genes were detected. Plasmids with CTX-M-1, -15, and -14 alleles were clonal by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within herds, and specific plasmid incompatibility group markers were consistently associated with each blaCTX-M allele. PFGE of total bacterial DNA showed similar within-herd clustering, with the exception of one herd, which revealed at least 6 different PFGE signatures. We were unable to detect an association between owner-reported ceftiofur use and the probability of recovering E. coli carrying blaCTX-M or blaCMY-2. PMID:22544245

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of cattle introgression into US federal bison herds.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Natalie D; Derr, James N

    2007-01-01

    Genetic introgression, especially from interspecies hybridization, is a significant threat to species conservation worldwide. In this study, 11 US federal bison populations were comprehensively examined for evidence of both mitochondrial and nuclear domestic cattle (Bos taurus) introgression. Mitochondrial introgression was examined using established polymerase chain reaction methods and confirmed through analysis of D-loop sequences. Nuclear introgression was assessed in 14 chromosomal regions through examination of microsatellite electromorph and sequence differences between bison and domestic cattle. Only one population was identified with domestic cattle mitochondrial DNA introgression. In contrast, evidence of nuclear introgression was found in 7 (63.6%) of the examined populations. Historic accounts of bison transfers among populations were corroborated with evidence of introgressed DNA transmission. While neither nuclear nor mitochondrial domestic cattle introgression was detected in bison from Grand Teton National Park, Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, Wind Cave National Park, or Yellowstone National Park, adequate sample sizes were available only from the last 2 populations to allow for statistical confidence (>90%) in nuclear introgression detection limits. The identification of genetically unique and undisturbed populations is critical to species conservation efforts, and this study serves as a model for the genetic evaluation of interspecies introgression.

  5. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    PubMed

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-02-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent.

  6. Association of herd management factors with colonization of dairy cattle by Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Herriott, D E; Hancock, D D; Ebel, E D; Carpenter, L V; Rice, D H; Besser, T E

    1998-07-01

    Management factors in 36 Pacific Northwest dairy herds were evaluated for their association with the prevalence of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) in dairy cattle. The within-herd prevalence of E. coli O157 was estimated by bacteriological culture of fecal pat samples, collected monthly for 6 months (approximately 60 per visit), from heifer cattle. During the first visit to each farm, a management questionnaire was administered that covered a broad range of animal husbandry practices. On each subsequent visit, a brief questionnaire was administered to detect changes in management practices. A significantly higher prevalence of E. coli O157 was noted in herds that fed corn silage to heifers compared to herds that did not feed corn silage. More tentative associations of E. coli O157 prevalence were observed for weaning method, protein level of calf starter, feeding of ionophores in heifer rations, feeding of grain screens to heifers, and feeding of animal by-products to cows.

  7. The diversity of bovine MHC class II DRB3 and DQA1 alleles in different herds of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Taku; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Aida, Yoko

    2011-02-01

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future.

  8. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  9. Bovine viral diarrhoea, bovine herpesvirus and parainfluenza-3 virus infection in three cattle herds in Egypt in 2000.

    PubMed

    Aly, N M; Shehab, G G; Abd el-Rahim, I H A

    2003-12-01

    This study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) in Egypt during 2000. In Lower Egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in El-Minufiya Province, El-Fayoum Province and in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. The affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were clinically examined. Many epidemiological aspects, such as morbidities, mortalities and case fatalities, as well as the abortive rate, were calculated. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-blood samples, sterile nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained for virological and serological diagnosis. The laboratory investigations revealed that the main cause of calf mortalities in the three herds was infection with BVDV, either alone, as on the El-Minufiya farm, or mixed with PI-3V, as on the El-Fayoum farm, or mixed with both BHV-1 and PI-3V, as in the herd in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province. A total of nine dead calves from the three herds were submitted for thorough post-mortem examination. Tissue samples from recently dead calves were obtained for immunohistochemical and histopathological studies. The most prominent histopathological findings were massive degeneration, necrosis and erosions of the lining epithelium of the alimentary tract. Most of the lymphoreticular organs were depleted of lymphocytes. In pneumonic cases, bronchopneumonia and atypical interstitial pneumonia were evident. The present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV had predisposed the animals to secondary infection with BHV-1 and PI-3V. This study concluded that concurrent infection with BVDV, BHV-1 and PI-3V should be considered as one of the infectious causes of pneumoenteritis and, subsequently, the high morbidities and mortalities among young calves in Egypt

  10. Management characteristics, lameness, and body injuries of dairy cattle housed in high-performance dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Cook, N B; Hess, J P; Foy, M R; Bennett, T B; Brotzman, R L

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark the prevalence of lameness, hock and knee injuries, and neck and back injuries among high-performance, freestall-housed dairy herds in Wisconsin. A random selection of 66 herds with 200 or more cows was derived from herds that clustered with high performance in year 2011 Dairy Herd Improvement records for milk production, udder health, reproduction, and other health parameters. Herds were surveyed to collect information about management, facilities, and well-being. Well-being measures were obtained through direct observation of the high-producing mature cow group, surveying 9,690 cows in total. Total herd size averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 851±717 cows, ranging 203 to 2,966 cows, with an energy-corrected milk production of 40.1±4.4kg/cow per day. Prevalence of clinical lameness (5-point scale, locomotion score ≥3) and severe lameness (locomotion score ≥4) averaged 13.2±7.3 and 2.5±2.7%, respectively. The prevalence of all hock and knee injuries, including hair loss, swelling, and ulceration, was similar at 50.3±28.3 and 53.0±24.0%, respectively. Severe (swelling and ulceration) hock and knee injury prevalence were 12.2±15.3 and 6.2±5.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all neck injuries (including hair loss, swelling and ulceration) was 8.6±16.3%; whereas the prevalence of swollen or abraded necks was low, averaging 2.0±4.1%. Back injuries (proportion of cows with missing or abraded spinous processes, hooks, or pins) followed a similar trend with a low mean prevalence of 3.6±3.4%. Overall, physical well-being characteristics of this selection of high-producing, freestall-housed dairy herds provide evidence that lameness and injury are not inevitable consequences of the confinement housing of large numbers of dairy cattle. In particular, lameness prevalence rivals that of lower-production grazing systems. However, hock and other injury risk remains a concern that can be addressed through a choice in

  11. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.

  12. Prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii in German cattle herds and factors influencing oocyst excretion.

    PubMed

    Bangoura, Berit; Mundt, Hans-Christian; Schmäschke, Ronald; Westphal, Bernhard; Daugschies, Arwid

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenic coccidia species E. bovis and E. zuernii in shed-reared animals in German dairy and fattening facilities.Samples were obtained from 65 cattle farms distributed randomly across all the regions of Germany, regardless of the occurrence of clinical problems. The samples were obtained rectally. Faecal consistency and the total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) were determined for Eimeria spp., along with the separate OPG values for Eimeria (E.) bovis and E. zuernii. A questionnaire was completed for each farm to record information about herd size and management together with individual animal data. Eimeria oocysts, regardless of the kind of Eimeria spp., were detected in 62 of these farms, which gives a prevalence of 95.4 %. The farm prevalence of the pathogenic species was 76.9 % for E. bovis and 83.1 % for E. zuernii. The average oocyst excretion level was 2,950 OPG in terms of total Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, 700 OPG for E. bovis and 1,500 OPG for E. zuernii.The number of oocysts excreted could not be correlated significantly with farm type or farm management but depended on the floor type which influences the infection pressure, on the age of the calves and the time after rehousing. In general, higher oocyst excretion rates were found in calves kept on litter compared to rearing on slatted floor. Younger calves and calves sampled early after housing shed higher amounts of oocysts than older calves and calves stabled a longer period before sampling, respectively. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between OPG and the observation of diarrhoea, defined as observation of a loose to liquid faecal consistency. Excretion of E. zuernii oocysts was more closely linked to the occurrence of diarrhoea than E. bovis oocyst excretion. This study confirms that the pathogenic coccidia E. bovis and E. zuernii are ubiquitous in German cattle populations and a significant cause of

  13. British Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS): to determine the prevalence of E. coli O157 in herds with cattle destined for the food chain.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Tongue, S C; Evans, J; Webster, C; McKENDRICK, I J; Morgan, M; Willett, A; Reeves, A; Humphry, R W; Gally, D L; Gunn, G J; Chase-Topping, M E

    2017-09-19

    Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166-0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156-0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.

  14. Use of simulation modeling to estimate herd-level sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of diagnostic tests for detection of tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Norby, Bo; Bartlett, Paul C; Grooms, Daniel L; Kaneene, John B; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S

    2005-07-01

    To estimate herd-level sensitivity (HSe), specificity (HSp), and predictive values for a positive (HPVP) and negative (HPVN) test result for several testing scenarios for detection of tuberculosis in cattle by use of simulation modeling. Empirical distributions of all herds (15,468) and herds in a 10-county area (1,016) in Michigan. 5 test scenarios were simulated: scenario 1, serial interpretation of the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test and comparative cervical test (CCT); scenario 2, serial interpretation of the CFT test and CCT, microbial culture for mycobacteria, and polymerase chain reaction assay; scenario 3, same as scenario 2 but specificity was fixed at 1.0; and scenario 4, sensitivity was 0.9 (scenario 4a) or 0.95 (scenario 4b), and specificity was fixed at 1.0. Estimates for HSe were reasonably high, ranging between 0.712 and 0.840. Estimates for HSp were low when specificity was not fixed at 1.0. Estimates of HPVP were low for scenarios 1 and 2 (0.042 and 0.143, respectively) but increased to 1.0 when specificity was fixed at 1.0. The HPVN remained high for all 5 scenarios, ranging between 0.995 and 0.997. As herd size increased, HSe increased and HSp and HPVP decreased. However, fixing specificity at 1.0 had only minor effects on HSp and HPVN, but HSe was low when the herd size was small. Tests used for detecting cattle herds infected with tuberculosis work well on a herd basis. Herds with < approximately 100 cattle should be tested more frequently or for a longer duration than larger herds to ensure that these small herds are free of tuberculosis.

  15. Eradication of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (Bovine Herpesvirus 1) from a Herd of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was eradicated from a 150 cow beef herd at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Lethbridge, Alberta. Tests used to accomplish this included standard and modified serum-virus neutralization tests and an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. These results and those of preliminary pilot studies in the herd and in a nonvaccinated, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infected 450 cow beef herd suggest that eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection can be considered as a practical control alternative to vaccination, and that young animals in purebred herds could be monitored serologically and isolated, to enhance their eligibility for entry into artificial insemination studs or for export. PMID:17422544

  16. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Raies A.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Johnson, Judith A.; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J. Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including “human” ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities. PMID:27642751

  17. Identification and Characterization of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Johnson, Judith A; Archer, Douglas; Morris, J Glenn; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida. The overall prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was 15.8% (95% CI: 13.9, 17.8), varied between farms, and ranged from 5.2% to 100%. A subset of isolates (n = 23) was further characterized for the cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiotic susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics, sequencing of nine β- lactamase genes, and species identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (concentrations, > 64 μg/mL) and showed high levels of multi-drug resistance. Full length 16S rRNA sequences (~1300 bp) revealed that most of the isolates were not primary human or animal pathogens; rather were more typical of commensal, soil, or other environmental origin. Six extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes identical to those in clinical human isolates were identified. Our study highlights the potential for carriage of cefotaxime resistance (including "human" ESBL genes) by the bacterial flora of food animals with no history of cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. A better understanding of the origin and transmission of resistance genes in these pre-harvest settings will be critical to development of strategies to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms to hospitals and communities.

  18. Reappearance of Mecistocirrus digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics: prevalence, molecular, and scanning electron microscopy identification.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana

    2014-06-01

    Mecistocirrus digitatus is a hematophagous abomasal nematode which causes significant blood and production losses in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) report the reappearance of M. digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and molecular identification, and (2) determine the prevalence of M. digitatus in slaughtered adult cattle from the Mexican tropics. Gastroinestinal nematodes (GIN) were recovered from the abomasum of an 8-yr-old cow (Holstein × Zebu) previously diagnosed with Johne's disease. Of 1,254 GIN, 98.8% were identified as M. digitatus and 1.2% as Haemonchus sp. SEM was used to identify ultrastructure features of M. digitatus (oral cavity, cervical papillae, bursa, bursa lobes papillae, male spicules, anus, and female vulva). A conventional PCR method was used to corroborate the morphological findings. The prevalence of adult cattle infected with M. digitatus and Haemonchus sp., determined from 68 adult cattle from different grazing tropical herds, was 38.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of animals infected with M. digitatus presented lesions in their abomasum such as mucosal inflammation, hemorrhage, and ulcers; some of them had necrosis. The current reappearance of M. digitatus in a Mexican herd suggests the possibility of an underestimated prevalence of this nematode amongst grazing cattle.

  19. Can pre-collected register data be used to identify dairy herds with good cattle welfare?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-recorded register data from dairy herds are available in almost all Nordic countries. These databases can be used for research purposes, and one of the research areas is animal welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate if pre-recorded register data could be used to identify herds with good welfare, and to investigate if a combination of register data sets could be used to be able to more correctly distinguish between herds with good welfare and herds with welfare deficiencies. Methods As a first step, nine animal-based measurements on calves, young stock and cows in 55 randomly selected herds were performed on-farm as the basis for a classification of welfare at the herd level. The definition for being a case herd with “good welfare” was no score lying among the 10% worst in any of the nine welfare measurements. Twenty-eight of the 55 herds were cases according to this definition. As a second step, 65 potential welfare indicators, based on register data in a national dairy database, were identified by expert opinion. In the final step, the extent to which the suggested welfare indicators predicted farms’ as having good welfare according to the stated definition was assessed. Moreover, the effect of combining in sequence a previously developed model that identified herds with poor welfare with the present model identifying herds with good welfare was investigated. Results The final set of welfare indicators used to identify herds with good animal welfare included two fertility measures, cow mortality, stillbirth rate, mastitis incidence and incidence of feed-related diseases (including gastrointestinal disturbances but excluding paralyses and cramps). This set had a test sensitivity of correctly classifying herds with no score lying among the 10% worst of the nine welfare measurements of 96 %. However, the specificity of the test was only 56% indicating difficulties for the test to correctly classifying herds with one or more

  20. Presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a herd of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Heider, L C; McClure, J T; Leger, E R

    2001-03-01

    Fifty-two feedlot cattle exhibited clinical signs suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum type D organisms were recovered from ruminal fluid of 4 of the 5 affected animals tested and were isolated from bakery waste fed to the cattle. Clostridium botulinum type D has not been reported previously in Canadian cattle.

  1. Presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium botulinum type D intoxication in a herd of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Heider, L C; McClure, J T; Leger, E R

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two feedlot cattle exhibited clinical signs suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum type D organisms were recovered from ruminal fluid of 4 of the 5 affected animals tested and were isolated from bakery waste fed to the cattle. Clostridium botulinum type D has not been reported previously in Canadian cattle. PMID:11265191

  2. Endoparasites in calves of beef cattle herds: management systems dependent and genetic influences.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Michael; Gauly, Matthias; Bauer, Christian; Failing, Klaus; Erhardt, Georg; Zahner, Horst

    2005-08-10

    Prevalences and intensities of excretion of faecal stages of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Eimeria spp., Strongyloides papillosus and strongyles were determined in a German upland area in German Angus (GA) and German Simmental (GS) suckler of beef cattle herds covering two winter housing periods and the grazing season between them. Influences of the housing systems applied (maintenance on deep litter with (DL+) and without run-out (DL--), on slatted floor (SF) or by winter run-out yarding (WO)), breed differences and genetic influences by the sire were determined by statistical analyses; levels of IgG antibodies to E. bovis antigen were measured by ELISA. G. duodenalis was observed with a maximum prevalence of 38% in 4 weeks old calves, a cumulative incidence of 58% 9 weeks after birth and with generally low intensities. C. parvum infections were relatively rare with cumulative incidences of 20--25% in week 5 after birth. Highest prevalences were associated with housing system DL-- and a long-lasting calving period. Cumulative incidence of Eimeria spp. was almost 100%. E. bovis predominated by far followed by E. ellipsoidalis/zuernii. Mean maximum intensity of 1000 OpG occurred in week 7 after birth. Up to an age of the calves of 7 weeks >75% of all oocysts belonged to E. bovis. Prevalences and excretion intensities were lowest under the housing conditions SF and WO. Maternal antibodies in calves to E. bovis antigen were directly and inversely correlated with mean OpG values in GA and GS calves, respectively. S. papillosus was common with a cumulative incidence of 53% 9 weeks after birth and occurred independent of the housing system. Mean strongyle egg prevalence was 50% with 50--100 EpG by means throughout the grazing season. Egg excretion intensity in the early months of grazings was correlated with the age of the calves at turnout to pasture. Under the conditions of housing system DL-- GA calves could better control S. papillosus infections than

  3. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  4. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise; Kostoulas, Polychronis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the primary routes of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is pivotal to manage the pathogen in cattle herds. MAP is transmitted both vertically and horizontally, and both the dam's stage of infection and the prevalence in the population are therefore potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used to correct for the effect of age. The results showed that both the within-herd test-prevalence and the dam's infection progress were significant predictors, while the dams that had tested positive when giving birth and up to 0.7 years after were more likely to have offspring that would test positive. The odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds of testing positive, compared to animals born in a low prevalence herd. The variance heterogeneity reduced 81% through the included predictors. The results of this study suggest that irrespective of the prevalence, offspring of dams with MAP specific antibodies should be considered as high-risk animals when managing the infection in cattle herds, but both the prevalence and the dam's infection status are important in MAP control.

  5. Risk factors associated with clinical dermatophilosis in smallholder sector cattle herds of Zimbabwe at the Amblyomma variegatum and Amblyomma hebraeum interface.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate factors for clinical dermatophilosis herd-level positivity in smallholder dip tanks from Gokwe (Chemawororo, Gwanyika), Kwekwe (Koronika) and Chegutu (Chivero), Zimbabwe, between September 2013 and April 2014. A total of 185 herds were clinically examined for disease and tick infestation. Data on herd and potential herd level risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A herd was classified as clinically positive if an animal satisfied any of the following criteria: small lesions characterised by hairs clumping like a small paint brush, clear exudative circumscribed lesions with scabs of at least 1 cm in diameter and confluent progressive exudative scab lesions affecting significant parts of the animal's body. Amblyomma variegatum and Amblyomma hebraeum ticks were identified in situ with further laboratory confirmation. The potential herd-level risk factors for clinical dermatophilosis were tested using multiple logistic regression with herd infection status (positive, negative) being the binomial outcome and risk factors being predictors. Of the herds examined, clinical bovine dermatophilosis was detected in 45 % (84/185, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 38.2, 52.6 %) of the herds. The herd prevalence ranged from 6.9 % (95 % CI 0.00, 16.7) to 56.7 % (95 % CI 43.8, 69.6) with Chivero and Chemawororo dip tanks recording the lowest and highest prevalence, respectively. Herds infested with A. variegatum were associated with higher odds (OR = 6.8, 95 % CI 1.71, 27.10) of clinical dermatophilosis while the association was not significant (p > 0.05) in A. hebraeum-infested herds. A history of having bought cattle (OR = 3.5, 95 % CI 1.09, 11.12) compared to not buying was associated with increased herd clinical positivity status. It was concluded that management practices aimed at movement and tick control would help reduce the prevalence of clinical dermatophilosis in cattle herds.

  6. Diagnostic methods used to monitor an outbreak of babesiosis (Babesia bovis) in a herd of feral cattle in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Graille, M; Mortelecque, A; Desoutter, D; Delathière, J M; Marchal, C; Teurlai, M; Barré, N

    2013-06-01

    In December 2007, Babesia bovis was introduced to New Caledonia through the importation of cattle vaccinated with a live tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine. Medical measures, acaricide and antiprotozoal treatments, and quarantine restrictions were implemented with success on all the farms involved, but the disease spread to one of the neighbouring properties where feral cattle were present. To circumscribe and eliminate this outbreak, the authorities decided to slaughter all animals on the neighbouring property. To monitor the spread of babesiosis in naïve cattle and to compare the usefulness of PCR, ELISA and brain smear for disease detection in monitoring this outbreak. Blood and brain samples of slaughtered animals were analysed over time throughout the eradication campaign using serology, PCR and brain smears. In addition, field numbers of Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae were assessed and Babesia infection of the larvae analysed using PCR. This study showed the natural spread of babesiosis in a naïve herd without pharmacological control measures. Prevalence reached 80% within a year of introduction. ELISA and PCR tests performed similarly in detecting disease in cattle and both were superior to brain smears. Nevertheless, specific tests or combinations of tests may be preferable, depending on the specific requirements of any future disease situation. In cattle, ELISA and PCR appear to be suitable tools for monitoring the evolution of a babesiosis outbreak, with brain smears as a useful adjunct. PCR was not suitable for detecting infection in tick larvae. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Effect of calf death loss on cloned cattle herd derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer: clones with congenital defects would be removed by the death loss.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    To increase public understanding on cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the present review describes the effect of calf death loss on an SCNT cattle herd. The incidence of death loss in SCNT cattle surviving more than 200 days reached the same level as that in conventionally bred cattle. This process could be considered as removal of SCNT cattle with congenital defects caused by calf death loss. As a result of comparative studies of SCNT cattle and conventionally bred cattle, the substantial equivalences in animal health status, milk and meat productive performance have been confirmed. Both sexes of SCNT cattle surviving to adulthood were fertile and their reproductive performance, including efficiency of progeny production, was the same as that in conventionally bred cattle. The presence of substantial equivalence between their progeny and conventionally bred cattle also existed. Despite these scientific findings, the commercial use of food products derived from SCNT cattle and their progeny has not been allowed by governments for reasons including the lack of public acceptance of these products and the low efficiency of animal SCNT. To overcome this situation, communication of the low risk of SCNT technology and research to improve SCNT efficiency are required.

  8. Investigation of intra-herd spread of Mycobacterium caprae in cattle by generation and use of a whole-genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Broeckl, S; Krebs, S; Varadharajan, A; Straubinger, R K; Blum, H; Buettner, M

    2017-02-13

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) calculated from whole genome sequencing (WGS) are ideally suited to study evolutionary relationships of pathogens and their epidemiology. Mycobacterium caprae infections have been documented frequently in cattle and red deer along the Bavarian and Austrian Alps during the last decade. However, little is still known about the transmission within cattle holdings and possible alterations of the genomes of M. caprae during such events. The aim of this study was to study the molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in selected herds based on isolate-specific genome-wide SNPs and to perform a phylogenetic network analysis. In total, 61 M. caprae isolates were collected originating from eight cattle farms over a period of twelve years between 2004 and 2015. Analysis of their sequence data revealed that the M. caprae isolates of an affected farm differ at all in a few SNPs. In contrast, many more SNPs were found when comparing the M. caprae genomes originating from different herds. The results demonstrated that the spread of bTB in the affected farms occurred by direct transmission between the members of each herd rather than between herds and a M. caprae introduction in farms after contact events e. g. on summer pastures can readily be traced by WGS analysis. Furthermore, we assembled a nearly complete whole genome sequence of M. caprae derived from several cattle isolates originating from bTB cases in the Bavarian Alpine region.

  9. Evaluation of the Control of Pathogen Load by an Anti-Salmonella Bacterium in a Herd of Cattle with Persistent Salmonella Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To isolate an anti-Salmonella bacterium that may control pathogen load in persistently-infected cattle herds. Animals: 24 Holstein calves. Procedures: An Escherchia coli (designated as P8E5) that possesses anti-Salmonella activity was isolated from Salmonella negative bovine feces ob...

  10. Serological and molecular detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle of dairy herds in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Akineden, Omer; Bülte, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fecal culture in Colombian dairy herds. Serum and fecal samples from asymptomatic cows (n = 307) of 14 dairy herds were tested for MAP by an unabsorbed ELISA test (ELISA-A). Serum and fecal samples from positive ELISA-A animals (n = 31) were further tested by an absorbed ELISA test (ELISA-B) and PCR. Fecal samples from animals of herds positive by ELISA-A and PCR (n = 105) were inoculated onto three different culture media. ELISA-A produced positive results in 10% of the serum samples and 71% of the herds. ELISA-B and PCR results were positive in two and six serum and fecal samples from positive ELISA-A animals, respectively. Fecal samples were negative for MAP on all culture media. The results of this study confirmed the presence of MAP in local dairy herds and the difficulties of MAP detection in asymptomatic animals by ELISA, PCR, and fecal culture.

  11. Tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, D N; Makaya, P V; Penzhorn, B L

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in Gwanda district of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Eight tick species were identified: Amblyomma hebraeum, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Rhipicephalus simus. Overall, 81.5% of the cattle were tick infested; prevalence of tick-infested cattle was significantly higher on communal land (93.8%) and recently claimed land (85.1%) than on commercial farms. The mean tick load on infested cattle on communal land was significantly higher than in the other two sectors. Although 53% of the sampled cattle had some degree of udder and teat damage, very few farmers (2.6%) treated their cattle for these conditions. Udder damage was ca. two times and three times, respectively, more likely to occur in cattle on communal land compared to cattle on recently claimed land and commercial farms. The occurrence of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis indicate that the cattle population in the study area is at high risk of a theileriosis outbreak, a tick-borne disease that has not been reported from this area.

  12. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  13. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.

  14. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  15. Use of a novel real-time PCR technique to monitor and quantitate Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle herds with mastitis and respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Salam, Hala S H; Diller, Roland; Schubert, Evelyn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Hotzel, Helmut

    2010-12-01

    Mycoplasma bovis infection of cattle tends to persist in affected herds and can be resistant to treatment. Given that the level of shedding of the organism can reflect the state of ongoing infection, a study was established to quantify the degree of such shedding in milk samples from infected herds using a novel real-time PCR technique. While the M. bovis load in herds with clinical disease was significantly higher than in disease-free herds (P<0.001), infection persisted in the latter. Similarly, M. bovis was detected more frequently in conjunctival swabs from calves with respiratory disease when compared with samples from animals that did not exhibit such clinical signs. This novel real-time PCR assay is specific for M. bovis and can detect bacterial loads as low as 100 colony forming units/mL of milk. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  17. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    Calving success (CS), days to calving (DC), birth weight (BW) and calving ease (CE) were studied in a mixed breed (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford and Simmental × Hereford) beef cattle herd. DC was not normally distributed and a number of transformations failed in normalising it. Repeatabilities were estimated by analysis of variance. Inclusion (or exclusion) of non calvers and the transformations studied had little effect on the repeatability of DC, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The repeatabilities for CS, BW and CE were 0.08, 0.26 and 0.03, respectively. The residual correlations of CS with DC and functions of DC were high (-0.68 or greater), whereas the correlations among DC and functions of DC were close to one. The correlations of DC with BW and CE varied little with the transformation applied to DC, ranging from 0.26 to 0.28 and 0.10 to 0.12, respectively. The correlation between BW and CE was 0.06. The study points to a number of problems associated with the use of DC as a reproductive variable in beef cattle. It is concluded that although DC is currently a useful field reproductive variable, the search for appropriate female reproductive traits should continue. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Reproduktions- und Perinatal-Variable in einer gemischtrassigen Fleisch-Rinderherde Abkalbeerfolg (CS), Tage bis Abkalbung (DC), Geburtsgewicht (BW) und Kalbeleichtigkeit (CE) wurden in einer gemischtrassigen (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford und Simmental × Hereford) Mutterkuhherde untersucht. DC waren nicht normalverteilt und konnte auch durch eine Reihe von Transformationen nicht normalisiert werden. Wiederholbarkeiten wurden mit Varianzanalyse geschätzt. Berücksichtigung (oder Nichtberücksichtigung) von Nichtkalbungen und die Transformationen hatten wenig Wirkung auf Wiederholbarkeit von DC, die zwischen 0,10 und 0,12 war. Wiederholbarkeiten für CS, BW und CE waren 0,08, 0,26 und 0,03. Die Restkorrelation von CS mit DC und Funktionen von DC waren hoch (- 0,68 oder stärker), w

  18. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  19. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  20. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  1. Economic assessment of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using Paracalc(®).

    PubMed

    Fanke, Jane; Charlier, Johannes; Steppin, Torsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Vercruysse, Jozef; Demeler, Janina

    2017-06-15

    The aim of the current study was to estimate economic costs of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using the online calculation programme Paracalc(®). Following a questionnaire, survey data were available from 464 farms in 14 federal states. On those farms bulk tank milk (BTM) samples and additionally up to six serum samples collected from first season grazing calves were analysed, using a commercially available ELISA (Boehringer Ingelheim SVANOVA Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden), an in-house ELISA (F. hepatica) and an in-house serum pepsinogen test. In total, samples obtained from 344 farms were included in the analysis since those were the only farms with complete questionnaires. Median costs per farm and year were estimated for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections (€721.38) and F. hepatica infection (€565.61). Decreases in milk yield in multiparous cows were the major reason for annual production losses due to GI nematodes (€13.33 per cow) and F. hepatica infections (€7.95 per cow), which was followed by annual costs for anthelmintic treatment against GI nematode infections in adult cows (€10.00 per cow) and F. hepatica infection associated annual costs due to repeated artificial insemination (€10.13 per cow) and prolonged calving intervals (€9.40 per cow). The study demonstrated that if all required information is provided, the Paracalc(®) tool can assist to identify productions losses in dairy cattle herds due to helminth infections and to optimise farm economics in Germany. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of vaccination on undetected persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds and sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Schley, D; Paton, D J; Cox, S J; Parida, S; Gubbins, S

    2009-10-01

    The importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. Using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persistence in diseased and subclinically infected animals. We show that the number of persistently infected animals in a group is predominantly determined by the number of animals initially infected on premises--the high variability of which ultimately limits the accuracy of any predictions of carrier numbers based upon transmission models. Furthermore, results suggest that, within a cattle herd, carrier numbers may be increased if challenge occurs shortly after vaccination. We show that the quality of inspection is the principal factor influencing whether or not carrier herds occur and that, by reducing clinical signs, the application of vaccination in regularly checked stock also results in an increase in undetected persistently infected animals. Where clinical detection would be poor regardless of the use of vaccination (i.e. particularly in sheep), vaccination will result in a reduction in the probability of a group containing undetected carriers: otherwise there is a benefit only if vaccination is applied sufficiently far in advance of any challenge. The implications of the results for serosurveillance are discussed, including the requisite test sensitivity and practices for successful implementation.

  3. Optimum use of milk in traditionally managed cattle herds in the tropics.

    PubMed

    de'Besi, Giacomo; Thieme, Olaf

    2013-06-01

    In traditional cattle systems in the tropics, the milk produced is generally shared between the calf and the cattle keeper. This literature review evaluates the socio-economic aspects related to milk production and milk use in traditional cattle systems and identifies the best strategies of milk allocation in order to improve food security and maximise income. The available literature indicates that milk, in terms of economic, social and subsistence value, is more valuable than meat. Thus, under the conditions that characterise traditional cattle systems in the tropics, it is appropriate to have a higher milk offtake at the expense of calf growth. This review also found that certain management practices, such as restricted suckling, can be useful to minimise mortality of calves, while improving milk offtake for human consumption.

  4. Botulism outbreak associated with poultry litter consumption in three Brazilian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, E L; Brito, L A; Mori, C S; Schalch, U; Pacheco, J; Baldacci, L

    1997-04-01

    One hundred fifty-five of 201 cattle from 3 different farms showed clinical signs and died of botulism after eating the same batch of poultry litter contaminated with poultry and rodent carcasses. The cattle had access to poultry litter for only 1 d; afterwards it was removed from the diet. Death occurred over a period of 17 d after the poultry litter intake. The peak mortality was on day 4; 20 animals died within 10 d of the ingestion. The greater the intake of poultry litter, the higher the cattle mortality. Three steers which died on the first day had peracute effects while the remaining cattle showed classical signs. Twenty-five of the 46 surviving cattle had mild clinical signs, but recovered in a few days. Type C Clostridium botulinum toxin was found in extracts of the poultry litter, carcasses and cattle intestinal contents. Nutrient composition of the poultry litter was normal but pH was lower (6.9) than usual (7.5 to 9.3).

  5. Characterization of fecal microbiota from a Salmonella endemic cattle herd as determined by oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Scupham, Alexandra J; Bearson, Shawn M D; Carlson, Steve A

    2009-05-12

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is composed of complex communities. For all species examined thus far, culture and molecular analyses show that these communities are highly diverse and individuals harbor unique consortia. The objective of the current work was to examine inter-individual diversity of cattle fecal microbiota and determine whether Salmonella shedding status correlated with community richness or evenness parameters. Using a ribosomal gene array-based approach, oligonucleotide fingerprinting of ribosomal genes (OFRG), we analyzed 1440 16S genes from 19 fecal samples obtained from a cattle herd with a history of salmonellosis. Identified bacteria belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (53%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Proteobacteria (17%). Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA gene clones revealed that Spirochaetes and Verrucomicrobia were also present in the feces. The majority of Firmicutes present in the feces belonged to the order Clostridiales, which was verified via dot blot analysis. beta-Proteobacteria represented 1.5% of the bacterial community as determined by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis of the 16S libraries from the 19 animals indicated very high levels of species richness and evenness, such that individual libraries represented unique populations. Finally, this study did not identify species that prevented Salmonella colonization or resulted from Salmonella colonization.

  6. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 78.9 - Cattle from herds not known to be affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... slaughtering establishment if they are accompanied by a permit or “S” brand permit. (iv) Such cattle may be...” brand permit which states, in addition to the items specified in § 78.1, the test dates and results of... stockyard, accompanied by an “S” brand permit, and moved directly to a recognized slaughtering establishment...

  8. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  9. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R; Bauer, Bianca S; Allen, Andrew L; Grahn, Bruce H

    2015-03-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin.

  10. Unrecognized circulation of SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Belsham, Graham J; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Balinda, Sheila Nina; Muwanika, Vincent B; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2016-01-06

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15%) of 247 serum samples had detectable antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSPs) using a pan-serotypic assay. Within these 37 sera, antibody titres ≥ 80 against the structural proteins of serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were detected by ELISA in 5, 7, 4 and 3 samples, respectively, while neutralizing antibodies were only detected against serotype O in 3 samples. Two FMDV isolates, with identical VP1 coding sequences, were obtained from probang samples from clinically healthy calves from the same herd and are serotype SAT 1 (topotype IV (EA-I)). Based on the VP1 coding sequences, these viruses are distinct from previous cattle and buffalo SAT 1 FMDV isolates obtained from the same area (19-30% nucleotide difference) and from the vaccine strain (TAN/155/71) used within Uganda (26% nucleotide difference). Eight herds had only one or a few animals with antibodies against FMDV NSPs while six herds had more substantial evidence of prior infection with FMDV. There was no evidence for exposure to FMDV in the other ten herds. The two identical SAT 1 FMDV VP1 sequences are distinct from former buffalo and cattle isolates from the same area, thus, transmission between buffalo and cattle was not demonstrated. These new SAT 1 FMDV isolates differed significantly from the vaccine strain used to control Ugandan FMD outbreaks, indicating a need for vaccine matching studies. Only

  11. Impact of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control on cattle herd composition and calf growth and mortality at Arbaminch District (Southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Gechere, Geja; Terefe, Getachew; Belihu, Kelay

    2012-10-01

    The effect of tsetse/trypanosomiasis control on cattle herd composition and growth and mortality of calves in tsetse controlled (by Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP)) and uncontrolled blocks in southern Ethiopia was assessed. Structured questionnaire was used to interview 182 households to estimate cattle herd composition and calf mortality. Calves were bled to examine the presence of trypanosomes by the buffy coat technique. Forty NGU traps were deployed and fly catches determined. A case-control study was performed on 40 calves for 6 months to estimate calve growth parameters. Accordingly, the mean cattle herd size was lower in tsetse-controlled block than in the uncontrolled block, whereas the relative number of calves in a herd tend to be higher in the tsetse-controlled block (P = 0.06). While there was no report of cattle mortality in tsetse-controlled block, 16.48 % of the respondents have lost calves in tsetse-uncontrolled block in 1 year time. The prevalence of trypanosome positive calves was 2.95 % for uncontrolled block but no positive case in tsetse-controlled block. The apparent densities of flies/trap/day in tsetse-uncontrolled block were 30-fold higher than in tsetse-controlled block (P < 0.01). The case-control study revealed that the mean body weight gain of calves in tsetse-controlled block (40.23 ± 0.7 kg) was significantly higher than that of the uncontrolled block (34.74 ± 0.68 kg). The above findings strongly suggest that the intervention by the STEP project has significantly reduced tsetse population and trypanosomiasis consequently contributing to improved calf growth and survival.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carbonero, A; Saa, L R; Jara, D V; García-Bocanegra, I; Arenas, A; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 through February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures and environment was filled out in each herd. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model was used to determine risk factors at individual level, including herd as random effect. The individual seroprevalence to BHV-1 in Ecuador was 43.2% (1023/2367; CI(₉₅%): 41.2-45.2%). The herd prevalence was 82.1%; (284/346; CI(₉₅%): 78.1-86.1%) and the intra-herd prevalence ranged from 12.5 to 100% (mean=64.1%). The GEE model showed that animal age (>4 years) (OR: 1.44; CI(₉₅%): 1.18-1.75), BRSV infection (OR: 1.45; CI(₉₅%): 1.09-1.92), altitude over the sea level (≤ 1800 m) (OR: 2.97; CI(₉₅%): 2.1-4.22) and average slope (> 11%) (OR: 1.45; CI(₉₅%): 1.07-1.95) are risk factors associated with BHV-1 infection, while a good cleaning of the facilities (OR: 0.66; CI(₉₅%): 0.44-0.99) was shown to be a protective factor.

  13. Acute-phase protein behavior in dairy cattle herd naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in acid glycoprotein serum concentration between the NIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax.

  14. Comparison of piecewise Weibull baseline survival models for estimation of true and functional longevity in Brown cattle raised in small herds.

    PubMed

    Jenko, J; Ducrocq, V; Kovač, M

    2013-10-01

    Piecewise Weibull proportional hazard models were used to investigate the effect of genetic and nongenetic factors on functional and true longevity traits of the Slovenian Brown cattle breed. Records of 37 908 Brown cows from 2401 Slovenian herds were used. As these herds were characterised by a relatively small average herd size starting from 6.7 in 1999 and increasing to 8.7 Brown cows per herd in 2008, milk yield classification was made within different herd size groups. The hazard rate was the lowest in the first part of each lactation and was increasing for later stages. Culling risk was lower for cows from herds increasing in size, for cows with higher milk production and for cows from a region with smaller herd sizes and tougher conditions for cattle breeding. The latter result is surprising and may be related to better attention to maintain the animals, despite their lower milk production. The introduction of the milk quota system and drought was found to have an important effect on culling policy between the last seasons of the years 2001 and 2003. Seasonal effects were not related to the milk quota year (from April to March), but to the effect of shortage in fodder during the winter time. The effect of age at first calving and the interaction between year and milk yield class were not found to be significant. Heritability for functional and for true longevity were similar at around 10% each. Inclusion of a correction for class of milk yield to approximate functional longevity increased the herd-year random effect variance by 53%, whereas the sire variance increased by only 14%. The correlation coefficient between ranks of breeding values for functional and true longevity was high (0.91), whereas genetic trends were not found to be significant. To assess their predictive ability, models were compared looking at the survival rate of 4212 second-crop daughters not included in the initial models. The average correlation between estimated breeding values and

  15. Comparison between sire-maternal grandsire and animal models for genetic evaluation of longevity in a dairy cattle population with small herds.

    PubMed

    Jenko, J; Gorjanc, G; Kovač, M; Ducrocq, V

    2013-01-01

    Survival analysis techniques for sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) and animal models were used to test the genetic evaluation of longevity in a Slovenian Brown cattle population characterized by small herds. Three genetic models were compared: a sire-MGS model for bulls and an approximate animal model based on estimated breeding values (EBV) from the sire-MGS model for cows, an animal model, and an animal model based on the estimated variance components from the sire-MGS model. In addition, modeling the contemporary group effect was defined as either a herd or a herd-year (HY) effect. With various restrictions on the minimum HY group size (from 1 to 10 cows per HY), changes in estimates of variance components, and consequently also in EBV, were observed for the sire-MGS and animal models. Variance of contemporary group effects decreased when an HY effect was fitted instead of a herd effect. In the case of a sire-MGS model, estimates of additive genetic variance were mostly robust to changes in minimum HY group size or fitting herd or HY effect, whereas they increased in the animal model when HY instead of herd effects was fitted, possibly revealing some confounding between cow EBV and contemporary group effect. Estimated heritabilities from sire-MGS models were between 0.091 and 0.119 and were mainly influenced by the restriction on the HY group size. Estimated heritabilities from animal models were higher: between 0.125 and 0.160 when herd effect was fitted and between 0.171 and 0.210 when HY effect was fitted. Rank correlations between the animal model and the approximate animal model based on EBV from the sire-MGS model were high: 0.94 for cows and 0.93 for sires when a herd effect was fitted and 0.90 for cows and 0.93 for sires when an HY effect was fitted. Validation performed on the independent validation data set revealed that the correlation between sire EBV and daughter survival were slightly higher with the approximate animal model based on EBV from the sire

  16. Herding the U.S. cattle industry toward a paradigm shift in parasite control.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M J; Reinemeyer, C R

    2014-07-30

    Contemporary management of nematode parasitism in cattle relies heavily on a single class of drugs, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs). The potency and convenience of the MLs, along with the low cost of generic formulations, have largely supplanted the need for critical thinking about parasite control, and rote treatment has become the default 'strategy'. This approach to parasite control has exerted substantial pressure to select populations of nematodes that can survive recommended dosages of ML products. Although macrocyclic lactones have been available for over 30 years, putative ML resistance in U.S. cattle was not reported until fairly recently. This pattern begs the question, "Is this a new, emergent problem, or an old issue that is finally commanding some attention?" The implications of bovine anthelmintic resistance should stimulate a paradigm shift for U.S. cattle producers and their advisors. However, there are significant obstacles to changes in current thinking. It is anticipated that cattle producers will be extremely reluctant to abandon historical practices unless they can be convinced of the value of alternatives that are communicated through targeted education, practical demonstrations, economic analyses, and scientific evidence. Historically, the management advice of practitioners has not relied strongly on parasite epidemiology, and practitioners may not have the knowledge to implement evidence-based recommendations. Pharmaceutical companies could play a significant role in helping to shape and shift the thinking about sustainable use of anthelmintics. However, their primary responsibility is to stockholders, and they have strong economic incentives for maintaining the status quo. It is complicated and difficult to change attitudes and practices, and it will take more than logic or fear to shift the parasite control paradigm in the U.S. cattle industry. Achieving that goal will require collaboration among stakeholders, a consistent, straightforward

  17. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Conclusions Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species. PMID:24906684

  18. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Otto, Barbara; Sandoval, Errol; Reinhardt, German; Boqvist, Sofia

    2014-06-06

    The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile.A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species.

  19. Reproductive efficiency and herd demography of Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems.

    PubMed

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the herd demography and reproductive efficiency of the Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems. Data on husbandry practices, reason of cattle entry/exist, herd structure, bulling rates, breeding females, age at first calving and calving interval were obtained from 22 village-owned and 19 group-owned enterprises in a cross-sectional survey of an ecologically controlled low-input cattle production system. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests of association were computed on enterprise ownership patterns, husbandry practices and herd demography. An AN(C)OVA was used to determine significant factors affecting herd structure, mortality, age at first calving and calving interval in the enterprises. Village-owned enterprises had higher (p < 0.05) dipping frequency per season than group enterprises. The herd sizes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in group-owned (29.9 ± 3.23) than in village-owned (23.6 ± 2.40) enterprises. Mortality rate was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in group-owned (10.8%) than in village-owned enterprises (26.4 %). Group-owned enterprises had significantly more sales and programme retains than the village-owned enterprises (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between enterprise ownership pattern on cattle production potential and age at first calving (p > 0.05). Significant differences were observed on the calving interval (p < 0.05) where the group-owned enterprises performed better (16.0 ± 1.10 months) than village-owned enterprises (22.7 ± 1.07 months). The bulling rate was higher in village-owned enterprises, while the proportion of breeding females was higher in group-owned enterprises. Farmers with a college education had Nguni animals with the shortest calving interval. It was concluded that group-owned enterprises had significantly better calving intervals, mortality rates and overall herd structure than village

  20. Estimation of the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...

  1. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sweetline Anne, N; Ronald, B S M; Kumar, T M A Senthil; Kannan, P; Thangavelu, A

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis continued to be a re-emerging problem in some countries especially in endemic areas due to the fact that human and animal health surveillance system is not adopted to diagnose the infection. This crisis can be attributed due to sharing of the same habitat especially in rural areas. In the present study, a total of 148 samples were collected from cattle for isolation over a period of 3 years from cattle with and without lesions, of which 67 isolates were obtained by culture. Fifty one isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by IS6110 PCR of which 43 (84.3%) were identified as M. tuberculosis and 08 (15.6%) were identified as M. bovis by using 12.7kb fragment multiplex PCR. Among this, 31 isolates which were positive for IS6110 PCR were subjected to spoligotyping and revealed 28 isolates belonging to MANU1 strain of M. tuberculosis. This study clearly indicates that high prevalence of M. tuberculosis than M. bovis in bovine was identified by means of culture and by molecular methods M. tuberculosis can affect cattle producing lesion in contradiction to the earlier thoughts. This study speculates that M. tuberculosis MANU1 strain infection in cattle could be due to spill over from human or other non specific hosts in tuberculosis endemic areas. Though bovine tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis in cattle is not considered a serious threat worldwide, in countries where human TB is endemic, M. tuberculosis infection of cattle needs to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  3. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic.

  4. Use of an Individual-based Model to Control Transmission Pathways of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Al-Mamun, M A; Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Gröhn, Y T

    2017-09-19

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease in cattle caused by Mycobacterium avian subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Eradicating JD is a difficult task due to the long incubation period of MAP, inefficient diagnostic tests, and delayed clinical signs. Effective control strategies can help farmers to reduce prevalence, but those most acceptable to farmers combine specific information about lactation performance and testing results, which existing models do not provide. This paper presents an individual-based model of MAP infection dynamics and assesses the relative performance of the applied alternative control strategies. The base dairy herd model included the daily life events of a dairy cow and reflects several current dairy management processes. We then integrated MAP infection dynamics into the model. The model adopted four different test-based control strategies based on risk-based culling decisions and three hygiene scenarios. The model tracked the source of each infection and quantified the efficacy of each control strategy in reducing the risks of different transmission routes. The results suggest that risk-based culling can reduce prevalence compared with no control, but cannot eliminate the infection. Overall, this work provides not only a valuable tool to investigate MAP transmission dynamics but also offers adaptability to model similar infectious diseases.

  5. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody response, fecal shedding, and antibody cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected cattle herds vaccinated against Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Deepanker; Hovingh, Ernest; Linscott, Rick; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John; Wolfgang, David; Griswold, David

    2014-05-01

    Vaccination for Johne's disease with killed inactivated vaccine in cattle herds has shown variable success. The vaccine delays the onset of disease but does not afford complete protection. Johne's disease vaccination has also been reported to interfere with measurements of cell-mediated immune responses for the detection of bovine tuberculosis. Temporal antibody responses and fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease, were measured in 2 dairy cattle herds using Johne's disease vaccine (Mycopar) over a period of 7 years. Vaccination against Johne's disease resulted in positive serum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody responses in both herds, and the responses persisted in vaccinated cattle up to 7 years of age. Some vaccinated animals (29.4% in herd A and 36.2% in herd B) showed no serological reactivity to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody responses were also detected in milk from Johne's disease-vaccinated animals, but fewer animals (39.3% in herd A and 49.4% in herd B) had positive results with milk than with serum samples. With vaccination against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, fecal shedding in both dairy herds was reduced significantly (P < 0.001). In addition, when selected Johne's disease-vaccinated and -infected animals were investigated for serological cross-reactivity to Mycobacterium bovis, no cross-reactivity was observed.

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP panels for genetic identification, traceability and assessment of parentage in an inbred Angus herd

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María E.; Goszczynski, Daniel E.; Lirón, Juan P.; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E.; Carino, Mónica H.; Ripoli, María V.; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Posik, Diego M.; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, microsatellites (short tandem repeats or STRs) have been successfully used for animal genetic identification, traceability and paternity, although in recent year single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly used for this purpose. An efficient SNP identification system requires a marker set with enough power to identify individuals and their parents. Genetic diagnostics generally include the analysis of related animals. In this work, the degree of information provided by SNPs for a consanguineous herd of cattle was compared with that provided by STRs. Thirty-six closely related Angus cattle were genotyped for 18 STRs and 116 SNPs. Cumulative SNPs exclusion power values (Q) for paternity and sample matching probability (MP) yielded values greater than 0.9998 and 4.32E−42, respectively. Generally 2–3 SNPs per STR were needed to obtain an equivalent Q value. The MP showed that 24 SNPs were equivalent to the ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) minimal recommended set of 12 STRs (MP ∼ 10−11). These results provide valuable genetic data that support the consensus SNP panel for bovine genetic identification developed by the Parentage Recording Working Group of ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording). PMID:23885200

  7. Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding.

    PubMed

    Evershed, Richard P; Payne, Sebastian; Sherratt, Andrew G; Copley, Mark S; Coolidge, Jennifer; Urem-Kotsu, Duska; Kotsakis, Kostas; Ozdoğan, Mehmet; Ozdoğan, Aslý E; Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier; Akkermans, Peter M M G; Bailey, Douglass; Andeescu, Radian-Romus; Campbell, Stuart; Farid, Shahina; Hodder, Ian; Yalman, Nurcan; Ozbaşaran, Mihriban; Biçakci, Erhan; Garfinkel, Yossef; Levy, Thomas; Burton, Margie M

    2008-09-25

    The domestication of cattle, sheep and goats had already taken place in the Near East by the eighth millennium bc. Although there would have been considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from living animals-that is, traction and wool-the first clear evidence for these appears much later, from the late fifth and fourth millennia bc. Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first practised remain unknown. Organic residues preserved in archaeological pottery have provided direct evidence for the use of milk in the fourth millennium in Britain, and in the sixth millennium in eastern Europe, based on the delta(13)C values of the major fatty acids of milk fat. Here we apply this approach to more than 2,200 pottery vessels from sites in the Near East and southeastern Europe dating from the fifth to the seventh millennia bc. We show that milk was in use by the seventh millennium; this is the earliest direct evidence to date. Milking was particularly important in northwestern Anatolia, pointing to regional differences linked with conditions more favourable to cattle compared to other regions, where sheep and goats were relatively common and milk use less important. The latter is supported by correlations between the fat type and animal bone evidence.

  8. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  9. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  10. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016

  11. Epidemiological patterns of bovine besnoitiosis in an endemic beef cattle herd reared under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Gil, A; Calvete, C; Casasús, I; Sanz, A; Ferrer, J; Peris, M P; Marcén-Seral, J M; Castillo, J A

    2017-03-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. Described many decades ago, recent epidemiological studies reveal its important spread within Europe in the last years. To date, many epidemiological aspects related to life cycle, routes of transmission, incidence rates and associated risk factors are lacking; hence, the establishment of appropriate disease control programmes poses an important challenge. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiological pattern of the disease in an endemic herd reared under extensive conditions (Spanish Pyrenees) by identifying main factors associated with infection and clinical disease dynamics. The study population consisted of 276 Brown Swiss and Pirenaica adult animals and 145 calves born and weaned at the farm during the study. Three sampling time frames were used: January 2010, September 2010 and February 2011, which allowed us to differentiate two periods designated as mountain and valley periods. The data related to animals (breed, sex and age) and herd management (animal grouping and time in housing) were recorded. The data collection methodology was mainly based on clinical examinations and defining the serological status against bovine besnoitiosis by the immunofluorescent antibody testing of blood samples. The total prevalence among adult animals was 38.34% (CI95%: 34.53-42.07), with 18.54% of seropositive animals showing clinical signs. In regard to the cumulative incidence, 34.57% of new infections were detected during the mountain period, in contrast to the 24.59% observed in the valley period. The incidence density was 0.058 and 0.061 new infections per animal-month for the mountain and valley periods, respectively. According to the seroepidemiological study, the seroconversion probability of B. besnoiti infection was directly associated with the number of seropositive cows with whom an animal had been stabled as well as the housing period duration

  12. Production effects related to mastitis and mastitis economics in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Henri; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, François

    2003-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent production disease in dairy herds world-wide and is responsible for several production effects. Milk yield and composition can be affected by a more or less severe short-term depression and, in case of no cure, by a long-acting effect, and, sometimes, an overlapping effect to the next lactation. Summary values in the literature for losses of milk production were proposed at 375 kg for a clinical case (5% at the lactation level) and at 0.5 kg per 2-fold increase of crude SCC of a cow. Due to the withdrawal period after treatment, composition changes in milk can almost be neglected in economic calculations. Lethality rate for clinical mastitis is very low on the average, while anticipated culling occurs more frequently after clinical and subclinical mastitis (relative risk between 1.5 and 5.0). The economics of mastitis needs to be addressed at the farm level and, per se, depends on local and regional epidemiological, managerial and economic conditions. To assess the direct economic impact of mastitis, costs (i.e. extra resource use) and losses (i.e. reduced revenues) have to be aggregated. To support decision making for udder health control, it is necessary to use a marginal approach, based on the comparison of the losses avoided and the additional costs of modified plans, compared to the existing ones.

  13. No seasonal effect on culturable pseudomonads in fresh milks from cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Leriche, F; Fayolle, K

    2012-05-01

    Freshly drawn raw milk from 37 single herds on farms manufacturing raw cow cheese under the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) label were sampled over 13 mo for pseudomonad counts. Coliforms, somatic cells, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and total fat and protein contents measured. For pseudomonad counts, the overall mean value was 3.60×10(3) cfu/mL. We observed very high variation between different producers and within the same producers (average standard deviation 1.30×10(4) cfu/mL), but we did not detect a seasonal effect. The only statistical correlation with other milk quality parameters was with coliforms. A survey of milking practices and milking machine sanitation together with environmental and milk sampling for pseudomonad counts in 7 cheese workshops showed that no real negligence or error could be imputed to producers. The main problems were the presence of non-aeruginosa pseudomonads in potable water and a few isolated failures during the cleaning and rinsing phases of sanitation.

  14. BoLA class I allele diversity and polymorphism in a herd of cattle.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, Shawn; Horseman, Benjamin; Zhang, Chenhong; Bickis, Mik; Kusalik, Anthony; Schook, Lawrence B; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Pontarollo, Reno

    2007-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I genes are among the most polymorphic genes characterized. The high level of polymorphism is essential for generating host immune responses. In humans, three distinct genomic loci encode human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes, allowing individuals to express up to six different HLA class I molecules. In cattle, the number of distinct genomic loci are currently at least six, and the number of different bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) class I molecules that are expressed in individual animals are variable. The extent of allele variation within the cattle population is unknown. In this study, the number and variety of BoLA class I sequences expressed by 36 individuals were determined from full-length BoLA class I cDNA clones. Twenty distinct BoLA class I alleles were identified, with only four being previously reported. The number of expressed BoLA class I alleles in individual animals ranged between one and four, with none of the animals having an identical complement of BoLA class I molecules. Variation existed in the number of BoLA class I alleles expressed as well as the composition of expressed alleles, however, several BoLA class I alleles were found in multiple individual animals. Polymorphic amino acid sites were analyzed for positive and negative selection using the ADAPTSITE program. In the antigen recognition sites (ARS), there were eight positions that were predicted to be under positive selection and three positions that were predicted to be under negative selection from 62 positions. In contrast, for non-antigen recognition sites (non-ARS), there were three positions that were predicted to be under positive selection and 20 that were predicted to be under negative selection from 278, indicating that positive selection of amino acids occurs at a greater frequency within the antigen recognition sites.

  15. A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwi and Moroto districts, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Inangolet, F O; Demelash, B; Oloya, J; Opuda-Asibo, J; Skjerve, E

    2008-10-01

    A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwi and Moroto districts in Uganda was carried out from July 2006 to January 2007 using comparative intradermal tuberculin test containing bovine and avian PPDs. A total of 1470 animals, 612 (41.6%) males and 858 (58.4%) females, 883 (60%) young, 555 (37.8%) adult and 32 (2.2%) old animals were included. The study involved a cross-sectional multistage sampling technique with random selection of individual animals from a herd. The results revealed a 1.3% overall prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle herds in the study area, with a marked variation between sub-counties. The highest recorded prevalence was 6.0% in Kapujan, while no cases were recorded in Ongogonja, Magoro and Katakwi sub-counties. Distinctly different patterns in the avian-bovine reactions were also found in different sub-counties. A multivariate logistic regression showed more positive reactions (OR = 6.3; 95%CI (1.4-26.34) in females than males. BTB prevalence did not differ significantly between cattle maintained in pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems. The study demonstrated a relatively low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in local zebu cattle reared under traditional husbandry systems in Uganda, suggesting low infectiousness of the disease under such mode of production. The risk associated with the consumption of raw milk among the pastoral communities and that, the pooling of milk together from different animals is a common practice, warrants more investigation into the zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis within these communities.

  16. The impact of 3 strategies for incorporating polled genetics into a dairy cattle breeding program on the overall herd genetic merit.

    PubMed

    Spurlock, D M; Stock, M L; Coetzee, J F

    2014-01-01

    Dehorning in cattle has been associated with behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses indicative of pain. Unaddressed, the pain associated with a routine production procedure could contribute to a negative public perception of livestock production practices. Alternative considerations of dehorning include the selection of polled cattle within herds, thereby avoiding pain and production loss. As polledness results from an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, genetic selection for polled cattle could reduce the prevalence of the horned trait. Herein we discuss 3 strategies to incorporate polled genetics into a cow herd and the estimated impact on the overall genetic merit of the herd. Furthermore, the availability and genetic merit of polled artificial insemination bulls in the United States is summarized. Both Holstein and Jersey dairy bulls registered with the National Association of Animal Breeders from December 2010 through April 2013 were queried. Polled bulls were identified as either being homozygous (PP) or heterozygous (Pp) and the average net merit (NM) predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of each sire group was calculated. The percentage of polled calves born each year over a 10-yr period was calculated for the following 3 scenarios: (A) various percentages of horned cows were randomly mated to Pp bulls, (B) various percentages of horned cows were preferentially mated to Pp bulls, and (C) horned cows were selectively mated to PP bulls, heterozygous cows to Pp bulls, and homozygous polled cows to horned bulls. Additionally, the change in NM PTA of the cow herd was calculated over the same period. The highest percentage of polled animals (87%) was achieved in scenario C. An evaluation of the herd NM PTA highlights the trade-offs associated with increasing polled genetics. Given the current genetic merit of horned and polled bulls, increasing the percentage of polled calves will decrease the NM PTA in Holstein, but may have minimal impact

  17. Use of data mining techniques to investigate disease risk classification as a proxy for compromised biosecurity of cattle herds in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Pelaez, Ángel; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2008-01-01

    Background Biosecurity is at the forefront of the fight against infectious diseases in animal populations. Few research studies have attempted to identify and quantify the effectiveness of biosecurity against disease introduction or presence in cattle farms and, when done, they have relied on the collection of on-farm data. Data on environmental, animal movement, demographic/husbandry systems and density disease determinants can be collated without requiring additional specific on-farm data collection activities, since they have already been collected for some other purposes. The aim of this study was to classify cattle herds according to their risk of disease presence as a proxy for compromised biosecurity in the cattle population of Wales in 2004 for risk-based surveillance purposes. Results Three data mining methods have been applied: logistic regression, classification trees and factor analysis. Using the cattle holding population in Wales, a holding was considered positive if at least bovine TB or one of the ten most frequently diagnosed infectious or transmissible non-notifiable diseases in England and Wales, according to the Veterinary Investigation Surveillance Report (VIDA) had been diagnosed in 2004. High-risk holdings can be described as open large cattle herds located in high-density cattle areas with frequent movements off to many locations within Wales. Additional risks are associated with the holding being a dairy enterprise and with a large farming area. Conclusion This work has demonstrated the potential of mining various livestock-relevant databases to obtain generic criteria for individual cattle herd biosecurity risk classification. Despite the data and analytical constraints the described risk profiles are highly specific and present variable sensitivity depending on the model specifications. Risk profiling of farms provides a tool for designing targeted surveillance activities for endemic or emerging diseases, regardless of the prior amount of

  18. Evaluation of the single cervical skin test and interferon gamma responses to detect Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle in a herd co-infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Seva, Juan; Sanes, Jose M; Ramis, Guillermo; Mas, Alberto; Quereda, Juan J; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Villar, David; Pallares, Francisco J

    2014-06-25

    This study reports the performance of the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay for Mycobacterium bovis in a cattle herd with high prevalence of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 58/350 animals were selected for necropsy based on one or more of the following criteria: positive to SIT, IFN-γ, a breeding cow that seroconverted to PTB and showed signs compatible with a wasting disease. Infection status was determined by post mortem diagnostic tests that included histopathology examination, mycobacterial cultures and PCR identification for M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In 7/58 animals primary tuberculosis (TB) lesions, affecting only the retropharyngeal and/or mediastinal lymph nodes, were found; 3/7 animals were found SIT positive. PTB was confirmed in 35/58 animals, of which 30 had seroconverted and 14 had typical clinical signs. 45/58 animals were IFN-γ(+) using the most stringent criterion (cut-off point ≥ 0.05); however, IFN-γ test was only positive in 33 animals when using a higher threshold (cut-off point ≥ 0.1). Three animals co-infected also showed extensive TB and diffuse PTB lesions. These results show that the combined use of SIT and IFN-γ, as interpreted using official guidelines, detected all confirmed cases of TB. Individually, the sensitivity of the SIT was inadequate to diagnose TB-positive animals with an advanced stage of PTB. The large number of IFN-γ(+) animals with no visible TB lesion could be due, in part, to some protection conferred by prior infection with MAP.

  19. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  20. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  1. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis.

  2. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms.

  3. Risk factors for disclosure of additional tuberculous cattle in attested-clear herds that had one animal with a confirmed lesion of tuberculosis at slaughter during 2003 in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, F J; Costello, E; White, P; McGrath, G; Collins, J D; O'Keeffe, J; Kelton, D F; Berke, O; More, S; Martin, S W

    2008-06-15

    All the Irish cattle herds considered "clear" of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) having a single animal with a tuberculous lesion at slaughter during 2003 were identified. We performed a descriptive and logistic regression analysis to investigate whether selected risk factors had an association with the result of the herd test immediately after the tuberculous lesion was found ("Factory Lesion Test", FLT). At the FLT, only 19.7% (n=338) of these 1713 herds had 1 or more standard reactors. The lesioned animal was home-bred in 46% of the "source" herds; these herds had an increased risk (23.4%) of having at least 1 standard reactor animal relative to herds with a purchased-lesioned animal (16.6%) (RR=1.41). Our logistic models identified a number of important risk factors; two that appeared most important in predicting the FLT outcome were the time spent (residency) by the lesioned animal in the "source" herd, and the presence, or not, of the lesioned animal in a previous BTB episode in either the "source" herd, or the seller's herd in the case the lesioned animal was purchased. Our models fit the data well based on the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, however their sensitivity and specificity were very low (57% and 61% respectively). Surveillance of the cattle population for BTB using lesions found at slaughter is an essential component of an overall control program. Nonetheless, due to the poor predictability of the variables we measured, complete herd investigations are needed to help explain the FLT outcome of a herd.

  4. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  5. Identification of sero-reactive antigens for the early diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of cattle and other ruminants. JD has a high herd prevalence rate and is recognized as a serious animal health problem and a cause of significant economic loss ...

  6. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots.

    PubMed

    Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B

    2016-11-09

    Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-tested young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-tested young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-tested young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-tested young bulls is

  7. Are white-tailed deer compromising efforts to maintain eradication of cattle fever ticks from cattle herds in the U.S.?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the two tick eradication methods of either dipping cattle in an acaricide or “pasture vacation” were enormously successful in eradicating cattle ticks [CT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say)] and southern cattle ticks [SCT, ...

  8. Parameter Identification of a Chaotic Circuit with a Hidden Attractor Using Krill Herd Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Shirin; Jafari, Sajad; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Kingni, Sifeu Takougang; Zahedi, Abdulhamid; Sedighy, Seyed Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Parameter estimation plays an important role in modeling and system identification. However, parameter estimation of chaotic systems has some basic differences with other dynamical systems due to butterfly effect. In this paper, we apply a new cost function for parameter estimation in a very interesting chaotic system, a system with a plane of equilibrium which belongs to a newly introduced category of dynamical systems: systems with hidden attractor. The nonlinear dynamics of this system is described in terms of equilibria and its stability, phase portraits, bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponents. In order to minimize the proposed cost function and obtain the correct parameters, we use a new efficient optimization method, Krill Herd algorithm. The results show the success of proposed procedures.

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  10. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.

  11. Herd-scale measurements of methane emissions from cattle grazing extensive sub-tropical grasslands using the open-path laser technique.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, N W; Charmley, E

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions associated with beef production systems in northern Australia are yet to be quantified. Methodologies are available to measure emissions, but application in extensive grazing environments is challenging. A micrometeorological methodology for estimating herd-scale emissions using an indirect open-path spectroscopic technique and an atmospheric dispersion model is described. The methodology was deployed on five cattle properties across Queensland and Northern Territory, with measurements conducted during two occasions at one site. On each deployment, data were collected every 10 min for up to 7 h a day over 4 to 16 days. To increase the atmospheric concentration of CH4 to measurable levels, cattle were confined to a known area around water points from ~0800 to 1600 h, during which time measurements of wind statistics and line-averaged CH4 concentration were taken. Filtering to remove erroneous data accounted for 35% of total observations. For five of the six deployments CH4 emissions were within the expected range of 0.4 to 0.6 g/kg BW. At one site, emissions were ~2 times expected values. There was small but consistent variation with time of day, although for some deployments measurements taken early in the day tended to be higher than at the other times. There was a weak linear relationship (R 2=0.47) between animal BW and CH4 emission per kg BW. Where it was possible to compare emissions in the early and late dry season at one site, it was speculated that higher emissions at the late dry season may have been attributed to poorer diet quality. It is concluded that the micrometeorological methodology using open-path lasers can be successfully deployed in extensive grazing conditions to directly measure CH4 emissions from cattle at a herd scale.

  12. Pooled-sample testing as a herd-screening tool for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Zanzi, C A; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C; Hietala, S K

    2000-05-01

    The study was conducted to develop methodology for least-cost strategies for using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/probe testing of pooled blood samples to identify animals in a herd persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Cost was estimated for 5 protocols using Monte Carlo simulations for herd prevalences of BVDV persistent infection (BVDV-PI) ranging from 0.5% to 3%, assuming a cost for a PCR/probe test of $20. The protocol associated with the least cost per cow involved an initial testing of pools followed by repooling and testing of positive pools. For a herd prevalence of 1%, the least cost per cow was $2.64 (95% prediction interval = $1.72, $3.68), where pool sizes for the initial and repooled testing were 20 and 5 blood samples per pool, respectively. Optimization of the least cost for pooled-sample testing depended on how well a presumed prevalence of BVDV-PI approximated the true prevalence of BVDV infection in the herd. As prevalence increased beyond 3%, the least cost increased, thereby diminishing the competitive benefit of pooled testing. The protocols presented for sample pooling have general application to screening or surveillance using a sensitive diagnostic test to detect very low prevalence diseases or pathogens in flocks or herds.

  13. Productive and reproductive performances of dairy cattle herds in Treviso province, Italy (2009-2012): an assessment of the potential impact of Schmallenberg virus epidemic.

    PubMed

    Toson, Marica; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Capello, Katia; Gagliazzo, Laura; Bortolotti, Laura; Mazzucato, Matteo; Marangon, Stefano; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2015-08-11

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has spread across Europe since mid-2011, causing unspecific and transitory symptoms in ruminants and congenital malformations in their offspring. Evidence for the impact of SBV on cattle (re)productive performance is limited. Using a comprehensive data set from a SBV-affected province in North-East Italy, this study aimed at assessing the potential impact of SBV emergence on 11 productive and reproductive performance indicators of dairy cattle herds, accounting for weather conditions and other herd-level factors that could also influence these indicators. A total of 127 farms with an average of 71 cows per farm (range 29-496) were monitored monthly from January 2009 to June 2012. Mixed-effects linear models for longitudinal data were used to assess the average variation in herds' performance indicators over semesters (Jan-Jun 2009, Jul-Dec 2009, Jan-Jun 2010, Jul-Dec 2010, Jan-Jun 2011, Jul-Dec 2011, Jan-Jun 2012) and trimesters therein. Taking the second semester of 2011 as reference, significant decreases in the average lactation length (-6 days, on average) and calving-to-conception interval (-4 days, on average) were observed relative to the same semesters of the years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Similarly, during the last trimester of 2011, which is most likely to cover the SBV infection period in the study area, there was an average decrease of -4 days (lactation length) and -7 days (calving-to-conception interval) compared to the same trimesters of the years 2010 and 2009, respectively. However, the observed decreases actually represent a positive outcome that is not as such imputable to SBV emergence, but rather reflects other beneficial changes in farm management. None of the other indicators showed significant variations, confirming the relatively mild expression of SBV infection in cattle. Although the emergence of SBV might have significantly affected the (re)productive performance of some individual farms, we concluded that

  14. Treatment of unobserved oestrus in a dairy cattle herd with low oestrous detection rate up to 60 days post-partum.

    PubMed

    Mateus, L; da Costa, L Lopes; Cardos, J J Alfaro; Silva, J Robalo

    2002-02-01

    The efficiency of treatments for unobserved oestrus and their effect on the reproductive performance of a dairy cattle herd with low oestrous detection rate till 60 days post-partum (dpp), attributed to the declivous and slippery concrete floor were investigated. The herdsman requested advice in order to improve the mean days open of the herd, but no investments were allowed because a new unit was about to be built. Due to the low oestrus detection rate of the herd, the breeding policy was to inseminate at the first detected post-partum oestrus. Cows were examined at 20-30 dpp to assess uterine involution, ovarian activity and prevalence of reproductive disorders and, at 60 dpp if no previous oestrus was detected. Each examination included palpation per rectum, ultrasound scanning and collection of a blood sample for plasma progesterone (P4) measurement. Cows with unobserved oestrus till 60 dpp were allocated either to a treatment group (n=139) or to a control group (n=139). Three treatments were used: (a) injection of PGF(2 alpha) (PG) upon detection of a corpus luteum (CL; n = 30), cows not observed in oestrus being re-injected 11-12 days later. AI was at oestrus; (b) PRID (n=35) or Crestar (n=74) devices kept in situ for 12 and 9 days, respectively, were associated to an injection of PG and of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at device removal. Cows were double-fixed time-inseminated at 48 and 72 h after device removal. All treated cows were examined at 48-72 h after treatment to confirm oestrus. The percentage of cows detected in oestrus up to 60 dpp remained unchanged through the trial (35 and 47% for years before intervention: 1994-95; 51 and 48% for years of intervention: 1996-97). In contrast, the oestrous detection rate was high both in treated (93%) and control (100%) cows. This possibly resulted from an improvement in the oestrous detection efficiency of the herd's personnel and from examination of cows at 48-72 h after treatment. Treated and control

  15. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods.

  16. Reconstruction of the late Holocene climate in the Minusink Hollow, south-central Siberia, and its potential influence on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction. Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. Gumilev (2000) developed a theory relating the rise, development and fall of human cultures (ethnos) to the changing environment. This theory improved our understanding of human history as the natural interactions the biosphere and sociosphere. We test the hypothesis that climate change altered the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and forced them to choose agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow located at the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Methods. Three different methods (the Montane Bioclimatic Model; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) were employed to reconstruct vegetation from the fossil pollen of sediment cores of two mountain lakes in the study area at eleven time slices relating to successive human cultures back to the midHolocene. Our bioclimatic model was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. Climate-based regression models were developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Results. Our pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe lands dominating up to 85% of the area and four wetter periods with forests dominating up to 60% of the area since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased one order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space likely suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields dropped during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields could increase twofold and support more fixed human settlements centered around farming and herding cattle. Thus, the dry periods

  17. A Vegetation Index qualifying pasture edges is related to Ixodes ricinus density and to Babesia divergens seroprevalence in dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Agoulon, Albert; Malandrin, Laurence; Lepigeon, Florent; Vénisse, Maxime; Bonnet, Sarah; Becker, Claire A M; Hoch, Thierry; Bastian, Suzanne; Plantard, Olivier; Beaudeau, François

    2012-04-30

    Babesia divergens, transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, is the main agent of bovine piroplasmosis in France. This Apicomplexa often is present in asymptomatic carriers; however, clinical cases are rare. While numerous factors are known to influence tick density, no risk factor of contact with B. divergens has been identified for cattle. Our study aimed to explore whether a Vegetation Index could serve as an indirect indicator of within-herd B. divergens seroprevalence. In February 2007, blood samples were taken from all of the cows in 19 dairy cattle herds in Western France and IFAT serology was performed individually to measure B. divergens seroprevalence. The following spring, I. ricinus nymphs were collected by drag sampling along transects on the vegetation of each farm's pasture perimeters. Tick density was related significantly to a Vegetation Index (V.I., ranging from 1 to 5) that took into account the abundance of trees and bushes on the edge of pastures: most ticks (57%) were found in transects with the highest V.I. (covering 15% of the explored surface in the study area). At the farm level, the proportion of transects presenting I. ricinus nymphs was significantly related to B. divergens seroprevalence: the farms with more than 15% of transects with I. ricinus had a significantly higher risk of high seroprevalence. The proportion of pasture perimeters where the V.I.=5 also was significantly related to B. divergens seroprevalence: the farms where more than 20% of transects had a V.I.=5 had a significantly higher risk of high seroprevalence. Given that the Vegetation Index is a steady indicator of the potential I. ricinus density in the biotope, we recommend that the risk of high B. divergens seroprevalence in cows be evaluated using this tool rather than drag samplings.

  18. Conventional identification of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis in Argentinean dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Odierno, L; Calvinho, L; Traverssa, P; Lasagno, M; Bogni, C; Reinoso, E

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a conventional scheme for identifying Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Seventy-five gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci were collected from cows with mastitis from 19 dairy herds located in the east-central region of Argentina. Five American Type Culture Collection strains and bovine isolates were identified by the API 20 Strep system and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA. A conventional scheme based on 11 biochemical tests was selected for identification of Strep. uberis strains: the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen reaction; hydrolysis of Arg, esculin, and sodium hippurate; growth in inulin, mannitol, raffinose, salicin, and sorbitol; and growth at 45 degrees C and in 6.5% NaCl. Reference strains and 25 bovine isolates were classified accurately to the species level by the conventional scheme in a blind assay. Each reference strain and each bovine isolate were identified as belonging to the same species following these 3 methods. The remaining 50 isolates identified as Strep. uberis by the API 20 Strep system and 16S rDNA RFLP were assayed by the conventional scheme. This scheme correctly identified 47 (94%) of 50 isolates as Strep. uberis by comparing their biochemical profile with that of the reference strain. Three (6%) of the 50 isolates were classified as Strep. uberis by the API 20 Strep system and by 16S rDNA RFLP and were identified as Enterococcus faecalis by the conventional scheme. Thirty percent of the Strep. uberis strains showed biochemical profiles identical to the Strep. uberis American Type Culture Collection 27958 strain. Seventy percent of the Strep. uberis strains demonstrated variability compared with the reference strain, resulting in 19 different biochemical profiles. The conventional scheme proposed in this study resulted in a relatively low number of misidentifications and could biochemically identify not only typical, but also atypical

  19. Assessment using ELISA of the herd immunity levels induced in cattle by foot-and-mouth disease oil vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smitsaart, E N; Zanelli, M; Rivera, I; Fondevila, N; Compaired, D; Maradei, E; Bianchi, T; O'Donnell, V; Schudel, A A

    1998-01-01

    The development of a liquid-phase blocking sandwich ELISA (LPBE) to measure antibodies (Ab) produced in cattle with the O, A and C foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types of commercial vaccines used in Argentina is described. The test was specific: 99% of naïve cattle sera (n = 130) gave titres below log10 = 1.2, and none had a titre above log10 = 1.5. Comparative studies with serum neutralization test (SNT) using sera from cattle which received one or more vaccine doses is reported. The overall rank correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho, rs) between SNT and LPBE were highly significant (rs > 0.67, P < 0.0001) for all vaccine strains. LBPE Ab titres on sera collected 90 days post vaccination were compared with results of cattle protection tests by applying a logistic regression. The minimum Ab titres at which 85% and 75% of the cattle were protected for each FMDV type were determined in order to interpret field Ab data in terms of protection. Application of this method allows large scale serological examinations to monitor antibody levels in vaccinated animals as an indirect indicator of the FMD control program status in the field. Its use in the evaluation of commercial batches of FMD vaccine is discussed.

  20. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the letter “T,” at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2 inches) in size, high on the left hip near the... with yellow paint on the left ear and either accompanied directly to slaughter by an APHIS or State... 77.17(a)(5).”; and (5) Each means of conveyance in which reactor cattle or bison have...

  1. 9 CFR 77.17 - Interstate movement of cattle and bison that are exposed, reactors, or suspects, or from herds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the letter “T,” at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2 inches) in size, high on the left hip near the... with yellow paint on the left ear and either accompanied directly to slaughter by an APHIS or State... 77.17(a)(5).”; and (5) Each means of conveyance in which reactor cattle or bison have...

  2. Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC)=0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC=0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC=0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC=0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC=0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC=0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing

  3. Identification of potential sources of Staphylococcus aureus in herds with mastitis problems.

    PubMed

    Capurro, A; Aspán, A; Ericsson Unnerstad, H; Persson Waller, K; Artursson, K

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common udder pathogen of dairy cows that often causes herd problems. Various mastitis control programs have been used to combat the problem but have not always been efficient in preventing new Staph. aureus infections, indicating the presence of possible sources of infection other than those traditionally considered. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify potential sources of infection relevant for Staph. aureus mastitis within 5 dairy herds with udder health problems caused by Staph. aureus. Samples were collected from milk of lactating cows, from body sites, and from the environment of lactating cows, dry cows, late pregnant heifers, young heifers 4 to 12 mo old, and heifer calves 0 to 3 mo old. Isolates of Staph. aureus were identified and compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Four to 7 unique Staph. aureus pulsotypes were found within each herd, with one strain predominating in milk in each herd. The milk pulsotypes were also frequently isolated in body samples, especially on hock skin, and in the immediate environment of lactating cows, and were sometimes found in other animal groups, especially in dry cows and heifer calves 0 to 3 mo old. The prevalence of Staph. aureus in milk and other types of samples varied markedly between herds. Staphylococcus aureus isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those found in milk also dominated in extra-mammary sites within the dairy herds studied, and hock skin was identified as an important reservoir of Staph. aureus. The results contribute new knowledge necessary to improve strategies for udder health control in herds.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of a G6P[5] bovine rotavirus strain isolated in a neonatal diarrhea outbreak in a beef cattle herd vaccinated with G6P[1] and G10P[11] genotypes.

    PubMed

    da Silva Medeiros, Thais Neris; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of the eleven genes of a G6P[5] bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) strain detected in a diarrhea outbreak from a vaccinated beef cattle herd. The outbreak affected 80 % of calves between 15-30 days old. RVA was identified by RT-PCR in 12 (70.6 %) out of 17 diarrheic fecal samples evaluated. The rotavirus wild-type strain had the genotype constellation G6(IV)-P[5](IX)-I2c-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2e-H3a. This study confirms the importance of homotypic immunity against the bovine RVA P[5] genotype in neonatal diarrhea in cattle herds that are regularly vaccinated against rotaviruses.

  5. Genetic structure of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis population in cattle herds in Quebec as revealed by using a combination of multilocus genomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Arsenault, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Fecteau, Gilles; L'Homme, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a granulomatous enteritis affecting a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A variety of molecular typing tools are used to distinguish M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, contributing to a better understanding of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis epidemiology. In the present study, PCR-based typing methods, including mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units/variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and small sequence repeats (SSR) in addition to IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were used to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of 200 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains from dairy herds located in the province of Quebec, Canada. The majority of strains were of the "cattle type," or type II, although 3 strains were of the "bison type." A total of 38 genotypes, including a novel one, were identified using a combination of 17 genetic markers, which generated a Simpson's index of genetic diversity of 0.876. Additional analyses revealed no differences in genetic diversity between environmental and individual strains. Of note, a spatial and spatiotemporal cluster was evidenced regarding the distribution of one of the most common genotypes. The population had an overall homogeneous genetic structure, although a few strains stemmed out of the consensus cluster, including the bison-type strains. The genetic structure of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis populations within most herds suggested intraherd dissemination and microevolution, although evidence of interherd contamination was also revealed. The level of genetic diversity obtained by combining MIRU-VNTR and SSR markers shows a promising avenue for molecular epidemiology investigations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis transmission patterns.

  6. Effect of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection on the diagnostic accuracy for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection under field conditions in cattle belonging to low M. bovis prevalence herds.

    PubMed

    Raffo, E; Steuer, P; Monti, G; Salgado, M

    2017-03-10

    Currently, the Chilean authority has implemented a National Eradication Program for bovine tuberculosis (bTB), aimed at controlling and eradicating the disease in Chile. The area under study has a low within-herd prevalence, has a relatively low number of infected herds, and is one of the major milk and beef producing areas in the country. However, so far, no attempts at eradicating the disease have been successful. It has been suggested that the diagnostic tests used were either not sensitive or specific enough. In addition, previous studies have shown that a great number of herds are infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The present study estimates the effect of MAP infection under field conditions, on the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of routine tests in live animals for Mycobacterium bovis infection diagnosis in cattle. In general, the estimations of test accuracy observed an increase in the sensitivity and specificity on MAP-infected animals for tuberculin test but observed a decrease in the sensitivity of gamma interferon tests for MAP-infected cattle. These results are different from those of previous studies considering the role of MAP infection as an interfering infection. More research is needed in order to understand the complex interactions of the different mycobacteria that can be found infecting production cattle.

  7. A Preliminary Study of Genetic Factors That Influence Susceptibility to Bovine Tuberculosis in the British Cattle Herd

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Erin E.; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Green, Laura E.; Medley, Graham F.; Amos, William

    2011-01-01

    Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test (‘reactors’). Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors) with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling. PMID:21533277

  8. Investigation of a Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in cattle at a Colorado dairy in 2010.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Tolani I; Orloski, Kathleen A; Roberts, Nancy J

    2014-04-01

    To describe an epidemiological investigation of a bovine tuberculosis outbreak on a Colorado dairy operation. A cull dairy cow infected with Mycobacterium bovis (index cow) was detected at a Texas abattoir during routine slaughter surveillance and subsequent diagnostic testing. This initiated an epidemiological investigation that was performed in accordance with USDA regulations. The index cow was traced back to a Colorado dairy (index herd). Of the 908 cattle in the index herd, 101 (11.1%; 86 adult cattle > 2 years old and 15 immature cattle ≤ 2 years old) were infected with M bovis. Fourteen M bovis-infected cattle ≤ 2 years old were identified on 5 additional premises that had purchased cattle from the index herd directly or indirectly. All 115 affected cattle were infected with the same genetic type (spoligotype) of M bovis. A substantial proportion of cattle that left the index herd during the 5 years previous to the identification of the index cow were untraceable because of a lack of unique animal identification and inadequate records. Results indicated that neonatal calves can have an important role in the transmission of M bovis. Also, this report highlights the exigent need for unique individual identification of livestock, including neonatal animals, so that thorough epidemiological investigations of reportable (zoonotic or foreign animal) diseases can be conducted when necessary.

  9. Use of Ivermectin as Endoparasiticide in Tropical Cattle Herds Generates Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes and the Tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed.

  10. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  11. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  12. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... requirements of the CWD Herd Certification Program. The herd plan will require testing of all animals that die...

  13. Concurrent Infections with Vector-Borne Pathogens Associated with Fatal Hemolytic Anemia in a Cattle Herd in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Meli, Marina L.; Dreher, Ute M.; Gönczi, Enikö; Deplazes, Peter; Braun, Ueli; Engels, Monika; Schüpbach, Jörg; Jörger, Kaspar; Thoma, Rudolf; Griot, Christian; Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Willi, Barbara; Schmidt, Joseph; Kocan, Katherine M.; Lutz, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future. PMID:15297529

  14. Within-herd prevalence thresholds for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds using boot swabs and liquid manure samples.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Hahn, N; Eisenberg, T; Schlez, K; Köhler, H; Wolter, W; Rohde, M; Pützschel, R; Rösler, U; Failing, K; Zschöck, P M

    2016-01-01

    The control of Johne's disease requires the identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive herds. Boot swabs and liquid manure samples have been suggested as an easy-to-use alternative to sampling individual animals in order to diagnose subclinical Johne's disease at the herd level, but there is a need to evaluate performance of this approach in the field. Using a logistic regression model, this study aimed to calculate the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture, thus allowing the detection of whether a herd is MAP positive. A total of 77 boot swabs and 75 liquid manure samples were taken from 19 certified negative and 58 positive dairy herds. Faecal culture, three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the combination of faecal culture with PCR were applied in order to detect MAP. For 50% probability of detection, a within-herd prevalence threshold of 1·5% was calculated for testing both matrices simultaneously by faecal culture and PCR, with the threshold increased to 4·0% for 90% probability of detection. The results encourage the use of boot swabs or liquid manure samples, or a combination both, for identifying MAP-positive herds and, to a certain extent, for monitoring certified Johne's disease-negative cattle herds.

  15. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.; Skrypnyk, Artem; Zavgorodniy, Andriy; Stegniy, Borys; Gerilovych, Anton; Kutsan, Oleksandr; Pozmogova, Svitlana; Sapko, Svitlana

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  16. Behavioural linear standardized scoring system of the Lidia cattle breed by testing in herd: estimation of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2016-10-01

    Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility.

  17. Isolation and Identification of a Leptospire of The Hebdomadis Serogroup (L. Hardjo) From Cattle in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A.; Boulanger, P.; Mitchell, D.

    1964-01-01

    During the summer of 1961 an outbreak of atypical mastitis in a small herd of dairy cattle was investigated. The clinical findings, which included a single abortion, were suggestive of leptospirosis and serological studies indicated that a serotype other than the usual L. pomona was the causative agent. A fastidious leptospire recovered from the urine of one cow has been identified as L. hardjo, a member of the hebdomadis group. The difficulties encountered in isolation, adaptation to standard media and serotyping are described. PMID:17649481

  18. Validation of a subjective counting method for a horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) population in a cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eleonor; Gil, Andrés; Solari, María Angélica; Farias, Nara Amélia

    2005-11-05

    A trained observer direct count method to measure horn fly population was evaluated to determine the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and its validity when compared with a "gold standard" method (video film). All the counts were performed with the animals restrained in a chute in a single herd. A direct count of horn flies by each of two observers on opposite sides of the animal was made. In addition a videotape recording of the counting surface on each animal was made. Horn flies were counted on 80 cows in the morning twice monthly from 22 October 1999 to 24 March 2000. The correlation between observer counts was high as was the correlation between observer counts and counts made from a videotape recording. Direct counts by trained observers were highly reliable and had good validity. However, videotape recording can be useful when the horn fly population is high, because it is faster in the field than the direct count method. The results of this study suggest that the direct count method can be used with confidence under field conditions.

  19. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers.

  20. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  1. The epidemiology of BSE in cattle herds in Great Britain. II. Model construction and analysis of transmission dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, N M; Donnelly, C A; Woolhouse, M E; Anderson, R M

    1997-01-01

    Mathematical model that describe the key processes determining the pattern of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in British cattle are derived that allow for infection from feed as well as maternal and direct horizontal transmission. Heterogeneous susceptibility classes are also incorporated into the analysis. Maximum likelihood methods are used to estimate parameters and to obtain confidence intervals from available experimental and epidemiological data. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis of all model parameters and distributional assumptions is presented. Additional validation is provided by fitting the model to independent data collected in Northern Ireland. Model estimates and predictions based on BSE case data for Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with their implications, are reviewed, and future research priorities discussed. PMID:9279898

  2. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  3. Camelid herd health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredyth; Boileau, Melanie

    2009-07-01

    The area of herd health is particularly important when considering camelid operations because of the high frequency of travel for exhibition, breeding, and boarding. This article outlines the considerations for routine husbandry, facility and animal maintenance, and infectious disease control in the form of biosecurity, vaccination, and health testing that should be included in any farm's herd-health plan. Veterinary input into the design of programs for biosecurity and infectious disease prevention is critical and requires an active veterinary client-patient relationship with identification of the goals of the operation. Risk assessments should be made based on farm activities and should be the foundation for herd-health program design.

  4. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) during summer whereas the TEC and PCV showed higher OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.

  5. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated.

  6. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health and Veterinary Importance from Cattle in the South State of México.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza Bastida, Adrian; Rivero Pérez, Nallely; Valladares Carranza, Benjamín; Isaac-Olivé, Keila; Moreno Pérez, Pablo; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about "nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)," which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Milk samples (35) and nasal exudate samples (68) were collected. From the 108 strains isolated, 39 were selected for identification. Thirteen strains isolated from nasal exudates amplified the 100 bp molecular marker and were identified as M. neoaurum (six strains), M. parafortuitum (four strains), M. moriokaense (two strains), and M. confluentis (one strain). Except M. parafortuitum, the other species identified are of public health and veterinary concern because they are pathogenic to humans, especially those with underlying medical conditions.

  7. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health and Veterinary Importance from Cattle in the South State of México

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza Bastida, Adrian; Rivero Pérez, Nallely; Valladares Carranza, Benjamín; Isaac-Olivé, Keila; Moreno Pérez, Pablo; Sandoval Trujillo, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about “nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM),” which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Milk samples (35) and nasal exudate samples (68) were collected. From the 108 strains isolated, 39 were selected for identification. Thirteen strains isolated from nasal exudates amplified the 100 bp molecular marker and were identified as M. neoaurum (six strains), M. parafortuitum (four strains), M. moriokaense (two strains), and M. confluentis (one strain). Except M. parafortuitum, the other species identified are of public health and veterinary concern because they are pathogenic to humans, especially those with underlying medical conditions. PMID:28694831

  8. Evaluation of total white blood cell count as a marker for proviral load of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle from herds with a high seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Irene; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Gammella, Mariela; Martínez, Cecilia; Politzki, Romina; González, Cintia; Caviglia, Luciana; Carignano, Hugo; Fondevila, Norberto; Poli, Mario; Trono, Karina

    2013-05-01

    To determine the reference interval for WBC counts in Holstein dairy cows from herds with high seroprevalence for anti-bovine leukemia virus (BLV) antibodies, analyze the correlation of total WBC counts and blood proviral load (bPVL) in BLV-infected animals, and determine whether total WBC count can be used a hematologic marker for in vivo infection. 307 lactating cows from 16 dairy herds with high BLV seroprevalence. Blood samples were collected for assessment of plasma anti-BLV p24 antibody concentration (all cows), manual determination of WBC count (161 BLV-seronegative cows from 15 herds), and evaluation of bPVL (146 cows from another herd). The WBC count reference interval (ie, mean ± 2 SD) for BLV-seronegative dairy cows was 2,153 to 11,493 cells/μL. Of the 146 cows used to analyze the correlation between WBC count and bPVL, 107 (73%) had WBC counts within the reference interval; of those cows, only 21 (19.6%) had high bPVL. Most cows with high WBC counts (35/39) had high bPVL. Mean WBC count for cows with high bPVL was significantly higher than values for cows with low or undetectable bPVL. White blood cell counts and bPVL were significantly (ρ = 0.71) correlated. These data have provided an updated reference interval for WBC counts in Holstein cows from herds with high BLV seroprevalence. In dairy cattle under natural conditions, WBC count was correlated with bPVL; thus, WBC count determination could be a potential tool for monitoring BLV infection levels in attempts to control transmission.

  9. Identification of copy number variable gene families in Holstein and Jersey cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copy number variants (CNV) represent a large proportion of genetic variation within the cattle genome that has yet to be accurately characterized by SNP genotyping arrays. While significant progress has been made in the identification of CNVs within individual animals using next generation sequence ...

  10. Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection. PMID:20436867

  11. Herd management practices associated with paratuberculosis seroprevalence in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Muskens, J; Elbers, A R W; van Weering, H J; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2003-10-01

    We describe the paratuberculosis management practices applied in dairy herds in the Netherlands. The findings from paratuberculosis seronegative and seropositive herds were compared to discover possible risk factors. In total, 370 randomly selected herds with > or =20 dairy cows were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect data on current and previous paratuberculosis management practices. All cattle aged > or =3 years were serologically tested for paratuberculosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Herds with >33 tested cattle, of which only one was seropositive, were excluded to reduce the risk of including false-positive herds in the analysis. A comparison of the management data of the seronegative herds (n = 166) and the seropositive herds (n = 143) showed that in both groups important management measures for the prevention of paratuberculosis, such as calving in a cleaned calving area, removing the calf immediately after birth, and feeding paratuberculosis non-suspect roughage to calves, were used only rarely. However, such measures should be regarded as the critical first step to control the disease and/or reduce its prevalence. Using univariable analysis, four factors were statistically different between seronegative and seropositive herds: herd size, cows with clinical signs of paratuberculosis, prompt selling of clinically diseased cattle and feeding milk replacer. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, only herd size was a significantly different factor. These results indicate that most of the paratuberculosis preventive management measures were executed on these Dutch dairy farms only to a limited extent.

  12. Prevalence of antibodies against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in bulk-tank milk samples from dairy cattle herds located in risk areas for bluetongue virus transmission after a vaccination programme in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Büchi, Martina; Abril, Carlos; Vögtlin, Andrea; Schwermer, Heinzpeter

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland had been affected by the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) epidemic in Europe in the years 2007 to 2009. After three years of mandatory vaccination and comprehensive surveillance, Switzerland showed to be free of BTV-8 in 2012. In the future Elisa testing of bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples as a very sensitive and cost-effective method should be used for the surveillance of all serotypes of BTV. To determine the prevalence of seropositive herds, BTM from 240 cattle herds was sampled in July 2012. The results showed an apparent seroprevalence of 98.7% in the investigated dairy herds. Most plausible, the high prevalence was caused by the vaccination campaigns rather than by infections with BTV-8. In the outbreak the cumulative number of BTV-8 cases in Switzerland had been 75.Thus it is very likely that the used inactivated vaccines induced long-term antibody titres. Due to the high seroprevalence, investigating for BT-antibodies cannot be used for early recognition of a new introduction of BTV at the moment. Nonetheless, testing of BTM samples is appropriate for an annual evaluation of the seroprevalence and especially as an instrument for early recognition for incursions as soon as the antibody prevalence declines.To determine this decline the BTM testing scheme should be conducted each year as described in this work.

  13. Investigation of the index case herd and identification of the genotypes of Theileria orientalis associated with outbreaks of bovine anaemia in New Zealand in 2012.

    PubMed

    Pulford, D J; McFadden, Amj; Hamilton, J S; Donald, J

    2016-01-01

    On 7 September 2012 the Ministry for Primary Industries was notified of a dairy cow with regenerative anaemia (haematocrit (HCT) 0.08 L/L) in a herd of 465 Jersey-Friesian cross cows (index case herd) in the Northland region of New Zealand. Organisms consistent with Theileria spp. were present in red blood cells on a blood smear. No other causes of anaemia were detected following examination of affected cows. Blood samples collected from 29 randomly selected cows on 26 September 2012 showed that 24 (83%) were anaemic (HCT≤0.24 L/L) and therefore fitted the case definition for bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis infection. Using a T. orientalis type-specific PCR assay that targeted the single subunit rRNA gene, all of six animals tested were positive for T. orientalis type Ikeda. Blood samples collected from clinically affected cattle in 11 subsequent outbreaks from throughout the North Island showed that T. orientalis Ikeda type was a common finding, but mixed infections with Chitose type were also identified. In addition, using a PCR assay that targeted the major piroplasm surface gene, T. orientalis type 5 was detected in one cow from the Waikato region. The presence of T. orientalis type Ikeda, as well as type 5, was confirmed in cattle from outbreaks of bovine anaemia in herds throughout the North Island of New Zealand. Two new types of T. orientalis were identified in this investigation, that were associated with a sudden rise in cases of bovine anaemia. The body of evidence showed that the Ikeda type was implicated as the cause of disease observed in this epidemic.

  14. Identification of carriers of Streptococcus equi in a naturally infected herd.

    PubMed

    George, J L; Reif, J S; Shideler, R K; Small, C J; Ellis, R P; Snyder, S P; McChesney, A E

    1983-07-01

    During an outbreak of strangles in a population of research horses, 4 mares were identified as carriers of Streptococcus equi. Three of the mares had typical signs of strangles (severe regional lymphadenitis with or without rupture of abscessed lymph nodes). The 4th mare experienced episodes of serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, but never had more than a mild degree of lymph node enlargement. Streptococcus equi was isolated from the abscessed lymph nodes and from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the first 3 mares from 6 to 19 weeks after rupture of involved nodes. Streptococcus equi was isolated from the nasopharynx of the 4th mare on introduction into the herd and intermittently over the ensuing 6 months. During the 7th month, mare 4 was placed in isolation, where she continued to shed S equi for 4 more months. A complete physical examination during the 10th month, including radiography of the head and thorax, did not reveal any relevant abnormalities, but a pharyngeal swab specimen was culture-positive for S equi. This isolate was used to inoculate 2 yearling colts, which developed strangles and from which S equi was reisolated. Shedding of S equi by mare 4 ceased in the 11th month, and at necropsy 2 months later, S equi was not recovered from any organ or tissue. Corticosteroid administration 3 weeks prior to necropsy had induced neither shedding of the organism nor clinical signs of strangles. The study provided clinical, epidemiologic, and bacteriologic evidence to support the existence of a carrier state following natural infection with S equi.

  15. Using Animal Performance Data to Evidence the Under-Reporting of Case Herds during an Epizootic: Application to an Outbreak of Bluetongue in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Nusinovici, Simon; Monestiez, Pascal; Seegers, Henri; Beaudeau, François; Fourichon, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in France in 2006, a surveillance system (both passive and active) was implemented to detect and follow precociously the progression of the epizootic wave. This system did not allow a precise estimation of the extent of the epizootic. Infection by BTV-8 is associated with a decrease of fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a decrease in fertility can be used to evidence the under-reporting of cases during an epizootic and to quantify to what extent non-reported cases contribute to the total burden of the epizootic. The cow fertility in herds in the outbreak area (reported or not) was monitored around the date of clinical signs. A geostatistical interpolation method was used to estimate a date of clinical signs for non-reported herds. This interpolation was based on the spatiotemporal dynamic of confirmed case herds reported in 2007. Decreases in fertility were evidenced for both types of herds around the date of clinical signs. In non-reported herds, the decrease fertility was large (60% of the effect in reported herds), suggesting that some of these herds have been infected by the virus during 2007. Production losses in non-reported infected herds could thus contribute to an important part of the total burden of the epizootic. Overall, results indicate that performance data can be used to evidence the under-reporting during an epizootic. This approach could be generalized to pathogens that affect cattle’s performance, including zoonotic agents such as Coxiella burnetii or Rift Valley fever virus. PMID:24937630

  16. Atypical staphylococcal mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Thawley, D G; Marshall, R B; Cullinane, L; Markham, J

    1977-09-01

    A herd of cattle with a history of increased prevalence of clinical and nonclinical mastitis was investigated. Bacteriologic analysis of milk samples indicated approximately 50% of the herd was producing milk containing coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of these staphylococcal isolates, 55% had characteristics consistent with those of human strains of staphylococci, based on hemolysin production and phage patterns. Human beings in contact with the herd were nasal carriers of these staphylococci, which produced a granulartype coagulase reaction in bovine plasma, rather than the usually expected clot-type reaction. In the herd, the staphylococci caused mainly nonclinical mastitis, which was largely unresponsive to antibiotic therapy.

  17. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  18. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  19. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  20. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) Cattle from Canada from a herd in which any cattle have been determined to have tuberculosis... from a tuberculosis-free herd; or (B) The date and place the cattle were last tested for tuberculosis; that the cattle were found negative for tuberculosis on such test; and that such test was...

  1. Effect of herd management on the contamination of night holding areas (correos) and infections with gastrointestinal nematodes of N'Dama cattle in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, J; Komma, A; Pfister, K

    1995-05-01

    The densities of infective nematode larvae (L3/m2) in the night holding places (locally called "correos") of 2 traditionally kept N'Dama herds were estimated at weekly intervals throughout an entire rainy season. Herd 1 moved correos every 3 weeks whereas herd 2 remained in the same area for most of the rainy season. Removal to a new correo was invariably accompanied by a drastic drop of L3/m2. Conversely, L3/m2 increased rapidly up to values of more than 1,000 when the herds used the same night holding place for more than 3 weeks. Calves kept in herds with frequent changes of the correo showed significantly lower nematode egg counts and higher growth rates during the rainy season, combined with a reduced weight loss during the following dry season. The results of this study indicate that a regular frequent change of the correo is an effective method of reducing nematode infection risk and increasing calf growth and that this might be a sustainable part of an integrated strategic programme to control gastrointestinal nematode infections wherever correos are used.

  2. Epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in New Zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir.

    PubMed

    Buddle, B M; de Lisle, G W; Griffin, J F T; Hutchings, S A

    2015-06-01

    The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has been greatly influenced by the existence of a wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection, principally the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The reduction in possum numbers in areas with endemic M. bovis infection through vigorous vector control operations has been a major contributor to the marked reduction in the number of infected cattle and farmed deer herds in the past two decades. Management of TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has involved a combination of vector control, regionalisation of diagnostic testing of cattle and deer herds, abattoir surveillance and movement control from vector risk areas. Accurate diagnosis of infected cattle and deer has been a crucial component in the control programme. As the control programme has evolved, test requirements have changed and new tests have been introduced or test interpretations modified. Subspecific strain typing of M. bovis isolates has proved to be a valuable component in the epidemiological investigation of herd breakdowns to identify whether the source of infection was domestic livestock or wildlife. New initiatives will include the use of improved models for analysing diagnostic test data and characterising disease outbreaks leading to faster elimination of infection from herds. The introduction of the National Animal Identification Tracing programme will allow better risk profiling of individual herds and more reliable tracing of animal movements. TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand can only be controlled by eliminating the disease in both domestic livestock and the wildlife reservoir.

  3. Quantifying the risk of spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) between contiguous herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also

  4. Congenital cataracts in an Ayrshire herd: a herd case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An Ayrshire dairy herd was investigated for occurrence of ocular abnormalities in new-born calves. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all the animals in the herd and 26% of them were diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. Cataracts varied in extent and severity but the majority were restricted to the lens nucleus. Epidemiological analysis showed the prevalence was higher in male animals and lower in animals born to heifers. A family tree was designed but no genetic impact of dam lines was evident. Sire data was incomplete and could therefore not be included. Based on the information provided by the farmer there was no obvious environmental or nutritional cause of these cataracts. However, data records were incomplete and further investigation/monitoring of the herd would be needed to establish a cause and enable a better insight into the aetiology of this disease in cattle. PMID:24460638

  5. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H

    2015-10-24

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Exploration of the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on bovine tuberculosis incidence in cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, C. A.; Bento, A. I.; Goodchild, A. V.; Downs, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers. PMID:26374782

  7. Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.

    PubMed

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora

    2010-06-01

    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection.

  8. Identification of sero-reactive antigens for the early diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Bannantine, John P; Campo, Joseph J; Randall, Arlo; Grohn, Yrjo T; Katani, Robab; Schilling, Megan; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Kapur, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of cattle and other ruminants. JD has a high herd prevalence and causes serious animal health problems and significant economic loss in domesticated ruminants throughout the world. Since serological detection of MAP infected animals during the early stages of infection remains challenging due to the low sensitivity of extant assays, we screened 180 well-characterized serum samples using a whole proteome microarray from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a close relative of MAP. Based on extensive testing of serum and milk samples, fecal culture and qPCR for direct detection of MAP, the samples were previously assigned to one of 4 groups: negative low exposure (n = 30, NL); negative high exposure (n = 30, NH); fecal positive, ELISA negative (n = 60, F+E-); and fecal positive, ELISA positive (n = 60, F+E+). Of the 740 reactive proteins, several antigens were serologically recognized early but not late in infection, suggesting a complex and dynamic evolution of the MAP humoral immune response during disease progression. Ordinal logistic regression models identified a subset of 47 candidate proteins with significantly different normalized intensity values (p<0.05), including 12 in the NH and 23 in F+E- groups, suggesting potential utility for the early detection of MAP infected animals. Next, the diagnostic utility of four MAP orthologs (MAP1569, MAP2942c, MAP2609, and MAP1272c) was assessed and reveal moderate to high diagnostic sensitivities (range 48.3% to 76.7%) and specificity (range 96.7% to 100%), with a combined 88.3% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity. Taken together, the results of our analyses have identified several candidate MAP proteins of potential utility for the early detection of MAP infection, as well individual MAP proteins that may serve as the foundation for the next generation of well-defined serological

  9. Circulation of multiple subtypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 with no evidence for HoBi-like pestivirus in cattle herds of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Lanave, G; Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Guercio, A; Cavaliere, N; Purpari, G; Padalino, I; Larocca, V; Antoci, F; Marino, P A; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G

    2017-06-01

    Pestiviruses of cattle include bovine viral diarrhoea 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2) plus an emerging group, named HoBi-like pestivirus. In the present paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses circulating in cattle in southern Italy are presented. Molecular assays carried out on a total of 924 bovine samples detected 74 BVDV strains, including 73 BVDV-1 and 1 BVDV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on partial 5'UTR and N(pro) sequences revealed the presence of 6 different subtypes of BVDV-1 and a single BVDV-2c strain. BVDV-1 displayed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, which can have both prophylactic and diagnostic implications. In addition, the detection of BVDV-2c highlights the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of new pestivirus strains in cattle farms in southern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cassandra B; Coetzee, Johann F; Stookey, Joseph M; Thomson, Daniel U; Grandin, Temple; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S

    2015-12-01

    This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry. This is an animal health issue that will require leadership and discussion to gain widespread adoption of practices that benefit cattle welfare. There is evidence of success when such actions are taken, as illustrated by the recent improvements in handling at US slaughter facilities. Our highest priorities for additional empirical evidence are: the effect of technologies used to either promote growth or manage cattle in feedlots, identification of management risk factors for disease in feedlots, and management decisions about transport (rest stops, feed/water deprivation, climatic conditions, stocking density). Additional research is needed to inform science-based recommendations about environmental features such as dry lying areas (mounds), shade, water and feed, as well as trailer design.

  11. Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Villalobos, N; Montero, E; Morales, J; Sanz, R Alamo; Muro, A; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E; Gárate, T

    2006-11-30

    In the present work, the species-specific identification of Taeniid spp. cysticerci and sarcocystis cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle was achieved by PCR. In particular: (i) multiplex-PCR derived from HDP2 DNA fragment, specific for Taenia saginata/Taenia solium; (ii) PCRs and PCR-RFLPs of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) for the differential diagnosis of taeniids; (iii) PCR derived from the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing, specific for Sarcoystis spp. The combined application of these three PCR protocols provided an unequivocally specific diagnosis of T. saginata, T. solium, T. hydatigena, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis, and may have practical application in the identification of calcified degenerating or morphologically dubious cysts, for example in the slaughter house situation or in human biopsy samples.

  12. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is not...

  13. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is not...

  14. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is not...

  15. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is not...

  16. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is not...

  17. Summer resource selection and identification of important habitat prior to industrial development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan R; Prichard, Alexander K; Parrett, Lincoln S; Person, Brian T; Carroll, Geoffry M; Smith, Melanie A; Rea, Caryn L; Yokel, David A

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004-2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd's range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  18. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  19. Eradication of Lice in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, O; Grønstøl, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. PMID:11455904

  20. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine corona virus (BCV) affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001) bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01) of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great importance and that herds can

  1. Summer Resource Selection and Identification of Important Habitat Prior to Industrial Development for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in Northern Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Prichard, Alexander K.; Parrett, Lincoln S.; Person, Brian T.; Carroll, Geoffry M.; Smith, Melanie A.; Rea, Caryn L.; Yokel, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Many caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are declining worldwide in part due to disturbance from human development. Prior to human development, important areas of habitat should be identified to help managers minimize adverse effects. Resource selection functions can help identify these areas by providing a link between space use and landscape attributes. We estimated resource selection during five summer periods at two spatial scales for the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd in northern Alaska prior to industrial development to identify areas of high predicted use for the herd. Additionally, given the strong influence parturition and insect harassment have on space use, we determined how selection differed between parturient and non-parturient females, and between periods with and without insect harassment. We used location data acquired between 2004–2010 for 41 female caribou to estimate resource selection functions. Patterns of selection varied through summer but caribou consistently avoided patches of flooded vegetation and selected areas with a high density of sedge-grass meadow. Predicted use by parturient females during calving was almost entirely restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake presumably due to high concentration of sedge-grass meadows, whereas selection for this area by non-parturient females was less strong. When insect harassment was low, caribou primarily selected the areas around Teshekpuk Lake but when it was high, caribou used areas having climates where insect abundance would be lower (i.e., coastal margins, gravel bars). Areas with a high probability of use were predominately restricted to the area surrounding Teshekpuk Lake except during late summer when high use areas were less aggregated because of more general patterns of resource selection. Planning is currently underway for establishing where oil and gas development can occur in the herd’s range, so our results provide land managers with information that can help predict and

  2. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  3. Fine Mapping for Weaver Syndrome in Brown Swiss Cattle and the Identification of 41 Concordant Mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8 and CTTNBP2

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew; Kim, Euisoo; Bickhart, Derek; Null, Daniel; Cooper, Tabatha; Cole, John; Wiggans, George; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Colli, Licia; Santus, Enrico; Liu, George E.; Schroeder, Steve; Matukumalli, Lakshmi; Van Tassell, Curt; Sonstegard, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age, and slowly progresses to total loss of hind limb control by 3 to 4 years of age. While Weaver has previously been mapped to Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 4∶46–56 Mb and a diagnostic test based on the 6 microsatellite (MS) markers is commercially available, neither the causative gene nor mutation has been identified; therefore misdiagnosis can occur due to recombination between the diagnostic MS markers and the causative mutation. Analysis of 34,980 BTA 4 SNPs genotypes derived from the Illumina BovineHD assay for 20 Brown Swiss Weaver carriers and 49 homozygous normal bulls refined the Weaver locus to 48–53 Mb. Genotyping of 153 SNPs, identified from whole genome sequencing of 10 normal and 10 carrier animals, across a validation set of 841 animals resulted in the identification of 41 diagnostic SNPs that were concordant with the disease. Except for one intergenic SNP all are associated with genes expressed in nervous tissues: 37 distal to NRCAM, one non-synonymous (serine to asparagine) in PNPLA8, one synonymous and one non-synonymous (lysine to glutamic acid) in CTTNBP2. Haplotype and imputation analyses of 7,458 Brown Swiss animals with Illumina BovineSNP50 data and the 41 diagnostic SNPs resulted in the identification of only one haplotype concordant with the Weaver phenotype. Use of this haplotype and the diagnostic SNPs more accurately identifies Weaver carriers in both Brown Swiss purebred and influenced herds. PMID:23527149

  4. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus annulatus

    PubMed Central

    Nabian, S; Taheri, M; Fard, R Mazaheri Nezhad; Aramoon, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation. Methods Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDITOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immunogenic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mascot search in NCBI. Conclusion Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines. PMID:23914237

  5. Novel identification of Factor XI deficiency in Indian Sahiwal (Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Chakravarti, S; Ghosh, A K; Kumar, S; Nayak, B; Nandi, S; Sarkar, U; Deb, Rajib; De, A; Biswas, J

    2016-04-01

    Factor-XI deficiency (FXID) is inherited as autosomal lethal recessive disorder of carrier Holstein-Friesian bulls. A 76 base pair segment insertion into exon 12 in Factor-XI gene causes FXID in cattle. Keeping this in view the present study was conducted to screen breeding bulls of both indigenous and exotic breeds for mutation in Factor-XI gene and to find out the frequency of FXID carrier animals in breeding bulls. A total of 120 bulls of different age group maintained at Frozen Semen Bull Station, India were randomly selected from different cattle breeds to screen presence of FXID syndrome in breeding sires. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the selected bulls. PCR parameters were standardized to obtain 244 and 320 bp amplicons. The results showed that 2 Sahiwal bulls out of 120 animals were carrier for FXID. Amplicons of the carrier animals were sequenced and annoted, which confirms a 76 bp insertion in the exon 12. Bleeding and clotting time showed considerable discrepancy in the carrier animals as compared to the normal animals. The findings of relative mRNA expression of Factor XI transcript revealed identical tendency in the carrier. The frequency of carrier animals and mutant allele was 2.5 % and 0.025 respectively. This study recommends for screening of breeding at AI bull centers in the country for FXID. The study also stands a merit for identification of FXID carrier in Bos indicus for the first time.

  6. Epidemiology of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci in a dairy cattle herd with a history of recurrent clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (p<0.05; Chi-squared test for trend) with rising parity. Despite in vitro susceptibility of S. aureus to potentiated penicillins and cephalosporins, the persistence of S. aureus was observed in cows undergoing intramammary treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (a potentiated penicillin antibiotic). All isolates of S. aureus were biofilm-positive and had the same macrorestriction pattern. Furthermore, no dependence was observed between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and previous cases of clinical mastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.

  7. Identification of a haplotype associated with cholesterol deficiency and increased juvenile mortality in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kipp, S; Segelke, D; Schierenbeck, S; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R; Wurmser, C; Pausch, H; Fries, R; Thaller, G; Tetens, J; Pott, J; Haas, D; Raddatz, B B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Proios, I; Schmicke, M; Grünberg, W

    2016-11-01

    Over the last decades, several genetic disorders have been discovered in cattle. However, the genetic background of disorders in calves is less reported. Recently, German cattle farmers reported on calves from specific matings with chronic diarrhea and retarded growth of unknown etiology. Affected calves did not respond to any medical treatment and died within the first months of life. These calves were underdeveloped in weight and showed progressive and severe emaciation despite of normal feed intake. Hallmark findings of the blood biochemical analysis were pronounced hypocholesterolemia and deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins. Results of the clinical and blood biochemical examination had striking similarities with findings reported in human hypobetalipoproteinemia. Postmortem examination revealed near-complete atrophy of the body fat reserves including the spinal canal and bone marrow. To identify the causal region, we performed a genome-wide association study with 9 affected and 21,077 control animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), revealing a strong association signal on BTA 11. Subsequent autozygosity mapping identified a disease-associated haplotype encompassing 1.01 Mb. The segment of extended homozygosity contains 6 transcripts, among them the gene APOB, which is causal for cholesterol disorders in humans. However, results from multi-sample variant calling of 1 affected and 47 unaffected animals did not detect any putative causal mutation. The disease-associated haplotype has an important adverse effect on calf mortality in the homozygous state when comparing survival rates of risk matings vs. non-risk matings. Blood cholesterol values of animals are significantly associated with the carrier status indicating a codominant inheritance. The frequency of the haplotype in the current Holstein population was estimated to be 4.2%. This study describes the identification and phenotypic manifestation of a new

  8. Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the Norwegian animal welfare regulations, it has been forbidden to build new tie-stall barns since the end of 2004. Previous studies have shown that cow performance and health differ between housing systems. The interaction between housing system and herd size with respect to performance and disease incidence has not been evaluated. Methods Cow performance and health in 620 herds housed in free-stall barns were compared with in 192 herds housed in tie-stall barns based on a mail survey and data from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording and Cattle Health Systems. The housing systems herds were comparable with respect to herd size (15-55 cows). Associations between performance/disease incidence and housing system, herd size and year of building the cow barn were tested in general linear models, and values for fixed herd size of 20 and 50 cows were calculated. On the individual cow level mixed models were run to test the effect of among others housing system and herd size on test-day milk yield, and to evaluate lactation curves in different parities. All cows were of the Norwegian Red Breed. Results Average milk production per cow-year was 134 kg lower in free-stall herd than in tie-stall herds, but in the range 27-45 cows there was no significant difference in yields between the herd categories. In herds with less than 27 cows there were increasingly lower yields in free-stalls, particularly in first parity, whereas the yields were increasingly higher in free-stalls with more than 45 cows. In free-stalls fertility was better, calving interval shorter, and the incidence rate of teat injuries, ketosis, indigestions, anoestrus and cystic ovaries was lower than in tie-stalls. All of these factors were more favourable in estimated 50-cow herds as compared to 20-cow herds. In the larger herd category, bulk milk somatic cell counts were higher, and the incidence rate of mastitis (all cases) and all diseases was lower. Conclusion This study has shown

  9. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US.

    PubMed

    Gasbarre, Louis C; Smith, Larry L; Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Pilitt, Patricia A

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to modern anthelmintics by ruminant nematode parasites is an increasing problem throughout the world. To date the problem has largely been reported in parasites of small ruminants, but there are increasing reports of such resistance in nematodes recovered from cattle. Until now there have been no published reports of drug resistant parasites from cattle in North America. In 2002 a producer in the upper Midwest who backgrounds young cattle acquired from the southeastern US experienced lower than expected weight gain as well as apparent parasitic gastroenteritis in his cattle during the fall. Fecal sample results supported the suspicion that decreased productivity and diarrhea were the result of GI nematode parasitism. The operation used intensive grazing management and practiced strategically timed deworming for >17 year. In 2003, all animals were dewormed the first week of May with Ivomec Plus, then with Dectomax Injectable on 4 June and 17 July. On 31 July, 10 randomly taken fecal samples showed EPG values from 0 to 55. To assess whether the apparent decreased drug efficacy was the result of drug resistance in the nematode population, on 18 August approximately 150 heads, previously strategic timed dewormed, of 9-11 month old cattle from one pasture were selected for study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: untreated (U), ivermectin injectable (I), moxidectin pour-on (M), doramectin injectable (D), eprinomectin pour-on (E), albendazole oral (A). Cattle were weighed prior to treatment and the drug was dosed according to label directions. Seven days later, 3 calves from each group were slaughtered for worm recovery. Fecal samples taken from the remaining animals at 14 days after treatment showed that the reduction of mean fecal EPG value for each group was: U-46%, I-52%, M-72%, D-61%, E-8%, and A-68%. Worm recovery from the slaughter calves showed that all groups harbored significant numbers of Haemonchus placei and H

  10. PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle in South Korea using fecal samples

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Hong-Tae; SHIN, Min-Kyoung; PARK, Hyun-Eui; CHO, Yong-Il; YOO, Han Sang

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of bovine paratuberculosis (PTB). The first step in the control of PTB is the identification and isolation of sub-clinical fecal shedders from the herd. In the current study, real-time and nested PCR targeting MAP-specific genetic elements (IS900 and ISMAP02) DNA isolated from fecal samples were used to detect MAP infection in cattle. Of the 1,562 fecal samples obtained from 37 herds, regardless of diarrhea, 35 samples tested positive in both IS900-targeted real-time and ISMAP02-targeted nested PCR. At the herd level, 12 of the 37 herds were found to be positive for MAP. Detection rates of the PCR tests were similar to those reported for ELISA-based methods. These results suggest that PCR can be used to detect sub-clinical fecal shedders of MAP. PMID:27301582

  11. Eleven-year analysis of changes in the incidence and recurrence of cystic ovarian disease in a herd of dairy cattle in California.

    PubMed

    Scholl, D T; BonDurant, R H; Farver, T B

    1990-02-01

    Individual card records of all cows that began 1 or more lactations between the inclusive dates of Jan 1, 1976 and Dec 31, 1986 were obtained from a California dairy herd. Calving date, lactation number, physical examination date, conception date, and clinical findings pertinent to cystic ovarian disease (COD) were extracted from the records. Lactation-specific data were organized into cohorts by quarter and year in which lactation began, and the following estimates were calculated for each of the 44 cohorts: separate actuarial cumulative incidences for cows in their first lactation, cows in the second or later lactation, and all cows combined; separate proportions of the incident cases that were in their second or greater lactation and that had recurred from any previous lactation; proportions of the incident cases that had recurrence of COD 1 or more times, and recurrence 2 or more times during the lactation; and the mean number of days in lactation at diagnosis of the incident case. Time-series analysis and multiple-regression modeling procedures were used to characterize changes in the overall incidence rate over the study period and to describe the contribution of additional measures to the dynamics of the incidence rates. The quarterly actuarial cumulative incidences of COD increased concurrently with the increased incidence among cows in the second or later lactation. Neither the proportion of incident cases that were diseased during a previous lactation nor the proportion of cases that were in the second or later lactation contributed to the observed changes in the overall incidence rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd

    PubMed Central

    du Toit, Johan T.; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  13. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.

  14. Characterizing biosecurity, health, and culling during dairy herd expansions.

    PubMed

    Faust, M A; Kinsel, M L; Kirkpatrick, M A

    2001-04-01

    Our objectives were to investigate strategies for biosecurity, expansion, and culling for expanding dairy herds in the Upper Midwest. Eighteen dairies in Iowa and Wisconsin were visited, and dairy managers and veterinarians were interviewed to characterize five biosecurity practices, herd culling practices, vaccines administered, and ensuing disease status for the herds. The majority of herds that were interviewed failed to employ comprehensive biosecurity programs for incoming cattle. Nearly 60% of herds obtained cattle from sources for which it was difficult to document genetic backgrounds and health histories, fewer than half required health testing for incoming cattle, and approximately 50% quarantined new cattle on arrival. Despite high rates of vaccination for bovine viral diarrhea, all herd owners and managers indicated that herd biosecurity was compromised as a result of expansion. Half of the interviewed herds indicated that bovine viral diarrhea and papillomatous digital dermatitis were notable disease problems. Herds that obtained cattle with unknown backgrounds and health status experienced the largest number of diseases. Before expansion, the most frequently cited reasons for culling were reproductively unsound; low milk production; mastitis, poor udder health, and high SCC; during expansion, the strategic decision to cull cows for low milk production was used less often. In addition, the stochastic simulation model, DairyORACLE, was used to evaluate economic outcomes for several expansion alternatives. Five model scenarios studied were: base scenario (herd size was maintained) and four expansion scenarios--all paired combinations of heifer quality (high, low) and voluntary culling (implemented, not implemented). Culling for low milk production yielded an additional $23.29 annually (6-yr annuity) per cow, but on the basis of purchased replacements, no voluntary culling was most profitable. Purchasing high versus low quality replacement heifers for

  15. Identification of selective sweeps reveals divergent selection between Chinese Holstein and Simmental cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minhui; Pan, Dunfei; Ren, Hongyan; Fu, Jinluan; Li, Junya; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Aiguo; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-06

    The identification of signals left by recent positive selection provides a feasible approach for targeting genomic variants that underlie complex traits and fitness. A better understanding of the selection mechanisms that occurred during the evolution of species can also be gained. In this study, we simultaneously detected the genome-wide footprints of recent positive selection that occurred within and between Chinese Holstein and Simmental populations, which have been subjected to artificial selection for distinct purposes. We conducted analyses using various complementary approaches, including LRH, XP-EHH and FST, based on the Illumina 770K high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, to enable more comprehensive detection. We successfully constructed profiles of selective signals in both cattle populations. To further annotate these regions, we identified a set of novel functional genes related to growth, reproduction, immune response and milk production. There were no overlapping candidate windows between the two breeds. Finally, we investigated the distribution of SNPs that had low FST values across five distinct functional regions in the genome. In the low-minor allele frequency bin, we found a higher proportion of low-FST SNPs in the exons of the bovine genome, which indicates strong purifying selection of the exons. The selection signatures identified in these two populations demonstrated positive selection pressure on a set of important genes with potential functions that are involved in many biological processes. We also demonstrated that in the bovine genome, exons were under strong purifying selection. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of artificial selection and will facilitate follow-up functional studies of potential candidate genes that are related to various economically important traits in cattle.

  16. Factors affecting the success of a large embryo transfer program in Holstein cattle in a commercial herd in the southeast region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, P A; Burnley, C; Karanja, J; Viera-Neto, A; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C; Galvão, K N

    2016-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate factors affecting in vivo embryo production and pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in Holstein cattle in the southeast region of the United States. Data from a total of 516 embryo collections and 10,297 ETs performed from 2011 to 2014 were available. For embryo production, the effects of donor parity (nulliparous [N], primiparous [P], multiparous [M]), average temperature-humidity index (THI) at embryo collection, days in milk at embryo collection, occurrence of calving problems, and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. For P/ET, the effects of donor parity (N or parous), recipient parity (N, P, and M), embryo type (fresh, frozen, IVF, and IVF-frozen), embryo developmental stage (4-7), embryo quality (1-3), recipient estrous cycle day at ET (6-9), average THI at ET, days in milk at ET, milk yield at ET, occurrence of calving problems (abortion, dystocia, twins, fetal death, or retained placenta), and occurrence of metritis postpartum were evaluated. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 41 ± 3 days of gestation. Continuous and binary data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS, respectively. Parity affected embryo production; M had greater number and percentage of unfertilized embryos and lesser percentage of viable embryos than P and N. Recipient parity, embryo type, embryo stage, embryo quality, estrous cycle day at ET, and THI at ET affected P/ET. There was an interaction between recipient parity and THI at ET. P/ET was greater for N than P and greater for P than M, greater for fresh embryos than others, greater for stage 7 than others, greater for quality 1 than 2 and greater for quality 2 than 3, and greater for ET on estrous cycle Day 7 and 8 than 6. P/ET was decreased for THI ≥80 in N and THI ≥72 in P and M. Calving problems and metritis also affected P/ET in P and M and was lesser for cows that had calving problems and metritis. In conclusion, embryo production was affected by

  17. Herd-Level Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Skuce, Robin A.; Allen, Adrian R.; McDowell, Stanley W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is one of the most challenging endemic diseases currently facing government, the veterinary profession, and the farming industry in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in several other countries. The disease has a notoriously complex epidemiology; the scientific evidence supports both cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle transmission routes. To produce more effective ways of reducing such transmission, it is important to understand those risk factors which influence the presence or absence of bovine TB in cattle herds. Here we review the literature on herd-level risk factor studies. Whilst risk factors operate at different scales and may vary across regions, epidemiological studies have identified a number of risk factors associated with bovine TB herd breakdowns, including the purchase of cattle, the occurrence of bovine TB in contiguous herds, and/or the surrounding area as well as herd size. Other factors identified in some studies include farm and herd management practices, such as, the spreading of slurry, the use of certain housing types, farms having multiple premises, and the use of silage clamps. In general, the most consistently identified risk factors are biologically plausible and consistent with known transmission routes involving cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle pathways. PMID:22966479

  18. Species identification of Malayan Gaur, Kedah-Kelantan and Bali cattle using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Romaino, S M N; Fazly-Ann, Z A; Loo, S S; Hafiz, M M; Hafiz, M D; Iswadi, M I; Kashiani, P; Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Md-Zain, B M; Abas-Mazni, O

    2014-01-21

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a useful genetic marker that can be used for species identification. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene is a suitable mtDNA candidate gene for use in phylogenetic analyses due to its sequence variability, which makes it appropriate for comparisons at the subspecies, species, and genus levels. This study was conducted to develop a rapid molecular method for species identification of Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki), Kedah-Kelantan (KK) (Bos indicus), and Bali (Bos javanicus) cattle in Malaysia. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 8 Malayan gaurs, 30 KK, and 28 Bali cattle. A set of both specific and universal primers for the Cyt b gene were used in PCR amplification. DNA sequences obtained were then analyzed using BioEdit and Restriction Mapper softwares. The PCR products obtained from Cyt b gene amplification were then subjected to restriction enzyme digestion. The amplification, using both specific and universal primers, produced a 154- and a 603-bp fragment, respectively, in all three species. Two restriction enzymes, NlaIV and SspI, were used to obtain specific restriction profiles that allowed direct identification of Malayan gaur, KK, and Bali cattle. Our findings indicate that all three species can be identified separately using a combination of universal primers and the restriction enzyme SspI.

  19. Indirect immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy for the detection of persistently infected cattle with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Italian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, Camilla; Frigerio, Michela; Tolari, Francesco; Mazzei, Maurizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Del Piero, Fabio; Arispici, Mario

    2006-04-01

    Indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC) on skin biopsies for identification of persistently infected (PI) animals has been used as a parallel test to antigen and antibody ELISAs in a bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) voluntary control program. The aim was to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of IHC on ear skin tissues to detect PI animals in field conditions, including both adult and calves under 6 months of age. In animals over 6 months of age skin biopsy and blood sample were collected at the same time, whereas in young calves blood sampling was performed when animals reached 6 months of age. One hundred and sixty-five animals were tested and immunohistochemical results were compared with those of antigen ELISA. In case of inconclusive results virus isolation and virus neutralization assays were performed. Agreement K value was 0.96. Immunohistochemical staining in positive animals was clearly detectable in the keratinocytes of the epidermis and adnexa.

  20. Epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of tuberculosis in domestic cattle and deer in New Zealand in the face of a wildlife reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Buddle, BM; de Lisle, GW; Griffin, JFT; Hutchings, SA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has been greatly influenced by the existence of a wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection, principally the Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The reduction in possum numbers in areas with endemic M. bovis infection through vigorous vector control operations has been a major contributor to the marked reduction in the number of infected cattle and farmed deer herds in the past two decades. Management of TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand has involved a combination of vector control, regionalisation of diagnostic testing of cattle and deer herds, abattoir surveillance and movement control from vector risk areas. Accurate diagnosis of infected cattle and deer has been a crucial component in the control programme. As the control programme has evolved, test requirements have changed and new tests have been introduced or test interpretations modified. Subspecific strain typing of M. bovis isolates has proved to be a valuable component in the epidemiological investigation of herd breakdowns to identify whether the source of infection was domestic livestock or wildlife. New initiatives will include the use of improved models for analysing diagnostic test data and characterising disease outbreaks leading to faster elimination of infection from herds. The introduction of the National Animal Identification Tracing programme will allow better risk profiling of individual herds and more reliable tracing of animal movements. TB in cattle and farmed deer in New Zealand can only be controlled by eliminating the disease in both domestic livestock and the wildlife reservoir. PMID:24992203

  1. A tool to support the identification of suspect cases of exotic diseases in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ginhoux, Mathilde; Morignat, Eric; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier

    2016-12-01

    Maintaining vigilance with regard to the introduction of exotic diseases is a challenge, particularly because these diseases are numerous, some are not well known, and they are not immediately suspected by people in day-to-day practice, specifically veterinary practitioners. The objective of this article is to present a tool to support the identification of suspect cases of exotic diseases in cattle, based on a Bayesian approach. A list of 22 exotic diseases in mainland France was selected mainly on the basis of their potential consequences if introduced, and the ability to detect them on a clinical basis. In response of a set of epidemio-clinical criteria observed in the field this tool provides a list of exotic diseases by descending order of likelihood. The tool's performance was assessed by simulation. When simulating epidemio-clinical observations of each of the 22 diseases included in the tool with some uncertainty, the right disease was ranked in the first place between 83.8% and 100% of the times, and always in the five most likely diseases. Even when some noise was introduced in the epidemio-clinical observations simulated by addition of criteria non-characteristic of the simulated diseases, the right disease was always in the five most likely diseases. This tool could be usefully included in a global approach aiming to improve vigilance against exotic diseases.

  2. A field study of Mycoplasma bovis infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, A; Bisgaard Madsen, E; Friis, N F; Meyling, A; Ahrens, P

    1991-05-01

    After an outbreak of mastitis in cattle caused by Mycoplasma bovis a study was made in 5 herds with recent cases (principal herds) and in 4 control herds. In the principal herds, M. bovis was isolated from milk samples, nasal swabs, and from one vaginal swab. M. bovis was also isolated from nasal swabs of calves in 2 of the 4 control herds, whereas all milk samples and vaginal swabs from the control herds were negative. Evaluation of serum antibody titres to M. bovis among non-mastitic animals of 3 principal herds and 1 control herd showed no difference in distribution of the titre values, which generally were low. However, cows excreting M. bovis in the milk had high antibody titres. The way of introduction to the herds and the spread of the infection within the herds could not be established by the study, which was supplemented by a DNA restriction fragment analysis of a number of M. bovis isolates.

  3. Identification of genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in Nelore cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD...

  4. Selection and use of SNP markers for animal identification and paternity analysis in U.S. beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Michael P; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Stone, Roger T; Grosse, W Michael; Casas, Eduardo; Keele, John W; Smith, Timothy P L; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Laegreid, William W

    2002-05-01

    DNA marker technology represents a promising means for determining the genetic identity and kinship of an animal. Compared with other types of DNA markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are attractive because they are abundant, genetically stable, and amenable to high-throughput automated analysis. In cattle, the challenge has been to identify a minimal set of SNPs with sufficient power for use in a variety of popular breeds and crossbred populations. This report describes a set of 32 highly informative SNP markers distributed among 18 autosomes and both sex chromosomes. Informativity of these SNPs in U.S. beef cattle populations was estimated from the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies in two panels: one consisting of 96 purebred sires representing 17 popular breeds, and another with 154 purebred American Angus from six herds in four Midwestern states. Based on frequency data from these panels, the estimated probability that two randomly selected, unrelated individuals will possess identical genotypes for all 32 loci was 2.0 x 10(-13) for multi-breed composite populations and 1.9 x 10(-10) for purebred Angus populations. The probability that a randomly chosen candidate sire will be excluded from paternity was estimated to be 99.9% and 99.4% for the same respective populations. The DNA immediately surrounding the 32 target SNPs was sequenced in the 96 sires of the multi-breed panel and found to contain an additional 183 polymorphic sites. Knowledge of these additional sites, together with the 32 target SNPs, allows the design of robust, accurate genotype assays on a variety of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms.

  5. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  6. Relationship between individual herd-heritability estimates and sire misidentification rate.

    PubMed

    Dechow, C D; Norman, H D; Zwald, N R; Cowan, C M; Meland, O M

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities within herds participating in Dairy Herd Improvement and determine the relationship of the individual herd heritability with sire misidentification rate. Individual herd heritabilities for milk, fat, and protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) were calculated with daughter-dam regression and daughter-sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) regression using 4,712,166 records from 16,336 herds available for August 2000 evaluations and 7,084,953 records from 20,920 herds available for August 2006 evaluations. Herd heritabilities were estimated using regression models that included fixed breed, age within parity, herd-year-season of calving, dam records nested within state, sire PTA within state, and an interaction between sire PTA and herd variance; random regression coefficients were dam records within herd and sire PTA within herd. Average daughter-dam herd heritability estimates ranged from 0.21 (SCS in 2000) to 0.73 (protein percentage in 2006), whereas daughter-sire herd heritability ranged from 0.10 (SCS in 2000) to 0.42 (protein percentage in 2006). Verification of sire identification with DNA marker analysis was provided by Accelerated Genetics and Alta Genetics Inc. Daughter-sire herd heritability was more strongly correlated with sire misidentification rate than daughter-dam herd heritability. The correlation between the first principal component for all measures of herd heritability and sire misidentification rate was -0.38 (176 herds) and -0.50 (230 herds) in 2000 and 2006, respectively. Herd heritability can be estimated with simple regression techniques for several thousand herds simultaneously. The herd heritability estimates were correlated negatively with sire misidentification rates and could be used to identify herds that provide inaccurate data for progeny testing.

  7. 9 CFR 86.4 - Official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bison. Cattle and bison that are required to be officially identified for interstate movement under this... movement—(1) Cattle and bison. (i) All cattle and bison listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(iii)(A) through (b)(1... and bison are moved as a commuter herd with a copy of the commuter herd agreement or other...

  8. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  9. 68 FR 35529 - Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-06-16

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...; to require certification regarding the tuberculosis history of the herds from which a group of cattle... necessary to help us better ensure that imported cattle are free of tuberculosis, thereby protecting...

  10. Transcriptome analysis and SNP identification in SCC of horn in (Bos indicus) Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Koringa, Prakash G; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Patel, Anand B; Dash, Debabrata; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-11-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the marker of choice for genome wide association studies. In order to provide the best genome coverage for the analysis of disease, production and performance traits, a large number of relatively evenly distributed SNPs are needed. The main objective of present work was to identify large numbers of gene-associated SNPs using high-throughput sequencing in squamous cell carcinoma of horn. RNA-seq analysis was conducted on 2 tissues viz. Horn Cancer (HC) and Horn Normal (HN) in Kankrej breed of cattle. A total of 909,362 reads with average read length of 405 bp for HC and 583,491 reads with average read length of 411 bp for HN were obtained. We found 9532 and 7065 SNPs as well as 1771 and 1172 Indels in HC and HN, respectively, from which, 7889 SNPs and 1736 Indels were uniquely present in HC, 5886 SNPs and 1146 Indels were uniquely present in HN and reported first time in Bos indicus, whereas the rest are already reported in Bos taurus dbSNP database. The gene-associated SNPs and Indels were high in upregulated genes of HC as compared to HN. Analysis of differentially expressed genes was identified, these genes are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, gene transcription, cell survival and metabolism through various metabolic pathways. The result of transcriptome expression profiling was validated using Real Time quantitative PCR in nine randomly selected genes. We identified numbers aberrant signaling pathways responsible for carcinogenesis in HC which are also commonly altered in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung in human being. We conclude that a large number of altered genes and dysfunction of multiple pathways are involved in the development of Horn Cancer. The present findings contribute to theoretical information for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis of HC as well as SNPs identified in this report provide a much needed resource for genetic

  11. The art in getting flocks and herds to flerds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flerds (small ruminants that consistently stay near cattle under free-ranging conditions) offer four distinct advantages over stocking simply flocks and herds to carry out mixed species stocking. One of the main advantages flerds offer is added protection from canine predation, reduced time in loca...

  12. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Odette, O

    2005-08-01

    Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  13. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination. PMID:16187719

  14. Identification of SNPs in growth-related genes in Colombian creole cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Rocha, J F; Bejarano, D; Gomez, Y; Abuabara, Y; Gallego, J

    2016-09-19

    Colombian creole cattle have important adaptation traits related to heat tolerance and reproductive and productive efficiency. Romosinuano (ROMO) and Blanco Orejinegro (BON) are the most common breeds used by Colombian cattle breeders. Growth traits are of prime importance in these animals, which are mainly raised for beef production. Genes encoding growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, homeobox protein, insulin growth factor binding protein 3, leptin, and myostatin have been associated with physiological growth pathways in cattle and other species. We therefore aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes in ROMO, BON, and Zebu cattle. DNA regions of these genes were sequenced in 386 animals; 47 new SNPs were found, of which 14 were located in the exonic regions, thereby changing the protein sequence. An association of SNPs with weaning weight (WW), daily weight gain at weaning (DWG), and weight at 16 months (W16M) traits was deduced. The genetic analysis revealed several SNPs related to these traits. The SNP GhRE06.2 had a significant association with WW and the SNP Lep03.4 was highly associated with DWG and W16M. Other polymorphisms were significantly associated with WW and DWG, although they did not surpass the Bonferroni significance threshold. The new mutations identified may indicate important points of genetic control in the DNA that could be responsible for changes in the expression of the analyzed traits. These SNPs might be used in future breeding programs to improve the productive performance of cattle in beef farms.

  15. Evaluation of LSSP-PCR for identification of Leptospira spp. in urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Koury, Matilde Cota

    2006-12-20

    We evaluated the use of low-stringency single specific primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) for genetically typing Leptospira directly from urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis. Urine samples obtained from 40 cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis were amplified by specific PCR using the following primers: Internal 1/Internal 2 and G1/G2. The internal primers were designed from the gene sequence of the outer membrane lipoprotein Lip32 from Leptospira kirschneri, strain RM52. The PCR products were amplified with these two pairs of primers, which had approximately 497 and 285bp, respectively, and were subsequently used as a template for LSSP-PCR analysis. The genetic signatures from the leptospires which were present in the urine samples allowed us to make a preliminary identification of the leptospires by comparing the LSSP-PCR profiles obtained directly from urine samples with those from reference leptospires. The LSSP-PCR profiles obtained with the Internal 1 primer or with the G1 primer allowed the grouping of the leptospires into serogroups. LSSP-PCR was found to be a useful and sensitive approach capable of identifying leptospires directly from biological samples without the need for prior bacterial isolation. In conclusion, the LSSP-PCR technique may still be helpful in discriminating serogroups of Leptospira from different animal reservoirs, since the early identification of carrier animals and information on the shedding state are crucial to prevent the spread of leptospiral infection to other animals and humans.

  16. The porcupine caribou herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Walsh, Noreen E.; Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documentation of the natural range of variation in ecological, life history, and physiological characteristics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Porcupine caribou herd is a necessary base for detecting or predicting any potential effects of industrial development on the performance (e.g., distribution, demography, weight-gain of individuals) of the herd. To demonstrate an effect of development, post-development performance must differ from pre-development performance while accounting for any natural environmental trends.We had 2 working hypotheses for our investigations: 1) performance of the Porcupine caribou herd was associated with environmental patterns and habitat quality, and 2) access to important habitats was a key influence on demography.We sought to document the range of natural variation in habitat conditions, herd size, demography (defined here as survival and reproduction), sources and magnitude of mortality, distribution, habitat use, and weight gain and loss, and to develop an understanding of the interactions among these characteristics of the herd.In addition, we investigated ways that we could use this background information, combined with auxiliary information from the adjacent Central Arctic caribou herd, to predict the direction and magnitude of any potential effects of industrial oil development in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on Porcupine caribou herd calf survival on the herd's calving grounds during June.

  17. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle in south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tong, Q; Hu, X Z; Yang, L G; Zhong, X Q; Yu, Y; Wu, J J; Liu, W J; Li, X; Hua, G H; Zhao, H Q; Zhang, S J

    2011-10-13

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a recently described monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle that causes premature birth, aborted fetuses and stillborn calves. Guanine is substituted by thymine (G>T) in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 gene (SLC35A3). A valine is changed to a phenylalanine at position 180 of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine transporter protein. CVM is expected to occur in many countries due to the widespread use of sire semen. We developed a created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR) method to diagnose CVM in dairy cows. This was tested on 217 cows and 125 bulls selected randomly from a Holstein cattle population in south China. Five Holstein cows and five Holstein bulls were identified to be CVM carriers; the percentages of CVM carriers were estimated to be 2.3, 4.0 and 2.9% in the cows, bulls and entire Holstein cattle sample, respectively.

  18. Identification of circulating miRNA involved in meat yield of Korean cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Surim; Park, Seung-Ju; Cheong, Jae-Kyoung; Ko, Jong-Youl; Bong, Jinjong; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-07-01

    Cattle plays an important role in providing essential nutrients through meat production. Thus, we focused on epigenetic factors associated with meat yield. To investigate circulating miRNAs that are involved with meat yield and connect biofluids and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in Korean cattle, we performed analyses of the carcass characteristics, miRNA array, qPCR, and bioinformatics. Carcass characteristics relative to the yield grade (YG) showed that the yield index and rib eye area were the highest, whereas the backfat thickness was the lowest for YG A (equal to high YG) cattle among the three YGs. miRNA array sorted the circulating miRNAs that connect biofluids and LD muscle. miRNA qPCR showed that miR-15a (r = 0.84), miR-26b (r = 0.91), and miR-29c (r = 0.92) had positive relationships with biofluids and LD muscle. In YG A cattle, miR-26b was considered to be a circulating miRNA connecting biofluids and LD muscle because the target genes of miR-26b were more involved with myogenesis. Then, miR-26b-targeted genes, DIAPH3 and YOD1, were downregulated in YG A cattle. Our results suggest that miR-15a, miR-26b, and miR-29c are upregulated in biofluids and LD muscle, whereas DIAPH3 and YOD1 are downregulated in the LD muscle of finishing cattle steers. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Photosensitization of cattle in southeast Texas: identification of phototoxic activity associated with Cooperia pedunculata.

    PubMed

    Rowe, L D; Norman, J O; Corrier, D E; Casteel, S W; Rector, B S; Bailey, E M; Schuster, J L; Reagor, J C

    1987-11-01

    A microbiological assay (Candida albicans) was used to screen plants in southeast Texas where bovine photosensitization (PS) of unknown cause was a recurring problem. Phototoxic activity was identified associated with dead leaf tips of Cooperia pedunculata, a native, perennial forb of the Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) from central, southeast, and south Texas and parts of Mexico. A syndrome compatible with naturally occurring PS in cattle was induced in laboratory mice after oral administration of dead leaf material from C pedunculata. Availability and phototoxic activity of dead leaf material of C pedunculata corresponded with occurrence of PS in cattle. Seemingly, C pedunculata was involved in recurring PS.

  20. Clinical disease associated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in cattle in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Edgar F; Po, Eleonora; Bichi, Elena R; Hexum, Suzette K; Melcher, Robert; Hubner, Andrew M

    2015-07-15

    To describe the clinical manifestation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in cattle during an outbreak in northwestern Illinois in the fall of 2013. Outbreak survey. 18 EHDV-affected cattle herds. Herds with confirmed EHDV-infected cattle were selected for the survey on the basis of having a manager willing to participate. A survey was developed and administered to obtain information regarding the demographics of EHDV-affected herds and the clinical signs and outcomes for EHDV-infected cattle. The managers of 13 beef and 5 dairy herds participated in the survey. The herds contained approximately 1,400 cattle, of which 61 were infected with EHDV and 16 died. Most cattle clinically affected with EHDV were adults, although 1 herd had 6 calves with clinical signs, and EHDV was identified during postmortem testing of 1 of those calves. Clinical signs most commonly observed were oral ulcerations or erosions, anorexia, weight loss, and lameness that typically lasted > 7 days. Of the 18 herds, 17 had wooded areas and 14 had at least 1 pond or marsh on the property. Deer were observed on the property of all farms. The EHDV outbreak in cattle coincided with an EHDV outbreak in deer in the region. This large-scale outbreak of EHDV in US cattle was unusual because calves were affected. Because there is no way to effectively predict or prevent an EHDV outbreak in cattle, development of a vaccine for use in cattle during an outbreak would be beneficial.

  1. Environmental sampling to predict fecal prevalence of Salmonella in an intensively monitored dairy herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although dairy cattle are known reservoirs for salmonellae, cattle that are shedding this organism are often asymptomatic and difficult to identify. A dairy herd that was experiencing an outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Cerro was monitored for two years. Fecal samples from the lacta...

  2. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  3. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test Is Modified by Use of a Protein Cocktail Containing ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in Cattle Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Villalva, S.; Suárez-Güemes, F.; Espitia, C.; Whelan, A. O.; Vordermeier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The mycobacterial immunodominant ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens are strongly recognizable in tuberculosis-infected cattle, and they do not elicit a response in cattle without infection. In addition, they are absent in most environmental mycobacterial species, and therefore, their use can be an alternative to purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin in the development of a more specific skin diagnostic test in cattle. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential of an ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (E6-C10) protein cocktail in a skin test format in naturally tuberculosis-infected and paratuberculosis-infected cattle. We also included MPB83 as a third component in one of the protein cocktail preparations. The protein cocktail was tested at different dose concentrations (5, 10, and 15 μg per protein). The best skin response to the E6-C10 protein cocktail was obtained with 10 μg. Subsequently, this concentration was tested in 2 herds with high and low bovine tuberculosis prevalence, the latter with paratuberculosis coinfection. Our data show that the E6-C10 cocktail allows identification of an important proportion of animals that PPDB is not able to recognize, especially in low-prevalence herds. The protein cocktail did not induce reactions in tuberculosis-free cattle or in paratuberculosis-infected cattle. Addition of MPB83 to the protein cocktail did not make any difference in the skin reaction. PMID:22419675

  4. Specificity of the tuberculin skin test is modified by use of a protein cocktail containing ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villalva, S; Suárez-Güemes, F; Espitia, C; Whelan, A O; Vordermeier, M; Gutiérrez-Pabello, J A

    2012-05-01

    The mycobacterial immunodominant ESAT-6 and CFP-10 antigens are strongly recognizable in tuberculosis-infected cattle, and they do not elicit a response in cattle without infection. In addition, they are absent in most environmental mycobacterial species, and therefore, their use can be an alternative to purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin in the development of a more specific skin diagnostic test in cattle. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential of an ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (E6-C10) protein cocktail in a skin test format in naturally tuberculosis-infected and paratuberculosis-infected cattle. We also included MPB83 as a third component in one of the protein cocktail preparations. The protein cocktail was tested at different dose concentrations (5, 10, and 15 μg per protein). The best skin response to the E6-C10 protein cocktail was obtained with 10 μg. Subsequently, this concentration was tested in 2 herds with high and low bovine tuberculosis prevalence, the latter with paratuberculosis coinfection. Our data show that the E6-C10 cocktail allows identification of an important proportion of animals that PPDB is not able to recognize, especially in low-prevalence herds. The protein cocktail did not induce reactions in tuberculosis-free cattle or in paratuberculosis-infected cattle. Addition of MPB83 to the protein cocktail did not make any difference in the skin reaction.

  5. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Ohlson, Anna; Alenius, Stefan; Fall, Nils

    2015-01-13

    Infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BoCV) are endemic to the cattle populations in most countries, causing respiratory and/or enteric disease. It has been demonstrated that herds can remain free from these infections for several years also in high prevalence areas. Organically managed (OM) dairy herds have been shown to have lower seroprevalence of both viruses compared to conventionally managed (CM) herds. The objective of this study was to challenge the hypothesis of a lower occurrence of BRSV and BoCV in OM compared to CM dairy herds. In November 2011, May 2012 and May 2013 milk samples from four homebred primiparous cows were collected in 75 to 65 OM and 69 to 62 CM herds. The antibody status regarding BRSV and BoCV was analysed with commercial indirect ELISAs. Herds were classified as positive if at least one individual sample was positive. The prevalence of positive herds ranged from 73.4% to 82.3% for BRSV and from 76.8% to 85.3% for BoCV among OM and CM herds, over the three sampling occasions. There was no statistically significant difference between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion. The incidence risk of newly infected herds did not differ statistically between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion, neither for BRSV nor for BoCV. The incidence of herds turning sero-negative between samplings corresponded to the incidence of newly infected. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were also sampled in the herds and analysed. Several herds were negative on individual samples but positive in BTM. Herd-level data on production, health and reproduction were retrieved from VÄXA Sweden and the study herds were representative of the source population. There was no difference in prevalence of or incidence risk for BRSV or BoCV between Swedish OM and CM herds. Because the incidence of herds becoming seropositive was balanced by herds becoming seronegative it should be possible to lower the prevalence of these two

  6. Identification of candidate transcription factor binding sites in the cattle genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A resource that provides candidate transcription factor binding sites does not currently exist for cattle. Such data is necessary, as predicted sites may serve as excellent starting locations for future 'omics studies to develop transcriptional regulation hypotheses. In order to generate this resour...

  7. Infestation and Identification of Ixodid Tick in Cattle: The Case of Arbegona District, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tamerat, Nateneal; Tuluka, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention. PMID:28105466

  8. Genome-wide identification of signatures of positive selection in African admixed zebu cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The introduction of humped zebu to the African continent has led to genetic introgression with the local African humpless taurine. A mosaic of zebu x taurine cattle populations adapted to the local environments (e.g., semi-dry desert, humid and sub-humid forested areas) has arisen as a result of thi...

  9. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the US have been available for Brown Swiss, Holstein and Brown Swiss since 2009. As of February 2013, there were 1,100 genotyped Ayrshires in the North American database, including 646 bulls with traditional evaluations, permitting the investigation and impleme...

  10. The identification of a putative mutation for SLICK hair coat in Senepol cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted, Criollo-derived cattle breeds. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. The goal of thi...

  11. SNP identification in FBXO32 gene and their associations with growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ailan; Zhang, Ya; Li, Mijie; Lan, Xianyong; Wang, Juqiang; Chen, Hong

    2013-02-15

    The F-box protein 32 (FBXO32), also known as Atrogin-1, is one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex. FBXO32 has been previously shown to be involved in regulation of initiation and development of muscle mass. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphism of FBXO32 gene in 1313 cattle from seven bovine breeds using DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-based amplification-created restriction site (PCR-ACRS) methods. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within bovine FBXO32, and were deposited in the GenBank database. The association studies between these four SNPs and growth traits were performed in NanYang cattle. Notably, the SNPs ss411628932 and ss411628936 were shown to be significantly associated with body length of 24-month-old NanYang cattle. Based on the above four SNPs, 16 haplotypes were identified. The main haplotype was AATA, which occurred at a frequency of more than 40%. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis showed that geographical distance was essential to gene flow among seven cattle breeds. Indigenous bovine breeds displayed genetic difference in comparison to hybrid bovine breeds that have foreign origins. We herein describe for the first time a comprehensive study on the variability of bovine FBXO32 gene that is predictive of genetic potential for body length phenotype.

  12. Infestation and Identification of Ixodid Tick in Cattle: The Case of Arbegona District, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Jelalu; Tamerat, Nateneal; Tuluka, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention.

  13. Identification of a nonsense mutation in CWC15 associated with decreased reproductive efficiency in Jersey cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the recent advent of genomic tools for cattle, several recessive conditions affecting fertility have been identified and selected against, such as deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, and brachyspina. The current report refines the location of a recessiv...

  14. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  15. Laterality in bovine behavior in an extensive partially suckled herd and an intensive dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Llewellyn, S; Claudia, A

    2003-10-01

    Cattle exhibit behavioral laterality, but the consistency and correlation between behaviors are unknown. Behavioral laterality was recorded in two herds of contrasting management intensity. The first was a small, extensively managed herd in Brazil, with cows and calves on rangeland, except when removed for handmilking in stalls. The second was a large, intensive British herd, with cows fed mostly indoors and calves removed for individual rearing soon after birth. In herd 1, the side of the body on which the following behaviors were performed was recorded: rumination (rumination), tail waving (tail), tongue protrusion during the initiation of a feeding bout (feeding), hind leg placement when lying (lying), and front leg initiating walking (walking). The distribution of left and right side dominance was normal for all behaviors, with positive correlations between walking and rumination, tail, and feeding, and between lying and rumination. In herd 2, rumination, feeding, and lying behaviors were similarly recorded, as well as parlor side-preference (parlor) and the side of a track chosen when returning to pasture (track). For all behaviors except track, the extent of left- and right-side dominance was not normally distributed, and more cows than expected showed strong laterality on the right or the left side. Parlor and track lateralities were correlated, indicating that cows that entered one side of the parlor also tended to choose the same side of the track. Strong laterality in the intensively managed herd therefore contrasted with that observed in the extensively managed herd and the reasons for such differences in laterality are uncertain.

  16. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  17. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  18. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  19. Identification of a nonsense mutation in APAF1 that is likely causal for a decrease in reproductive efficiency in Holstein dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A haplotype on cattle chromosome 5 carrying a recessive lethal allele was found to originate in a Holstein-Friesian foundation sire. Resequencing led to the identification of a stop-gain mutation in exon 11 of APAF1, a gene known to cause embryonic lethality and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ...

  20. Characteristics of replacement breeding cattle trade in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C

    2014-07-19

    The movements of replacement breeding cattle have been implicated in the spread of many economically important cattle diseases. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to investigate the frequency and characteristics of replacement breeding cattle trade in Great Britain. During the 2006 calendar year, an estimated 48.7 per cent of beef herds and 47.8 per cent of dairy herds purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Open beef herds purchased an average of 7.2 replacement animals (median: 4, range: 1-819) from 3.6 source herds (median: 2, range: 1-114), while open dairy herds purchased an average of 13.7 replacement animals (median: 7, range: 1-827) from 5.2 source herds (median: 3, range: 1-146). The most common animal types purchased by beef and dairy herds were open heifers and open lactating cows, respectively. Although the movements of purchased replacement breeding cattle accounted for only 13 per cent of individual movements in the between-herd contact network, they had a disproportionately strong influence on the risk of disease spreading through the industry as evidenced by their high betweenness centrality scores. These results emphasise the importance of ensuring that good biosecurity programmes are in place to prevent disease transmission.

  1. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  2. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    PubMed

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  3. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

  4. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Mancini, Giordano; Chillemi, Giovanni; Pariset, Lorraine; Valentini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV) was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs) to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  5. Toxocara vitulorum infection in German beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, Peter L; Thiele, Gerhard; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard M

    2017-03-01

    Toxocara vitulorum is an ascarid that is frequently found in sub-tropical regions but little is known about infections in more temperate climates. In this study, we report the occurrence of this parasite in a beef cattle herd in eastern Germany. In June 2016, large (14-20 cm) cream-colored worms identified as adult T. vitulorum were observed in the feces of 2- to 3-month-old calves. Eggs of this parasite were subsequently detected in pooled fecal samples collected on all three farm sites. The morphological identification was supported by analysis of partial cytochrome c oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 1 gene sequences. Clinical signs of toxocariasis, such as diarrhea and loss of body weight were not apparent.

  6. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... reactions at 30, 60, 120, and 240 International Units per milliliter (IU/ml); (ii) Brucellosis card test... reactions, when present. (4) Cattle are eligible for entry only if classified as negative at 30 IU to...

  7. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... reactions at 30, 60, 120, and 240 International Units per milliliter (IU/ml); (ii) Brucellosis card test... reactions, when present. (4) Cattle are eligible for entry only if classified as negative at 30 IU to...

  8. 9 CFR 93.432 - Cattle from the Republic of Ireland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... importation. In addition: (1) Such herd unit may include cattle which were born and raised within such herd... reactions at 30, 60, 120, and 240 International Units per milliliter (IU/ml); (ii) Brucellosis card test... reactions, when present. (4) Cattle are eligible for entry only if classified as negative at 30 IU to...

  9. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  10. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  11. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle’s age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife—including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia’s highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies in cattle in

  12. Bovine leukemia virus and cow longevity in Michigan dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P C; Norby, B; Byrem, T M; Parmelee, A; Ledergerber, J T; Erskine, R J

    2013-03-01

    To determine the association between infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and cow longevity, a stratified random sample of 3,849 Holsteins in 112 Michigan dairy herds was followed for an average of 597 d following testing for BLV antibodies with an ELISA milk test. The hazard ratio of 1.23 indicates that BLV-positive cows were 23% more likely than their BLV-negative herd mates to die or be culled during the monitoring period. This result is adjusted for lactation number, which is also positively associated with an increased risk of leaving the herd. Because herd was included in models, the effect of BLV ELISA on cow longevity was a within-herd comparison in which BLV-infected cattle were compared with their uninfected herd mates. The analysis of 4 ELISA optical density (OD) groups demonstrated a dose response such that cows with higher OD values had decreased survival compared with cows with lower OD values. Cows with OD values above 0.5 were at 40% greater risk of dying or being culled than were their uninfected herd mates. These results support the contention that the association of BLV with cow longevity, when added to other economic impacts, may warrant the control of BLV in our US dairy cow population. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  14. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  15. Vaccine herd effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  16. Identification and physical mapping of genes expressed in the corpus luteum in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bønsdorff, T; Eggen, A; Gautier, M; Asheim, H-C; Rønningen, K; Lingaas, F; Olsaker, I

    2003-10-01

    A representational difference analysis was performed to identify genes expressed in the corpus luteum of cattle. The corpus luteum is an ovarian structure that is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Knowledge of gene expression and function of corpus luteum will be important to improve fertility in humans and domestic animals. Housekeeping genes were removed from the corpus luteum representation (tester) using skeletal muscle as the subtracting agent (driver). A total of 80 clones of the final subtraction product were analysed by sequencing and 11 new bovine gene sequences were identified (pBTCL1-11). The sequences were mapped to segments of 10 different chromosomes using a somatic cell hybrid panel and a radiation hybrid panel. With one exception the locations are in agreement with published comparative maps of cattle and man. Expression in corpus luteum was verified by RT-PCR for all the 11 clones.

  17. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle.

  18. Identification of a new Y chromosome haplogroup in Spanish native cattle.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Penedo, M C T; Valera, M; Molina, A; Millon, L; Ginja, C; Royo, L J

    2017-02-27

    The aim of this work was to perform a thorough analysis of the diversity of Y-haplotypes in Spanish cattle. A total of 207 Bos taurus males were sampled across 25 European breeds, with a special focus on rare, local Spanish populations. Animals were genotyped with five Y-specific microsatellites (INRA189, UMN0103, UMN0307, BM861 and BYM1), two indels (ZFY10 and USP9Y) and one SNP (UTY19). A new haplogroup, distinct from those described by Götherström et al. (2005), was identified and named Y1.2. Samples representing the three B. taurus Y-haplogroups were genotyped for four additional Y chromosome SNPs (rs121919254, rs121919281, rs121919323 and rs137049553). Among these SNPs, only rs121919281 was informative in B. taurus and helped to confirm the new Y1.2 haplogroup. Analysis of a larger dataset of standardized haplotypes for 1507 individuals from 57 populations from Spain, other European countries and Africa showed the new Y1.2 haplogroup to be found exclusively in Spanish breeds. This finding reinforces the importance of local Spanish cattle as reservoirs of genetic diversity as well as the importance of the Iberian Peninsula in the history of cattle.

  19. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala.

  20. Detection of Bovine IgG Isotypes in a PPA-ELISA for Johne's Disease Diagnosis in Infected Herds.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Bárbara; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Jolly, Ana; Colavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Paolicchi, Fernando Alberto; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Johne's Disease or Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis disease affecting ruminants. Detection of subclinically infected animals is difficult, hampering the control of this disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of detection of IgG isotypes in a PPA-ELISA to improve the recognition of cattle naturally infected with Map in different stages. A total of 108 animals from Tuberculosis-free herds were grouped as follows: exposed (n = 30), subclinically infected (n = 26), clinically infected (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 38). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of isotypes/PPA-ELISAs were constructed and areas under the curves were compared to evaluate the performance of each test. Our study demonstrated that the conventional PPA-ELISA (detecting IgG) is the best to identify clinically infected animals with high sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (100%). Meanwhile, IgG2/PPA-ELISA improved the number of subclinically infected cattle detected as compared with conventional IgG/PPA-ELISA (53.8 versus 23.1%). In addition, it had the maximum sensitivity (65.0%, taking into account all Map-infected cattle). In conclusion, the combination of IgG and IgG2/PPA-ELISAs may improve the identification of Map-infected cattle in different stages of disease. The usefulness of IgG2 detection in serological tests for Johne's Disease diagnosis should be further evaluated.

  1. Detection of Bovine IgG Isotypes in a PPA-ELISA for Johne's Disease Diagnosis in Infected Herds

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Bárbara; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Jolly, Ana; Colavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Paolicchi, Fernando Alberto; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Johne's Disease or Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis disease affecting ruminants. Detection of subclinically infected animals is difficult, hampering the control of this disease. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of detection of IgG isotypes in a PPA-ELISA to improve the recognition of cattle naturally infected with Map in different stages. A total of 108 animals from Tuberculosis-free herds were grouped as follows: exposed (n = 30), subclinically infected (n = 26), clinically infected (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 38). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of isotypes/PPA-ELISAs were constructed and areas under the curves were compared to evaluate the performance of each test. Our study demonstrated that the conventional PPA-ELISA (detecting IgG) is the best to identify clinically infected animals with high sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (100%). Meanwhile, IgG2/PPA-ELISA improved the number of subclinically infected cattle detected as compared with conventional IgG/PPA-ELISA (53.8 versus 23.1%). In addition, it had the maximum sensitivity (65.0%, taking into account all Map-infected cattle). In conclusion, the combination of IgG and IgG2/PPA-ELISAs may improve the identification of Map-infected cattle in different stages of disease. The usefulness of IgG2 detection in serological tests for Johne's Disease diagnosis should be further evaluated. PMID:22792511

  2. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, <200 cows) and medium-sized conventional (MC, n=13, ≥200 cows) dairy herds were visited in 2012, and farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types.

  3. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and secondary infectious causes, and 215 were sent to slaughter because of debilitation and poor milk production. The mortality of calves born to dams that had been fed the toxic concentrate was approximately 50%. We postulate that dairy cows, particularly pregnant cows, may be more susceptible to copper toxicity than other cattle, and suggest reexamination of the presently allowable maximum levels of copper supplementation of diets for dairy cattle. PMID:17423660

  4. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  5. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Russell, Christopher D; Widdison, Stephanie; Leigh, James A; Coffey, Tracey J

    2012-03-14

    Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1) are associated with clinical mastitis (CM).Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G) had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein.SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility.

  6. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1) are associated with clinical mastitis (CM). Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G) had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility. PMID:22417166

  7. Eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection in commercial dairy herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test.

    PubMed Central

    Shettigara, P T; Samagh, B S; Lobinowich, E M

    1986-01-01

    Demands for bovine leukemia virus test negative breeding cattle and for semen from bovine leukemia virus test negative bulls by several countries have encouraged the eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection from selected herds in Canada. This project was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, standardized to detect anti-bovine leukemia virus glycoprotein antibodies, for eradication of bovine leukemia virus from commercial dairy herds. Of nine participating herds, the prevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus infection was low (less than 10%) in three, medium (11-30%) in four and high (greater than 30%) in two. The herds were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, reactors were removed and the herds were then retested at regular intervals. The results indicate that it is possible to eliminate bovine leukemia virus infection from the herds after two to three cycles of agar gel immunodiffusion tests and prompt removal of the reactors. PMID:3019498

  8. Economic risk analysis model for bovine viral diarrhea virus biosecurity in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Sanderson, Michael W; Jones, Rodney; N'Guessan, Yapo; Renter, David; Larson, Robert; White, Brad J

    2014-03-01

    A stochastic model was designed to calculate the cost-effectiveness of biosecurity strategies for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds. Possible sources of BVDV introduction considered were imported animals, including the calves of pregnant imports, and fenceline contact with infected herds, including stocker cattle raised in adjacent pastures. Spread of BVDV through the herd was modeled with a stochastic SIR model. Financial consequences of BVDV, including lost income, treatment costs, and the cost of biosecurity strategies, were calculated for 10 years, based on the risks of a herd with a user-defined import profile. Results indicate that importing pregnant animals and stockers increased the financial risk of BVDV. Strategic testing in combination with vaccination most decreased the risk of high-cost outbreaks in most herds. The choice of a biosecurity strategy was specific to the risks of a particular herd.

  9. The Heritage of Herding and Southern Homicide: Examining the Ecological Foundations of the Code of Honor Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Robert D.; Zevenbergen, Matthew P.; Messner, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine the ecological foundations of the thesis of a "code of honor" as an explanation for southern homicide. Specifically, they consider the effects of indicators of ethnic groups that migrated from herding economies (the Scotch-Irish), cattle and pig herding, and the relative importance of agricultural production across…

  10. The Heritage of Herding and Southern Homicide: Examining the Ecological Foundations of the Code of Honor Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baller, Robert D.; Zevenbergen, Matthew P.; Messner, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine the ecological foundations of the thesis of a "code of honor" as an explanation for southern homicide. Specifically, they consider the effects of indicators of ethnic groups that migrated from herding economies (the Scotch-Irish), cattle and pig herding, and the relative importance of agricultural production across…

  11. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  12. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  13. Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in fecal samples collected from a range-based herd of beef cattle in California.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Sonoko; Hoar, Bruce R; Villanueva, Veronica; Mandrell, Robert E; Atwill, Edward R

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate seasonal patterns and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in a beef cattle herd and determine strain diversity and transition in E coli over time by use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). 456 samples of freshly passed feces collected over a 1-year period from cattle in a range-based cow-calf operation located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. E coli O157:H7 was recovered from feces by use of immunomagnetic separation and 2 selective media. Virulence factors were detected via reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were subtyped with MLVA and PFGE. Prevalence estimates were calculated and significant risk factors determined. A dendrogram was constructed on the basis of results of MLVA typing. Overall prevalence estimate for E coli O157:H7 was 10.5%, with the prevalence lowest during the winter. Mean temperature during the 30 days before collection of samples was significantly associated with prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces. Nineteen MLVA and 12 PFGE types were identified. A seasonal pattern was detected for prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces collected from beef cattle in California. Subtyping via MLVA and PFGE revealed a diversity of E coli O157:H7 strains in a cow-calf operation and noteworthy turnover of predominant types. Given the importance of accurately determining sources of contamination in investigations of disease outbreaks in humans, MLVA combined with PFGE should be powerful tools for epidemiologists.

  14. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M; Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Romero, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Saez-Llorente, Jose L; Diaz, Rosa; Carpintero, Jesus; de Juan, Lucia; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-06-29

    Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level.

  15. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  16. Identification of a doublet missense substitution in the bovine LRP4 gene as a candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, A; Gautier, M; Chadi, S; Grohs, C; Floriot, S; Gallard, Y; Caste, G; Ducos, A; Eggen, A

    2006-11-01

    Syndactyly in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive abnormality characterized by the fusion of the functional digits. This disorder has been previously mapped to the telomeric part of bovine chromosome 15. Here, we describe the fine-mapping of syndactyly in Holstein cattle to a 3.5-Mb critical interval using a comparative mapping approach and an extended pedigree generated by embryo transfer. We report genetic evidence for the exclusion of two genes previously suggested as candidates (EXT2 and ALX4) and describe the identification of a doublet mutation in complete linkage disequilibrium with syndactyly in one gene of the critical interval: LRP4. Finally, based on recent discoveries concerning the mouse mutants dan and mdig and a mouse knockout for Lrp4, we present solid evidence that the subsequent substitution in LRP4 exon 33 is a strong candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

  17. Unilateral nephrectomy in 10 cattle.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Susan R; Desrochers, André; Babkine, Marie; Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Nichols, Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    To describe clinical and imaging findings, treatment, and long-term outcome of cattle undergoing unilateral nephrectomy. Case series. Cattle (n=10). Medical records (January 1991-August 2008) of cattle that had unilateral nephrectomy were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by owner telephone interview. Nephrectomy was performed without surgical complications. Transient increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations occurred after surgery and then returned to, or below, presurgical values in 9 cattle. Nine cows were discharged and 7 rejoined their respective herd as productive animals without long-term complications. Ultrasonography was the most useful imaging tool for presurgical diagnosis. Based on our follow-up data, unilateral nephrectomy resulted in few serious short-term or long-term complications, and cattle undergoing this procedure are capable of satisfactory growth, reproduction, and milk production after surgery. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Use of the intradermal tuberculin test in a herd of captive elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Whipple, Diana L; Payeur, Janet B; Bolin, Carole A

    2011-03-01

    In the United States, tuberculosis of captive cervids, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, attracted attention in 1991 when investigations, prompted by the identification of a tuberculous elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) of U.S. origin exported to Canada, revealed tuberculosis in 10 different elk herds in 8 different states. Based on methods used in cattle, official regulations pertaining to testing and eradication of tuberculosis in captive cervids were added to the U.S. Department of Agriculture bovine tuberculosis eradication effort in 1994. However, little published information exists on the accuracy of intradermal tuberculin testing in naturally infected cervids. Evaluation of a captive herd of 71 animals in Wisconsin included postmortem examination and tissue sample collection from both tuberculin test responders and nonresponders. Within this captive herd, of admittedly small size, results showed the single cervical test to have a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 69%. Evaluation of diagnostic tests in the species of interest is important, as extrapolation of data obtained from other species may not be appropriate.

  19. Detection of bovine leukemia virus and identification of its genotype in Mongolian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Nishimori, Asami; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is globally distributed. However, no information regarding the disease and genetic diversity of the virus in the cattle of Mongolia is currently available. In this study, the prevalence of BLV was assessed using PCR, and the genetic diversity was analyzed through DNA sequencing. Of the 517 samples tested, 20 positives were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six, one, and four isolates were classified into genotype 4, 7, and 1, respectively. Most isolates were clustered with isolates from Eastern Europe and Russia. This study is the first to investigate the BLV genotype in Mongolia.

  20. Residues of Ractopamine and Identification of its Glucuronide Metabolites in Plasma, Urine, and Tissues of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Qingyu; Meng, Qingshi; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-11-01

    Ractopamine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use as a growth promoter on cattle a decade ago is still banned by the European Union and most Asian countries. While, ractopamine residues in living samples and some organs (besides liver, muscle and kidney) of cattle under the recommended feed condition (10-30 mg/kg in dry matter, 28-42 days) remains unclear. In this study, nine cattle (246.22 ± 18.17 kg) were fed 0.67 mg/kg body weight (equivalent to 30 mg/kg in dry matter) of ractopamine for 28 days to investigate the residues of ractopamine in plasma, urine and organs. Plasma and urine were sampled during treatment and withdrawal period. Three cattle were slaughtered on withdrawal days 0 and 3 for organs collection. Ractopamine was determined by LC-MS/MS and its glucuronide metabolites were identified by Q-TOF/MS. Ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine reached highest on treatment day 14 (2.88 ng/mL) and day 7 (4713.25 ng/mL), respectively. On withdrawal day 28, ractopamine concentrations in plasma and urine and were undetectable (limit of quantitation, 0.2 ng/mL) and 4.21 ng/mL, respectively. On withdrawal day 0, ractopamine residue in tissues were as follows: liver > eye > lung > spleen > aqueous fluid > heart > bile > kidney > gluteus > rib eye muscle. Compared with those on withdrawal day 0, ractopamine contents in most tissues that sampled on withdrawal day 3 were lower (P < 0.05), while that in the eye tissues, aqueous fluid, and kidney were stable or higher. These results provide extensive data for risk management in ractopamine approved countries and monitoring of the illegal usage in countries that ban ractopamine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Associations between bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity and performance indicators in beef suckler and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Humphry, R W; Gunn, G J

    2013-12-01

    Data from 255 Scottish beef suckler herds and 189 Scottish dairy herds surveyed as part of national bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) prevalence studies from October 2006 to May 2008 were examined retrospectively to determine the relationship between serological status and key performance indicators derived from national cattle movement records. On average, calf mortality rates were 1.35 percentage points higher in seropositive beef herds and 3.05 percentage points higher in seropositive dairy herds than in negative control herds. Seropositive beef herds were also more likely to show increases in calf mortality rates and culling rates between successive years. There were no discernible effects of BVDV on the average age at first calving or calving interval for either herd type. Accompanying questionnaire data revealed that only 27% of beef farmers and 25% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds thought their cattle were affected by BVDV, which suggests that the clinical effects of exposure may be inapparent under field conditions or masked by other causes of reproductive failure and culling. Beef farmers were significantly more likely to perceive a problem when their herd experienced acute changes in calf mortality rates, culling rates, and calving intervals between successive years. However, only 35% of these perceived positive herds were actually seropositive for BVDV. These findings emphasize both the importance of routinely screening herds to determine their true infection status and the potential for using national cattle movement records to identify herds that may be experiencing outbreaks from BVDV or other infectious diseases that impact herd performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  3. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  4. Apparent seroprevalence, isolation and identification of risk factors for brucellosis among dairy cattle in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ajay D; Dubal, Z B; Karunakaran, M; Doijad, Swapnil P; Raorane, Abhay V; Dhuri, R B; Bale, M A; Chakurkar, Eaknath B; Kalorey, Dewanand R; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonotic infection affecting livestock and human beings. The disease has been reported worldwide except in few countries where it has been eradicated. The prevalence of brucellosis among cattle from 11 farms having a history of abortions was studied. A total of 481 samples comprising of blood, milk, vaginal swabs, vaginal discharges, placental tissues and fetal tissues were collected from 296 animals. Clinical samples were processed for the isolation of Brucella. Serum samples (n=296) were tested by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA. A total of 90 (30.40%) and 123 (41.55%) samples were positive by RBPT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Also 27.02% samples were positive by both the tests. Brucella isolates (n= 8) were recovered from clinical samples using Brucella selective media. All the isolates demonstrated PCR amplification for the bcsp31 and IS711 genes. Amplification of Brucella abortus specific primer was demonstrated by all the isolates in AMOS PCR indicating isolates to be of either B. abortus biotype 1, 2 or 4. Risk factors for transmission of brucellosis among cattle population were studied by field surveys. It was observed that lack of awareness about brucellosis (OR=8.739, P=0.138) and inadequate floor space (OR=0.278, P=0.128) were crucial risk factors for transmission of bovine brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a range cattle herd in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives –(1) Identify the seasonal pattern and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in range cattle in California, (2) Determine strain diversity and transition over time using Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Samp...

  6. Understanding Herd Immunity.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, C J E; Ferrari, M; Graham, A L; Grenfell, B T

    2015-12-01

    Individual immunity is a powerful force affecting host health and pathogen evolution. Importantly, the effects of individual immunity also scale up to affect pathogen transmission dynamics and the success of vaccination campaigns for entire host populations. Population-scale immunity is often termed 'herd immunity'. Here we outline how individual immunity maps to population outcomes and discuss implications for control of infectious diseases. Particular immunological characteristics may be more or less likely to result in a population level signature of herd immunity; we detail this and also discuss other population-level outcomes that might emerge from individual-level immunity.

  7. Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

    2013-01-01

    While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0

  8. Identification of T-2 Toxin in Moldy Corn Associated with a Lethal Toxicosis in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ih-Chang; Smalley, E. B.; Strong, F. M.; Ribelin, William E.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 5-month period during the winter of 1970-71, 20% of the lactating Holstein cows in a Wisconsin dairy herd died after prolonged ingestion of a diet containing 60% moldy corn infested with Fusarium tricinctum (2 × 105 propagules per g of moldy corn). Ethyl acetate extracts of the ground dried corn induced severe dermal reactions when applied to the skin of shaved 60-g albino rats and killed four of five 100-g rats that were force fed 1 ml in 2 ml of pure corn oil. T-2 toxin (3-hydroxy-4, 15-diacetoxy-8-[3-methylbutyryloxy]-12, 13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene) at concentrations of 2 mg per kg of dry corn was identified in purified extracts of the moldy corn by means of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This concentration of T-2 toxin in the moldy feed and the nature of the toxic effects observed strongly suggest a major causal relationship. PMID:4640734

  9. Identification of T-2 toxin in moldy corn associated with a lethal toxicosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hsu, I C; Smalley, E B; Strong, F M; Ribelin, W E

    1972-11-01

    Over a 5-month period during the winter of 1970-71, 20% of the lactating Holstein cows in a Wisconsin dairy herd died after prolonged ingestion of a diet containing 60% moldy corn infested with Fusarium tricinctum (2 x 10(5) propagules per g of moldy corn). Ethyl acetate extracts of the ground dried corn induced severe dermal reactions when applied to the skin of shaved 60-g albino rats and killed four of five 100-g rats that were force fed 1 ml in 2 ml of pure corn oil. T-2 toxin (3-hydroxy-4, 15-diacetoxy-8-[3-methylbutyryloxy]-12, 13-epoxy-Delta(9)-trichothecene) at concentrations of 2 mg per kg of dry corn was identified in purified extracts of the moldy corn by means of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This concentration of T-2 toxin in the moldy feed and the nature of the toxic effects observed strongly suggest a major causal relationship.

  10. Molecular detection and identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shinuo; Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Yu, Longzheng; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Yan; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yamagishi, Junya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Maeda, Ryuichiro; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Xuan, Xuenan

    2012-09-01

    Although Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infections cause economic losses in the cattle industry in northern Thailand, there is inadequate information on Babesia isolates present in the area. Therefore, to determine the prevalence and genetic relationship between Babesia isolates, we screened 200 blood samples of cattle from Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang provinces of northern Thailand. A nested polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting B. bovis spherical body protein 2 (BboSBP2) and B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a) genes revealed a prevalence of 12 and 21 % for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively, while that of mixed infections was 6.5 % samples. The prevalences of B. bovis in Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang were 9.5, 3.7, and 25.5 %, respectively. For B. bigemina, the prevalences were 15.8, 12.9, and 39.2 % in Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang, respectively. Mixed infections with B. bovis and B. bigemina were 6.3 % in Chiang Rai, 1.9 % in Chiang Mai, and 13.7 % in Lumpang. The identical sequences of either BboSBP2 gene or BbiRAP-1a gene were shared among the Babesia isolates in the three provinces of northern Thailand. Further analysis using the internal transcribed spacer gene revealed at least four genotypes for B. bovis and five genotypes for B. bigemina in northern Thailand, while the sequences present great genetic diversities in the different isolates. Overall, we have demonstrated a high prevalence and polymorphism of Babesia parasites in northern Thailand calling for the need to design effective control programs for bovine babesiosis.

  11. Influence of Therapeutic Ceftiofur Treatments of Feedlot Cattle on Fecal and Hide Prevalences of Commensal Escherichia coli Resistant to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins, and Molecular Characterization of Resistant Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dee; Kuehn, Larry A.; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, the blaCMY-2 gene contained within incompatibility type A/C (IncA/C) plasmids is frequently identified in extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant (ESCr) Escherichia coli strains from both human and cattle sources. Concerns have been raised that therapeutic use of ceftiofur in cattle may increase the prevalence of ESCr E. coli. We report that herd ESCr E. coli fecal and hide prevalences throughout the residency of cattle at a feedlot, including during the period of greatest ceftiofur use at the feedlot, were either not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) or significantly less (P < 0.05) than the respective prevalences at arrival. Longitudinal sampling of cattle treated with ceftiofur demonstrated that once the transient increase of ESCr E. coli shedding that follows ceftiofur injection abated, ceftiofur-injected cattle were no more likely than untreated members of the same herd to shed ESCr E. coli. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, screening for presence of the blaCMY-2 gene, and plasmid replicon typing were performed on 312 ESCr E. coli isolates obtained during six sampling periods spanning the 10-month residence of cattle at the feedlot. The identification of only 26 unique PFGE genotypes, 12 of which were isolated during multiple sampling periods, suggests that clonal expansion of feedlot-adapted blaCMY-2 E. coli strains contributed more to the persistence of blaCMY-2 than horizontal transfer of IncA/C plasmids between E. coli strains at this feedlot. We conclude that therapeutic use of ceftiofur at this cattle feedlot did not significantly increase the herd prevalence of ESCr E. coli. PMID:23354706

  12. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  13. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  14. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  15. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  16. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  17. 9 CFR 51.5 - Identification of animals to be destroyed because of brucellosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.5... paragraph (b)(4) of this section, cattle and bison to be destroyed because of brucellosis shall be... cattle and bison in herds scheduled for herd depopulation may be moved interstate without eartagging...

  18. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  19. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    PubMed

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Identification of a Mycoplasma ovis-like organism in a herd of farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in rural Indiana.

    PubMed

    Boes, Katie M; Goncarovs, Kristina O; Thompson, Craig A; Halik, Lindsay A; Santos, Andrea P; Guimaraes, Ana M S; Feutz, Marybeth Miskovic; Holman, Patricia J; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Messick, Joanne B

    2012-03-01

    Mycoplasma ovis is a hemoplasma parasite of sheep, goats, and reindeer; however, natural hemoplasma infection in white-tailed deer has not previously been reported. Subsequent to finding many coccoid, bacillary, and ring-shaped organisms, consistent with hemotropic mycoplasmas, on RBCs from a 72-day-old female white-tailed fawn, we sought to (1) identify the putative hemoplasma observed in blood from the fawn, (2) evaluate others in the herd for hemoplasma infection, and (3) identify clinicopathologic characteristics of hemoplasma-infected white-tailed deer. EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood was collected from the fawn and 8 apparently healthy does in the same herd. CBCs were performed on 7 nonclotted samples from the fawn and 6 does. DNA was extracted from all samples, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial (16S rDNA) and protozoal (18S rDNA) genes. The nearly complete 16S rDNA product from the fawn's sample was directly sequenced and compared with known sequences in the GenBank database. Samples from the fawn and 7 of 8 does were PCR-positive using hemoplasma-specific and M ovis-specific protocols. The fawn was PCR-negative for Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. The 16S rDNA sequence from the fawn (GenBank accession number, FJ824847) was most closely related to M ovis (AF338268), having 98.5% sequence identity. The fawn had a mild nonregenerative anemia, a neutrophilic left-shift with toxic change, aspiration bronchopneumonia, and gastrointestinal disease. Hematologic values, including blood film evaluation, in infected does were unremarkable. The M ovis-like organism may have acted as either an opportunistic or primary pathogen in the fawn. The high occurrence of subclinical infections in the does suggests that white-tailed deer may act as wildlife reservoirs for M ovis. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and discovery of a haplotype affecting fertility for Ayrshire dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; Null, D J; Hutchison, J L; Cole, J B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009. As of January 2013, 1,023 Ayrshires had genotypes in the North American database. Evaluation accuracy was assessed using genomic evaluations based on 646 bulls with 2008 traditional evaluations to predict daughter performance of up to 180 bulls in 2012. Mean gain in reliability over parent average for all traits was 8.2 percentage points. The highest gains were for protein yield (16.9 percentage points), milk yield (16.6 percentage points), and stature (16.2 percentage points). Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms were useful for Ayrshire breed determination. Fewer breed-determining SNP were available for Ayrshires than for Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss because of the similarity of Ayrshires and Holsteins. A haplotype that affects fertility was identified on chromosome 17 and traces back in the genotyped population to the bull Selwood Betty's Commander (born in 1953). The haplotype carrier frequency for genotyped Ayrshires was 26.1%. Sire conception rate was decreased by 4.3 ± 2.5 percentage points for carriers of the haplotype as determined by 618 matings of carrier sire by carrier maternal grandsire. Genomic evaluations for Ayrshires were officially implemented in the United States in April 2013. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Residues of Salbutamol and Identification of Its Metabolites in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi; Du, Wei; Bo, Tao; Zhao, Qingyu; Liang, Xiaowei; Liu, Shengsheng; Zhang, Zhixu; Zhang, Junmin

    2017-04-05

    Salbutamol, a selective β2-agonist, endangers the safety of animal products because of its illegal use in food animals. In this work, residues of salbutamol and its metabolites were investigated to select appropriate targets and marker residues for monitoring the illegal use of salbutamol. Ten metabolites of salbutamol were identified from plasma, urine, liver, and kidney samples; of these, six were newly identified. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) between the parent (nonconjugated) and total (conjugated + nonconjugated) salbutamol concentrations in plasma, urine, liver, and kidney tissues. Salbutamol residues in urine were relatively higher than those in plasma and other internal tissues during the dosing period and were rapidly eliminated from plasma, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues during the withdrawal time. Total salbutamol was identified as more preferable than parent salbutamol as a marker residue, and urine and eye tissues were found to be more suitable as targets for preslaughter and postslaughter monitoring of the illegal use of salbutamol in beef cattle.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Volatile Components Causing the Characteristic Flavor of Wagyu Beef (Japanese Black Cattle).

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Satsuki; Amano, Yohei; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-09-21

    To clarify the characteristic sweet aroma of Wagyu (Japanese Black Cattle), aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was applied to the volatile fractions of Wagyu and Australia beefs. Some 20 odor-active peaks were detected, and 17 odorants were identified or tentatively identified. Among the perceived odorants, most of them were newly identified from the Wagyu beef. The main constituents of the potent odorants were aldehydes and ketones, which are known as the degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. In addition, the most potent odorant was trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, which is known to be the oxidation product of polyunsaturated acids, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, that were significantly included in the lipids of the Wagyu. Accordingly, these findings strongly suggested that the kind of fatty acid constituting lipids of the Wagyu plays an important role in the formation of the characteristic aroma of the Wagyu beef.

  4. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship.

  5. Cattle and pastoralism: survival and production in arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Western, D.; Finch, V.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional subsistence pastoralists in East Africa tend to keep large herds, milk cattle in preference to eating them, and subject them to long foraging treks. Such practices are widely considered ill-suited to arid lands and are believed to arise because cattle are raised more for social prestige than food production. Whether this is true can only be judged by considering the responses of cattle to arid zones and, given the herder's goals and options, his management practices. In considering these factors, we show that indigenous East African cattle demonstrate energy-sparing capabilities during drought. Pastoralists can therefore herd cattle at great distances from water at little more cost than animals on the normal maintenance diet and watered more frequently. The physiological response of cattle to drought, the ecological constraints imposed by livestock and wildlife competition, and the energetic efficiency of mixed milk and meat pastoralism explain why herders traditionally select their characteristic management practices.

  6. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Tauer, Loren W; Sanderson, Michael W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2014-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2-3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2-4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal's herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times.

  7. Minimum cost to control bovine tuberculosis in cow-calf herds

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Tauer, Loren W.; Sanderson, Michael W.; Grohn, Yrjo T.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks in US cattle herds, while rare, are expensive to control. A stochastic model for bTB control in US cattle herds was adapted to more accurately represent cow-calf herd dynamics and was validated by comparison to 2 reported outbreaks. Control cost calculations were added to the model, which was then optimized to minimize costs for either the farm or the government. The results of the optimization showed that test-and-removal costs were minimized for both farms and the government if only 2 negative whole-herd tests were required to declare a herd free of infection, with a 2–3 month testing interval. However, the optimal testing interval for governments was increased to 2–4 months if the model was constrained to reject control programs leading to an infected herd being declared free of infection. Although farms always preferred test-and-removal to depopulation from a cost standpoint, government costs were lower with depopulation more than half the time in 2 of 8 regions. Global sensitivity analysis showed that indemnity costs were significantly associated with a rise in the cost to the government, and that low replacement rates were responsible for the long time to detection predicted by the model, but that improving the sensitivity of slaughterhouse screening and the probability that a slaughtered animal’s herd of origin can be identified would result in faster detection times. PMID:24703601

  8. Genomic Approach to Identification of Mycobacterium bovis Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Claus; Govaerts, Marc; Meng Okkels, Limei; Andersen, Peter; Pollock, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Differential delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing with tuberculin purified protein derivatives from Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium is the standard for diagnosing bovine tuberculosis. However, improved tests based on defined, specific antigens are urgently needed. In the present study, a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and bovine models of infection were used to screen mycobacterial proteins for their potential as diagnostic reagents which could be used in a whole-blood assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Initial screening of 28 proteins selected in silico and expressed as recombinants in Escherichia coli indicated that CFP-10, ESAT-6, TB27.4, TB16.2, TB15.8, and TB10.4 induced strong gamma interferon responses in experimentally infected cattle. A more thorough investigation over time in two groups of animals infected with a high (106 CFU) and a low (104 CFU) dose of M. bovis revealed that, for both groups, the strength of the in vitro response to individual antigens varied greatly over time. However, combining the results for ESAT-6, CFP-10, and TB27.4, possibly supplemented with TB10.4, gave sensitivities at different infection stages close to those obtained with M. bovis purified protein derivative. Importantly, while responsiveness to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 correlated strongly for individual samples, the same was not the case for ESAT-6 and TB27.4 responsiveness. The results suggest that combinations of specific antigens such as these have great potential in development of optimized diagnostic systems for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:12904381

  9. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of novel and divergent HoBi-like pestiviruses from naturally infected cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Rajukumar, K; Pateriya, A; Kumar, M; Dubey, P; Behera, S P; Verma, A; Bhardwaj, P; Kulkarni, D D; Vijaykrishna, D; Reddy, N D

    2014-11-07

    HoBi-like pestiviruses have been sporadically reported from naturally infected cattle in South America, Asia and Europe. While the closely related bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 have been reported from cattle in India, the prevalence and diversity of HoBi-like viruses have not yet been studied. Here we report the genetic diversity and molecular characteristics of HoBi-like viruses, through systematic surveillance in cattle (n=1049) from 21 dairy farms across India during 2012-2013. On the basis of real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing results, of the 20 pestivirus positive cattle, HoBi-like viruses were identified in 19 cattle from four farms in three states and BVDV-1b in one cattle. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'-UTR and N(pro) region identified the circulation of two lineages of HoBi-like viruses in India, that were distinct to those circulating globally, highlighting the independent evolution of at least three lineages of HoBi-like viruses globally. Antigenic differences were also evident between the two Indian lineages. In addition to revealing that HoBi-like virus may be more widespread in Indian cattle than previously reported, this study shows greater genetic divergence of HoBi-like viruses indicating a need for continued pestivirus surveillance in cattle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Garner, J B; Douglas, M L; Williams, S R O; Wales, W J; Marett, L C; Nguyen, T T T; Reich, C M; Hayes, B J

    2016-09-29

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events.

  12. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  13. Applied epidemiology: another tool in dairy herd health programs?

    PubMed

    Frankena, K; Noordhuizen, J P; Stassen, E N

    1994-01-01

    Data bases of herd health programs concern data from individual animals mainly. Several parameters that determine herd performance can be calculated from these programs, and by comparing actual values with standard values, areas for further improvement of health (and production) can be advised. However, such advice is usually not backed up by the proper statistical analyses. Moreover, data concerning the environment of the animals are not present and hence advice concerning multifactorial diseases are based on common knowledge and experience. Veterinary epidemiology offers methods that might improve the value of herd health programs by identification and quantification of factors and conditions contributing to multifactorial disease occurrence. Implementation of these methods within herd health programs will lead to more scientifically sound advice.

  14. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in low incidence regions related to the movements of cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Officially Tuberculosis Free recognition (1) to investigate the risks associated with the movements of cattle from herds with different bTB risk classifications and (2) to identify herd demographic characteristics that may aid in the interpretation of tuberculin testing results. Results From 2002 to 2009, for every herd with confirmed bTB positive cattle identified through routine herd testing, there was an average of 2.8 herds with at least one unconfirmed positive reactor and 18.9 herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors. Approximately 75% of confirmed bTB positive herds were detected through cattle with no known movements outside Scotland. At the animal level, cattle that were purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed positive reactors and a recent history importing cattle from endemic bTB regions were significantly more likely to react positively on routine intradermal tuberculin tests, while cattle purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors were significantly more likely to react inconclusively. Case-case comparisons revealed few demographic differences between herds with confirmed positive, unconfirmed positive, and unconfirmed inconclusive reactors, which highlights the difficulty in determining the true disease status of herds with unconfirmed tuberculin reactors. Overall, the risk of identifying reactors through routine surveillance decreased significantly over time, which may be partly attributable to changes in movement testing regulations

  15. Schmallenberg virus in Dutch dairy herds: potential risk factors for high within-herd seroprevalence and malformations in calves, and its impact on productivity.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, A M B; Carp-van Dijken, S; van Wuijckhuise, L; Witteveen, G; van Schaik, G

    2014-01-31

    In November 2011, the new orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was identified in dairy cows that had induced fever, drop in milk production and diarrhoea in the Netherlands (Muskens et al., 2012. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137, 112-115) and a drop in milk production in cows in Northwestern Germany (Hoffmann et al., 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18 (3), 469-472), in August/September 2011. This study aimed at quantifying risk factors for high within-herd prevalence of SBV and SBV-induced malformations in newborn calves in dairy herds in the Netherlands. Additionally, the within-herd impact of SBV infection on mortality rates and milk production was estimated. A case-control design was used, including 75 clinically affected case herds and 74 control herds. Control herds were selected based on absence of malformations in newborn calves and anomalies in reproductive performance. SBV-specific within-herd seroprevalences were estimated. Risk factors for high within-herd SBV seroprevalence (>50%) and the probability of malformed newborn calves in a herd were quantified. In addition, within-herd impact of SBV with regard to milk production and mortality was estimated. Animal-level seroprevalence was 84.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 70.8-92.3) in case herds and 75.8% (95% CI: 67.5-82.5) in control herds. Control herds that were completely free from SBV were not present in the study. Herds that were grazed in 2011 had an increased odds (OR 9.9; 95% CI: 2.4-41.2)) of a high seroprevalence (>50%) compared to herds that were kept indoors. Also, when grazing was applied in 2011, the odds of malformations in newborn calves tended to be 2.6 times higher compared to herds in which cattle were kept indoors. Incidence of malformations in newborn calves at herd level was associated with both within-herd seroprevalence and clinical expression of the disease in adult cattle. The rate of vertical transmission of SBV to the fetus once a dam gets infected seemed low. A

  16. Ruminal paramphistomosis in cattle from northeastern Algeria: prevalence, parasite burdens and species identification

    PubMed Central

    Titi, Amal; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Chibat, Mohamed el Hadi; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F.; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse samples were analysed over a two-year period (September 2010–August 2012) in Jijel (northeastern Algeria) in order to determine seasonal variations in the prevalence and intensity of bovine paramphistomosis in a Mediterranean climate and identify paramphistome species using molecular biology. In spring and summer, significantly higher prevalences and lower parasite burdens were noted in bull calves, thus indicating an effect of season on these parameters. In contrast, the differences among seasonal prevalences or among seasonal parasite burdens were not significant in the case of old cows. Eleven adult worms from the slaughterhouses of Jijel and three neighbouring departments (Constantine, El Tarf and Setif) were analysed using molecular markers for species identification. Two different species, Calicophoron daubneyi and C. microbothrium, were found. The presence of these two paramphistomids raises the question of their respective frequency in the definitive host and local intermediate hosts. PMID:25279553

  17. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  18. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  19. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Ho, Chak-Sum; Vadekær, Dorte Fink

    2014-12-15

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genomic region (SLA) is extremely polymorphic comprising high numbers of different alleles, many encoding a distinct MHC class I molecule, which binds and presents endogenous peptides to circulating T cells of the immune system. Upon recognition of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth-disease virus and others. Here we present the use of low- and high-resolution PCR-based typing methods to identify individual and commonly occurring SLA class I alleles in Danish swine. A total of 101 animals from seven different herds were tested, and by low resolution typing the top four most frequent SLA class I alleles were those of the allele groups SLA-3*04XX, SLA-1*08XX, SLA-2*02XX, and SLA-1*07XX, respectively. Customised high resolution primers were used to identify specific alleles within the above mentioned allele groups as well as within the SLA-2*05XX allele group. Our studies also suggest the most common haplotype in Danish pigs to be Lr-4.0 expressing the SLA-1*04XX, SLA-2*04XX, and SLA-3*04XX allele combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 9 CFR 55.23 - Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... control and deer, elk, and moose herd certification activities and that cites relevant State statutes... in the interstate movement of deer, elk, and moose regarding the identification and recordkeeping... numbers; (ii) Individual animal information on all deer, elk, and moose in herds participating in the...

  1. 9 CFR 55.23 - Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... control and deer, elk, and moose herd certification activities and that cites relevant State statutes... in the interstate movement of deer, elk, and moose regarding the identification and recordkeeping... numbers; (ii) Individual animal information on all deer, elk, and moose in herds participating in the...

  2. Distribution of BoLA-DRB3 allelic frequencies and identification of a new allele in the iranian cattle breed sistani (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nassiry, M R; Mosafer, J; Mohammadabadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2009-02-01

    The distribution of the frequencies of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles in the Iranian cattle breed Sistani was studied by the PCR-RFLP ("hemi-nested") assay using restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI. In the examined cattle breed (65 animals) 32 alleles have been identified one of which being described for the first time (6.15% frequency). The nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic region of exon 2 of this allele has been determined and submitted in the GeneBank database under accession number DQ486519. The submitted sequence has maximum homology (92%) with the previously described sequence DRB3-mRNA from Bos indicus (AccN X79346) and differs from it by 24 nucleotide substitutions which result in 16 amino acid substitutions. The peptide (on the basis of the reconstructed amino acid sequence) has 89% identity to the sequence encoded by the BIDRBF 188 locus (Bos indicus). The results obtained permit the sequence described by us to be considered as a new allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene (DRB3.2**X). The total frequency of the main six alleles (DRB3.2*X, *10, *11, *20, *34 and *X) occurring with a frequency of over 5% is about 60% in Iranian Sistani cattle. Fifteen alleles have <1% frequency. The highest frequency was observed for DRB3.2*8 allele (21.54%) like in other previously described breeds of Bos indicus (up to 23.07%). The Iranian breed Sistani has a high level of similarity by the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles and their frequencies to other Bos indicus breeds and significantly differs by these criteria from the Bos taurus breeds. The Iranian Sistani herd under study includes alleles associated with to resistance to leukemia (DRB3.2*ll and *23) and to different forms of mastitis (DRB3.2*2, *7, *11, *23 and *24) although their frequencies are low (from 0.77 to 5.37%). On the whole, a high level of diversity of BoLA-DRB3 gene alleles and the availability of alleles associated with resistance to different diseases makes this breed of interest for breeding practice.

  3. Identification of recently selected mutations driven by artificial selection in hanwoo (korean cattle).

    PubMed

    Lim, Dajeong; Gondro, Cedric; Park, Hye Sun; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Yang, Bo Suk; Hong, Seong Koo; Chang, Won Kyung; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2013-05-01

    Hanwoo have been subjected over the last seventy years to intensive artificial selection with the aim of improving meat production traits such as marbling and carcass weight. In this study, we performed a signature of selection analysis to identify recent positive selected regions driven by a long-term artificial selection process called a breeding program using whole genome SNP data. In order to investigate homozygous regions across the genome, we estimated iES (integrated Extended Haplotype Homozygosity SNP) for the each SNPs. As a result, we identified two highly homozygous regions that seem to be strong and/or recent positive selection. Five genes (DPH5, OLFM3, S1PR1, LRRN1 and CRBN) were included in this region. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection, we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the iES value of SNPs localized close or within them. We also described the detection of the adaptive evolution at the molecular level for the genes of interest. As a result, this analysis also led to the identification of OLFM3 as having a strong signal of selection in bovine lineage. The results of this study indicate that artificial selection which might have targeted most of these genes was mainly oriented towards improvement of meat production.

  4. Herding and snaking by the harem stallion in domestic herds.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Lara, Antonietta; Leoni, Marco; Bergfelt, D R

    2002-05-01

    Four herds of pony mares, each consisting of a stallion and six mares, were used to characterize the nature of herding by the stallion and the factors that induced the herding behavior. Herding behaviors were compared among four successive treatments (six mares alone, stallion added, two new mares added, and entire herd moved to a new pasture). A new treatment was initiated every 7 days and behavior was studied for 5 consecutive days (Days 1-5) for each treatment. Observations were made every 10 min during a 2-h period for each day. The extent of herding was quantitated by the mean distances between mares. The extent of snaking (herding with the head and neck extended and ears held back) was scored 0, 1, 2, or 3 (nil, minimal, intermediate, and maximal, respectively). The mean distance among the original mares on Day 1 when the mares were alone was 5.0 mare lengths and was reduced (P < 0.05) to 1.9 mare lengths when the stallion was added. The mean distance among the original mares of an established stallion/mare herd (3.8 mare lengths) was reduced (P < 0.05) on the day the herd was moved to a new pasture (1.9 mare lengths), similar to the effect of the introduction of the stallion. Scores for the extent of snaking, as well as the extent of herding, were highest (P < 0.05) on Day 1 when the stallion was added or the stallion/mare herd was moved to a new pasture. The extent of herding and snaking decreased (P < 0.05) by Day 2 and was seen only occasionally on Days 3-5. The addition of new mares to the herd did not induce herding of the original mares. However, the new mares maintained mean distances of 8-12 mare lengths from the original mares, resulting primarily from chasing by the stallion. By Day 4, the distances between the new and original mares were not different (P > 0.05) from the distances among the original mares.

  5. Identification of novel seroreactive antigens in Johne’s disease cattle using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Johne’s disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relations...

  6. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 1: seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Moloney, B J; Kirkland, P D; Heuer, C

    2017-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across New South Wales (NSW) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors. Cross-sectional survey of beef breeding cows (n = 3298) from 63 properties (approximately 55 cows per herd) sampled randomly from six regions in NSW using a multistage survey design. Samples were tested by ELISA for N. caninum. Seroprevalence was determined at animal and herd levels, using an analysis approach to account for stratification, sample weighting and within-herd clustering. Animal-level seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% across regions and the overall animal seroprevalence for NSW was 5.9%. The mean within-herd seroprevalence was 5.2%. The herd seroprevalence ranged from 50% to 92%, with an overall point estimate for NSW of 63.8% (using ≥ 1 animal positive = herd positive). The within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 1.6% to 32.7% Prevalence and associated confidence limits were adjusted for the design of the survey. Overall, about two-thirds of all herds in NSW showed evidence of infection, but the seroprevalence of N. caninum in individual beef cattle in NSW was low to moderate (1.8-11.3%). Significant differences occurred between regions. The risk for herds being positive for N. caninum was associated with geographic factors, particularly in the Mid-North Coast Region. © 2017 State of New South Wales.

  7. Preliminary observations on Mycobacterium spp. in dairy cattle in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Proaño-Perez, Freddy; Rigouts, Leen; Brandt, Jef; Dorny, Pierre; Ron, Jorge; Chavez, Maria-Augusta; Rodriguez, Richar; Fissette, Krista; Van Aerde, Anita; Portaels, Françoise; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated bovine tuberculosis in Mejia canton, a major dairy cattle production region in Ecuador. Randomly selected cattle (1,012 from 59 farms) classified according to herd size were tested by the single tuberculin test (STT). Sixty days later, positive reactors were tested again by the comparative tuberculin test (CTT). In addition, tissue samples from two STT-CTT-positive reactors detected on a farm were obtained in a local slaughterhouse and analyzed bacteriologically. A total of 4.24% of the cattle were positive in the STT and 3.85% were positive in the CTT, with the highest number (7.95%) in large herds versus 3.4% in medium herds and 0.3% in small herds. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes and lungs of one animal. A 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction confirmed culture results and differentiated mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis. This study confirms the zoonotic importance of tuberculosis in Ecuadorian dairy cattle with herd size likely to be a crucial parameter in the prevalence of the disease. The implementation of a national control program is necessary and should be based on the detection of positive cattle by STT in combination with CTT.

  8. Immunological control of ticks and tick-borne diseases that impact cattle health and production in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cattle industry is one of the most important agroeconomic activities in Mexico. The national herd is estimated to include approximately 33.5 million head of cattle. Ticks and tick-borne diseases are principal factors with a negative impact on cattle health and production in Mexico. The most econ...

  9. Questionnaire identifying management practices surrounding calving on spring-calving dairy farms and their associations with herd size and herd expansion.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Berry, D P; Sayers, R; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    Healthy calves are fundamental to any profitable dairy enterprise. Research to-date, has focused on year-round calving systems which experience many different challenges compared to spring-calving systems. The objective of the present study was to determine the on-farm dry cow, calving, and colostrum management practices of spring-calving dairy production systems, and quantify their associations with herd size and herd expansion status (i.e. expanding or not expanding). Information on these management practices was available from a survey of 262 Irish spring-calving dairy farmers, representative of the Irish national population. Herd expansion in the 2 years before, and the year that the survey was conducted was not associated with any of the management practices investigated. Fifty-three percent of respondents had an average calving season length of 10 to14 weeks with 35% of herds having a longer calving season. Previous research in cattle has documented that both colostrum source and feeding management are associated with the transmission of infectious disease from cow to calf. In the present study 60% of respondents fed calves colostrum from their own dam; however, 66% of those respondents allowed the calf to suckle the dam, 23% of survey respondents fed calves pooled colostrum. Larger herds were more likely (P<0.01) to use pooled colostrum supplies, while smaller herds were more likely (P<0.05) to allow the calf to suckle the dam. The majority (86%) of respondents had stored supplies of colostrum; average-sized herds had the greatest likelihood of storing colostrum (P<0.05), compared to other herd sizes; larger sized herds had a lesser likelihood (P<0.05) of storing colostrum in a freezer, compared to other herd sizes. Although freezing colostrum was the most common method used to store colostrum (54% of respondents), 17% of respondents stored colostrum at room temperature, 29% of which stored it at room temperature for greater than 4 days. The results from the

  10. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  11. The view from above: The potential of aerial surveillance in identifying CWD infected herds.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Introduction. Large mammals such as domestic cattle and red deer have been reported to align themselves with the magnetic North Pole. Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects the behavior of infected cervids, it may be possible to estimate the infection rate, at a herd level, by det...

  12. Herd health status and management practices on 16 Irish suckler beef farms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few studies published internationally which document herd health management practices in suckler beef herds and no published Irish studies. The study objective was to document herd health status and management practices on sixteen Irish suckler beef herds over a two year period (2009–2010). The farms used in the study were part of the Teagasc BETTER farm beef programme. The mean (s.d.) herd size, stocking rate and farm size was 68 cows (27.6), 2.0 LU/ha (0.3) and 64.3 (21.6) adjusted hectares, respectively. Two questionnaires were designed; 1) a farmer questionnaire to collect information on farm background and current herd health control practices and 2) a veterinary questionnaire to collect information on the extent of animal health advice given by veterinarians to their clients and identification of any on-farm herd health issues. Results Dystocia, calf pneumonia, and calf diarrhoea, in that order, were identified as the primary herd health issues in these Irish suckler beef herds. In addition, substantial deficiencies in biosecurity practices were also identified on these farms. Conclusions The findings of this study may serve as the focus for future research in animal health management practices in Irish suckler beef herds. PMID:24195997

  13. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.

  14. Identification of Selection Signatures in Cattle Breeds Selected for Dairy Production

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lazzari, Barbara; Boettcher, Paul

    2010-01-01

    phenotypic records and can contribute to the identification of candidate genes and to the understanding of the biological mechanisms controlling complex traits. PMID:20479146

  15. Traditional ecological knowledge underlying herding decisions of pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Tamou, C; de Boer, I J M; Ripoll-Bosch, R; Oosting, S J

    2017-08-29

    Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic

  16. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  17. Analysis and frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) alleles in Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nassiry, M R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Mosafer, J; Mohammadi, A; Manshad, E; Ghazanfari, S; Mohammad Abadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2005-06-01

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune response by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. DRB3 gene has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for association with various bovine diseases and immunological traits. This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 in Iranian Holstein cattle. This is the first study of the DNA polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian Holstein cattle. Hemi-nested PCR-RFLP method is used for identification the frequency of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. The BoLA-DRB3 locus is highly polymorphic in the studied herd (26 alleles). Almost 67% of the alleles were accounted for four alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*8, *24, *11 and *16) in Iranian Holstein cattle. The DRB3.2*8 allele frequency (26.6%) was higher than the others. The frequencies of the DRB3.2*54, *37, *36, *28, *25, *14, *13, *10, *1 alleles were lower than 1%. Significant distinctions have been found between Iranian Holstein cattle and other cattle breeds studied. In Iranian Holstein cattle the alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*22, *2 and *16) associated with a lower risk of cystic ovarian disease in Holstein cattle are found. The alleles associated with the resistance to mastitis and to bovine leukemia virus infection BoLA-DRB3.2*11 and *23 are detected with the frequencies 10.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Thus in the Iranian Holstein cows studied are found alleles which are associated with resistance to various diseases. The method of DNA-typing of animals can be used in agricultural practice for BoLA-DRB3 allele genotyping of cattle in order to reduce spreading of alleles providing susceptibility to mastitis or leukemia in cattle herds.

  18. Diagnosis and management of bovine babesiosis outbreaks in cattle in Punjab state

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Mandeep Singh; Mahajan, Vishal; Filia, Gursimran; Kaur, Paramjit; Singh, Amarjit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose severe outbreaks of bovine babesiosis in Punjab state, in the year 2015 and to suggest control and preventive measures to animal owners. Materials and Methods: Mortality of animals was recorded in two cattle herd comprising a total of 465 cattle in Sangrur (n=125) and Faridkot (n=340) districts. There was a history of purchase of animals at one farm. 23 blood samples were collected from diseased (n=15) and healthy animals (n=8) for hematological analysis, parasitological, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis. Ticks were also collected from animals for identification. Results: Out of 465 cattle at risk, 28 were critically ill and 14 died of disease with morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rate of 6.02%, 3.01%, and 50.00%, respectively. Clinical signs and necropsy findings were suggestive of babesiosis. Ticks collected from both the outbreaks were identified as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Thin blood smears from infected animals (especially with clinical sign of hemoglobinuria) were found positive for Babesia bigemina organisms; however, molecular diagnosis (PCR) further confirmed the disease. Animals were successfully treated with diminazene aceturate, hematinics, and antipyretics. Conclusions: Two fatal outbreaks of babesiosis in cattle were diagnosed with application of conventional parasitological, hematological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. PCR was found to be far more sensitive in detecting the disease, especially in latent infections. Animal owners were advised to follow quarantine measures before mixing new animals in the herd and strategic acaricidal treatments for effective tick control. PMID:28096607

  19. The effect of mislabeled phenotypic status on the identification of mutation-carriers from SNP genotypes in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Biffani, Stefano; Pausch, Hubert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Biscarini, Filippo

    2017-06-26

    Statistical and machine learning applications are increasingly popular in animal breeding and genetics, especially to compute genomic predictions for phenotypes of interest. Noise (errors) in the data may have a negative impact on the accuracy of predictions. The effects of noisy data have been investigated in genome-wide association studies for case-control experiments, and in genomic predictions for binary traits in plants. No studies have been published yet on the impact of noisy data in animal genomics. In this work, the susceptibility to noise of five classification models (Lasso-penalised logistic regression-Lasso, K-nearest neighbours-KNN, random forest-RF, support vector machines with linear-SVML-or radial-SVMR-kernel) was tested. As illustration, the identification of carriers of a recessive mutation in cattle (Bos taurus) was used. A population of 3116 Fleckvieh animals with SNP genotypes on the same chromosome as the mutation locus (BTA 19) was available. The carrier status (0/1 phenotype) was randomly sampled to generate noise. Increasing proportions of noise-up to 20%- were introduced in the data. SVMR and Lasso were relatively more robust to noise in the data, with total accuracy still above 0.975 and TPR (true positive rate; accuracy in the minority class) in the range 0.5-0.80 also with 17.5-20% mislabeled observations. The performance of SVML and RF decreased monotonically with increasing noise in the data, while KNN constantly failed to identify mutation carriers (observations in the minority class). The computation time increased with noise in the data, especially for the two support vector machines classifiers. This work was the first to assess the impact of phenotyping errors on the accuracy of genomic predictions in animal genetics. The choice of the classification method can influence results in terms of higher or lower susceptibility to noise. In the presented problem, SVM with radial kernel performed relatively well even when the proportion

  20. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin

  1. Application of network analysis parameters in risk-based surveillance - examples based on cattle trade data and bovine infections in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Frössling, Jenny; Ohlson, Anna; Björkman, Camilla; Håkansson, Nina; Nöremark, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Financial resources may limit the number of samples that can be collected and analysed in disease surveillance programmes. When the aim of surveillance is disease detection and identification of case herds, a risk-based approach can increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system. In this paper, the association between two network analysis measures, i.e. 'in-degree' and 'ingoing infection chain', and signs of infection is investigated. It is shown that based on regression analysis of combined data from a recent cross-sectional study for endemic viral infections and network analysis of animal movements, a positive serological result for bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is significantly associated with the purchase of animals. For BCV, this association was significant also when accounting for herd size and regional cattle density, but not for BRSV. Examples are given for different approaches to include cattle movement data in risk-based surveillance by selecting herds based on network analysis measures. Results show that compared to completely random sampling these approaches increase the number of detected positives, both for BCV and BRSV in our study population. It is concluded that network measures for the relevant time period based on updated databases of animal movements can provide a simple and straight forward tool for risk-based sampling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Within- and between-herd prevalence variation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection among control programme herds in Denmark (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the between- (HTP) and within- (TP) herd true prevalence distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds participating in the Danish MAP control programme. All herds enrolled in the programme between 2011 and 2013 were included in the analysis, and one annual milk-ELISA test of all lactating cows present in such herds was considered. A Bayesian latent class model was used to obtain HTP and TP posterior distributions for each year. The model adjusts for uncertainty in age-specific test sensitivity and prior prevalence estimates. Bayesian posterior probabilities were computed in order to compare prevalence between the years. A total of 665,700 samples were included in the study, from 221,914, 224,040, and 220,466 cows sourced from 1138, 1112, and 1059 herds in years 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. In that period, HTP estimates of 0.92 (95% posterior probability interval (PPI), 0.87-0.96), 0.78 (95% PPI, 0.74-0.83), and 0.75 (95% PPI, 0.71-0.78) were recorded, respectively. Low TP were observed, with population mean estimates of 0.08 (95% PPI, 0.07-0.08), 0.07 (95% PPI, 0.07-0.08), and 0.07 (95% PPI, 0.06-0.07) for the three consecutive years. Statistically-important differences were recorded for HTP and population mean TP estimates between years, indicating a trend for a decreasing level of MAP infection at both herd and animal level. Model results showed that MAP infection was widespread among the Dairy cattle herds participating in the Danish control programme, though in general it was kept at very low levels.

  3. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle in China.

    PubMed

    El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Jilei; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Lanjing; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Zhenwen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, a zoonosis which occurs worldwide. As there is little reliable data on the organism in China, we investigated C. burnetii infections in dairy cattle herds around the country. Opportunistic whole blood samples were collected from 1140 dairy cattle in 19 herds, and antibodies to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens were detected using commercial ELISA kits. Seropositive cattle (381/1140, 33 %) were detected in 13 of the 15 surveyed provinces and in 16 of the 19 herds (84 %) studied. Our data indicates C. burnetii is widespread in China and that animal and human health workers should be aware of the possibility of Q fever infection in their patients.

  4. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wright, David M; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W; Allen, Adrian R; Skuce, Robin A; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-08-17

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km(2); 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes.

  5. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km2; 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  6. Seroepidemiology of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon and Use of the SPOT Test to Identify Herds with PI Calves

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian G.; Willoughby, Kim; Land, Fiona; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea, caused by the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most important diseases of cattle world wide causing poor reproductive performance in adult cattle and mucosal disease in calves. In addition it causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other infections, the impact of which is uncertain, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where animals are exposed to a much wider range and higher intensity of infections compared to Europe. There are no previous estimates of the seroprevalence of BVDV in cattle in Cameroon. This paper describes the serological screening for antibodies to BVDV and antigen of BVDV in a cattle population in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon in 2000. The estimates of herd-level and within herd seroprevalences adjusted for test imperfections were 92% and 30% respectively and 16.5% of herds were classed as having a persistently infected calf (PI) in the herd within the last year based on the “spot” test approach. There was evidence of clustering of herds with PI calves across the north and west of the Region which corresponds with the higher cattle density areas and of self-clearance of infection from herds. A multivariable model was developed for the risk of having a PI calf in the herd; proximity to antelope, owning a goat, mixing with 10 other herds at grazing and the catchment area of the veterinary centre the herd was registered at were all significant risk factors. Very little is known about BVDV in sub-Saharan Africa and these high seroprevalences suggest that there is a large problem which may be having both direct impacts on fertility and neonate mortality and morbidity and also indirect effects through immunosuppression and susceptibility to other infections. Understanding and accounting for BVDV should be an important component of epidemiological studies of other diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21754993

  7. A survey on antibiotic usage in dairy herds in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Sawant, A A; Sordillo, L M; Jayarao, B M

    2005-08-01

    A survey was conducted (July 2001 to June 2002) on antibiotic usage of 113 dairy herds from 13 counties in Pennsylvania. Fifty percent of dairy farms surveyed maintained antibiotic treatment records. Only 21% of dairy producers had written plans for treating sick animals. Thirty-two percent of dairy producers sought veterinarian advice before administering antibiotics and on most farms (93%), antibiotics were administered by the owner/manager or designated herdsman. Twenty-four percent of the dairy producers said they always completed the course of antibiotic treatment. Any extra-label use of antibiotics was administered only on the guidelines of a veterinarian on majority of the farms. Comprehensive records from 33 dairy farms indicated that antibiotic usage was largest for calves with enteritis (36%) followed by pneumonia in calves (25%) and foot rot in cattle (16%). Twenty-four antibiotics including beta-lactams, spectinomycin, florfenicol, and tetracyclines were used on these farms. Beta-lactam antibiotics were used mostly for dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis, and on some farms for pneumonia and metritis. On 18% of the dairy herds surveyed, ceftiofur was used in an extra-label manner to treat mastitis in lactating cattle. On 70% of farms, calves were fed medicated milk replacers containing oxytetracycline and neomycin. The results of this study suggest that antibiotics are used extensively on dairy herds for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Beta-lactams and tetracyclines were the most widely used antibiotics. There is considerable variation in the management practices associated with antibiotic use on dairy farms. It is anticipated that the findings of this survey will permit developing new strategies for prudent use of antibiotics on dairy herds.

  8. Not all cows are epidemiologically equal: quantifying the risks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) transmission through cattle movements.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Humphry, Roger W; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-10-17

    Many economically important cattle diseases spread between herds through livestock movements. Traditionally, most transmission models have assumed that all purchased cattle carry the same risk of generating outbreaks in the destination herd. Using data on bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Scotland as a case example, this study provides empirical and theoretical evidence that the risk of disease transmission varies substantially based on the animal and herd demographic characteristics at the time of purchase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that purchasing pregnant heifers and open cows sold with a calf at foot were associated with an increased risk of beef herds being seropositive for BVDV. Based on the results from a dynamic within-herd simulation model, these findings may be partly explained by the age-related probability of animals being persistently infected with BVDV as well as the herd demographic structure at the time of animal introductions. There was also evidence that an epidemiologically important network statistic, "betweenness centrality" (a measure frequently associated with the potential for herds to acquire and transmit disease), was significantly higher for herds that supplied these particular types of replacement beef cattle. The trends for dairy herds were not as clear, although there was some evidence that open heifers and open lactating cows were associated with an increased risk of BVDV. Overall, these findings have important implications for developing simulation models that more accurately reflect the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases.

  9. Study on prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibodies in 29 Italian dairy herds with reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Piccinini, R; Zepponi, A; Zecconi, A

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on prevalence distribution of antibodies to BVDV was carried out in dairy cattle herds during 1995-1996 in northern Italy. A total of 704 serum samples from 29 non-vaccinated herds reported to have reproductive problems were tested for serum neutralising antibodies. In each herd, sampling was based on the stratification by age into five classes (< 6 months old calves, 6-12 months old calves, pregnant heifers, uniparous, pluriparous). Overall, 53.3% of samples were serologically positive, with the lowest ratio in 6-12 months old calves (37.9%) and the highest in pluriparous cows (71.2%).

  10. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  11. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of Guernsey cattle in North America, Great Britain, and the Isle of Guernsey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshire since 2013. As of January 2015, 2,263 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England and the Isle of G...

  12. Identification of leptin gene polymorphisms associated with carcass traits and fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Fuki; Okura, Kazuki; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some leptin gene polymorphisms were associated with economically important traits in cattle breeds. However, polymorphisms in the leptin gene have not been reported thus far in Japanese Black cattle. Here, we aimed to identify the leptin gene polymorphisms which are associated with carcass traits and fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle. We sequenced the full-length coding sequence of leptin gene for eight Japanese Black cattle. Sequence comparison revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Three of these were predicted to cause amino acid substitutions: Y7F, R25C and A80V. Then, we genotyped these SNPs in two populations (JB1 with 560 animals and JB2 with 450 animals) and investigated the effects on the traits. Y7F in JB1 and A80V in JB2 were excluded from statistical analysis because the minor allele frequencies were low (< 0.1). Association analysis revealed that Y7F had a significant effect on the dressed carcass weight in JB2; R25C had a significant effect on C18:0 and C14:1 in JB1 and JB2, respectively; and A80V had a significant effect on C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid in JB1. The results suggested that these SNPs could be used as an effective marker for the improvement of Japanese Black cattle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems.

  14. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  15. Identification of immediate early gene products of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) as dominant antigens recognized by CD8 T cells in immune cattle.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jane; MacHugh, Niall D; Sheldrake, Tara; Nielsen, Morten; Morrison, W Ivan

    2017-07-01

    In common with other herpes viruses, bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) induces strong virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. However, there is a paucity of information on the antigenic specificity of the responding T-cells. The development of a system to generate virus-specific CD8 T-cell lines from BHV-1-immune cattle, employing Theileria-transformed cell lines for antigen presentation, has enabled us to address this issue. Use of this system allowed the study to screen for CD8 T-cell antigens that are efficiently presented on the surface of virus-infected cells. Screening of a panel of 16 candidate viral gene products with CD8 T-cell lines from 3 BHV-1-immune cattle of defined MHC genotypes identified 4 antigens, including 3 immediate early (IE) gene products (ICP4, ICP22 and Circ) and a tegument protein (UL49). Identification of the MHC restriction specificities revealed that the antigens were presented by two or three class I MHC alleles in each animal. Six CD8 T-cell epitopes were identified in the three IE proteins by screening of synthetic peptides. Use of an algorithm (NetMHCpan) that predicts the peptide-binding characteristics of restricting MHC alleles confirmed and, in some cases refined, the identity of the epitopes. Analyses of the epitope specificity of the CD8 T-cell lines showed that a large component of the response is directed against these IE epitopes. The results indicate that these IE gene products are dominant targets of the CD8 T-cell response in BHV-I-immune cattle and hence are prime-candidate antigens for the generation of a subunit vaccine.

  16. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. British Veterinary Association.

  17. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  18. Identification of Candidate Genes for Reactivity in Guzerat (Bos indicus) Cattle: A Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Pablo Augusto de Souza; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Rosse, Izinara da Cruz.; Bruneli, Frank Angelo Tomita; Machado, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos

    2017-01-01

    Temperament is fundamental to animal production due to its direct influence on the animal-herdsman relationship. When compared to calm animals, the aggressive, anxious or fearful ones exhibit less weight gain, lower reproductive efficiency, decreased milk production and higher herd maintenance costs, all of which contribute to reduced profits. However, temperament is a trait that is complex and difficult to assess. Recently, a new quantitative system, REATEST®, for assessing reactivity, a phenotype of temperament, was developed. Herein, we describe the results of a Genome-wide association study for reactivity, assessed using REATEST® with a sample of 754 females from five dual-purpose (milk and meat production) Guzerat (Bos indicus) herds. Genotyping was performed using a 50k SNP chip and a two-step mixed model approach (Grammar-Gamma) with a one-by-one marker regression was used to identify QTLs. QTLs for reactivity were identified on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA14, and BTA25. Five intronic and two intergenic markers were significantly associated with reactivity. POU1F1, DRD3, VWA3A, ZBTB20, EPHA6, SNRPF and NTN4 were identified as candidate genes. Previous QTL reports for temperament traits, covering areas surrounding the SNPs/genes identified here, further corroborate these associations. The seven genes identified in the present study explain 20.5% of reactivity variance and give a better understanding of temperament biology. PMID:28125592

  19. Spatiotemporal Incidence of Acaracide Resistance among Outbreaks of Cattle Fever Ticks in the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp, were eradicated from the U.S. but regularly make incursions along the border with Mexico. The USDA maintains a quarantine buffer zone with surveillance for stray Mexican cattle and inspection of herds in the counties along the Rio Grande. The year 2...

  20. Cattle Fever Ticks in the U.S.: Back to 1906?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keeping cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus, eradicated from the United States and thus keeping the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis is a current and critical agricultural biosecurity issue of national relevance. Also known as “Texas fever”, ...

  1. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the pre...

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Measurement of sterigmatocystin concentrations in urine for monitoring the contamination of cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-11-04

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15-0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01-0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions.

  4. Measurement of Sterigmatocystin Concentrations in Urine for Monitoring the Contamination of Cattle Feed

    PubMed Central

    Fushimi, Yasuo; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Nakamura, Masayuki; Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Shinya, Urara; Deguchi, Eisaburo; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed (1) at determining the levels of the fungal toxin sterigmatocystin (STC) in the feed and urine of cattle and (2) at evaluating the effects of supplementing the feed with a mycotoxin adsorbent (MA) on STC concentrations in urine. Two herds of female Japanese Black cattle were used in this study. The cattle in each herd were fed a standard ration containing rice straw from different sources and a standard concentrate; two groups of cattle from each herd (n = six per group) received the commercial MA, mixed with the concentrate or given as top-dressing, whereas a third group received no supplement and served as control. Urine and feed samples were collected at various time points throughout the experiment. STC concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-TMS). STC concentrations in straw were higher in Herd 1 (range 0.15–0.24 mg/kg DM) than in Herd 2 (range <0.01–0.06 mg/kg DM). In Herd 1, STC concentrations in urine significantly declined 2 weeks after replacing the contaminated feed, whereas MA supplementation had no effect. In conclusion, mycotoxins in urine samples are useful biological markers for monitoring the systemic exposure of cattle to multiple mycotoxins, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:25375815

  5. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-09

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment.

  6. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  7. Molecular characterization and SNP identification in HSPB6 gene in Karan Fries (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cattle.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, I D; Verma, Archana; Kumari, Ragini; Verma, Nishant

    2017-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones which are preferentially transcribed in response to severe perturbations of the cellular homeostasis such as heat stress. The present study was undertaken for molecular characterization and detection of genetic polymorphisms of HSPB6 gene in 100 Karan Fries Cattle. HSPB6 gene was mapped on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA 18), comprising three exons and two introns. Four sets of primers for HSPB6 gene were designed using Primer3 software (version 0.4.0). For detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), sequence data was analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSPB6 gene showed five nucleotide polymorphisms, which included three transitions viz. g.161A > G, g.436G > A and g.2152A > G and two transversions viz. g.1743C > G and g.2417A > T compared to B. taurus (NCBI GenBank: AC_000175.1). HSPB6 gene of Karan Fries cattle exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (47.0-100.0%) with the corresponding mammalian homologue. The present study indicated a high degree of genetic variability in the HSPB6 gene in the Karan Fries cattle populations.

  8. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose between Wagyu and Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuntao; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Huang, Wanlong; Miao, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators involved in animal adipogenesis, however, their roles in bovine fat deposition remain poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a comparative RNA sequencing to identify the key miRNAs involved in beef lipid accumulation by comparing the backfat small RNA samples between Wagyu (high intramuscular fat) and Holstein (moderate intramuscular fat) cattle. Fifteen miRNAs such as bta-miR-142-3p, bta-miR-379, bta-miR-196a, bta-miR-196b, bta-miR-30f and bta-miR-2887 were identified to have a higher expression level in Wagyu cattle compared with Holstein, whereas bta-miR-320a, bta-miR-874 and bta-miR-1247-3p had a lower expression level in Wagyu. Furthermore, a total of 1345 potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using bioinformatics tools, in which PPARα and RXRα were known to play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the present study constructed a high-throughput RNA sequencing screen and successfully identified miRNAs such as bta-miR-874, bta-miR-320a and bta-miR-196b which may affect beef fat deposition. The present findings may provide a theoretical foundation for the utilization of beef cattle germplasm resources. PMID:28272430

  9. Estimates for local and movement-based transmission of bovine tuberculosis in British cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren M; Kiss, Istvan Z; Mitchell, Andrew P; Kao, Rowland R

    2008-05-07

    Both badgers and livestock movements have been implicated in contributing to the ongoing epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in British cattle. However, the relative contributions of these and other causes are not well quantified. We used cattle movement data to construct an individual (premises)-based model of BTB spread within Great Britain, accounting for spread due to recorded cattle movements and other causes. Outbreak data for 2004 were best explained by a model attributing 16% of herd infections directly to cattle movements, and a further 9% unexplained, potentially including spread from unrecorded movements. The best-fit model assumed low levels of cattle-to-cattle transmission. The remaining 75% of infection was attributed to local effects within specific high-risk areas. Annual and biennial testing is mandatory for herds deemed at high risk of infection, as is pre-movement testing from such herds. The herds identified as high risk in 2004 by our model are in broad agreement with those officially designated as such at that time. However, border areas at the edges of high-risk regions are different, suggesting possible areas that should be targeted to prevent further geographical spread of disease. With these areas expanding rapidly over the last decade, their close surveillance is important to both identify infected herds qucikly, and limit their further growth.

  10. Herd-level prevalence of Map infection in dairy herds of southern Chile determined by culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR.

    PubMed

    Kruze, J; Monti, G; Schulze, F; Mella, A; Leiva, S

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, an infectious disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is an economically important disease in dairy herds worldwide. In Chile the disease has been reported in domestic and wildlife animals. However, accurate and updated estimations of the herd-prevalence in cattle at national or regional level are not available. The objectives of this study were to determine the herd-level prevalence of dairy herds with Map infected animals of Southern Chile, based on two diagnostic tests: culture of environmental fecal samples and bulk-tank milk qPCR. Two composite environmental fecal samples and one bulk-tank milk sample were collected during September 2010 and September 2011 from 150 dairy farms in Southern Chile. Isolation of Map from environmental fecal samples was done by culture of decontaminated samples on a commercial Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium (HEYM) with and without mycobactin J. Suspicious colonies were confirmed to be Map by conventional IS900 PCR. Map detection in bulk-tank milk samples was done by real time IS900 PCR assay. PCR-confirmed Map was isolated from 58 (19.3%) of 300 environmental fecal samples. Holding pens and manure storage lagoons were the two more frequent sites found positive for Map, representing 35% and 33% of total positive samples, respectively. However, parlor exits and cow alleyways were the two sites with the highest proportion of positive samples (40% and 32%, respectively). Herd prevalence based on environmental fecal culture was 27% (true prevalence 44%) compared to 49% (true prevalence 87%) based on bulk-tank milk real time IS900 PC. In both cases herd prevalence was higher in large herds (>200 cows). These results confirm that Map infection is wide spread in dairy herds in Southern Chile with a rough herd-level prevalence of 28-100% depending on the herd size, and that IS900 PCR on bulk-tank milk samples is more sensitive than environmental fecal culture to detect

  11. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Halasa, Tariq; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Toft, Nils

    2016-02-29

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions, using the indirect BIO K 302 M. bovis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Bio-X, Belgium) in bulk tank milk from all dairy herds between June 2013 and July 2014. The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of the spatial distribution of M. bovis in the Danish dairy herd population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined as test-positive or test-negative using a cut-off of 50 optical density coefficient %. The spatial global clustering was evaluated through a modified K-function method, and local clusters were identified by scan statistics. The results showed that M. bovis test-positive herds had a dynamic pattern in space. The global clustering analysis showed that M. bovis test-positive herds were spatially correlated in rounds one, three and four. These findings were supported to some extent by the local clustering analysis, which found significant high- and low-risk spatial clusters in rounds one and three in the north and south of the mainland. The clusters with a high risk of observing test-positive herds did not remain between sampling rounds, indicating that M. bovis did not tend to persist upon emergence in dairy herds. In contrast, the clusters with a low risk of observing test-positive herds persisted in the same area throughout the study period.

  12. A systematic review of risk factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Saray J; Paré, Julie; Doré, Elizabeth; Arango, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Buczinski, Sebastien; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie H; Roy, Jean P; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically collect and appraise the scientific evidence related to risk factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into a herd of cattle. An electronic search was conducted to collect relevant references addressing 2 specific questions: are i) purchasing/introduction of cattle into a herd, and ii) presence of wildlife or domestic animals, risk factors for the introduction of MAP into a herd? The screening was based on titles and abstracts and selected studies were fully analyzed. Seventeen manuscripts published between 1996 and 2011 were ultimately analyzed. Unit of interest was mainly the herd (n = 17). The specific description of the risk factors studied varied between studies. The principal study design was cross-sectional (n = 15). The review indicated that purchase/introduction of animals was an important risk factor and that the importance of wildlife or other domestic species as a mechanism for transmission into a cattle herd was not measurable.

  13. A systematic review of risk factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Saray J.; Paré, Julie; Doré, Elizabeth; Arango, Juan C.; Côté, Geneviève; Buczinski, Sebastien; Labrecque, Olivia; Fairbrother, Julie H.; Roy, Jean P.; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically collect and appraise the scientific evidence related to risk factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into a herd of cattle. An electronic search was conducted to collect relevant references addressing 2 specific questions: are i) purchasing/introduction of cattle into a herd, and ii) presence of wildlife or domestic animals, risk factors for the introduction of MAP into a herd? The screening was based on titles and abstracts and selected studies were fully analyzed. Seventeen manuscripts published between 1996 and 2011 were ultimately analyzed. Unit of interest was mainly the herd (n = 17). The specific description of the risk factors studied varied between studies. The principal study design was cross-sectional (n = 15). The review indicated that purchase/introduction of animals was an important risk factor and that the importance of wildlife or other domestic species as a mechanism for transmission into a cattle herd was not measurable. PMID:25694667

  14. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems.

  15. Prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) 0157 in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, E.; Aspan, A.; Gunnarsson, A.; Vågsholm, I.

    2005-01-01

    A prevalence study of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) was performed in 371 randomly selected dairy herds distributed throughout Sweden. Faecal and manure samples were collected and analysed by immunomagnetic separation and culturing. Data were recorded for each herd regarding herd size, age of sampled animals and whether, in addition to cattle, the farm kept other animals. VTEC O157 was isolated from 33 (8.9%) of the 371 investigated herds. The prevalence was higher (23.3%) in Halland county than in the rest of Sweden (P > 0.01). Halland was also the county in Sweden that during the study period had the highest incidence of human VTEC O157 cases. VTEC O157 was not detected on any farm in northern Sweden. Identified risk factors, in the multivariate analyses, for herds being VTEC O157 positive were herd size, geographical localization, presence of pigs on the farm and median age of sampled animals. PMID:15816162

  16. Bulk milk ELISA and the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bulk milk enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing herd exposure to pathogens that is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds. In this paper, with the dairy herd health veterinarian in mind, we review the principles of the assay and the recent literature on the potential role of bulk milk ELISA for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis, fasciolosis, parasitic bronchitis due to cattle lung worm and neosporosis. It is generally accepted that assay results reflect exposure to the parasite rather than the presence of active infection. Bulk milk ELISA can be a useful tool for the veterinary practitioner as a component of a herd health monitoring programme or in the context of a herd health investigation. It can also play a role in regional or national surveillance programmes. However, the results need to be interpreted within the context of the herd-specific health management, the milk production pattern and the parasite life cycle. PMID:23883526

  17. Bulk milk ELISA and the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds: a review.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mary; Zintl, Annetta; Doherty, Michael L

    2013-07-25

    The bulk milk enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing herd exposure to pathogens that is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds. In this paper, with the dairy herd health veterinarian in mind, we review the principles of the assay and the recent literature on the potential role of bulk milk ELISA for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis, fasciolosis, parasitic bronchitis due to cattle lung worm and neosporosis. It is generally accepted that assay results reflect exposure to the parasite rather than the presence of active infection. Bulk milk ELISA can be a useful tool for the veterinary practitioner as a component of a herd health monitoring programme or in the context of a herd health investigation. It can also play a role in regional or national surveillance programmes. However, the results need to be interpreted within the context of the herd-specific health management, the milk production pattern and the parasite life cycle.

  18. The effect of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on Johne's disease risk in test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D

    2013-03-01

    Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach