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Sample records for cattle indicator traits

  1. Genetic association between temperament and sexual precocity indicator traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Valente, T S; Sant'Anna, A C; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic associations between temperament and sexual precocity indicators in Nellore cattle. Temperament was evaluated at approximately 550 days of age, using three traits: i) movement score (MOV), recording the animals' movement inside the crush; ii) temperament score (TS) for assessing the reactions of animals in a corral pen; and iii) flight speed test (FS), recording the speed (in m/s) at which the animals exit the crush after being weighed. Three sexual precocity indicators were used: i) age at first calving (AFC, in days); ii) occurrence of precocious pregnancy (OPP, as a binary trait); and iii) yearling scrotal circumference (SC, in cm). The (co)variance and genetic parameters were estimated by Bayesian Inference via Gibbs sampling, assuming a linear animal model for FS, AFC and SC and a threshold animal model for MOV, TS and OPP in multitrait analyses. The mean posterior heritability estimates for MOV, FS, TS, AFC, OPP and SC were 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.27 ± 0.07, 0.16 ± 0.09, 0.09 ± 0.01, 0.44 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.02, respectively. The mean posterior correlation estimates were: 0.13 ± 0.14 (MOV-AFC), -0.03 ± 0.16 (MOV-OPP), 0.08 ± 0.10 (MOV-SC), 0.14 ± 0.11 (FS-AFC), -0.19 ± 0.15 (FS-OPP), -0.07 ± 0.08 (FS-SC), 0.09 ± 0.09 (TS-AFC), -0.03 ± 0.09 (TS-OPP) and -0.28 ± 0.08 (TS-SC). These results indicate that all the traits had sufficient genetic variability to respond to selection. The low magnitude of the genetic correlations indicated that selection for improvements in sexual precocity would not change the temperament of Nellore cattle. In order to obtain genetic progress in cattle temperament, direct selection for these traits is recommended.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Irano, Natalia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Costa, Raphael Bermal; Terakado, Ana Paula Nascimento; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Dias, Marina Mortati; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations. PMID:27494397

  3. Genomic Regions Associated with Feed Efficiency Indicator Traits in an Experimental Nellore Cattle Population

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Branco, Renata Helena; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Baldi, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and metabolic pathways associated with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake in an experimental Nellore cattle population. The high-density SNP chip (Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip, 777k) was used to genotype the animals. The SNP markers effects and their variances were estimated using the single-step genome wide association method. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference. The chromosome segments that are responsible for more than 1.0% of additive genetic variance were selected to explore and determine possible quantitative trait loci. The bovine genome Map Viewer was used to identify genes. In total, 51 genomic regions were identified for all analyzed traits. The heritability estimated for feed efficiency was low magnitude (0.13±0.06). For average daily gain, dry matter intake and residual feed intake, heritability was moderate to high (0.43±0.05; 0.47±0.05, 0.18±0.05, respectively). A total of 8, 17, 14 and 12 windows that are responsible for more than 1% of the additive genetic variance for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake, respectively, were identified. Candidate genes GOLIM4, RFX6, CACNG7, CACNG6, CAPN8, CAPN2, AKT2, GPRC6A, and GPR45 were associated with feed efficiency traits. It was expected that the response to selection would be higher for residual feed intake than for feed efficiency. Genomic regions harboring possible QTL for feed efficiency indicator traits were identified. Candidate genes identified are involved in energy use, metabolism protein, ion transport, transmembrane transport, the olfactory system, the immune system, secretion and cellular activity. The identification of these regions and their respective candidate genes should contribute to the formation of a genetic basis in Nellore cattle for feed efficiency indicator traits, and these results would support

  4. Genomic Regions Associated with Feed Efficiency Indicator Traits in an Experimental Nellore Cattle Population.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Branco, Renata Helena; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Baldi, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and metabolic pathways associated with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake in an experimental Nellore cattle population. The high-density SNP chip (Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip, 777k) was used to genotype the animals. The SNP markers effects and their variances were estimated using the single-step genome wide association method. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference. The chromosome segments that are responsible for more than 1.0% of additive genetic variance were selected to explore and determine possible quantitative trait loci. The bovine genome Map Viewer was used to identify genes. In total, 51 genomic regions were identified for all analyzed traits. The heritability estimated for feed efficiency was low magnitude (0.13±0.06). For average daily gain, dry matter intake and residual feed intake, heritability was moderate to high (0.43±0.05; 0.47±0.05, 0.18±0.05, respectively). A total of 8, 17, 14 and 12 windows that are responsible for more than 1% of the additive genetic variance for dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake, respectively, were identified. Candidate genes GOLIM4, RFX6, CACNG7, CACNG6, CAPN8, CAPN2, AKT2, GPRC6A, and GPR45 were associated with feed efficiency traits. It was expected that the response to selection would be higher for residual feed intake than for feed efficiency. Genomic regions harboring possible QTL for feed efficiency indicator traits were identified. Candidate genes identified are involved in energy use, metabolism protein, ion transport, transmembrane transport, the olfactory system, the immune system, secretion and cellular activity. The identification of these regions and their respective candidate genes should contribute to the formation of a genetic basis in Nellore cattle for feed efficiency indicator traits, and these results would support

  5. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  6. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  7. Breed group effects for chute exit velocity as an indicator trait for temperament in weaner cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine breed group differences in chute exit velocity (CEV) in weaner cattle (n=3176). Data were collected in 2004 through 2008 under procedures of objective 3, Southern Regional Research project S1013 with the following states contributing data: FL, LA, and MS...

  8. Evaluation of mature cow weight: genetic correlations with traits used in selection indices, correlated responses, and genetic trends in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-01-01

    Genetic correlations of selection indices and the traits considered in these indices with mature weight (MW) of Nelore females and correlated responses were estimated to determine whether current selection practices will result in an undesired correlated response in MW. Genetic trends for weaning and yearling indices and MW were also estimated. Data from 612,244 Nelore animals born between 1984 and 2010, belonging to different beef cattle evaluation programs from Brazil and Paraguay, were used. The following traits were studied: weaning conformation (WC), weaning precocity (WP), weaning muscling (WM), yearling conformation (YC), yearling precocity (YP), yearling muscling (YM), weaning and yearling indices, BW gain from birth to weaning (BWG), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and MW. The variance and covariance components were estimated by Bayesian inference in a multitrait analysis, including all traits in the same analysis, using a nonlinear (threshold) animal model for visual scores and a linear animal model for the other traits. The mean direct heritabilities were 0.21±0.007 (WC), 0.22±0.007 (WP), 0.20±0.007 (WM), 0.43±0.005 (YC), 0.40±0.005 (YP), 0.40±0.005 (YM), 0.17±0.003 (BWG), 0.21±0.004 (PWG), 0.32±0.001 (SC), and 0.44±0.018 (MW). The genetic correlations between MW and weaning and yearling indices were positive and of medium magnitude (0.30±0.01 and 0.31±0.01, respectively). The genetic changes in weaning index, yearling index, and MW, expressed as units of genetic SD per year, were 0.26, 0.27, and 0.01, respectively. The genetic trend for MW was nonsignificant, suggesting no negative correlated response. The selection practice based on the use of sires with high final index giving preference for those better ranked for yearling precocity and muscling than for conformation generates only a minimal correlated response in MW.

  9. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  10. Ranking of Nellore animals in cattle championships: genetic parameters and correlations with production traits.

    PubMed

    Simielli Filho, E A; Mercadante, M E Z; Ii Vasconcelos Silva, J A; Josahkian, L A

    2014-07-25

    Records of 17,141 Nellore cattle participating in cattle championships, born from 1994-2009, were used to estimate genetic parameters between animal rank in cattle championships, evaluated from weaning to 36 months of age as repeated traits, and growth, fertility, and carcass traits, evaluated at 365 days of age as single traits. Two traits were defined for animal rank in cattle championships: value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 3rd place within the age category, and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP3). Value 1 was attributed to animals ranked from 1st to 5th place within the age category and value 0 was assigned to the remaining animals (TOP5). The (co)variance components were estimated based on Bayesian inference under a 2-trait threshold-linear animal model. The posterior means of heritability estimated for TOP3 and TOP5 were 0.182 ± 0.010 and 0.260 ± 0.012, respectively, and their repeatabilities were 0.341 ± 0.007 and 0.400 ± 0.007, respectively. High-ranking animals generally presented higher breeding values for body weight, height, body length, and heart girth. The phenotypic correlations indicate that judges of cattle championships primarily rank animals based on weight and heart girth.

  11. Genetic evaluation of fertility traits of dairy cattle using a multiple-trait animal model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Jaitner, J; Reinhardt, F; Pasman, E; Rensing, S; Reents, R

    2008-11-01

    A genetic evaluation system was developed for 5 fertility traits of dairy cattle: interval from first to successful insemination and nonreturn rate to 56 d of heifers, and interval from calving to first insemination, nonreturn rate to 56 d, and interval first to successful insemination of cows. Using the 2 interval traits of cows as components, breeding values for days open were derived. A multiple-trait animal model was applied to evaluate these fertility traits. Fertility traits of later lactations of cows were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML. Mixed model equations of the genetic evaluation model were solved with preconditioned conjugate gradients or the Gauss-Seidel algorithm and iteration on data techniques. Reliabilities of estimated breeding values were approximated with a multi-trait effective daughter contribution method. Daughter yield deviations and associated effective daughter contributions were calculated with a multiple trait approach. The genetic evaluation software was applied to the insemination data of dairy cattle breeds in Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg, and it was validated with various statistical methods. Genetic trends were validated. Small heritability estimates were obtained for all the fertility traits, ranging from 1% for nonreturn rate of heifers to 4% for interval calving to first insemination. Genetic and environmental correlations were low to moderate among the traits. Notably, unfavorable genetic trends were obtained in all the fertility traits. Moderate to high correlations were found between daughter yield-deviations and estimated breeding values (EBV) for Holstein bulls. Because of much lower heritabilities of the fertility traits, the correlations of daughter yield deviations with EBV were significantly lower than those from production traits and lower than the correlations from type traits and longevity. Fertility EBV were correlated unfavorably with EBV of milk production traits

  12. Inbreeding depression in Zebu cattle traits.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R J; Santana, M L; Ayres, D R; Bignardi, A B; Menezes, G R O; Silva, L O C; Machado, C H C; Josahkian, L A; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-12-01

    The productivity of herds may be negatively affected by inbreeding depression, and it is important to know how intense is this effect on the livestock performance. We performed a comprehensive analysis involving five Zebu breeds reared in Brazil to estimate inbreeding depression in productive and reproductive traits. Inbreeding depression was estimated for 13 traits by including the individual inbreeding rate as a linear covariate in the standard genetic evaluation models. For all breeds and for almost all traits (no effect was observed on gestation length), the performance of the animals was compromised by an increase in inbreeding. The average inbreeding depression was -0.222% and -0.859% per 1% of inbreeding for linear regression coefficients scaled on the percentage of mean (βm ) and standard deviation (βσ ), respectively. The means for βm (and βσ ) were -0.269% (-1.202%) for weight/growth traits and -0.174% (-0.546%) for reproductive traits. Hence, inbreeding depression is more pronounced in weight/growth traits than in reproductive traits. These findings highlight the need for the management of inbreeding in the respective breeding programmes of the breeds studied here.

  13. Exploring genotype-phenotype relationships of the LHX3 gene on growth traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Jing, Yong-Jie; Sun, Yu-Jia; Lan, Xian-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The LIM-homeobox gene 3 (LHX3) plays an essential role in pituitary gland and nervous system development. Sequence variants (SVs) in coding and non-coding regions of LHX3 gene have an impact on LHX3 transcription and growth traits in cattle. Previously, we have identified 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-3) in all exons and intron 2 regions of the LHX3 gene in cattle. Here, 7 novel SNPs (SNPs: 4-10) were identified by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. In the present study, a total of 10 SNPs were assessed linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 802 cows representing four main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, Qinchuan, Jiaxian, and Chinese Holstein). The assessment results demonstrated that 17 haplotypes and 18 diplotypes were revealed in these cattle populations. Moreover, association analysis indicated that the genotypes of SNPs 1-6 are associated with the body weight at 6, 12 and 18months of age in Nanyang cattle (P<0.01 or P<0.05), whereas no significant association was found between the 18 diplotypes and growth traits. Our results provide evidence that some SNPs in LHX3 gene may be associated with body weight at certain age, and LHX3 gene may be used as candidate gene for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in beef cattle breeding.

  14. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    PubMed

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-05-22

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  15. Genetic associations between temperament and performance traits in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, A C; Baldi, F; Valente, T S; Albuquerque, L G; Menezes, L M; Boligon, A A; Paranhos da Costa, M J R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic associations between temperament and performance traits. Temperament was evaluated in yearling male and female Nellore cattle, using four traits: temperament score (TS), for assessing animals' reactions in a corral pen (n = 25,691); movement score (MOV), for animals' movements recorded inside the crush; crush score (CS), for animal's general reactivity inside the crush; and flight speed (FS), for the speed (in m/s) at which the animals exited the crush (n = 11,697, for the last three methods); for all the temperament traits, lower scores indicate animals with calmer temperament. Performance traits were visual scores for conformation (C), finishing precocity (P) and muscling (M) evaluated at yearlings, and average daily gain (ADG) was estimated from weaning to yearling. Bayesian inference using Gibbs sampling was applied to estimate (co)variance components and genetic and phenotypic parameters. Heritability estimates for the temperament traits ranged from 0.07 (CS) to 0.28 (FS). Genetic correlations of the temperament traits with ADG and C, P and M were negative and ranged from -0.02 to -0.31. Phenotypic correlations were negative and consistently lower than the genetic, ranging from -0.08 to -0.02. It was concluded that the temperament traits assessed had favourable genetic correlation estimates with the performance traits studied. However, indirect responses in temperament when selecting for higher ADG and visual scoring system of C, P and M, will be low.

  16. Genetic tools to improve reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Capitan, A; Michot, P; Baur, A; Saintilan, R; Hozé, C; Valour, D; Guillaume, F; Boichon, D; Barbat, A; Boichard, D; Schibler, L; Fritz, S

    2014-12-01

    Fertility is a major concern in the dairy cattle industry and has been the subject of numerous studies over the past 20 years. Surprisingly, most of these studies focused on rough female phenotypes and, despite their important role in reproductive success, male- and embryo-related traits have been poorly investigated. In recent years, the rapid and important evolution of technologies in genetic research has led to the development of genomic selection. The generalisation of this method in combination with the achievements of the AI industry have led to the constitution of large databases of genotyping and sequencing data, as well as refined phenotypes and pedigree records. These resources offer unprecedented opportunities in terms of fundamental and applied research. Here we present five such examples with a focus on reproduction-related traits: (1) detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male fertility and semen quality traits; (2) detection of QTL for refined phenotypes associated with female fertility; (3) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by depletion of homozygous haplotypes; (4) identification of recessive embryonic lethal mutations by mining whole-genome sequencing data; and (5) the contribution of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism chips, whole-genome sequencing and imputation to increasing the power of QTL detection methods and to the identification of causal variants.

  17. Genetic relationships between growth and carcass traits and profitability in Japanese Brown cattle.

    PubMed

    Kahi, A K; Oguni, T; Sumio, Y; Hirooka, H

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the genetic relationship between growth and carcass traits and carcass price (CaP) and profitability in Japanese Brown cattle, 2) to estimate economic values of carcass and growth traits as regression coefficients of price and profit traits on growth and carcass traits using a multiple regression model, and 3) to compare direct and indirect predictions of the genetic merit of profit obtained from multitrait analysis and selection index, respectively. Growth and carcass traits considered in this study were ADG during the feedlot period, CWT, LM area (LMA), rib thickness (RT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), and marbling score (MS). Carcass price was evaluated as a price trait independent of its influence on profit. Profit traits were defined as 1) net income per year (PROF1), 2) net income per year/energy requirement (PROF2), and 3) net income per year minus feed costs (PROF3). Correlations between direct and indirect predictions were estimated based on EBV of sires and dams with progeny records. The heritability estimate for CaP was 0.41. The heritability estimates for profit traits were high and were 0.62, 0.66, and 0.60 for PROF1, PROF2, and PROF3, respectively. The genetic correlations between CaP and ADG, CWT, LMA, RT, SFT, and MS were 0.19, 0.14, 0.30, 0.38, -0.11, and 0.98, respectively. Among the profit traits, PROF1 had the greatest genetic correlations with growth and carcass traits. The correlations with ADG, CWT, LMA, RT, SFT, and MS were 0.30, 0.21, 0.24, 0.39, -0.01, and 0.69, respectively. These estimates indicate that use of profit traits as a selection criterion may promote desirable correlated responses in growth and carcass traits. The economic values for growth and carcass traits estimated relative to CaP and each profit trait differed because of the apparent differences in the description of these traits. The correlations between EBV for the same profit traits from direct and indirect predictions

  18. Genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits in Braunvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Cucco, D C; Ferraz, J B S; Pinto, L F B; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Mattos, E C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions in Brazil. The weight and weight gain parameters were birth weight (BW, N = 9955), weight at 120 days of age (W120, N = 5901), weaning weight at 205 days (WW, N = 6970), weight gain from birth to 205 days (GAIN205, N = 6013), weight gain from birth to 120 days (GAIN120, N = 5135), and weight gain from 120 to 205 days (GAIN85, N = 4482). Variance components were estimated using the animal model with the MTDFREML software. The relationship matrix included 35,188 animals; phenotypic measures were available for 18,688. Direct and maternal heritability increased from birth to weaning, with estimates of 0.23 +/- 0.037, 0.25+/- 0.050, 0.41+/- 0.059 for direct heritability for BW, W120 and WW, respectively, 0.08 +/- 0.012, 0.15 +/- 0.032, 0.22 +/- 0.036 for maternal genetic effects, and 0.18, 0.14 and 0.16 for total heritability estimates. For pre-weaning gains, estimates of heritability were 0.36 +/- 0.059, 0.30+/- 0.059, 0.12 +/- 0.035 for direct genetic effects of the traits GAIN205, GAIN120 and GAIN85, respectively, 0.23 +/- 0.038, 0.17 +/- 0.037, 0.03 +/- 0.029 for estimates of maternal heritability, and 0.12, 0.13, 0.16 for total heritability, respectively. Genetic correlations between weights were greater between measures taken at shorter intervals. This information can be used to optimize the design of programs for genetic improvement of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions.

  19. Genetic analysis on growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Zuin, R G; Buzanskas, M E; Caetano, S L; Venturini, G C; Guidolin, D G F; Grossi, D A; Chud, T C S; Paz, C C P; Lôbo, R B; Munari, D P

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters of body weight at 210 (BW210) and 365 (BW365) days of age in relation to rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous back fat thickness (BF) and rump fat (RF), and their respective genetic trends, in Nelore beef cattle. Estimates of genetic parameters and breeding values for the studied traits were obtained using the REML method. The direct and maternal heritability estimates were respectively: 0.25±0.02 and 0.21±0.01, for BW210, and 0.29±0.02 and 0.09±0.01, for BW365. The heritability estimates for transformed REA, BF and RF were 0.29±0.03, 0.21±0.02 and 0.23±0.03, respectively. There were genetic associations between BW210 and REA, BW365 and REA, and BF and RF, while the other correlations were low. The selection process that was conducted at the farms participating in the breeding program, taking the proposed selection index into consideration, caused genetic changes to these traits.

  20. Breeding value accuracy estimates for growth traits using random regression and multi-trait models in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Mercadante, M E Z; Lobo, R B; Pereira, R J; Albuquerque, L G

    2011-06-28

    weight records. The results indicate that random regression models provide more accurate expected breeding values than the traditionally finite multi-trait models. Thus, higher genetic responses are expected for beef cattle growth traits by replacing a multi-trait model with random regression models for genetic evaluation. B-spline functions could be applied as an alternative to Legendre polynomials to model covariance functions for weights from birth to mature age.

  1. Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2004-01-01

    From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL), we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed) reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (%)) and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some chromosomal regions with a high density of QTL, as well as a substantial number of QTL at single chromosomal locations. To extract the most information from these published records, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain consensus on QTL location and allelic substitution effect of these QTL. This required modification and development of statistical methodologies. The meta-analysis indicated a number of consensus regions, the most striking being two distinct regions affecting milk yield on chromosome 6 at 49 cM and 87 cM explaining 4.2 and 3.6 percent of the genetic variance of milk yield, respectively. The first of these regions (near marker BM143) affects five separate milk production traits (protein yield, protein percent, fat yield, fat percent, as well as milk yield).

  2. Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2004-01-01

    From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL), we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed) reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (%)) and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL studies have been reported for more complex traits such as mastitis, fertility and health. The collated QTL map shows some chromosomal regions with a high density of QTL, as well as a substantial number of QTL at single chromosomal locations. To extract the most information from these published records, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain consensus on QTL location and allelic substitution effect of these QTL. This required modification and development of statistical methodologies. The meta-analysis indicated a number of consensus regions, the most striking being two distinct regions affecting milk yield on chromosome 6 at 49 cM and 87 cM explaining 4.2 and 3.6 percent of the genetic variance of milk yield, respectively. The first of these regions (near marker BM143) affects five separate milk production traits (protein yield, protein percent, fat yield, fat percent, as well as milk yield). PMID:15040897

  3. Genetic parameters for postweaning traits in Braunvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Cucco, D C; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Mattos, E C; Varona, L

    2010-03-23

    Genetic parameters for traits related to postweaning growth in Braunvieh cattle, reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions in Brazil, were studied. Weight traits were weight at 365 days of age (W365, N = 4055), at 450 days (W450, N = 3453), and at 550 days (W550, N = 1946), while weight gains were gain from weaning to 365 days of age (WGW365, N = 3060), from weaning to 450 days (WGW450, N = 2764), from weaning to 550 days (WGW550, N = 1531), from 365 to 550 days of age (WG365550, N = 1528), from 365 to 450 days (WG365450, N = 2401), and from 450 to 550 days (WG450550, N = 1563). A full animal model was used for estimating the variance components, using the MTDFREML software. The dataset contained 18,688 animals with phenotypic measures and 35,188 animals in the relationship matrix. Heritability estimates for postweaning weights decreased with age. For W365, W450 and W550, respectively, the direct heritability estimates were 0.29 +/- 0.061, 0.25 +/- 0.057, 0.16 +/- 0.060, maternal heritability was 0.20 +/- 0.035, 0.18 +/- 0.035, 0.13 +/- 0.052, and total heritability was 0.30, 0.35, 0.26. In this breed, maternal influence was found to be important up to 550 days of age. The greater genetic correlations between weights were observed for weights measured at shorter intervals. A large environmental effect was observed for weight gain between weaning and 550 days; this effect was greater for the gains between 365 and 550 days.

  4. Describing variation in carcass quality traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

    2009-02-01

    In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large.

  5. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

    2015-02-01

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm

  6. Association of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and a SNP in the CDC10 gene with growth-related traits in Japanese Black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tong, B; Li, G P; Sasaki, S; Muramatsu, Y; Ohta, T; Kose, H; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    Growth performance, as well as marbling, is the main breeding objective in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The septin 7 (CDC10) gene, involved in cellular proliferation, is located within a genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for growth-related traits. In this study, we first showed that the expression levels of the CDC10 gene in the skeletal muscle were higher in JB steers with extremely high growth performance than in JB steers with extremely low growth, using real-time PCR. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), NC_007302.5:g.63264949G>C, was detected in the promoter region of the CDC10 gene and genotyped in three Japanese cattle breeds (known as 'Wagyu' in Japan) and the Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. All four cattle populations showed a moderate genetic diversity at the SNP of the CDC10 gene. An association analysis indicated that the SNP was associated with growth-related traits in JB cattle. These findings suggest possible effects of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and the SNP of the CDC10 gene on growth-related traits in JB cattle. The CDC10 SNP may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase beef productivity in JB beef cattle.

  7. Genetic associations among average annual productivity, growth traits, and stayability: a parallel between Nelore and composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship among average annual productivity of the cow (PRODAM), yearling weight (YW), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and stayability in the herd for at least 6 yr (STAY) of Nelore and composite beef cattle. Measurements were taken on animals born between 1980 and 2010 on 70 farms located in 7 Brazilian states. Estimates of heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were obtained by Bayesian approach with 5-trait animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regressing means of estimated breeding values by year of birth. The heritability estimates were between 0.14 and 0.47. Estimates of genetic correlation among female traits (PRODAM and STAY) and growth traits ranged from -0.02 to 0.30. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.94 among growth traits indicating that selection for these traits could be successful in tropical breeding programs. Genetic correlations among all traits were favorable and simultaneous selection for growth, productivity, and stayability is therefore possible. Genetic correlation between PRODAM and STAY was 0.99 and 0.85 for Nelore and composite cattle, respectively. Therefore, PRODAM and STAY might be influenced by many of the same genes. The inclusion of PRODAM instead of STAY as a selection criterion seems to be more advantageous for tropical breeding programs because the generation interval required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for PRODAM is shorter. Average annual genetic changes were greater in Nelore than in composite cattle. This was not unexpected because the breeding program of composite cattle included a large number of farms, different production environments, and genetic level of the herds and breeds. Thus, the selection process has become more difficult in this population.

  8. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for carcass traits in a Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle population.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Y; Watanabe, T; Fujinaka, K; Iwamoto, E; Sugimoto, Y

    2006-02-01

    To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence economically important traits in a purebred Japanese Black cattle population, we performed a preliminary genome-wide scan using 187 microsatellite markers across a paternal half-sib family composed of 258 offspring. We located six QTL at the 1% chromosome-wise level on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 4, 6, 13, 14 and 21. A second screen of these six QTL regions using 138 additional paternal offspring half-sib from the same sire, provided further support for five QTL: carcass weight on BTA14 (22-39 cM), one for rib thickness on BTA6 (27-58 cM) and three for beef marbling score (BMS) on BTA4 (59-67 cM), BTA6 (68-89 cM) and BTA21 (75-84 cM). The location of QTL for subcutaneous fat thickness on BTA13 was not supported by the second screen (P > 0.05). We determined that the combined contribution of the three QTLs for BMS was 10.1% of the total variance. The combined phenotypic average of these three Q was significantly different (P < 0.001) from those of other allele combinations. Analysis of additional half-sib families will be necessary to confirm these QTL.

  9. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  10. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  11. Genetic correlations between visual slaughter conformation scores and growth and reproductive traits in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Borba, L H F; Baldi, F; Feitosa, F L B; da Silva, L O C; Pereira, A S C; Alencar, M M

    2016-05-20

    We obtained heritability and (co)variance component estimates for slaughter conformation scores at 420 days of age (SCS420), age at calving (first, AFC; second, ASC), calving occurrence until 38 months of age (CP38), weight at 420 days of age (W420), and scrotal circumference at 420 days (SC420) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) cattle. A total of 23,168 records of Canchim animals, including 12,493 females and 10,675 males, were analyzed. SCS420 indicated carcass structure, muscle development, and subcutaneous fat deposition. The slaughter conformation score of each animal was relative to the whole contemporary group; 1 corresponded to the lowest expression of the trait and 6 to the highest. Heritabilities, and genetic and residual correlation estimates between SCS420 and reproductive and weight traits, were estimated by multitrait analyses using an animal model with Bayesian inference, employing a linear model for AFC, ASC, SC420, and W420 and a threshold model for CP38 and SCS420. Heritability estimates for SCS420, AFC, ASC, CP38, W420, and SC420 were 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between SCS420 and the other traits were 0.08 (AFC), 0.58 (ASC), 0.08 (CP38), 0.43 (W420), and 0.17 (SC420). Visual slaughter conformation scores respond to individual selection and can be used as selection criteria in Canchim cattle. Selection to improve sexual precocity would not be effective in improving carcass conformation and composition, and selection for animals with high breeding values for yearling weight may improve slaughter conformation at the yearling stage.

  12. Haplotype distribution in the class I sirtuin genes and their associations with ultrasound carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gui, Linsheng; Hao, Ruijie; Zhang, Yaran; Zhao, Xianlin; Zan, Linsen

    2015-06-01

    Class I sirtuin genes including SIRT1, SIRT2 and SIRT3, are members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent family of histone deacetylases, and play essential roles in senescence, metabolism, and apoptosis. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine class I sirtuin genes and explore their relationships with ultrasound carcass traits in Qinchuan cattle. Four non-coding mutations in the 3'UTR (SIRT1: g.25751A > C, SIRT1: g.25846A > G, SIRT2: g.19676G > A and SIRT3: g. 25702C > T) and three mutations in exons (SIRT2: g.4062C > T; SIRT2: g.4406C > T and SIRT3: g.25557A > G) were identified in 468 individuals of Qinchuan cattle. Chi-square tests showed that g.25751A > C, g.19676G > A, and g.25702C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (χ(2) < χ0.05(2)). The statistical analyses indicated that six SNPs were significantly associated with the ultrasound carcass traits (P < 0.05) except g.4062C > T (SIRT2) (P > 0.05). These results indicate that the variations in the class I sirtuin genes and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding.

  13. Haplotype combination of the bovine CFL2 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujia; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of cofilin2 (CFL2) gene polymorphisms with growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the bovine CFL2 gene using DNA sequencing and (forced) PCR-RFLP methods. These polymorphisms included a missense mutation (NC_007319.5: g. C 2213 G) in exon 4, one synonymous mutation (NC_007319.5: g. T 1694 A) in exon 4, and a mutation (NC_007319.5: g. G 1500 A) in intron 2, respectively. In addition, we evaluated the haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium coefficient of three sequence variants in 488 individuals in QC cattle. All the three SNPs in QC cattle belonged to an intermediate level of genetic diversity (0.25traits. LD analysis showed that the SNP T 1694 A and C 2213 G loci had a strong linkage (r(2)>0.33). Association analysis indicated that SNP G 1500 A, T 1694 A and C 2213 G were significantly associated with growth traits in the QC population. The results of our study suggest that the CFL2 gene may be a strong candidate gene that affects growth traits in the QC cattle breeding program.

  14. Multi-Trait GWAS and New Candidate Genes Annotation for Growth Curve Parameters in Brahman Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Aline Camporez; Kelly, Matthew John; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; e Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Fortes, Marina Rufino Salinas; Wenceslau, Raphael Rocha; Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of beef cattle growth cannot be limited simply to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for body weight at any specific ages, but should be extended to a more general purpose by considering the whole growth trajectory over time using a growth curve approach. For such an approach, the parameters that are used to describe growth curves were treated as phenotypes under a GWAS model. Data from 1,255 Brahman cattle that were weighed at birth, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age were analyzed. Parameter estimates, such as mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) from nonlinear models are utilized as substitutes for the original body weights for the GWAS analysis. We chose the best nonlinear model to describe the weight-age data, and the estimated parameters were used as phenotypes in a multi-trait GWAS. Our aims were to identify and characterize associated SNP markers to indicate SNP-derived candidate genes and annotate their function as related to growth processes in beef cattle. The Brody model presented the best goodness of fit, and the heritability values for the parameter estimates for mature weight (A) and maturity rate (K) were 0.23 and 0.32, respectively, proving that these traits can be a feasible alternative when the objective is to change the shape of growth curves within genetic improvement programs. The genetic correlation between A and K was -0.84, indicating that animals with lower mature body weights reached that weight at younger ages. One hundred and sixty seven (167) and two hundred and sixty two (262) significant SNPs were associated with A and K, respectively. The annotated genes closest to the most significant SNPs for A had direct biological functions related to muscle development (RAB28), myogenic induction (BTG1), fetal growth (IL2), and body weights (APEX2); K genes were functionally associated with body weight, body height, average daily gain (TMEM18), and skeletal muscle development (SMN1). Candidate

  15. Polymorphism in GHRH gene and its association with growth traits in Chinese native cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Zhao, Gaofeng; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone (GH) released from the pituitary. Mutations detected in GHRH gene showed associations with animal production traits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of the GHRH gene with growth traits in Chinese native cattle. PCR-SSCP and sequencing were used to detect mutations of the GHRH gene in this study. One novel mutation 4251nt (C>T) was found and the frequencies of C allele were 0.8778 and 0.8476 for Qinchuan and Nanyang cattle, respectively. Body weight with the CT genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05 or P<0.01) than those with CC genotype for different growth periods (6, 12, 18, and 24 months old) in Nanyang cattle. Our findings suggested that polymorphism in bovine GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors to influence body weight.

  16. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress affects production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for body temperature might help to decrease the effects of heat stress on those traits. Objectives of the current study were a) to estimate genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows under heat stress cond...

  17. FTO gene variants are associated with growth and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jevsinek Skok, D; Kunej, T; Kovac, M; Malovrh, S; Potocnik, K; Petric, N; Zgur, S; Dovc, P; Horvat, S

    2016-04-01

    An important aim in animal breeding is the improvement of growth and meat quality traits. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have a relatively large effect on human obesity as well as on body composition in rodents and, more recently, in livestock. Here, we examined the effects of the FTO gene variants on growth and carcass traits in the Slovenian population of Simmental (SS) and Brown (SB) cattle. To validate and identify new polymorphisms, we used sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and TaqMan assays in the SS breed and FTO gene variants data from the Illumina BovineSNP50 v1 array for the SB breed. Sequencing of the eight samples of progeny-tested SS sires detected 108 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine FTO gene. Statistical analyses between growth and carcass traits and 34 FTO polymorphisms revealed significant association of FTO variants with lean meat percentage in both breeds. Additionally, FTO SNPs analyzed in SS cattle were associated with fat percentage, bone weight and live weight at slaughter. The FTO gene can thus be regarded as a candidate gene for the marker-assisted selection programs in our and possibly other populations of cattle. Future studies in cattle might reveal novel roles for the FTO gene in shaping carcass traits in livestock species as well as body composition control in other mammals.

  18. [The polymorphism of bovine POMC gene and its association with the growth traits of Nanyang cattle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Fang, Xing-Tang; Wang, Ju-Qiang; Ma, Gui-Bian; Niu, Hui; Xiao, Jie

    2009-12-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) plays an important role on animal ingestive behavior and energy homeostasis. Genetic variation of POMC was detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing techniques in 480 individuals from seven cattle breeds (i.e., Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian Red cattle, Jinnan, Luxi, Angus, and Chinese Holstein), and association analyses were carried out to evaluate the effects of genotypes of the candidate genes on growth traits in Nanyang cattle. Three SNPs (811845 C>T, 811821 T>C and 811797 A>G, ref. NW_928357) in linkage were detected in P3 locus, which were located at the 3' flanking region of bovine POMC gene. The body weight at 6-month-old and the average daily gain of 0~6-month-old were higher in Nanyang cattle with the genotype BB than with the genotype AA (P<0.05).

  19. Genetic parameter estimates and principal component analysis of breeding values of reproduction and growth traits in female Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Buzanskas, M E; Savegnago, R P; Grossi, D A; Venturini, G C; Queiroz, S A; Silva, L O C; Júnior, R A A Torres; Munari, D P; Alencar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic data from female Canchim beef cattle were used to obtain estimates of genetic parameters for reproduction and growth traits using a linear animal mixed model. In addition, relationships among animal estimated breeding values (EBVs) for these traits were explored using principal component analysis. The traits studied in female Canchim cattle were age at first calving (AFC), age at second calving (ASC), calving interval (CI), and bodyweight at 420 days of age (BW420). The heritability estimates for AFC, ASC, CI and BW420 were 0.03±0.01, 0.07±0.01, 0.06±0.02, and 0.24±0.02, respectively. The genetic correlations for AFC with ASC, AFC with CI, AFC with BW420, ASC with CI, ASC with BW420, and CI with BW420 were 0.87±0.07, 0.23±0.02, -0.15±0.01, 0.67±0.13, -0.07±0.13, and 0.02±0.14, respectively. Standardised EBVs for AFC, ASC and CI exhibited a high association with the first principal component, whereas the standardised EBV for BW420 was closely associated with the second principal component. The heritability estimates for AFC, ASC and CI suggest that these traits would respond slowly to selection. However, selection response could be enhanced by constructing selection indices based on the principal components.

  20. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  1. Genetic variants affecting meat and milk production traits appear to have effects on reproduction traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Collis, E; Fortes, M R S; Zhang, Y; Tier, B; Schutt, K; Barendse, W; Hawken, R

    2012-08-01

    Polymorphisms located in the genes ABCG2, DGAT1, LEP, PRLR, RORC, CAPN1 and CAST previously have been associated with milk or meat production traits. In this study, these polymorphisms were examined for significant effects on reproductive traits [age at puberty (AGECL), post-partum anoestrus interval (PPAI) and the ability ovulate prior to weaning (PW)] and on a panel of correlated traits such as weight, growth and serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor I. The effects of the polymorphisms were examined in two samples of tropically adapted beef cattle: Brahman (N = 932) and Tropical Composites (N = 1097). A polymorphism in the gene DGAT1 was associated with age at puberty in the combined sample (P = 0.042), and two polymorphisms in CAPN1 were associated with PPAI (P = 0.033) and with the ability ovulate PW (P = 0.017). The favourable allele for reproductive traits was not always the favourable allele associated with production traits. The effects of these polymorphisms on reproductive traits were small compared to their effects on the traits for which they were originally discovered.

  2. Expression of the SIRT2 Gene and Its Relationship with Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Lin-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ran; Liu, Gui-Yao; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) is a member of the sirtuin family of class III NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent protein deacetylases and may regulate senescence, metabolism and apoptosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the SIRT2 gene could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that among all types of tissue that were analyzed, the highest mRNA expression levels of the gene were found in subcutaneous fat. DNA sequencing of 468 individual Qinchuan cattle identified two novel, single nucleotide polymorphisms (g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the SIRT2 gene. The frequencies of SNP g.19501 C > T and g.19518 C > T were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in all the samples (chi-square test, χ2 < χ0.052). An association analysis showed that the two loci were significantly correlated with some body size traits and the H2H2 (-CT-CT-) diplotypes performed better than other combinations. These results indicated that the variations in the SIRT2 gene and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. PMID:25622258

  3. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr.

  4. Effect of Genetic Variations within the I-mfa Gene on the Growth Traits of Chinese Cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Lan, Xian-Yong; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2016-10-01

    I-mfa (inhibitor of the MyoD family a) is a transcription modulator that binds to MyoD family members and inhibits their transcriptional activities. It is highly expressed in the sclerotome and plays an important role in the patterning of the somite early in development. In this study, the polymorphisms of the bovine I-mfa gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA pool sequencing methods in 541 individuals from three Chinese cattle breeds. The results showed that P3 locus had two novel complete linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (NC_007324.4:g.12284A>G and g.12331T>C), resulting in a missense mutation p.S(AGC)113G(GGC) and a synonymous mutation p.H(CAT)128H(CAC), respectively. P4 locus had a novel SNP (NC_007324.4: g.16432C>A), which resulted in a nonsense mutation p.C(TGC)241X(TGA). The statistical analyses indicated that the three SNPs, are associated with the phenotypic traits in Luxi (LX), Qinchuan (QC), and Jiaxian (JX) cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The mutant-type variants were superior for growth traits; the heterozygote diplotype was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in the I-mfa gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Carcass Traits in an Experimental Nelore Cattle Population

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Rafael; Bonvino Stafuzza, Nedenia; de Oliveira Fragomeni, Breno; Miguel Ferreira de Camargo, Gregório; Matos Ceacero, Thaís; Noely dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine; Baldi, Fernando; Augusti Boligon, Arione; Zerlotti Mercadante, Maria Eugênia; Lino Lourenco, Daniela; Misztal, Ignacy; Galvão de Albuquerque, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with carcass traits in an experimental Nelore cattle population. The studied data set contained 2,306 ultrasound records for longissimus muscle area (LMA), 1,832 for backfat thickness (BF), and 1,830 for rump fat thickness (RF). A high-density SNP panel (BovineHD BeadChip assay 700k, Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) was used for genotyping. After genomic data quality control, 437,197 SNPs from 761 animals were available, of which 721 had phenotypes for LMA, 669 for BF, and 718 for RF. The SNP solutions were estimated using a single-step genomic BLUP approach (ssGWAS), which calculated the variance for windows of 50 consecutive SNPs and the regions that accounted for more than 0.5% of the additive genetic variance were used to search for candidate genes. The results indicated that 12, 18, and 15 different windows were associated to LMA, BF, and RF, respectively. Confirming the polygenic nature of the studied traits, 43, 65, and 53 genes were found in those associated windows, respectively for LMA, BF, and RF. Among the candidate genes, some of them, which already had their functions associated with the expression of energy metabolism, were found associated with fat deposition in this study. In addition, ALKBH3 and HSD17B12 genes, which are related in fibroblast death and metabolism of steroids, were found associated with LMA. The results presented here should help to better understand the genetic and physiologic mechanism regulating the muscle tissue deposition and subcutaneous fat cover expression of Zebu animals. The identification of candidate genes should contribute for Zebu breeding programs in order to consider carcass traits as selection criteria in their genetic evaluation. PMID:28118362

  6. Multi-trait linear reaction norm model to describe the pattern of phenotypic expression of some economic traits in beef cattle across a range of environments.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário Luiz; Eler, Joanir Pereira; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; Cardoso, Fernando Flores; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2015-05-01

    The multi-trait reaction norm (MTRN) model was extended to beef cattle reared under tropical conditions with the following objectives: to compare multi-trait (MT) and MTRN models regarding the genetic parameters obtained; and to characterize G × E, the pattern of phenotypic expression, and the environmental sensitivity of animals for postweaning weight gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and annual average productivity of the cow (PRODAM). There was divergence in the estimates between the MT and MTRN models when the posterior probability intervals of additive genetic variances and heritability coefficients of PWG and PRODAM were analyzed. The MTRN model indicated an increase in heritability for PWG and PRODAM with improvement of the environmental conditions. For SC, heritability was practically the same, irrespective of the environmental conditions. The genetic correlations between the traits studied were low but varied over environments by the MTRN model. Considering genetic correlations obtained by the MTRN model for the same trait, lower estimates were obtained between extreme favorable and unfavorable environments. This finding suggest re-ranking of breeding values in different environments mainly for PWG and PRODAM. Thus, G × E is more important for PWG and PRODAM than for SC and should be included in the genetic evaluation of these traits. The traits PWG and PRODAM can be considered plastic traits, whereas SC is poorly plastic. The genetic trends in individual animal slopes indicate that the population is moving towards greater plasticity. This could be a matter of concern for breeders since greater plasticity seems to limit heritability and, consequently, the responses to selection.

  7. Modelling and estimation of genotype by environment interactions for production traits in French dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genotype by environment interactions are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of dairy cattle. However, this is often questioned, especially when environment or herd management is wide-ranging. The aim of this study was to assess genotype by environment interactions for production traits (milk, protein, fat yields and fat and protein contents) in French dairy cattle using an original approach to characterize the environments. Methods Genetic parameters of production traits were estimated for three breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) using multiple-trait and reaction norm models. Variables derived from Herd Test Day profiles obtained after a test day model evaluation were used to define herd environment. Results Multiple-trait and reaction norm models gave similar results. Genetic correlations were very close to unity for all traits, except between some extreme environments. However, a relatively wide range of heritabilities by trait and breed was found across environments. This was more the case for milk, protein and fat yields than for protein and fat contents. Conclusions No real reranking of animals was observed across environments. However, a significant scale effect exists: the more intensive the herd management for milk yield, the larger the heritability. PMID:23181486

  8. Copy number variations related to reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) is one of important reproduction traits that affect overall profitability in dairy industry. However, historical selection for production and conformation rather than reproduction has resulted in a decline in cow fertility. Genomic structural variation including copy nu...

  9. Genotype × environment interactions in reproductive traits of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Diego Pagung; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Filho, Raimundo Martins; Cardoso, Fernando Flores; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza

    2016-10-01

    We evaluate genotype × environment (G × E) interactions for age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil using four hierarchical reaction norm models (HRNMs). The best-fit model for the traits was the one step heteroscedastic hierarchical reaction norm model. Heritability was close to zero in the worst environments and increased as the environments improved (from 0.06 to 0.12 for AFC and from 0.01 to 0.03 for CI). The correlations between the intercept and the slope of the reaction norms for CI and AFC were from medium to high magnitude (0.75 ± 0.10 and 0.90 ± 0.04, respectively), indicating that animals with higher average breeding values had the greatest responses to the improvement of environmental conditions. The variation in heritability indicates different response to selection according to the environment in which the animals of the population are evaluated. The G × E was evident in bulls with more female offspring. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that selection for AFC in medium- and high-level environments leads to higher genetic gains.

  10. Bayesian estimates of genetic parameters for pre-conception traits, gestation length and calving interval in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, G; Goyache, F; Becerra, J; Moreno, C; Sánchez, L; Altarriba, J

    2009-08-01

    A total of 5253 records obtained from 2081 Rubia Gallega beef cows managed using artificial insemination as the only reproduction system were analysed to estimate genetic parameters for days to first insemination (DFI), days from first insemination to conception (FIC), number of inseminations per conception (IN), days open (DO), gestation length (GL) and calving interval (CI) via multitrait Bayesian procedures. Estimates of the mean of posterior distribution of the heritability of DFI, FIC, IN, DO, GL and CI were, respectively, 0.050, 0.078, 0.071, 0.053, 0.037 and 0.085 and the corresponding estimates for repeatability of these traits were 0.116, 0.129, 0.147, 0.138, 0.082 and 0.132, respectively. No significant genetic correlations associated to DFI or GL were found. However, genetic correlations between the other four analysed traits were high and significant. Genetic correlations between FIC and IN, DO and CI were similar and higher than 0.85. Genetic correlations of IN-DO and IN-CI were over 0.65. The highest genetic correlation was estimated for the pair DO-CI (0.992) that can be considered the same trait in genetic terms. Results indicated that DFI can be highly affected by non-genetic factors thus limiting its usefulness to be used as an earlier indicator of reproductive performance in beef cattle. Moreover, GL could not be associated to the reproductive performance of the cow before conception. The other four analysed traits, FIC, IN, DO and CI, have close genetic relationships. The inclusion of IN as an earlier indicator of fertility in beef cattle improvement programs using artificial insemination as the main reproductive system can be advisable due to the low additional recording effort needed.

  11. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review.

  12. Genetic and environmental heterogeneity of residual variance of weight traits in Nellore beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence of the existence of genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance, suggesting that it could be exploited to improve robustness and uniformity of livestock by selection. However, little is known about the perspectives of such a selection strategy in beef cattle. Methods A two-step approach was applied to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling weight in a Nellore beef cattle population. First, an animal model was fitted to the data and second, the influence of additive and environmental effects on the residual variance of these traits was investigated with different models, in which the log squared estimated residuals for each phenotypic record were analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the reliability of variance component estimates from the second step and the accuracy of estimated breeding values for residual variation. Results The results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an effect on the residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling in Nellore beef cattle and that uniformity of these traits could be improved by selecting for lower residual variance, when considering a large amount of information to predict genetic merit for this criterion. Simulations suggested that using the two-step approach would lead to biased estimates of variance components, such that more adequate methods are needed to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in beef cattle. PMID:22672564

  13. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-07-27

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p < 0.05) except SNP1/8 (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.

  14. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci influencing carcass, post-natal growth and reproductive traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    McClure, M C; Morsci, N S; Schnabel, R D; Kim, J W; Yao, P; Rolf, M M; McKay, S D; Gregg, S J; Chapple, R H; Northcutt, S L; Taylor, J F

    2010-12-01

    To gain insight into the number of loci of large effect that underlie variation in cattle, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 14 economically important traits was performed in two commercial Angus populations using 390 microsatellites, 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one duplication loci. The first population comprised 1769 registered Angus bulls born between 1955 and 2003, with Expected Progeny Differences computed by the American Angus Association. The second comprised 38 half-sib families containing 1622 steers with six post-natal growth and carcass phenotypes. Linkage analysis was performed by half-sib least squares regression with gridqtl or Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of complex pedigrees with loki. Of the 673 detected QTL, only 118 have previously been reported, reflecting both the conservative approach to QTL reporting in the literature, and the more liberal approach taken in this study. From 33 to 71% of the genetic variance and 35 to 56% of the phenotypic variance in each trait was explained by the detected QTL. To analyse the effects of 11 SNPs and one duplication locus within candidate genes on each trait, a single marker analysis was performed by fitting an additive allele substitution model in both mapping populations. There were 53 associations detected between the SNP/duplication loci and traits with -log(10) P(nominal) ≥ 4.0, where each association explained 0.92% to 4.4% of the genetic variance and 0.01% to 1.86% of the phenotypic variance. Of these associations, only six SNP/duplication loci were located within 8 cM of a QTL peak for the trait, with two being located at the QTL peak: SST_DG156121:c.362A>G for ribeye muscle area and TG_X05380:c.422C>T for calving ease. Strong associations between several SNP/duplication loci and trait variation were obtained in the absence of any detected linked QTL. However, we reject the causality of several commercialized DNA tests, including an association between TG

  15. Comparison of genetic gains per year for carcass traits among breeding programs in the Japanese Brown and the Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Miyake, T; Gaillard, C; Oguni, T; Matsumoto, M; Ito, M; Kurahara, T; Sasae, Y; Fujinaka, K; Ohtagaki, S; Dougo, T

    2006-02-01

    The breeding program for beef cattle in Japan has changed dramatically over 4 decades. Visual judging was done initially, but progeny testing in test stations began in 1968. In the 1980s, the genetic evaluation program using field records, so-called on-farm progeny testing, was first adopted in Oita, Hyogo, and Kumamoto prefectures. In this study, genetic trends for carcass traits in these 3 Wagyu populations were estimated, and genetic gains per year were compared among the 3 different beef cattle breeding programs. The field carcass records used were collected between 1988 and 2003. The traits analyzed were carcass weight, LM area, rib thickness, s.c. fat thickness, and beef marbling standard number. The average breeding values of reproducing dams born the same year were used to estimate the genetic trends for the carcass traits. For comparison of the 3 breeding programs, birth years of the dams were divided into 3 periods reflecting each program. Positive genetic trends for beef marbling standard number were clearly shown in all populations. The genetic gains per year for all carcass traits were significantly enhanced by adopting the on-farm progeny testing program. These results indicate that the on-farm progeny testing program with BLUP is a very powerful approach for genetic improvement of carcass traits in Japanese Wagyu beef cattle.

  16. Relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity in canadian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kistemaker, G J; Sullivan, P; Van Doormaal, B J

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use survival analysis to assess the relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity of Canadian dairy cattle. Data consisted of 1,702,857; 67,470; and 33,190 Holstein, Ayrshire, and Jersey cows, respectively. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving to culling, death, or censoring; adjusted for the effect of milk yield. The reproduction traits included calving traits (calving ease, calf size, and calf survival) and female fertility traits (number of services, days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open). The statistical model was a Weibull proportional hazards model and included the fixed effects of stage of lactation, season of production, the annual change in herd size, and type of milk recording supervision, age at first calving, effects of milk, fat, and protein yields calculated as within herd-year-parity deviations for each reproduction trait. Herd-year-season of calving and sire were included as random effects. Analysis was performed separately for each reproductive trait. Significant associations between reproduction traits and longevity were observed in all breeds. Increased risk of culling was observed for cows that required hard pull, calved small calves, or dead calves. Moreover, cows that require more services per conception, a longer interval between first service to conception, an interval between calving to first service greater than 90 d, and increased days open were at greater risk of being culled.

  17. Testing for undesirable traits in cattle: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Healy, P J

    1996-04-01

    A variety of autosomal recessive defects, many lethal to the newborn calf, have been recognized in Australia. Definition of a defect at the biochemical or molecular level facilitates development of heterozygote detection tests essential for efficient disease control programs. The prevalence of alpha-mannosidosis in Angus and Murray Greys, generalized glycogenosis in Brahmans and Shorthorns, and citrullinemia in Holstein/Friesians has been reduced as a result of industry-sponsored disease-control programs. These defects were disseminated as a consequence of selection focused on desirable traits carried by individuals. In the long term, an increase in crossbreeding in commercial beef production will reduce the significance of recessive defects. Caution will be required to reduce the risk of dissemination of recessive defects resulting from increased selection pressure within the dairy industry presently dominated by Holstein/Friesians.

  18. Genetic relationships between temperament of calves at auction and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Inoue, Keiichi

    2017-04-12

    Correlations of calves' temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.13 to -0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously.

  19. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Two Meat Production Traits in Simmental Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huizhong; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Jiangwei; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-01-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), explain only a small fraction of phenotypic variation. Pathway-based GWAS were proposed to improve the proportion of genes for some human complex traits that could be explained by enriching a mass of SNPs within genetic groups. However, few attempts have been made to describe the quantitative traits in domestic animals. In this study, we used a dataset with approximately 7,700,000 SNPs from 807 Simmental cattle and analyzed live weight and longissimus muscle area using a modified pathway-based GWAS method to orthogonalise the highly linked SNPs within each gene using principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, of the 262 biological pathways of cattle collected from the KEGG database, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapse pathway and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway were significantly associated with the two traits analyzed. The GABAergic synapse pathway was biologically applicable to the traits analyzed because of its roles in feed intake and weight gain. The proposed method had high statistical power and a low false discovery rate, compared to those of the smallest P-value and SNP set enrichment analysis methods. PMID:26672757

  20. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-12-28

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle.

  1. Birth weight, reproduction traits and effects of inbreeding in Nicaraguan Reyna Creole cattle.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Roldan; Näsholm, Anna; Malmfors, Birgitta; Philipsson, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Reyna Creole cattle in Nicaragua comprise about 650 purebred animals, and the breed has been shown to have a high level of inbreeding. To characterize the breed, as basis for a conservation program, information from two herds on birth weight (BW, n = 1097), age at first calving (AFC, n = 449) and calving interval (CI, n = 1,347) was analysed. Overall averages were 27.8 kg for BW, 37.4 months for AFC and 424 days for CI. Large differences between the herds were observed for all traits. Thus, there would be opportunities for management interventions to improve reproduction results. The heritability for BW was 0.34. For CI, the heritability of 0.20 and the additive genetic standard deviation of 36 days were comparatively high values. No genetic variation was found in AFC. Estimated inbreeding effects were associated with large standard errors due to the small size of the data and incompleteness of pedigrees. Nevertheless, significant effects were shown of dam inbreeding level on all traits. For each percentage of increased inbreeding, BW decreased by 0.06 kg, AFC increased by 3.5 days and CI increased by 1.4 days. The effects of the inbreeding level of the individual itself were not significant. The relatively good reproduction traits of Reyna Creole cattle shown in this study, despite high inbreeding levels, will be supplemented with a characterization of milk production traits.

  2. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  3. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  4. Genetic analysis of calf market weight and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Shojo, M; Okanishi, T; Anada, K; Oyama, K; Mukai, F

    2006-10-01

    Heritabilities of and genetic correlations between additive direct and maternal genetic effects for calf market weight, and additive direct genetic effects for carcass traits, were estimated for Japanese Black cattle by REML procedures under 2-trait animal models. Data were collected from calf and carcass markets in Hyogo and Tottori prefectures and analyzed separately by prefecture. Calf market weight was measured on 42,745 and 23,566 calves in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively. Only the fattening animals with calf market weight were extracted from the carcass database and used for estimation. The carcass traits analyzed were carcass weight, ribeye area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, yield estimate, beef marbling score, and 4 meat characters (color, brightness, firmness, and texture). Direct and maternal heritabilities for calf market weight were estimated to be 0.22 and 0.07 in Hyogo, and 0.37 and 0.15 in Tottori, respectively. The estimates of heritabilities for carcass traits were moderate to high in both prefectures. The estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations for calf market weight were positive (0.17) in Hyogo and negative (-0.63) in Tottori. The direct effect for calf market weight was positively correlated with the direct effect for carcass weight (0.87 and 0.56 in Hyogo and Tottori, respectively) but negatively correlated with the direct effect for beef marbling score (-0.10 in both prefectures). The estimates of genetic correlations between the maternal effect for calf market weight and the direct effects for carcass traits varied from -0.13 to 0.34 in Hyogo and from -0.14 to 0.15 in Tottori. Because direct and maternal genetic effects for early growth traits can be evaluated from calf market weight data in the production system of Japanese Black cattle, this information should be incorporated into selection and mating schemes of the breed.

  5. Reduced-rank models of growth and reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silveira, F A; Silveira, D D; Dionello, N J L; Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Souza, F R P

    2015-05-01

    In beef cattle genetic evaluation, principal component models of the additive genetic effect could be used to incorporate several traits in the same analysis, without an important increase in the number of parameters to be estimated. In this study, multitrait (MT) and reduced-rank models were compared for their ability to estimate parameters and predict breeding values for weaning weight, yearling weight, weaning hip height, yearling hip height, weaning to yearling weight gain, scrotal circumference, and age at the first calving. Data obtained were from 74,388 Nelore animals, born to 1441 sires and 28,502 cows. Six analyses were performed using a MT model that incorporated all the traits simultaneously and five reduced-rank models for the genetic additive direct (co)variance matrix, fitting the first one (PC1), two (PC2), three (PC3), four (PC4), and five (PC5) principal components. The model considering the first three principal components (PC3) provided the best fit. Direct and maternal heritability and the respective standard errors obtained from the MT and PC3 models were similar. In general, the PC3 model provided slightly stronger genetic correlations between the traits when compared with those obtained with the MT model. The rank correlations between the breeding values predicted with the MT and PC3 models for the different traits ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. When 2% and 10% of the best sires were selected on the basis of breeding values predicted by the MT model, the degree of concordance with the PC3 model ranged from 86% to 97%. The first three principal components explained most of the genetic variation among animals, suggesting that major changes should not be expected in the sire's classification on the basis of breeding values predicted for growth and reproductive traits. Models of principal components could be used for beef cattle genetic evaluation, especially when considering several economic traits in the same analysis.

  6. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01 for G275A and G277C, P < 0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle.

  7. SNP identification in FBXO32 gene and their associations with growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ailan; Zhang, Ya; Li, Mijie; Lan, Xianyong; Wang, Juqiang; Chen, Hong

    2013-02-15

    The F-box protein 32 (FBXO32), also known as Atrogin-1, is one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex. FBXO32 has been previously shown to be involved in regulation of initiation and development of muscle mass. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphism of FBXO32 gene in 1313 cattle from seven bovine breeds using DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-based amplification-created restriction site (PCR-ACRS) methods. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within bovine FBXO32, and were deposited in the GenBank database. The association studies between these four SNPs and growth traits were performed in NanYang cattle. Notably, the SNPs ss411628932 and ss411628936 were shown to be significantly associated with body length of 24-month-old NanYang cattle. Based on the above four SNPs, 16 haplotypes were identified. The main haplotype was AATA, which occurred at a frequency of more than 40%. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis showed that geographical distance was essential to gene flow among seven cattle breeds. Indigenous bovine breeds displayed genetic difference in comparison to hybrid bovine breeds that have foreign origins. We herein describe for the first time a comprehensive study on the variability of bovine FBXO32 gene that is predictive of genetic potential for body length phenotype.

  8. Two-trait random regression model to estimate the genetic association of scrotal circumference with female reproductive performance in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2015-06-01

    In an attempt to determine when scrotal circumference (SC) could be a reasonable indicator of female reproductive performance, a series of two-trait random regression model (regression for SC on age at measurement) using Gibbs sampling was applied to field data of Nelore cattle raised in a tropical environment. The female traits evaluated were age at first calving (AFC), first calving interval (FCI), heifer pregnancy (HP), and stayability (STAY). The posterior means of heritability of female traits ranged from 0.15 for AFC to 0.46 for HP and were about 0.50 for SC. The posterior means of genetic correlations between SC and AFC, FCI, HP, STAY were up to -0.70, -0.25, 0.48, and 0.29, respectively. Genetically, SC could be a reasonable indicator of female puberty (e.g., HP) as long as it is measured at a young age (400-440 days). However, for female reproductive traits measured at an older age (e.g., STAY), SC is merely a modest or even poor indicator. The use of sire expected progeny differences for female reproductive traits will be more effective than the use of expected progeny differences for SC to improve the reproductive performance of female cattle.

  9. Trailer microclimate during commercial transportation of feeder cattle and relationship to indicators of cattle welfare.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Crowe, T; Janzen, E; González, L A; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    factors (P > 0.05). Despite association between indicators of calf welfare and microclimate, all cattle arrived in good condition and there was 0.96% treatment rate within the first 30 d after arrival. Management and auditing decisions related to transportation of feeder cattle should consider the relationship between animal-level and ambient conditions and conditions before transportation. Under the commercial conditions of the current study, the transportation process did not appear to cause distress according to the dimensions of animal welfare that were assessed.

  10. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  11. Genome-wide association study for calving traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Purfield, D C; Bradley, D G; Kearney, J F; Berry, D P

    2014-02-01

    Dystocia and perinatal mortality are quantitative traits that significantly impact animal productivity and welfare. Their economic importance is reflected by their inclusion in the national breeding goals of many cattle populations. The genetic architecture that influences these traits, however, has still yet to be thoroughly defined. Regions of the bovine genome associated with calving difficulty (direct and maternal) and perinatal mortality were detected in this study using a Bayesian approach with 43 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on up to 1970 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Several SNPs on chromosomes 5, 6, 11, 12, 17,18 and 28 were detected to be strongly associated with these calving performance traits. Novel genomic regions with previously reported associations with growth, stature, birth weight and bone morphology were identified in the present study as being associated with the three calving performance traits. Morphological abnormalities are a known contributor to perinatal mortality and the most significantly associated SNP for perinatal mortality in the present study was located in a region in linkage disequilibrium with the gene SLC26A7. This gene, SLC26A7, has similarities and colocalises with SLC4A2, which has previously been associated with osteoporosis and mortality in cattle populations. The HHIP gene that is known to be associated with stature in humans was strongly associated with direct calving difficulty in the present study; large calves are known to, on average, have a greater likelihood of dystocia. A stemloop microRNA, bta-mir-1256, on chromosome 12, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression was associated with maternal calving difficulty. Previously reported quantitative trait loci associated with calving performance traits in other populations were again identified in this study; with one genomic region on chromosome 18 supporting very strong evidence of an underlying causative mutation and accounting for 2

  12. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.

  13. Relationship of the bovine growth hormone gene to carcass traits in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Tatsuda, K; Oka, A; Iwamoto, E; Kuroda, Y; Takeshita, H; Kataoka, H; Kouno, S

    2008-02-01

    The bovine growth hormone gene (bGH) possesses three haplotypes, A, B and C, that differ by amino acid mutations at positions 127 and 172 in the fifth exon: (leucine 127, threonine 172), (valine 127, threonine 172) and (valine 127, methionine 172) respectively. The correlation between meat quality or carcass weight and these haplotypes was investigated in Japanese black cattle. Altogether, 940 bGH haplotypes were compared with respect to six carcass traits: carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, beef marbling score and beef colour. The frequency of the B haplotype was higher (0.421) than that of A (0.269) and C (0.311). High carcass weight and low beef marbling were associated with haplotype A (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively), whereas beef marbling was increased by haplotype C (p < 0.05). Estimated regression coefficient of the A haplotype substitution effect for carcass weight and beef marbling score were 5.55 (13.1% of the phenotypic SD) and -0.31 (17.0%) respectively. That of the C haplotype for beef marbling score was 0.20 (11.0%). The other traits showed no relationship to the haplotypes examined. The results of this investigation suggest that information pertaining to bGH polymorphisms in Japanese black cattle could be used to improve the selection of meat traits.

  14. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    PubMed

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  15. Effect of subsidy regimes on economic values of functional traits in beef cattle breeding.

    PubMed

    Wolfová, M; Pribyl, J; Wolf, J; Zahrádková, R

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the impact of five monetary subsidy regimes on economic values of traits in a cow-calf pasture production system with surplus calves fed for slaughter. The following regimes were analysed: (1) maximum prices for slaughter animals actually received in the Czech Republic during 2004, with no subsidies of any kind; (2) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of permanent grassland and per calf born; (3) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land, per hectare of pasture and meadow, per beef cow in a forage system and per livestock unit; (4) prices as in (1), with subsidies awarded per hectare of agricultural land; (5) no subsidies, but prices received for slaughter animals that covered production costs and resulted in 1% profitability. The modelled farm showed negative profit under real price conditions with no subsidies (regime 1), which led to an underestimation of economic values for functional traits. The same results were obtained in regimes in which subsidies did not depend on the number of animals (3) or on meat production from the enterprise (4). Economic values of production traits (growth and carcass traits) did not vary among subsidy regimes. To determine optimum economic values for functional traits in beef cattle, we advocate using the method applied in subsidy regime 5, no subsidies but prices for slaughter animals that cover production cost and a small profit.

  16. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    .01 to 0.06) traits. All the RMP traits were strongly correlated to MY (r from 0.82 to 0.95). These results indicate that reducing MPR per se can have a negative impact on growth and body composition of cattle. Reducing MY, however, will likely have the effect of reducing MPR without impacting productivity. Where a ratio trait is undesirable, as in animal breeding, any of the RMP traits can be used instead of MY. However, where independence from DMI is desired, RMPR should be a trait worth considering.

  17. Genetic correlations between mature cow weight and productive and reproductive traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Regatieri, I C; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-08-29

    We investigated genetic associations between mature cow weight (MW) and weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), weight gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), weaning hip height (WHH), yearling hip height (YHH), scrotal circumference (SC), and age at first calving (AFC). Data from 127,104 Nellore animals born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda., were analyzed. (Co)variance components were obtained by the restricted maximum likelihood method, applying an animal model in a multi-traits analysis. The model included direct genetic and residual effects as random effects, the fixed effects of contemporary group, and the linear and quadratic effects of animal age at recording (except for AFC, GBW, and GWY) and age of cow at calving as covariates (except for MW). The numbers of days from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling were included as covariates for GBW and GWY, respectively. Estimated direct heritabilities were 0.43 ± 0.02 (MW), 0.33 ± 0.01 (WW), 0.36 ± 0.01 (YW), 0.28 ± 0.02 (GBW), 0.31 ± 0.01 (GWY), 0.44 ± 0.02 (WHH), 0.48 ± 0.02 (YHH), 0.44 ± 0.01 (SC), and 0.16 ± 0.03 (AFC). Genetic correlations between MW and productive traits were positive and of medium to high magnitude (ranging from 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.71 ± 0.01). A positive and low genetic correlation was observed between MW and SC (0.24 ± 0.04). A negative genetic correlation (-0.19 ± 0.03) was estimated between MW and AFC. Selection to increase weight or weight gains at any age, as well as hip height, will change MW in the same direction. Selection for higher SC may lead to a long-term increase in MW. The AFC can be included in selection indices to improve the reproductive performance of beef cattle without significant changes in MW.

  18. Genome-wide association for growth traits in Canchim beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Buzanskas, Marcos E; Grossi, Daniela A; Ventura, Ricardo V; Schenkel, Flávio S; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Meirelles, Sarah L C; Mokry, Fabiana B; Higa, Roberto H; Mudadu, Maurício A; da Silva, Marcos V G Barbosa; Niciura, Simone C M; Torres, Roberto A A; Alencar, Maurício M; Regitano, Luciana C A; Munari, Danísio P

    2014-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle.

  19. Genome-Wide Association for Growth Traits in Canchim Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buzanskas, Marcos E.; Grossi, Daniela A.; Ventura, Ricardo V.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Meirelles, Sarah L. C.; Mokry, Fabiana B.; Higa, Roberto H.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. Barbosa.; Niciura, Simone C. M.; Júnior, Roberto A. A. Torres.; Alencar, Maurício M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Munari, Danísio P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle. PMID:24733441

  20. The contribution of migrant breeds to the genetic gain of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, S; Wellmann, R; Hamann, H; Bennewitz, J

    2014-12-01

    During the past decades, migrant contributions have accumulated in many local breeds. Cross-breeding was carried out to mitigate the risk of inbreeding depression and to improve the performance of local breeds. However, breeding activities for local breeds were not as intensive and target oriented as for popular high-yielding breeds. Therefore, even if performance improved, the gap between the performance of local and popular breeds increased for many traits. Furthermore, the genetic originality of local breeds declined due to the increasing contributions of migrant breeds. This study examined the importance of migrant breed influences for the realization of breeding progress of beef traits of German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle. The results show that there is a high amount of migrant contributions and their effects on performance are substantial for most traits. The effect of the French cattle breed Montbéliard (p-value 0.014) on daily gain of Vorderwald bulls at test station was positive. The effects of Vorderwald ancestors (p-value for daily gain 0.007 and p-value for net gain 0.004) were positive for both traits under consideration in the population of Hinterwald cattle. Additionally, the effect of remaining breeds (p-value 0.030) on net gain of Hinterwald cattle in the field was also positive. The estimated effect of Fleckvieh ancestors on net gain of Hinterwald cattle was even larger but not significant. Breeding values adjusted for the effects of the migrant breeds showed little genetic trend.

  1. Genetic Correlations Between Carcass Traits And Molecular Breeding Values In Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research elucidated genetic relationships between carcass traits, ultrasound indicator traits, and their respective molecular breeding values (MBV). Animals whose MBV data were used to estimate (co)variance components were not previously used in development of the MBV. Results are presented fo...

  2. A multi-trait, meta-analysis for detecting pleiotropic polymorphisms for stature, fatness and reproduction in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J; Goddard, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V-1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups.

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Brahman cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Cavani, L; Garcia, D A; Carreño, L O D; Ono, R K; Pires, M P; Farah, M M; Ventura, H T; Millen, D D; Fonseca, R

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to estimate genetic parameters for the following traits of Brahman cattle in Brazil: age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), rebreeding (REB), and stayability (STAY). For REB, the value 1 was assigned to heifers that rebred and calved after first calving and the value 0 was assigned to heifers that failed to rebreed after first calving. Likewise, for STAY, the value 1 was assigned to cows that calved at least 3 times by the time they reach 6 yr of age; otherwise, the value 0 was assigned. A bivariate analysis was used to estimate covariances components by using linear animal model for CI and AFC and threshold animal model for REB and STAY. The mean h(2) were 0.10, 0.02, 0.22, and 0.10 for AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, respectively. The genetic correlations were –0.13 between AFC and CI, –0.35 between AFC and REB, –0.57 between AFC and STAY, and 0.32 between REB and STAY, which reveal that cows that remain productive for longer periods in the herd also start breeding younger and present greater chances to REB. The selection of Brahman cattle for reproductive traits, such as AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, will render low magnitude and long-term responses.

  4. Parameter estimates for reproductive and carcass traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Buzanskas, M E; Pires, P S; Chud, T C S; Bernardes, P A; Rola, L D; Savegnago, R P; Lôbo, R B; Munari, D P

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age, age at first calving (AFC), ribeye area (REA), backfat (BF) thickness, and rump fat (RF) thickness, in order to provide information on potential traits for Nelore cattle breeding program. Genetic parameters were estimated using the Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood method in single- and multitrait analyses. Four different animal models were tested for SC365, SC450, REA, BF, and RF in single-trait analyses. For SC365 and SC450, the maternal genetic effect was statistically significant (P < 0.01) and was included for multitrait analyses. The direct heritability estimates for SC365, SC450, AFC, REA, BF, and RF were equal to 0.31, 0.38, 0.24, 0.32, 0.16, and 0.19, respectively. Maternal heritability for SC365 and SC450 was equal to 0.06 and 0.08, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were found among the scrotal circumferences. Testing for the inclusion of maternal effects in genetic parameters estimation for scrotal circumference should be evaluated in the Nelore breeding program, mostly for correctly ranking the animal's estimated breeding values. Similar heritability estimates were observed for scrotal circumference, as well as favorable genetic correlations of this trait with AFC and carcass traits. Thus, scrotal circumference measured at 365 days of age could be a target trait for consideration in the Nelore selection index in order to improve most of the traits herein analyzed.

  5. Quantitative trait loci analysis for growth and carcass traits in a half-sib family of purebred Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Mizoshita, K; Watanabe, T; Hayashi, H; Kubota, C; Yamakuchi, H; Todoroki, J; Sugimoto, Y

    2004-12-01

    We used a half-sib family of purebred Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle to locate economically important quantitative trait loci. The family was composed of 348 fattened steers, 236 of which were genotyped for 342 microsatellite markers spanning 2,664 cM of 29 bovine autosomes. The genome scan revealed evidence of 15 significant QTL (<5% chromosome-wise level) affecting growth and carcass traits. Of the 15 QTL, six QTL were significant at the 5% experiment-wise level and were located in bovine chromosomes (BTA) 4, 5, and 14. We analyzed these three chromosomes in more detail in the 348 steers, with an average marker interval of 1.2 cM. The second scan revealed that the same haplotype of the BTA 4 region (52 to 67 cM) positively affected LM area and marbling. We confirmed the QTL for carcass yield estimate on BTA 5 in the region of 45 to 54 cM. Five growth-related QTL located on BTA 14, including slaughter and carcass weights, were positively affected by the same region of the haplotype of BTA 14 (29-51 cM). These data should provide a useful reference for further marker-assisted selection in the family and positional cloning research. The research indicates that progeny design with moderate genotyping efforts is a powerful method for detecting QTL in a purebred half-sib family.

  6. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  7. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  8. Detection of genes influencing economic traits in three French dairy cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Boichard, Didier; Grohs, Cécile; Bourgeois, Florence; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Faugeras, Rémi; Neau, André; Rupp, Rachel; Amigues, Yves; Boscher, Marie Yvonne; Levéziel, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    A project of QTL detection was carried out in the French Holstein, Normande, and Montbéliarde dairy cattle breeds. This granddaughter design included 1 548 artificial insemination bulls distributed in 14 sire families and evaluated after a progeny-test for 24 traits (production, milk composition, persistency, type, fertility, mastitis resistance, and milking ease). These bulls were also genotyped for 169 genetic markers, mostly microsatellites. The QTL were analysed by within-sire linear regression of daughter yield deviations or deregressed proofs on the probability that the son receives one or the other paternal QTL allele, given the marker information. QTL were detected for all traits, including those with a low heritability. One hundred and twenty QTL with a chromosome-wise significance lower than 3% were tabulated. This threshold corresponded to a 15% false discovery rate. Amongst them, 32 were genome-wise significant. Estimates of their contribution to genetic variance ranged from 6 to 40%. Most substitution effects ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 genetic standard deviation. For a given QTL, only 1 to 5 families out of 14 were informative. The confidence intervals of the QTL locations were large and always greater than 20 cM. This experiment confirmed several already published QTL but most of them were original, particularly for non-production traits. PMID:12605852

  9. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  10. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  11. Alternative models in genetic analyses of carcass traits measured by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle: A Bayesian approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to study alternative models for genetic analyses of carcass traits assessed by ultrasonography in Guzerá cattle. Data from 947 measurements (655 animals) of Rib-eye area (REA), rump fat thickness (RFT) and backfat thickness (BFT) were used. Finite polygenic models (FPM), infinitesi...

  12. Comparative epigenetics: relevance to the regulation of production and health traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Rachael; O' Farrelly, Cliona; Meade, Kieran G

    2014-08-01

    With the development of genomic, transcriptomic and bioinformatic tools, recent advances in molecular technologies have significantly impacted bovine bioscience research and are revolutionising animal selection and breeding. Integration of epigenetic information represents yet another challenging molecular frontier. Epigenetics is the study of biochemical modifications to DNA and to histones, the proteins that provide stability to DNA. These epigenetic changes are induced by environmental stimuli; they alter gene expression and are potentially heritable. Epigenetics research holds the key to understanding how environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in traits of economic importance in cattle including development, nutrition, behaviour and health. In this review, we discuss the potential applications of epigenetics in bovine research, using breakthroughs in human and murine research to signpost the way.

  13. Accuracy of direct genomic values for functional traits in Brown Swiss cattle.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Erbe, M; Seefried, F R; Gredler, B; Bapst, B; Bieber, A; Simianer, H

    2014-03-01

    In this study, direct genomic values for the functional traits general temperament, milking temperament, aggressiveness, rank order in herd, milking speed, udder depth, position of labia, and days to first heat in Brown Swiss dairy cattle were estimated based on ~777,000 (777 K) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information from 1,126 animals. Accuracy of direct genomic values was assessed by a 5-fold cross-validation with 10 replicates. Correlations between deregressed proofs and direct genomic values were 0.63 for general temperament, 0.73 for milking temperament, 0.69 for aggressiveness, 0.65 for rank order in herd, 0.69 for milking speed, 0.71 for udder depth, 0.66 for position of labia, and 0.74 for days to first heat. Using the information of ~54,000 (54K) SNP led to only marginal deviations in the observed accuracy. Trying to predict the 20% youngest bulls led to correlations of 0.55, 0.77, 0.73, 0.55, 0.64, 0.59, 0.67, and 0.77, respectively, for the traits listed above. Using a novel method to estimate the accuracy of a direct genomic value (defined as correlation between direct genomic value and true breeding value and accounting for the correlation between direct genomic values and conventional breeding values) revealed accuracies of 0.37, 0.20, 0.19, 0.27, 0.48, 0.45, 0.36, and 0.12, respectively, for the traits listed above. These values are much smaller but probably also more realistic than accuracies based on correlations, given the heritabilities and samples sizes in this study. Annotation of the largest estimated SNP effects revealed 2 candidate genes affecting the traits general temperament and days to first heat.

  14. Variability of hair coat and skin traits as related to adaptation in Criollo Limonero cattle.

    PubMed

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio; Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan P; Godoy, Rosario; Calles, Marcos; Iragorri, José L; Añez, Lauderys; Polanco, Miguel; Montero-Urdaneta, Merilio; Olson, Tim

    2011-03-01

    The variation in hair coat and skin histology traits of Criollo Limonero cattle was analyzed using 213 Criollo Limonero females. Skin biopsies were obtained from slick-haired (N=16) and normal-haired (N=14) animals. Measured traits included hair length (HL), color coat (CC), number of hair follicles per square centimeter (NHF), sweat glands per square centimeter (NSG), sweat glands size (SGS), sebaceous glands per square centimeter (NSBG), blood vessels per square centimeter (NBV), and thickness of epidermis (TE). Hair length differed (P<0.001) between slick- and normal-haired animals (4.9 ± 0.12 vs 10.9 ± 0.20, respectively). Differences (P<0.01) in CC (Bayo = 144/67.6% vs Red = 69/32.4%) and HL (slick-haired = 199/93.4% vs normal-haired = 14/6.5%) were found. Distribution of slick- and normal-haired animals differed (P<0.01) between bayo-coated and red-coated (139/62.2% vs 9/4.2%; respectively). Most (P<0.05) red-coated animals belonged to a single family. No differences (P>0.05) were found between slick-haired and normal-haired animals in NHF (637 ± 164 vs 587 ± 144, respectively), NSG (556 ± 134 vs 481 ± 118, respectively), NSBG (408 ± 87 vs 366 ± 77, respectively), NBV (1628 ± 393 vs 1541 ± 346, respectively), and TE (1.24 ± 0.14 vs 1.32 ± 0.12, respectively). However, SGS was greater (P<0.01) in slick-haired than normal-haired animals. In conclusion, Criollo Limonero cattle are predominantly bayo-coated, slick-haired, with a reduced number of hair follicles relative to Zebu cattle, sweat and sebaceous glands in proportion to hair follicle numbers, and with a high blood flow irrigating the skin. There is a sub-group of red-coated animals with yellow or cream skin, thicker epidermis, and with a higher frequency of normal-haired animals. It appears that the slick hair gene has been favored by natural selection in this breed.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  16. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  17. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  18. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals.

  19. Cluster and meta-analyses of genetic parameters for feed intake traits in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Diaz, I D P S; Crews, D H; Enns, R M

    2014-06-01

    A data set based on 50 studies including feed intake and utilization traits was used to perform a meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates using the variance between studies of genetic parameters for average daily gain (ADG); residual feed intake (RFI); metabolic body weight (MBW); feed conversion ratio (FCR); and daily dry matter intake (DMI) in beef cattle. The total data set included 128 heritability and 122 genetic correlation estimates published in the literature from 1961 to 2012. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model where the restricted maximum likelihood estimator was used to evaluate variances among clusters. Also, a meta-analysis using the method of cluster analysis was used to group the heritability estimates. Two clusters were obtained for each trait by different variables. It was observed, for all traits, that the heterogeneity of variance was significant between clusters and studies for genetic correlation estimates. The pooled estimates, adding the variance between clusters, for direct heritability estimates for ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR were 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.39 ± 0.03, 0.31 ± 0.02, 0.31 ± 0.03 and 0.26 ± 0.03, respectively. Pooled genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.15 to 0.67 among ADG, DMI, RFI, MBW and FCR. These pooled estimates of genetic parameters could be used to solve genetic prediction equations in populations where data is insufficient for variance component estimation. Cluster analysis is recommended as a statistical procedure to combine results from different studies to account for heterogeneity.

  20. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  1. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values.

  2. Association of ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Patrícia D da S; de Souza, Fábio R P; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Gil, Fernanda M M; Cardoso, Diercles F; Zetouni, Larissa; Braz, Camila U; Boligon, Arione A; Branco, Renata H; de Albuquerque, Lucia G; Mercadante, Maria E Z; Tonhati, Humberto

    2015-06-01

    In beef cattle farming, growth and carcass traits are important for genetic breeding programs. Molecular markers can be used to assist selection and increase genetic gain. The ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A genes are involved in lipid synthesis and fat accumulation in adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to assess the association with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle. A total of 639 animals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP for rs208549452, rs109019599 and rs109163366 in ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene, respectively. We analyzed the association of SNPs identified with birth weight, weaning weight, female yearling weight, female hip height, male yearling weight, male hip height, loin eye area, rump fat thickness, and backfat thickness. The OLR1 marker was associated with rump fat thickness and weaning weight (P < 0.05) and the PPARGC1 marker was associated with female yearling weight.

  3. A proline-to-histidine mutation in POU1F1 is associated with production traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Maltecca, C; Khatib, H

    2008-10-01

    POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1) is a member of the tissue-specific POU-containing transcription factor family. The expression of POU1F1 in mammalian pituitary gland controls the transcription of the genes encoding growth hormone, prolactin (PRL) and the subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In addition, some genes in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway downstream of POU1F1 have been shown to be associated with different production traits in dairy cattle. To investigate whether the POU1F1 gene is associated with economically important traits in dairy cattle, a pooled DNA sequencing approach was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene. An SNP in exon 3 of POU1F1 that changes a proline to a histidine was identified. A total of 2141 individuals from two North American Holstein cattle resource populations were genotyped for this SNP using a modified PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analyses revealed significant association of POU1F1 variants with milk yield and productive life, which makes POU1F1 a possible candidate for marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding programmes.

  4. Estimation of genetic parameters for longevity traits in dairy cattle: a review with focus on the characteristics of analytical models.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Osamu

    2013-06-01

    Longevity is an economically important trait of dairy cattle for increasing the profitability of dairy management. The reasons for culling can be either voluntary (primarily productivity) or involuntary (primarily health and fertility). Longevity characteristics include: (i) true longevity (all culling reasons, including productivity); and (ii) functional longevity (all culling reasons, except productivity). Improvements to longevity are made to decrease the rate of involuntary culling rather than extend the herd life (HL). The proportional hazard model is useful for evaluating genetic ability for HL. However, the differences between estimates made using the proportional hazard model and those made using linear single or multiple-trait animal models are not clear. The model commonly used for evaluation differs among countries. Productive traits, udder traits, and feet and legs traits are genetically correlated with longevity, and consequently these traits are used to indirectly evaluate longevity. The reliability of estimates of genetic ability for longevity is increased by combining direct and indirect estimates. In Japan, HL is evaluated using the multiple-traits model. The genetic correlations between HL and other traits vary with the birth year. Therefore, these genetic correlations need to be reviewed regularly.

  5. Evaluation of biochemical and ultrasonographic measurements as indicators of undernutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Strydom, S; Agenäs, S; Heath, M F; Phillips, C J C; Rautenbach, G H; Thompson, P N

    2008-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) gives an indication of the nutritional status of an animal and it is thus an invaluable management tool in domestic livestock systems. It is, however, subjective. This study aimed at identifying biochemical indicators which could be objectively used as an indicator of undernutrition in ruminants. Blood samples were collected from 50 cattle with BCS < or =1 and from 50 cattle with BCS > or =2.5, using a 0-5 scale, and analysed for albumin, urea, creatinine, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, total serum protein and haematocrit. Rumpfat and ribfat thickness and marbling relative index were determined ultrasonographically in 15 of the low BCS group and 13 of the high BCS group. The laboratory measure with the best predictive ability for severe undernutrition was albumin, which correctly classified 94% of cattle, using a cut-off of 31.5 g/l. In contrast to a previous study, our study did not find the fructosamine:albumin ratio to be an accurate test to indicate undernutrition in cattle. Ultrasonic measurement of subcutaneous rumpfat and ribfat proved to reliably predict undernutrition, but may, however be impractical for routine use under most field conditions.

  6. Genetic Analysis of Growth Traits in Polled Nellore Cattle Raised on Pasture in Tropical Region Using Bayesian Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Fernando Brito; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Paulini, Fernanda; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Miyagi, Eliane Sayuri; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Components of (co)variance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120), 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (co)variance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from −0.31 to −0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (co)variance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced. PMID:24040412

  7. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  8. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  9. Association of length of pregnancy with other reproductive traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Zenon; Piwczyński, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    The experiment involved observations of 2,514 Holstein-Friesian cows to determine the effects of environmental factors (cow's age, calving season, weight and sex of calves, housing system) and genetic factors on gestation length in dairy cattle and the correlation between gestation length and other reproductive traits (calving ease, stillbirth rates and placental expulsion). Genetic parameters were estimated based on the sires of calved cows (indirect effect) and the sires of live-born calves (direct effect). The following factors were found to contribute to prolonged gestation: increasing cow's age, male fetuses and growing fetus weight. Optimal gestation length was determined in the range of 275-277 days based on calving ease and stillbirth rates. The heritability of gestation length was estimated at 0.201-0.210 by the direct effect and 0.055-0.073 by the indirect effect. The resulting genetic correlations suggest that the efforts to optimize (prolong) gestation length could exert an adverse influence on the breeding value of bulls by increasing perinatal mortality and calving difficulty. The standard errors of the investigated parameters were relatively high, suggesting that any attempts to modify gestation length for the purpose of improving calving ease and reducing stillbirth rates should be introduced with great caution.

  10. Short communication: Genetic relationships between functional longevity and direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C; Fuerst, C; Ducrocq, V; Fuerst-Waltl, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multitrait 2-step approach applied to yield deviations and deregressed breeding values to get genetic parameters of functional longevity, clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever of Austrian Fleckvieh cattle. An approximate multitrait approach allows the combination of information from pseudo-phenotypes derived from different statistical models in routine genetic evaluation, which cannot be estimated easily in a full multitrait model. A total of 66,890 Fleckvieh cows were included in this study. For estimating genetic parameters, a simple linear animal model with year of birth as a fixed effect and animal as a random genetic effect was fitted. The joint analysis of yield deviations and deregressed breeding values was feasible. As expected, heritabilities were low, ranging from 0.03 (early fertility disorders) to 0.15 (functional longevity). Genetic correlations between functional longevity and clinical mastitis, early fertility disorders, cystic ovaries, and milk fever were 0.63, 0.29, 0.20, and 0.20, respectively. Within direct health traits genetic correlations were between 0.14 and 0.45. Results suggest that selecting for more robust disease-resistant cows would imply an improvement of functional longevity.

  11. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  12. Genetic analysis of traits affecting the success of embryo transfer in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    König, S; Bosselmann, F; von Borstel, U U; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate variance components for traits related to embryo transfer (ET) by applying generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) for different distributions of traits (normal, binomial, and Poisson) in a synergistic context. Synergistic models were originally developed for traits affected by several genotypes, denoted as maternal, paternal, and direct effects. In the case of ET, the number of flushed ova (FO) only depends on a donor's maternal genetic effect, whereas paternal fertility must be considered for other embryo survival traits, such as the number of transferable embryos (TE), the number of degenerated embryos (DE), the number of unfertilized oocytes (UO), and the percentage of transferable embryos (PTE). Data for these traits were obtained from 4,196 flushes of 2,489 Holstein cows within 4 regions of northwest Germany from January 1998 through October 2004. Estimates of maternal heritability were 0.231 for FO, 0.096 for TE, 0.021 for DE, 0.135 for UO, and 0.099 for PTE, whereas the relative genetic impact of the paternal component was near zero. Estimates of the genetic correlations between the maternal and the paternal component were slightly negative, indicating a genetic antagonism. For the analysis of pregnancy after ET, 8,239 transfers to 6,819 different Holstein-Friesian recipients were considered by applying threshold methodology. The direct heritability for pregnancy in the recipient after ET was 0.056. The relative genetic impact of maternal and paternal components on pregnancy of recipients describing a donor's and a sire's ability to produce viable embryos was below 1%. The genetic correlations of the direct effect of the recipient with the sire of embryos (paternal effect) and the donor cow (maternal effect) for pregnancy after ET were -0.32 and -0.14, respectively. With the exception of FO and PTE (-0.17), estimates of genetic correlations among traits for the maternal site were distinctly positive, especially

  13. Associations of polymorphisms in the Pit-1 gene with growth and carcass traits in Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Davis, M E; Hines, H C

    2004-08-01

    The Pit-1 gene was studied as a candidate for genetic markers of growth and carcass traits. Angus beef cattle that were divergently selected for high- or low-blood serum IGF-I concentration were used in this study. The single-strand conformation polymorphism method was used to identify polymorphism in the Pit-1 gene including regions from intron 2 to exon 6. Two polymorphisms, Pit1I3H (HinfI) and Pit1I3NL (NlaIII), were detected in intron 3 of the Pit-1 gene. One polymorphism, Pit1I4N (BstNI), was found in intron 4, and a single nucleotide polymorphism, Pit1I5, was found in intron 5. The previously reported polymorphism in exon 6, Pit1E6H (HinfI), was also studied in 416 Angus beef cattle. Associations of the polymorphisms with growth traits, carcass traits, and IGF-I concentration were analyzed using a general linear model procedure. No significant associations were observed between these polymorphisms and growth and carcass traits.

  14. A promoter polymorphism of MSTN g.-371T>A and its associations with carcass traits in Korean cattle.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Hyun; Cho, In-Cheol; Ko, Moon-Suck; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Se-Pill; Lee, Sung-Soo; Oh, Hong-Shik

    2012-04-01

    A promoter polymorphism of bovine Myostatin (MSTN) gene g.-371T>A was screened in Holstein and two Korean indigenous cattle breeds, Hanwoo and Jeju Black cattle (JBC). The MSTN g.-371T>A polymorphism was found in all three cattle breeds tested. An allele MSTN g.-371A was the most frequent in the JBC breed among breeds tested. The association of MSTN genotypes for carcass traits was also tested in the Hanwoo population. Significant differences were found between the genotypes and level of meat quality grade index which converted the marbling score levels (P < 0.05), reflecting the metabolic role of MSTN for inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation in intramuscular fat deposition. In addition, significant differences were found for fat color index of backfat according to MSTN genotypes (P < 0.05), suggesting that MSTN may play a role in deposition of white-yellow adipocytes in backfat. However, there was no detection of significant association of genotypes with the live weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, eye muscle area, marbling score, or meat color index (P > 0.05). Despite the lack of statistical association, wild type g.-371T/-showed association patterns similar to those of A/A homozygotes, such as heavier weights, thinner backfat, larger eye muscle area, and lower marbling score. The results of the present study suggest that MSTN promoter polymorphism g.-371T>A may affect carcass traits, which could be a useful molecular marker for planning improvements in the economic traits of Korean cattle breeds.

  15. Genotype by environment interaction for first-lactation female fertility traits in UK dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, E; Brotherstone, S; Wall, E; Coffey, M P

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether there was genotype by environment interaction (G x E) for female fertility traits for various environmental descriptors used in the United Kingdom. Records on days to first service (DFS), nonreturn rate at 56 d (NR56), calving interval (CI), and number of inseminations (NINS) on approximately 200,000 first-lactation Holstein cows in 3,192 herds and from 1,147 sires were analyzed using both random regression reaction norm models and multiple-trait models. The environmental descriptors were herd averages of DFS, CI, and NR56, and herd production and intensity indices, the latter based on 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, age at first calving, temperature, and rainfall. No GxE was found for NR56 and NINS. There was an indication of G x E for DFS and CI with respect to the herd average of that trait, but only from the reaction norm model. Genotype by environment interaction existed for DFS and CI with respect to both production and intensity indexes-genetic correlations between top and bottom quartiles ranged from 0.73 to 0.84, with similar results from both models, indicating reranking of bulls. Part of this G x E might be explained by low production and intensity herds also having more concentrated spring calving.

  16. Lack of association of GH1 and POU1F1 gene variants with meat production traits in Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Di Stasio, L; Sartore, S; Albera, A

    2002-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the Pit-1 transcription factor have been shown to be involved in the physiological mechanisms related to growth. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible association of the polymorphism at GH1 and POU1F1 loci with meat production traits in Piemontese cattle. Fourteen traits were considered, expressing growth (weight at 5, 7 and 11 months, daily gain), size [withers height (WH), trunk length (TL), chest girth (CG) at 12 months] and meat conformation [withers width (WW), shoulder muscularity (SM), loin width (LW), loin thickness (LT), thigh muscularity (TM), thigh profile (TP), bone thinness (BT)]. Data were analysed with a mixed model procedure to estimate the allele substitution and the dominance effects. The results did not provide evidence of association of GH1 and POU1F1 polymorphisms with the evaluated traits.

  17. Haplotype combination of polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene promoter is associated with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Li, Mijie; Lai, Xinsheng; Yang, Mingjuan; Xu, Yao; Hua, Liushuai; Lan, Xianyong; Zhang, Chunlei; Chen, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Adiponectin modulates lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and is also related to bone metabolism. Polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene likely have an impact on growth traits in cattle. In this study, we examined the relationship between ADIPOQ polymorphisms and body measurement parameters in Chinese beef cattle. First, we sequenced ADIPOQ and 1.2 kb of DNA upstream of its promoter, and we found 14 polymorphisms. With the luciferase reporter assay, we showed that the two polymorphisms SNP PR_-135 A>G and PR_-68 G>C, which are located in the core region of promoter, influence promoter activity of ADIPOQ. Second, we identified three haplotypes involved in these two polymorphic sites: A (A-135/C-68), B (A-135/G-68), and C (G-135/G-68). Haplotypes B and C are major haplotypes in five Chinese populations of cattle (Qinchuan, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Hazakh, and Chinese Holstein). We studied the effects of these three haplotypes on body measurements, gene expression, and promoter activity, and we found that the genotypes are associated with body measurement parameters in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with genotype BC (AG/GG) had significantly higher body height and heart girth than others, and this result may be interpreted by the following two observations. The promoter activity with haplotype B (A/G) is significantly higher than those with A (A/C) and C (G/G) in driving reporter gene transcription; the ADIPOQ mRNA level in cattle with genotype BC (AG/GG) is relatively lower than that in cattle with genotype BB (AA/GG).

  18. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  19. Factors influencing the priority of access to food and their effects on the carcass traits for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle.

    PubMed

    Takanishi, N; Oishi, K; Kumagai, H; Uemura, M; Hirooka, H

    2015-12-01

    The factors influencing the priority of access to food and the effects of the priority of access to food on their carcass traits were analyzed for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle in a semi-intensive fattening production system. The records of 96 clinically healthy steers and heifers were analyzed. The calves at ∼3 to 4 months of age were allocated to pens with four animals per pen; all four animals in the same pen were of the same sex and of similar body size. The ranking of the animals' priority of access to food (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th), which was determined by the farm manager, was used as an indicator of social dominance in the present study. Four models including sire line, maternal grandsire line and the difference in the animals' birth dates as fixed effects were used to analyze factors influencing the priority of access to food. Ranking was represented by ordinal scores (highest=4, lowest=1) in Model 1, and the binary scores were assigned in Model 2 (highest=1; 2nd, 3rd and 4th=0), Model 3 (1st and 2nd=1; 3rd and 4th=0) and Model 4 (1st, 2nd and 3rd=1; lowest=0). The results showed that the difference in the animals' birth dates had a significant effect on the establishment of the priority of access to food in Model 3 (P<0.05), suggesting that animals born earlier may become more dominant in the pen. The maternal grandsire line tended to affect the social rank score in Models 2 and 3 (P<0.10). Our results indicated that the maternal grandsire line may affect the temperament of calves through their mothers' genetic performance and thereby more aggressive calves may be more dominant and have higher priority of access to food. On the other hand, there was a significant effect of the priority of access to food on beef marbling score (BMS; P<0.05), and the priority of access to food also tended to influence the carcass weight (P=0.09). The highest BMS was observed for animals with the first rank of the priority of access to food (P<0.05), and the higher

  20. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  1. Factor analysis of linear type traits and their relation with longevity in brazilian holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (-0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production.

  2. Opportunities for collaborative phenotyping for disease resistance traits in a large beef cattle resource population.

    PubMed

    Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Allan, M F; Bennett, G L; Koohmaraie, M

    2008-01-01

    The Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Project at the US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is planned to produce about 3,000 calves per year in support of the following objectives: identification and validation of genetic polymorphisms related to economically relevant traits (ERT), estimation of breed and heterosis effects among 16 breeds for ERT, and estimation of genetic correlations among ERT and physiological indicator traits (PIT). Opportunities exist for collaboration in the development and collection of PIT phenotypes for disease resistance. Other areas of potential collaboration include detailed diagnosis (identification of disease causing organisms, etc.) of treated animals, collaborative development of epidemiological statistical models that would extract more information from the records of diagnoses and treatments, or pharmacogenetics. Concentrating a variety of different phenotypes and research approaches on the same population makes each component much more valuable than it would be individually.

  3. Visual body-scores selection and its influence on body size and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Pedrosa, V B; Silva, S L; Gomes, R C; Cucco, D C; Santana, M H A; Campos, J H A; Barbosa, V N; Castro, F S F; Novais, F J; Oliveira, E C M

    2015-12-01

    Genetic parameters, genetic trends, and genetic progress of carcass traits were estimated for 12,447 Nellore individuals from different Brazilian herds. The following carcass traits were analyzed: visual body scores of conformation (CONF), precocity (PREC), and muscularity (MUSC); rump width (RW) and rump length (RL), body size (frame); and ultrasound evaluation of ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Heritability estimates (± SE) for CONF, PREC, and MUSC were 0.23 ± 0.02, 0.33 ± 0.03, and 0.31 ± 0.02, respectively. The heritability estimates (± SE) for RW, RL, and frame were 0.25 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04, and 0.31 ± 0.03, respectively. Ultrasound of the REA, BFT, and RFT presented mean heritability estimates (± SE) of 0.38 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.04, and 0.47 ± 0.04, respectively. The visual body score of CONF had high genetic correlations with RW, RL, and frame (0.74 ± 0.09, 0.82 ± 0.08, and 0.83 ± 0.04, respectively), indicating a high association of CONF with the measurements related to body structure. The REA had no correlation with BFT and RFT (-0.09 ± 0.04 and -0.03 ± 0.04, respectively) and showed only a moderate genetic correlation with MUSC (0.39 ± 0.05). The BFT and RFT had moderate genetic correlations with PREC (0.36 ± 0.07 and 0.29 ± 0.07, respectively) and no correlation with frame (-0.02 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.05, respectively), suggesting that selection for frame had no effect on the subcutaneous fat content of the carcass. Low genetic trends and low genetic progress were obtained for REA (0.026 cm, 0.02%), BFT (0.0031 mm, 0.05%), and RFT (0.0013 mm, 0.02%), with no significant values of genetic progress detected throughout the studied period. The CONF, PREC, and MUSC presented high genetic trends (0.030 points, 0.030 points, and 0.029 points, respectively) and high genetic progress (0.60%, 0.56%, and 0.59%, respectively), indicating a significant genetic progress for these traits throughout the evaluated

  4. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-02-26

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.

  5. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Ina; Woelders, Henri; Smits, Mari; Schokker, Dirkjan; Jiang, Li; Sørensen, Peter

    2013-05-15

    Reproduction is of significant economic importance in dairy cattle. Improved understanding of mechanisms that control estrous behavior and other reproduction traits could help in developing strategies to improve and/or monitor these traits. The objective of this study was to predict and rank genes and processes in brain areas and pituitary involved in reproductive traits in cattle using information derived from three different data sources: gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and literature. We identified 59, 89, 53, 23, and 71 genes in bovine amygdala, dorsal hypothalamus, hippocampus, pituitary, and ventral hypothalamus, respectively, potentially involved in processes underlying estrus and estrous behavior. Functional annotation of the candidate genes points to a number of tissue-specific processes of which the "neurotransmitter/ion channel/synapse" process in the amygdala, "steroid hormone receptor activity/ion binding" in the pituitary, "extracellular region" in the ventral hypothalamus, and "positive regulation of transcription/metabolic process" in the dorsal hypothalamus are most prominent. The regulation of the functional processes in the various tissues operate at different biological levels, including transcriptional, posttranscriptional, extracellular, and intercellular signaling levels.

  6. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits and weaning weight in Tabapuã cattle.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, P A; Grossi, D A; Savegnago, R P; Buzanskas, M E; Urbinati, I; Bezerra, L A F; Lôbo, R B; Munari, D P

    2015-11-01

    The Tabapuã breed is a beef cattle Brazilian breed known for its sexual precocity and desirable characteristics for tropical conditions. However, this is a newly formed breed and few studies have been conducted regarding genetic parameters and genetic trends for its reproductive traits. The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters, genetic trends, and relative selection efficiency for weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age (W210), age at first calving (AFC), average calving interval (ACI), first calving interval (CI1), and accumulated productivity (ACP) among Tabapuã beef cattle. Pedigree data on 15,241 Tabapuã animals born between 1958 and 2011 and phenotype records from 7,340 cows born between 1970 and 2011 were supplied by the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (Associação Nacional de Criadores e Pesquisadores). Analysis through the least squares method assisted in defining the fixed effects that were considered within the models. The estimates for the genetic parameters were obtained through the REML, using a multitrait animal model. The likelihood ratio test applied for W210 was significant ( < 0.05) for the inclusion of maternal additive genetic and permanent environmental effects in the model. Genetic trends were calculated through linear regression of the EBV of the animals, according to the year of birth. The heritability estimates obtained ranged from 0.04 ± 0.03 for CI1 to 0.25 ± 0.05 for W210. The genetic correlations ranged from 0.004 ± 0.19 for W210-AFC and 0.93 ± 0.12 for ACI-CI1. The genetic trend was significant ( < 0.05) and favorable for CI1 and the maternal genetic effect of W210 and was significant ( < 0.05) and unfavorable for AFC, ACI, and ACP. The ACP could be used in the selection index to assist the breeding goal of improved productive and reproductive performance. The genetic trends indicated small and unfavorable genetic changes for AFC, ACI, and ACP in light of the recent

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of leptin and leptin receptor genes in relation with production and reproduction traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Trakovická, Anna; Moravčíková, Nina; Kasarda, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Leptin and leptin receptor genes are considered as production traits markers in dairy or beef cattle. The aim of this study was to verify the associations of polymorphisms in bovine LEP and LEPR genes with production and reproduction traits in Slovak Spotted and Pinzgau cows. Long-life production was evaluated: milk, protein, and fat yield and reproduction traits: age at first calving, calving interval, days open, and insemination interval. In total, 296 blood samples of Slovak Spotted and 85 hair roots samples of Pinzgau cows were analyzed. In order to detect LEP/Sau3AI (BTA 4, inron 2) and LEPR/T945M (BTA 3, exon 20) genotypes PCR-RFLP method was used. In Slovak Spotted and Pinzgau cows allele frequencies were 0.838/0.162 and 0.694/0.306 for A and B LEP variants, and 0.954/0.046 and 0.912/0.088 for C and T LEPR variants, respectively. For testing the associations between SNPs LEP/Sau3AI and LEPR/T945M and evaluated traits, the General Linear Model procedure in SAS Software was used. Statistical analysis showed that SNP LEP/Sau3AI significantly affected milk, protein and fat yield (P<0.05), and age at first calving (P<0.01) in analyzed population of cows. Statistically, SNP LEPR/T945M affected significantly calving interval (P<0.01) only. Results of our study suggest that especially leptin is a candidate gene, which influences mainly milk production traits and might be implemented in breeding strategies to improve the production performance of both analyzed cattle breeds.

  8. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  9. A critical functional missense mutation (H173R) in the bovine PROP1 gene significantly affects growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chuanying; Wu, Chongyang; Jia, Wenchao; Xu, Yao; Lei, Chuzhao; Hu, Shenrong; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The PROP1 protein, encoded by the prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene, exhibits both DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities. Its expression leads to the ontogenesis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and pituitary hormone. The missense mutation H173R in PROP1 may result in deficiencies of GH, PRL, TSH, and Pit-1, thereby affecting growth traits. The objective of this study was to characterize the H173R mutation within the PROP1 gene and examine its associations with growth traits in cattle. Accordingly, the H173R mutation was genotyped in 1207 cows belonging to five Chinese native breeds. Three genotypes were identified among the specimens, with genotype AA being the major one. Consequently, the "G" allele was the minor allele. Association testing revealed that the H173R mutation was significantly associated with body weight, average daily weight gain and physical parameters in the analyzed breeds. Interestingly, the cows with genotype AG and/or AA had superior growth traits compared with those expressing the GG genotype, in all tested breeds. These findings revealed that the "A" allele had positive effects on growth traits, which was consistent with the increasing binding ability and enhanced activation capacity associated with the bovine isoform PROP1-173H, representing the "A" allele. Therefore, the H173R mutation can be considered as a DNA marker for selecting individuals with superior growth traits, thereby contributing to research on breeding and genetics in the beef industry.

  10. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  11. Associations between newly discovered polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone receptor gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Waters, S M; McCabe, M S; Howard, D J; Giblin, L; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2011-02-01

    Variations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene sequence are associated with performance traits in cattle. For example, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F279Y in transmembrane exon 8 has a strong association with milk yield. In this study, 32 previously unreported, putative novel SNPs (31 in the 5' non-coding region) were identified by resequencing ∼19 kb of the GHR gene in genomic DNA from 22 cattle of multiple breeds. A population of 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires was subsequently genotyped for the 32 putative novel SNPs and seven published SNPs (including F279Y, one in exon 1A promoter and five in exon 10). Associations between each segregating SNP and genetic merit for performance were quantified in the 848 Holstein-Friesians using weighted animal linear mixed models. Six of the published SNPs and seven of the novel SNPs were associated with at least one of the traits--milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, somatic cell score, calving interval, survival and growth and size traits. Even when the allelic substitution effect (P < 0.001) of F279Y was accounted for, the allelic substitution effect of one of the novel SNPs (GHR4.2) in the 5' non-coding region of GHR was associated with a lactation milk yield of 37.46 kg (P < 0.001). GHR4.2 and F279Y were not in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.00, D' = 0.04) in the 848 Holstein-Friesians, indicating that their association with milk yield was independent.

  12. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA. PMID:27608643

  13. Estimates of missing heritability for complex traits in Brown Swiss cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic selection estimates genetic merit based on dense SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes and phenotypes. This requires that SNPs explain a large fraction of the genetic variance. The objectives of this work were: (1) to estimate the fraction of genetic variance explained by dense genome-wide markers using 54 K SNP chip genotyping, and (2) to evaluate the effect of alternative marker-based relationship matrices and corrections for the base population on the fraction of the genetic variance explained by markers. Methods Two alternative marker-based relationship matrices were estimated using 35 706 SNPs on 1086 dairy bulls. Both pedigree- and marker-based relationship matrices were fitted simultaneously or separately in an animal model to estimate the fraction of variance not explained by the markers, i.e. the fraction explained by the pedigree. The phenotypes considered in the analysis were the deregressed estimated breeding values (dEBV) for milk, fat and protein yield and for somatic cell score (SCS). Results When dEBV were not sufficiently accurate (50 or 70%), the estimated fraction of the genetic variance explained by the markers was around 65% for yield traits and 45% for SCS. Scaling marker genotypes with locus-specific frequencies of heterozygotes slightly increased the variance explained by markers, compared with scaling with the average frequency of heterozygotes across loci. The estimated fraction of the genetic variance explained by the markers using separately both relationships matrices followed the same trends but the results were underestimated. With less accurate dEBV estimates, the fraction of the genetic variance explained by markers was underestimated, which is probably an artifact due to the dEBV being estimated by a pedigree-based animal model. Conclusions When using only highly accurate dEBV, the proportion of the genetic variance explained by the Illumina 54 K SNP chip was approximately 80% for Brown Swiss cattle

  14. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unfavorable genetic correlations between production and fertility traits are well documented. Genetic selection for fertility traits is slow, however, due to low heritabilities. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) involved in reproduction has improved the reliability of genomic e...

  15. Searching for new loci and candidate genes for economically important traits through gene-based association analysis of Simmental cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangwei; Fan, Huizhong; Chang, Tianpeng; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2017-01-01

    Single-marker genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a convenient strategy of genetic analysis that has been successful in detecting the association of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative traits. However, analysis of individual SNPs can only account for a small proportion of genetic variation and offers only limited knowledge of complex traits. This inadequacy may be overcome by employing a gene-based GWAS analytic approach, which can be considered complementary to the single-SNP association analysis. Here we performed an initial single-SNP GWAS for bone weight (BW) and meat pH value with a total of 770,000 SNPs in 1141 Simmental cattle. Additionally, 21836 cattle genes collected from the Ensembl Genes 83 database were analyzed to find supplementary evidence to support the importance of gene-based association study. Results of the single SNP-based association study showed that there were 11 SNPs significantly associated with bone weight (BW) and two SNPs associated with meat pH value. Interestingly, all of these SNPs were located in genes detected by the gene-based association study. PMID:28169328

  16. Searching for new loci and candidate genes for economically important traits through gene-based association analysis of Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Fan, Huizhong; Chang, Tianpeng; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2017-02-07

    Single-marker genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a convenient strategy of genetic analysis that has been successful in detecting the association of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative traits. However, analysis of individual SNPs can only account for a small proportion of genetic variation and offers only limited knowledge of complex traits. This inadequacy may be overcome by employing a gene-based GWAS analytic approach, which can be considered complementary to the single-SNP association analysis. Here we performed an initial single-SNP GWAS for bone weight (BW) and meat pH value with a total of 770,000 SNPs in 1141 Simmental cattle. Additionally, 21836 cattle genes collected from the Ensembl Genes 83 database were analyzed to find supplementary evidence to support the importance of gene-based association study. Results of the single SNP-based association study showed that there were 11 SNPs significantly associated with bone weight (BW) and two SNPs associated with meat pH value. Interestingly, all of these SNPs were located in genes detected by the gene-based association study.

  17. Association of ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Patrícia D. da S.; de Souza, Fábio R.P.; de Camargo, Gregório M.F.; Gil, Fernanda M.M.; Cardoso, Diercles F.; Zetouni, Larissa; Braz, Camila U.; Boligon, Arione A.; Branco, Renata H.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.; Mercadante, Maria E.Z.; Tonhati, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    In beef cattle farming, growth and carcass traits are important for genetic breeding programs. Molecular markers can be used to assist selection and increase genetic gain. The ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A genes are involved in lipid synthesis and fat accumulation in adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to assess the association with growth and carcass traits in Nelore cattle. A total of 639 animals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP for rs208549452, rs109019599 and rs109163366 in ADIPOQ, OLR1 and PPARGC1A gene, respectively. We analyzed the association of SNPs identified with birth weight, weaning weight, female yearling weight, female hip height, male yearling weight, male hip height, loin eye area, rump fat thickness, and backfat thickness. The OLR1 marker was associated with rump fat thickness and weaning weight (P < 0.05) and the PPARGC1 marker was associated with female yearling weight. PMID:25853056

  18. Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Pal, Aruna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath

    2014-02-01

    The decline in the male reproductive ability in terms of sexual behavior and seminal traits might lead to nonavailability of required number of bulls in a progeny testing program. The present study was conducted in 493 crossbred cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bulls to study polymorphisms of growth hormone (GH) gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral characteristics. A 428-base pair fragment of GH gene spanning over the fourth exon, fourth intron, and fifth exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Bulls were found to be polymorphic, with two variants, LL and LV, and higher genotypic frequency for LL being 0.88. Twelve nucleotide changes and a single nonsynonymous substitution of Leucine by Valine were observed from GH1 (L) to GH2 (V). Statistical analysis revealed that the genotype of the GH gene had a significant effect on libido score, reaction time, Flehmen response, requirement of mounting stimulus, sperm mass activity, number of semen doses per collection, individual fresh sperm motility, postthaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling test, live and dead count, total morphological abnormality, and head abnormality of sperm in crossbred bulls. Growth hormone gene might be considered a candidate gene for seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.

  19. Novel Use of Derived Genotype Probabilities to Discover Significant Dominance Effects for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Teide-Jens; Heuer, Claas; Tetens, Jens; Reinhardt, Fritz; Thaller, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of dominance effects requires the availability of direct phenotypes, i.e., genotypes and phenotypes in the same individuals. In dairy cattle, classical QTL mapping approaches are, however, relying on genotyped sires and daughter-based phenotypes like breeding values. Thus, dominance effects cannot be estimated. The number of dairy bulls genotyped for dense genome-wide marker panels is steadily increasing in the context of genomic selection schemes. The availability of genotyped cows is, however, limited. Within the current study, the genotypes of male ancestors were applied to the calculation of genotype probabilities in cows. Together with the cows’ phenotypes, these probabilities were used to estimate dominance effects on a genome-wide scale. The impact of sample size, the depth of pedigree used in deriving genotype probabilities, the linkage disequilibrium between QTL and marker, the fraction of variance explained by the QTL, and the degree of dominance on the power to detect dominance were analyzed in simulation studies. The effect of relatedness among animals on the specificity of detection was addressed. Furthermore, the approach was applied to a real data set comprising 470,000 Holstein cows. To account for relatedness between animals a mixed-model two-step approach was used to adjust phenotypes based on an additive genetic relationship matrix. Thereby, considerable dominance effects were identified for important milk production traits. The approach might serve as a powerful tool to dissect the genetic architecture of performance and functional traits in dairy cattle. PMID:23222654

  20. Association of polymorphisms in growth hormone and leptin candidate genes with live weight traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Hernández, N; Martínez-González, J C; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; López-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Briones-Encinia, F; Ortega-Rivas, E; Pacheco-Contreras, V I; L A Meza-García, And

    2016-09-02

    Polymorphisms in candidate genes can produce significant and favorable changes in the phenotype, and therefore are useful for the identification of the best combination of favorable variants for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, an assessment to evaluate the effect of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes on live weight traits of registered Brahman cattle was performed. Data from purebred bulls were used in this assessment. The dataset included birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weights. A panel of 11 SNP markers, selected by their formerly reported or apparent direct and indirect association with live weight traits, was included in an assessment previously confirming their minimum allele frequency (<0.05). Live weights were adjusted BW (aBW), WW (aWW), and YW (aYW) using a generalized linear model, which included the fixed effects of herd and season of birth and the random effect of the sire and year of birth. An SNP in a growth hormone gene (GH4.1) was significantly related to aWW (P = 0.035) with an estimate substitution effect of 3.97 kg (P = 0.0210). In addition, a leptin SNP (LEPg.978) was significantly associated with aYW (P = 0.003) with an estimate substitution effect of 9.57 kg (P = 0.0007). The results suggest that markers GH4.1 and LEPg.978 can be considered as candidate loci for assisted genetic improvement programs in Mexican Brahman cattle.

  1. Count Bayesian models for genetic analysis of in vitro embryo production traits in Guzerá cattle.

    PubMed

    Perez, B C; Silva, F F; Ventura, R V; Bruneli, F A T; Balieiro, J C C; Peixoto, M G D C

    2017-02-27

    Four models for in vitro embryo production traits in Guzerá cattle were compared: Gaussian (untransformed variable - LIN and transformed in logarithmic scale - LOG), Poisson (POI) and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP). Data consisted of 5716 ovum pick-up and in vitro fertilization records performed in 1205 cows from distinct regions of Brazil. Analyzed count traits were the number of viable oocytes (NOV), number of grade I oocytes (NGI), number of degenerated oocytes (NDG), number of cleaved embryos (NCLV) and number of viable produced embryos (NEMB). Heritability varied from 0.17 (LIN) to 0.25 (POI) for NOV; 0.08 (LOG) to 0.18 (ZIP) for NGI; 0.12 (LIN) to 0.20 (POI) for NDG; 0.13 (LIN) to 0.19 (POI) for NCLV; 0.10 (LIN) to 0.20 (POI) for NEMB depending on the considered model. The estimated repeatability varied from 0.53 (LOG) to 0.63 (POI) for NOV; 0.22 (LOG) to 0.39 (ZIP) for NGI; 0.29 (LIN) to 0.42 (ZIP) for NDG; 0.42 (LIN) to 0.59 (POI) for NCLV; 0.36 (LIN) to 0.51 (POI) for NEMB. The goodness of fit, measured by deviance information criterion and mean squared residuals, suggested superiority of POI and ZIP over Gaussian models. Estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained by different models were highly correlated, varying from 0.92 for NOV (between LIN-POI) and 0.99 for NGI (between POI-ZIP). The number of coincident animals on the 10% top EBV showed lower similarities. We recommend POI and ZIP models as the most adequate for genetic analysis of in vitro embryo production traits in Guzerá cattle.

  2. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0

  3. Dopamine challenge tests as an indicator of psychological traits.

    PubMed

    Netter, P

    2006-03-01

    After discussing some introductory considerations about the value of challenge tests in general for discriminating personality dimensions which are considered extrapolations of psychopathological diseases, the present paper outlines the matter of responsivity to agonistic and antagonistic dopaminergic drugs or drugs of different mechanisms of action in the dopaminergic system, and elucidates that different hormones elicited by dopaminergic substances (prolactin, growth hormone) may indicate personality related differences in susceptibility of different brain areas. A further point was to demonstrate not only the well known relationship of dopaminergic hyperactivity with reward seeking and motivational factors associated with extraversion and novelty seeking, but also the relationship of dopaminergic hypofunction with the personality dimension of depression which had already been reported in studies on animals and psychiatric patients. A final point was to demonstrate that besides size of hormone responses additional parameters like time of response onset and initial prolactin increase can be used as biochemical indicators for identifying certain personality types, like highly depressive neurotic persons characterized by lower and later dopamine responses as compared to low depressives, and extraverted sensation-seeking types responding by an initial prolactin peak as opposed to low sensation seekers.

  4. Genetic trends and breed overlap derived from multiple-breed genetic evaluations of beef cattle for growth traits.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P G; Wilton, J W; Miller, S P; Banks, L R

    1999-08-01

    Genetic evaluations for a multiple-breed population of beef cattle were used to estimate genetic trends for five breeds, and genetic differences and overlap among 14 breeds. Genetic evaluations studied were for direct contributions to birth weight, gain from birth to 200 and 365 d, and maternal contribution to gain from birth to 200 d. Almost all genetic trends were positive, but the magnitude of the trends varied among breeds. Trends were nonlinear between 1985 and 1995 for most breed and trait combinations. The rates of increase in genetic trends were generally higher for the lighter weight breeds, and lighter weight breeds had faster growth rate genetic trends at 1995 than the heavier breeds. Genetic trend estimates for yearling gain at 1995 were 2.46, 2.23, 1.73, 1.70, and 1.46 kg/yr for Angus, Hereford, Limousin, Charolais, and Simmental, respectively. Corresponding birth weight genetic trends were .130, .226, .049, .130, and .048 kg/yr. Mean genetic differences between breeds have been decreasing in magnitude due to these differences in genetic trends between heavier and lighter breeds. Genetic variation for the traits studied seemed to be greater within than between breeds for calves born and cows calving between 1993 and 1995. Genetic trends at 1995 suggest that ratios of within:between breed variation will increase and that across-breed genetic improvement initiatives for growth traits will become more important in the future.

  5. Genetic analysis of the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population for production and nonproduction traits with a multitrait animal model.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2004-05-01

    Milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population were analyzed using a multitrait animal model (AM) with parities 1 through 5 as separate traits. Female fertility was measured as the inverse of the number of inseminations to conception in percent. Variance components were estimated using both the repeatability AM and multitrait AM. The multitrait heritabilities for individual parities were greater than the heritabilities from the repeatability AM, and heritabilities decreased with an increase in parity number. Heritabilities were higher for production traits, lower for SCS, and lowest for female fertility. The genetic correlations were higher than the environmental correlations. Genetic correlations between parities decreased with an increase in the difference in parity number, but all were greater than 0.5. The environmental correlations were higher for production traits, lower for SCS, and close to zero for female fertility. In the analysis of the complete milk recorded population, genetic trends from the repeatability and multitrait models were very similar. The genetic trend for SCS was economically unfavorable until 1993, and favorable since then. The genetic trend for female fertility was close to zero, but the annual environmental trend was -0.2%. The multitrait lactation model is an attractive compromise between repeatability lactation models, which do not account for maturing trends across parities, and test-day models, which are much more demanding computationally.

  6. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  7. Genome-Wide scans for carcass and meat traits in nellore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle industry is one of the main highlights of Brazilian agribusiness, however the standardization of meat products is still an issue. The lack of standardization of quality characteristics as fat thickness and tenderness, and the burden and time spent on collecting and evaluating large numbe...

  8. Using genomics to enhance selection of novel traits in North American dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics offers new opportunities for the effective selection of novel traits. For traits such as mastitis resistance, hoof health, or the prediction of milk composition from mid-infrared (MIR) data, for example, enough records are usually available to carry out genomic evaluations using sire genoty...

  9. Labile evolution of display traits in bowerbirds indicates reduced effects of phylogenetic constraint.

    PubMed Central

    Kusmierski, R; Borgia, G; Uy, A; Crozier, R H

    1997-01-01

    Bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae) have among the most exaggerated sets of display traits known, including bowers, decorated display courts and bright plumage, that differ greatly in form and degree of elaboration among species. Mapping bower and plumage traits on an independently derived phylogeny constructed from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences revealed large differences in display traits between closely related species and convergences in both morphological and behavioural traits. Plumage characters showed no effect of phylogenetic inertia, although bowers exhibited some constraint at the more fundamental level of design, but above which they appeared free of constraint. Bowers and plumage characters, therefore, are poor indicators of phylogenetic relationship in this group. Testing Gilliard's (1969) transferral hypothesis indicated some support for the idea that the focus of display has shifted from bird to bower in avenue-building species, but not in maypole-builders or in bowerbirds as a whole. PMID:9107048

  10. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Daeyoung; Lee, Jeongkoo; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Chaeyoung; Kim, Jongbok

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass. PMID:25178288

  11. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) density on genomic relationship matrix (G matrix), genetic variance explained and GE were investigated using the genotype data of about 40,000 SNPs and two statistical models. Results Using all pairs of two adjacent SNPs in the whole SNP set, the means of LD (r 2 ) at ranges 0–0.1, 0.1–0.2, 0.2–0.5 and 0.5–1 Mb were 0.22, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.08, respectively, and 25.7, 13.9, 10.4 and 6.4% of the r 2 values exceeded 0.3, respectively. While about 90% of the genetic variance for carcass weight estimated using all available SNPs was explained using 4,000–6,000 SNPs, the corresponding percentage for marbling score was consistently lower. With the conventional linear model incorporating the G matrix, correlation between the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained using 4,000 SNPs and all available SNPs was 0.99 for carcass weight and 0.98 for marbling score, with an underestimation of the former GEBVs, especially for marbling score. Conclusions The Japanese Black is likely to be in a breed group with a relatively high extent of whole genome LD. The results indicated that the degree of marbling is controlled by only QTLs with relatively small effects, compared with carcass weight, and that using at least 4,000 equally-spaced SNPs, there is a possibility of ranking animals genetically for these carcass traits in this breed. PMID:24491120

  12. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors.

  13. Relationships between milk protein composition, milk protein variants, and cow fertility traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Demeter, R M; Markiewicz, K; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2010-11-01

    Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between cow fertility traits and (1) milk protein composition and (2) milk protein variants (β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein, and β-κ-casein) in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,644 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. Greater relative concentration of α(S1)-casein within total milk protein had a positive phenotypic relationship with nonreturn rates and calving rate after first insemination. Furthermore, results showed virtually no significant relationship between cow fertility and concentration of other milk proteins or milk protein variants. Results of this study can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk protein composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. Our findings suggest that selecting cows based on milk protein composition or milk protein variants for improved manufacturing properties would have no negative influence on reproductive performance.

  14. Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on carcass and meat quality traits in double muscled Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality.

  15. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.

  16. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  17. Genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in longissimus muscle and their associations with palatability traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Garmyn, A J; Tait, R G; Duan, Q; Liu, Q; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Vanoverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron and sodium were highly and moderately heritable, respectively, whereas the other minerals were lowly heritable except for calcium, copper, and manganese, which exhibited no genetic variation. Strong positive genetic correlations existed between iron and zinc (0.49, P < 0.05), between magnesium and phosphorus (0.88, P < 0.05), between magnesium and sodium (0.68, P < 0.05), and between phosphorus and potassium (0.69, P < 0.05). Overall tenderness assessed by trained sensory panelists was positively associated with manganese, potassium, and sodium and negatively associated with phosphorus and zinc concentrations (P < 0.05). Juiciness assessed by trained sensory panelists was negatively associated with magnesium and positively associated with manganese and sodium concentrations (P < 0.05). Livery or metallic flavor was not associated with any of the minerals (P > 0.05). Beefy flavor was positively associated with calcium, iron, and zinc and negatively associated with sodium concentration, whereas a painty or fishy flavor was positively associated with sodium and negatively associated with calcium and potassium concentrations (P < 0.05). Beef is a major contributor of iron and zinc in the human diet, and these results demonstrate sufficient genetic variation for these traits to be improved

  18. Genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among gestation length, birth weight, growth traits and age at first calving in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, R M; Brinks, J S

    1982-09-01

    Data on the Red Angus, Angus and Hereford herds of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa, collected from 1968 to 1976, were analyzed for relationships among gestation length, birth weight, prenatal gain (birth weight adjusted for gestation length), growth traits and age at first calving. A total of 5,691 calf records, 1,783 listing gestation length, were included in the study. Paternal half-sib analyses and least-squares procedures were used to compute heritability estimates and genetic, environmental and phenotypic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations among growth traits, including prenatal gain, were high in all cases. Heritability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .36 and .43, respectively, for bull calves and .37 and .35 for heifer calves. Genetic correlations between these traits were .25 and .22 for bull and heifer calves, respectively. Gestation length was negatively correlated (genetically) with all growth traits except birth weight. This result suggests that faster growing fetuses may trigger parturition earlier than average. Age at first calving was negatively correlated (genetically) with growth traits, indicating a favorable relationship between growth and early reproduction. Analysis of several selection indexes combining either birth weight and yearling weight or gestation length and yearling weight indicated that continued response to selection for growth without excessive increase in birth weight is feasible. Selection for growth and moderate birth weight would be more effective than selection for growth and shorter gestation, suggesting that the former method would both shorten gestation and alter the growth curve. Repeatability estimates for gestation length and birth weight were .20 and .22, respectively. Maternal effects accounted for approximately 10% of the variation in each trait.

  19. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  20. Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by gene-gene interactions, genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional gene...

  1. An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M J; Tait, R G; Busby, W D; Reecy, J M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex on economically important production traits with the use of health records in combination with lung lesion scores obtained at slaughter. Records from 5,976 animals were used in this study from cattle that were managed in Midwestern feedlots. Average daily gain for 3 different feeding periods (acclimation, on-test, and overall test) along with final BW were evaluated as performance measures. Hot carcass weight, LM area, subcutaneous fat cover, and marbling score were collected at slaughter. All calves were monitored by experienced feedlot personnel and treated according to the specific health protocol of each feedlot. Incidence of BRD was observed at a rate of 8.17%, and lung lesions at slaughter were present in 61.9% of cattle from a subpopulation (n = 1,665). From this group of cattle, the overall incidence of BRD, which was defined as cattle that had lung lesions, that were treated for BRD in the feedlot, or both, was 64.4%. Incidence of BRD in the feedlot decreased ADG during both the acclimation period (0.37 +/- 0.03 kg) and the overall test period (0.07 +/- 0.01 kg). Incidence of BRD also had significant effects on HCW and marbling score with reduction of 8.16 +/- 1.38 kg and 0.13 +/- 0.04, respectively, in treated cattle. The adverse effects on production traits tended to increase as the number of treatments increased. Potential decrease in performance and carcass merit observed in this study were associated with a decline of $23.23, $30.15, and $54.01 in carcass value when comparing cattle never treated with cattle treated once, twice, or 3 or more times, respectively. The presence of lung lesions did not have a significant effect on any of the traits; however, there was an association between the presence of active bronchial lymph nodes and less productivity of feedlot cattle.

  2. Evaluation of Fecal Indicators and Pathogens in a Beef Cattle Feedlot Vegetative Treatment System.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Miller, Daniel N; Snow, Daniel D; Henry, Christopher G; Santin, Monica; Woodbury, Bryan L

    2017-01-01

    Runoff from open-lot animal feeding areas contains microorganisms that may adversely affect human and animal health if not properly managed. One alternative to full manure containment systems is a vegetative treatment system (VTS) that collects runoff in a sediment basin and then applies it to a perennial vegetation (grass) treatment area that is harvested for hay. Little is known regarding the efficacy of large-scale commercial VTSs for the removal of microbial contaminants. In this study, an active, pump-based VTS designed and built for a 1200-head beef cattle feedlot operation was examined to determine the effects of repeated feedlot runoff application on fecal indicator microorganisms and pathogens over short-term (2 wk) and long-term (3 yr) operations and whether fecal bacteria were infiltrating into deeper soils within the treatment area. In a short-term study, fecal bacteria and pathogen numbers declined over time in soil. Measurements of total coliforms and Enterococcus counts taken on control soils were not effective as fecal indicators. The repeated application of manure-impacted runoff as irrigation water did not enrich the pathogens or fecal indicators in the soil, and no evidence was seen to indicate that pathogens were moving into the deeper soil at this site. These results indicate that large-scale, active VTSs reduce the potential for environmental contamination by manure-associated bacteria. Also, this study has implications to full-containment systems that apply runoff water to land application areas (cropland) and the fate of pathogens in the soils of land application sites.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  4. Indicators of genetic erosion in an endangered population: the Alentejana cattle breed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carolino, N; Gama, L T

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize genetic diversity in the Alentejana breed of cattle based on its demographic trends and to investigate the major factors affecting genetic erosion in this breed. Herdbook information collected between 1940 and 2004, including pedigree records on 100,562 animals in 155 herds, was used to estimate demographic parameters. The mean generation intervals were 6.0 +/- 2.4 yr and 6.8 +/- 3.2 yr for sires and dams of calves, respectively. Average inbreeding increased steadily over the period analyzed, with an annual rate of inbreeding of 0.33 +/- 0.004% (P < 0.01) and an effective population size of 23.3. In the reference population (28,531 calves born between 2000 and 2003) the average inbreeding was 8.35 +/- 9.02% and nearly 80% of the calves were inbred, whereas the average relationship among all animals was 0.026 +/- 0.040. Nevertheless, the mean relationship was 0.328 +/- 0.264 and 0.022 +/- 0.026 for animals born in the same and in different herds, respectively. The computed genetic contributions to the reference population resulted in estimates for the effective number of founders, ancestors, founding herds, and herds supplying sires of 121.6, 55.0, 17.1, and 26.9, respectively, the 2 most influential herds and ancestors contributing 24.2 and 15.1%, respectively, of the current genetic pool. Of the 671 founding sires, only 24 Y-chromosomes are currently represented, but 1 sire alone contributes nearly 60% of this representation, such that the effective number of Y-chromosomes is only 2.73. The observed inbreeding per herd was, on average, 0.053 +/- 0.071 lower than expected from the relationship among the generation of parents of calves in the reference population, indicating that producers have followed breeding strategies that have kept inbreeding at lower levels than anticipated with random selection and mating. When compared with other cattle breeds, Alentejana has some of the highest levels of mean inbreeding and annual rate

  5. Residual feed intake, carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z

    2017-06-01

    A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat.

  6. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance.

  7. Genetic analyses of live-animal ultrasound and abattoir carcass traits in Australian Angus and Hereford cattle.

    PubMed

    Reverter, A; Johnston, D J; Graser, H U; Wolcott, M L; Upton, W H

    2000-07-01

    In order to estimate genetic parameters, abattoir carcass data on 1,713 Angus and 1,007 Hereford steers and heifers were combined with yearling live-animal ultrasound measurements on 8,196 Angus and 3,405 Hereford individuals from seedstock herds. Abattoir measures included carcass weight (CWT), percentage of retail beefyield (RBY), near-infrared measured intramuscular fat percentage (CIMF), preslaughter scanned eye muscle area (CEMA), and subcutaneous fat depth at the 12th rib (CRIB) and at the P8 site (CP8). Ultrasound scans on yearling animals included 12th-rib fat depth (SRIB), rump fat depth at the P8 site (SP8), eye muscle area (SEMA), and percentage of intramuscular fat (SIMF). Records on CWT were adjusted to 650-d slaughter age, and the remaining abattoir traits were adjusted to 300-kg CWT. Scan data were analyzed treating records on males and females as different traits. Multivariate analyses were performed on a variety of trait combinations using animal model and REML algorithm. Heritability (h2) estimates for CWT, RBY, CIMF, CP8, CRIB, and CEMA were .31, .68, .43, .44, .28, and .26, respectively, for Angus and .54, .36, .36, .08, .27, .38, respectively, for Hereford. Pooled across sexes, h2 estimates for SIMF, SP8, SRIB, and SEMA were .33, .55, .51, and .42, respectively, for Angus and .20, .31, .18, and .38, respectively, for Hereford. Genetic correlations (r(g)) between the same pair of carcass traits measured at yearling through scanning and directly at the abattoir were moderate to strongly positive, suggesting that selection using yearling ultrasound measurements of seedstock cattle should result in predictable genetic improvement for abattoir carcass characteristics. Estimates of r(g) between the scanned fat measurements and RBY were negative, ranging from -.85 for Angus heifers to -.05 for Hereford heifers. Also, the estimates of r(g) between SEMA and the fat records measured at the abattoir were negative and ranged from -.94 in Hereford heifers

  8. Genome-wide mapping of 10 calving and fertility traits in Holstein dairy cattle with special regard to chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Müller, M-P; Rothammer, S; Seichter, D; Russ, I; Hinrichs, D; Tetens, J; Thaller, G; Medugorac, I

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decades, a dramatic decrease in reproductive performance has been observed in Holstein cattle and fertility problems have become the most common reason for a cow to leave the herd. The premature removal of animals with high breeding values results in both economic and breeding losses. For efficient future Holstein breeding, the identification of loci associated with low fertility is of major interest and thus constitutes the aim of this study. To reach this aim, a genome-wide combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (cLDLA) was conducted using data on the following 10 calving and fertility traits in the form of estimated breeding values: days from first service to conception of heifers and cows, nonreturn rate on d 56 of heifers and cows, days from calving to first insemination, days open, paternal and maternal calving ease, paternal and maternal stillbirth. The animal data set contained 2,527 daughter-proven Holstein bulls from Germany that were genotyped with Illumina's BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). For the cLDLA, 41,635 sliding windows of 40 adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were used. At each window midpoint, a variance component analysis was executed using ASReml. The underlying mixed linear model included random quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects. We identified 50 genome-wide significant QTL. The most significant peak was detected for direct calving ease at 59,179,424 bp on chromosome 18 (BTA18). Next, a mixed-linear model association (MLMA) analysis was conducted. A comparison of the cLDLA and MLMA results with special regard to BTA18 showed that the genome-wide most significant SNP from the MLMA was associated with the same trait and located on the same chromosome at 57,589,121 bp (i.e., about 1.5 Mb apart from the cLDLA peak). The results of 5 different cLDLA and 2 MLMA models, which included the fixed effects of either SNP or haplotypes, suggested that the cLDLA method

  9. Carcass traits of young bulls in dual-purpose cattle: genetic parameters and genetic correlations with veal calf, type and production traits.

    PubMed

    Croué, I; Fouilloux, M N; Saintilan, R; Ducrocq, V

    2016-11-07

    moderate and favorable. Finally, genetic correlations between carcass traits of young bulls and milk production traits were low and unfavorable to moderate and favorable. These results indicate the existence for all three breeds of genetic variability for the genetic improvement of carcass traits of young bulls as well as favorable genetic correlations for their simultaneous selection and no strong unfavorable correlation with milk production traits.

  10. A genome-wide association study reveals a quantitative trait locus for days open on chromosome 2 in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shinji; Ibi, Takayuki; Kojima, Takatoshi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Days open (DO), which is the interval from calving to conception, is an important trait related to reproductive performance in cattle. To identify quantitative trait loci for DO in Japanese Black cattle, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 33,303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using 459 animals with extreme DO values selected from a larger group of 15,488 animals. We identified a SNP on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) that was associated with DO. After imputation using phased haplotype data inferred from 586 812 SNPs of 1041 Japanese Black cattle, six SNPs associated with DO were located in an 8.5-kb region of high linkage disequilibrium on BTA2. These SNPs were located on the telomeric side at a distance of 177 kb from the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) gene. The association was replicated in a sample of 1778 animals. In the replicated population, the frequency of the reduced-DO allele (Q) was 0.63, and it accounted for 1.72% of the total genetic variance. The effect of a Q-to-q allele substitution on DO was a decrease of 3.74 days. The results suggest that the Q allele could serve as a marker in Japanese Black cattle to select animals with superior DO performance.

  11. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Sunil W.; Larcombe, Stephen D.; Jadhao, Suresh G.; Magar, Swapnil P.; Warthi, Ganesh; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Glass, Elizabeth J.; Shiels, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens (TBP) are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD), most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) with native Bos indicus (numerous) breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type). The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites) and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic benefit. PMID

  12. A Multiple-SNP Approach for Genome-Wide Association Study of Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Fu, Weixuan; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-SNP analysis has been studied by many researchers, in which the effects of multiple SNPs are simultaneously estimated and tested in a multiple linear regression. The multiple-SNP association analysis usually has higher power and lower false-positive rate for detecting causative SNP(s) than single marker analysis (SMA). Several methods have been proposed to simultaneously estimate and test multiple SNP effects. In this research, a fast method called MEML (Mixed model based Expectation-Maximization Lasso algorithm) was developed for simultaneously estimate of multiple SNP effects. An improved Lasso prior was assigned to SNP effects which were estimated by searching the maximum joint posterior mode. The residual polygenic effect was included in the model to absorb many tiny SNP effects, which is treated as missing data in our EM algorithm. A series of simulation experiments were conducted to validate the proposed method, and the results showed that compared with SMMA, the new method can dramatically decrease the false-positive rate. The new method was also applied to the 50k SNP-panel dataset for genome-wide association study of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Totally, 39 significant SNPs and their nearby 25 genes were found. The number of significant SNPs is remarkably fewer than that by SMMA which found 105 significant SNPs. Among 39 significant SNPs, 8 were also found by SMMA and several well-known QTLs or genes were confirmed again; furthermore, we also got some positional candidate gene with potential function of effecting milk production traits. These novel findings in our research should be valuable for further investigation. PMID:25148050

  13. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index. PMID:21734821

  14. Genetic parameters and relationships between growth traits and scrotal circumference measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Arione Augusti; Baldi, Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2011-04-01

    Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

  15. Genetic parameters for functional traits in dairy cattle from daily random regression models.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, B; Jaffrézic, F; Kadarmideen, H N

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the research was to estimate genetic parameters, such as heritabilities and genetic correlations, using daily test day data for milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) using random regression methodology. Data were from first lactation dairy cows (n = 320) from the Chamau research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland over the period from April 1994 to 2004. All traits were recorded daily using automated machines. Estimated heritabilities (h(2)) varied from 0.18 to 0.30 (mean h(2) = 0.24) for MY, 0.003 to 0.098 (mean h(2) = 0.03) for MS, 0.22 to 0.53 (mean h(2) = 0.43) for BW, and 0.12 to 0.34 (mean h(2) = 0.23) for DMI. A permanent environmental effect was included in both the univariate and bivariate models, but was assumed constant in estimating some genetic correlations because of convergence problems. Estimated genetic correlations varied from 0.31 to 0.41 between MY and MS, from -0.47 to 0.29 between MY and DMI, from -0.60 to 0.54 between MY and BW, from 0.17 to 0.26 between MS and DMI, from -0.18 to 0.25 between MS and BW, and from -0.89 to 0.29 between DMI and BW. Genetic correlations for MY, MS, DMI, and BW from calving to midlactation decreased similarly to 0.40, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.36 and, at the end of the lactation, decreased to -0.06, 0.23, -0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Daily genetic variance-covariance of many functional traits are reported for the first time and will be useful when constructing selection indexes for more than one trait based on longitudinal genetic parameters.

  16. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year.

  17. Dissecting the Effects of Simulated Cattle Activity on Floristic Composition and Functional Traits in Mediterranean Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Dobarro, Iker; Pérez Carmona, Carlos; Peco, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR), soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM) for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at the small spatio

  18. Dissecting the effects of simulated cattle activity on floristic composition and functional traits in Mediterranean grasslands.

    PubMed

    Dobarro, Iker; Carmona, Carlos Pérez; Peco, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Livestock exerts direct and indirect effects on plant communities, changing colonization and extinction rates of species and the surrounding environmental conditions. There is scarce knowledge on how and to what extent these effects control the floristic and functional composition of plant communities in grasslands. We performed an experiment that included several treatments simulating trampling, defoliation, faeces addition and their combinations in a Mediterranean scrub community grazing-abandoned for at least 50 years. We monitored the plots for four years, and collected data on species composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red∶far-red ratio (R∶FR), soil moisture and compaction. We estimated community weighted means (CWM) for height, habit, life cycle, seed mass and SLA. Neither compaction nor soil moisture were modified by the treatments, while PAR and R∶FR increased in all treatments in comparison to the Control and Faeces treatments. The floristic composition of all treatments, except for Faeces, converged over time, but deviated from that of the Control. The functional traits displayed the trends expected in the presence of grazing: loss of erect species and increased cover of short species with light seeds, with rosettes and prostrate habit. However, contrary to the results in literature, SLA was lower in all the treatments than Control plots. Like the results for floristic composition, all treatments except for Faeces converged towards a similar functional composition at the end of the four year period. The results of this study show the initial evolution of a Mediterranean plant community in the presence of grazing, driven primarily by the destructive action of livestock. These actions seem to directly affect the rates of extinction/colonization, and indirectly affect the light environment but not the soil conditions. However, their effects on floristic and trait composition do not seem to differ, at least at the small spatio

  19. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-08-16

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.

  20. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Deepak; Sankhyan, Varun; Katoch, Sanjeet; Thakur, Yash Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG), forelimb length (FLL), hind limb length (HLL), face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL), hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL), TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization. Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2. Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL) to 0.88 (TL). Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively. Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation. PMID:27047059

  1. Comparison of models for the genetic evaluation of reproductive traits with censored data in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Garcia, D A; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Carvalheiro, R; Albuquerque, L G

    2016-06-01

    In typical genetic evaluation, often some females have missing records due to reproductive failure and due to voluntary and involuntary culling before the breeding season. These partially or unobserved phenotypes are known as censored records and their inclusion into genetic evaluations might lead to better inferences and breeding value predictions. Then, the objective was to compare prediction ability of models in which the phenotypic expression of age at the first calving (AFC) and days to calving (DC) were considered to be censored and uncensored in a Nellore cattle population. Age at first calving and days to calving were analyzed as following: uncensored animals (LM); penalization of 21 d (PLM); censored records simulated from truncated normal distributions (CLM); threshold-linear model in which censored records were handled as missing (TLM) or coded as the upper AFC/DC value within contemporary group (PTLM); and Weibull frailty hazard model (WM). Pearson correlations (PC), the percentage of the 10% best bulls in common (pTOP10%), accuracy of estimated breeding values (), and a cross-validation scheme were performed. Heritability estimates for AFC were 0.18, 0.12, 0.12, 0.17, 0.14, and 0.07 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. PC and pTOP10% were higher among linear models and smaller between these models and WM. The models provided similar r of sire breeding values. Heritability estimates for DC were 0.03, 0.08, 0.06, 0.02, 0.07, and 0.10 for LM, PLM, CLM, TLM, PTLM, and WM, respectively. Strongly associated predictions were observed in CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM. The highest coincidence levels of sires in the TOP10% were between CLM, PLM, and PTLM. The r of sire breeding values obtained applying CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM were similar and higher than those obtained with LM and TLM. In terms of prediction ability, WM, PLM, TLM, and PTLM showed similar prediction performance for AFC. On the other hand, CLM, PLM, PTLM, and WM showed the similar prediction

  2. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Dikmen, S; Null, D J; Cole, J B; Hansen, P J

    2017-04-01

    chromosome 8 beginning at 55,663,248 bp. Similar regions were identified for number of good embryos, with the largest proportion of variance (0.43%) explained by a 10-SNP window on chromosome 14 beginning at 26,713,734 bp. Results indicate that there is a genetic component for some traits related to superovulation and that selection should be possible. Moreover, the genetic component for superovulation traits involves some genomic regions that are similar to those for other fertility traits currently evaluated.

  3. Whole-Genome Resequencing of Holstein Bulls for Indel Discovery and Identification of Genes Associated with Milk Composition Traits in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianping; Gao, Yahui; Hou, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The use of whole-genome resequencing to obtain more information on genetic variation could produce a range of benefits for the dairy cattle industry, especially with regard to increasing milk production and improving milk composition. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of eight Holstein bulls from four half- or full-sib families, with high and low estimated breeding values (EBVs) of milk protein percentage and fat percentage at an average effective depth of 10×, using Illumina sequencing. Over 0.9 million nonredundant short insertions and deletions (indels) [1–49 base pairs (bp)] were obtained. Among them, 3,625 indels that were polymorphic between the high and low groups of bulls were revealed and subjected to further analysis. The vast majority (76.67%) of these indels were novel. Follow-up validation assays confirmed that most (70%) of the randomly selected indels represented true variations. The indels that were polymorphic between the two groups were annotated based on the cattle genome sequence assembly (UMD3.1.69); as a result, nearly 1,137 of them were found to be located within 767 annotated genes, only 5 (0.138%) of which were located in exons. Then, by integrated analysis of the 767 genes with known quantitative trait loci (QTL); significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to be associated with bovine milk protein and fat traits; and the well-known pathways involved in protein, fat synthesis, and metabolism, we identified a total of 11 promising candidate genes potentially affecting milk composition traits. These were FCGR2B, CENPE, RETSAT, ACSBG2, NFKB2, TBC1D1, NLK, MAP3K1, SLC30A2, ANGPT1 and UGDH. Our findings provide a basis for further study and reveal key genes for milk composition traits in dairy cattle. PMID:28030618

  4. Genotype by environment interaction for milk production traits between organic and conventional dairy cattle production in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Nauta, W J; Veerkamp, R F; Brascamp, E W; Bovenhuis, H

    2006-07-01

    Estimates of genetic parameters for organic dairy farming have not been published previously, and neither is information available on the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction (GxE) between organic and conventional farming. However, organic farming is growing worldwide and basic information about genetic parameters is needed for future breeding strategies for organic dairy farming. The goal of this study was to estimate heritabilities of milk production traits under organic farming conditions and to estimate the magnitude of GxE between organic and conventional dairy farming. For this purpose, production records of first-parity Holstein heifers were used. Heritabilities of milk, fat and protein yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) were higher under organic farming conditions. For percentages of fat and protein, heritabilities of organic and conventional production were very similar. Genetic correlations between preorganic and organic, and organic and conventional milk production were 0.79 and 0.80, respectively. For fat yield, these correlations were 0.86 and 0.88, and for protein yield, these were 0.78 and 0.71, respectively. Our findings indicate that moderate GxE was present for yield traits. For percentage of fat and protein and SCS, genetic correlations between organic and conventional and preorganic production were close to unity, indicating that there was no GxE for these traits.

  5. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, BW at 200 d, and ADG were measured in 2,500 calves born and 2,395 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (one-fourth Hereford, one-fourth Angus, one-fourth Pinzgauer, and one-fourth Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breed), Brahman, Tuli, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires. Calves were born during the spring seasons of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sire breed was significant for all traits (P < 0.002). Offspring from British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had the shortest gestation length (285 d) when compared with progeny from other sire breeds (average of 291 d). Calving difficulty was greater in offspring from Brahman sires (1.24), whereas the offspring of Tuli sires had the least amount of calving difficulty (1.00). Offspring from all sire breeds had similar perinatal survival and survival from birth to weaning (average of 97.2 and 96.2%, respectively), with the exception of offspring from Brahman sires, which had less (92.8 and 90.4%, respectively). Progeny of Brahman sires were heaviest at birth (45.7 kg), followed by offspring from British breed, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires (average of 42.4 kg). The lightest offspring at birth were from Tuli sires (38.6 kg). Progeny derived from Brahman sires were the heaviest at 200 d (246 kg), and they grew faster (1.00 kg/d) than offspring from any other group. The progeny of British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had an intermediate BW at 200 d (238 kg) and an intermediate ADG (average of 0.98 kg/d). The progeny of Boran and Tuli sires were the lightest at 200 d (227 kg) and had the least ADG (0.93 kg/d). Male calves had a longer gestation length, had a greater

  6. [The effects of the GH, IGF-I and IGF-IBP3 gene on growth and development traits of Nanyang cattle in different growth period].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Xu, Xiu-Rong; Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ying-Han; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2006-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify polymorphisms of the Nangyang cattle's growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-I binding protein 3(IGF-IBP3) gene by the single nucleotide Polymorphisms and Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and to study association of polymorphisms identified in these genes with growth traits of the birth, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months and 36 months. Results from the analysis showed a significant association of the BB genotype in the promoter of GH gene (GH-P5) with higher body length and body height during from 6 month to 18 month. From 24 month to 36 month, the IGF-IBP3 locus has a dominance modulation and control effect on backbody in Nanyang Cattle, and the BB genotype with higher Rump width than AA.

  7. Coloured ornamental traits could be effective and non-invasive indicators of pollution exposure for wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Lifshitz, Natalia; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2016-01-01

    Growth in human populations causes habitat degradation for other species, which is usually gauged by physical changes to landscapes. Corresponding habitat degradation to air and water is also common, but its effects on individuals can be difficult to detect until they result in the decline or disappearance of populations. More proactive measures of pollution usually combine abiotic samples of soil, water or air with invasive sampling of expendable species, but this approach sometimes creates ethical dilemmas and has limited application for threatened species. Here, we describe the potential to measure the effects of pollution on many species of birds and fish by using ornamental traits that are expressed as coloured skin, feathers and scales. As products of sexual selection, these traits are sensitive to environmental conditions, thereby providing honest information about the condition of their bearers as ready-made biomarkers. We review the documented effects of several classes of pollutants, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industry-related compounds and metals, on two classes of colour pigments, namely melanins and carotenoids. We find that several pollutants impede the expression of both carotenoids and brown melanin, while enhancing traits coloured by black melanin. We also review some of the current limitations of using ornamental colour as an indicator of pollution exposure, suggest avenues for future research and speculate about how advances in robotics and remote imagery will soon make it possible to measure these traits remotely and in a non-invasive manner. Wider awareness of this potential by conservation managers could foster the development of suitable model species and comparative metrics and lay a foundation for pollution monitoring that is more generalizable and biologically relevant than existing standards. PMID:27766151

  8. Genetic and phenotypic parameters and annual trends for growth and fertility traits of Charolais and Hereford beef cattle breeds in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Orenge, J S K; Ilatsia, E D; Kosgey, I S; Kahi, A K

    2009-06-01

    This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and annual trends for growth and fertility traits of Charolais and Hereford cattle in Kenya. Traits considered were birth weight (BW, kg), pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG, kg/day) and weaning weight (WW, kg); calving interval (CI, days) and age at first calving (AFC, days). Direct heritability estimates for growth traits were 0.36 and 0.21; 0.25 and 0.10; 0.23 and 0.13 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Maternal heritability estimates were 0.11 and 0.01; 0.18 and 0.00; 0.17 and 0.17 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Direct-maternal genetic correlations ranged between -0.46 and 1.00; -0.51 and -1.00; -0.47 and -0.39 for BW, ADG and WW in Charolais and Hereford, respectively. Genetic correlations ranged from -0.99 to unity and -1.00 to unity for growth and fertility traits respectively. Prospects for improvement of growth and fertility traits exist.

  9. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy predictions as indicator traits in breeding programs for enhanced beef quality.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Albera, A; Bittante, G

    2011-09-01

    indicator traits to improve meat quality of the Piedmontese breed.

  10. Identification of Exonic Nucleotide Variants of the Thyroid Hormone Responsive Protein Gene Associated with Carcass Traits and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-yep; Lee, Yoon-seok; La, Boo-mi; Lee, Jea-young; Park, Yong-soo; Lee, Ji-hong; Ha, Jae-jung; Yi, Jun-koo; Kim, Byung-ki; Yeo, Jung-sou

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP) gene is a functional gene that can be used to indicate the fatty acid compositions. This study investigates the relationships of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the THRSP gene and fatty acid composition of muscle fat and marbling score in the 612 Korean cattle. The relationships between fatty acid composition and eight SNPs in the THRSP gene (g.78 G>A, g.173 C>T, g.184 C>T, g.190 C>A, g.194 C>T, g.277 C>G, g.283 T>G and g.290 T>G) were investigated, and according to the results, two SNPs (g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T) in exon 1 were associated with fatty acid composition. The GG and CC genotypes of g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (p<0.05). In addition, the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) in a linkage disequilibrium increased MUFAs and marbling scores for carcass traits (p<0.05). As a result, g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had significantly relationships with UFAs and MUFAs. Two SNPs in the THRSP gene affected fatty acid composition, suggesting that GG and CC genotypes and the ht1*ht1 group (Val/Ala haplotype) can be markers to genetically improve the quality and flavor of beef. PMID:25178286

  11. Comparison of a genetic group and unknown paternity models for growth traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, L; Cardoso, F F; Silva, J A V; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare a model assuming unknown paternity and a model using genetic grouping to indicate the most adequate statistical procedure for the estimation of breeding values for animals with uncertain paternity. After data consistency, 62,212 Nellore animals, offspring of 581 bulls and 27,743 cows, were used in the analyses. The pedigree file contained 75,088 animals, including 22,810 (30.18%) offspring of multiple sires and 12,876 animals belonging to the base population with unknown parents. Three different approaches were adopted to deal with uncertain paternity of multiple-sire (MS) offspring. In the model of unknown paternity, the MS groups were ignored, and the sires of MS offspring were considered to be unknown and to belong to a single base population. In the genetic group approach, 2 definitions were used. In the first definition (GGa), "phantom parents" for animals with uncertain paternity were attributed, defining the genetic group as the MS group. In the other approach, GGb, phantom parents for animals with uncertain paternity were also attributed; however, MS offspring were clustered in genetic groups according to their year of birth, every 3 yr, on the basis of the average of male generation interval. Univariate analyses were performed under the Bayesian approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Models were compared by deviance information criteria and the conditional predictive ordinate. According to the choice criteria results, the genetic group model defined by the generation interval of males was more appropriate for predicting the genetic merit of animals with uncertain paternity. Therefore, the use of this model is recommended for the prediction of genetic merit and classification of offspring of multiple sires.

  12. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  13. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. Those estimates are population specific, but few studies are available for dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and subtropical conditions. Heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield...

  14. Genome-wide association study of fertility traits in dairy cattle using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unfavorable genetic correlations between production and fertility traits are well documented. Genetic selection for fertility traits is slow, however, due to low heritabilities. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) involved in reproduction could improve reliability of genomic esti...

  15. Associations of a HinfI PCR-RFLP of POU1F1 gene with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlei; Liu, Bo; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Runfeng

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the POU1F1/HinfI polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to four different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth traits in cattle. The 451-bp PCR products of POU1F1 gene digested with HinfI exhibited three genotypes and two alleles, which were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotype BB was the predominant genotype and B the predominant allele in the studied populations. There was significant difference between Limousin x Qinchuan and Qinchuan in the distribution of genotypes (P < 0.0001). The association of the polymorphism of the POU1F1 gene with growth traits among Qinchuan, Limousin x Qinchuan, Angus x Qinchuan and Germany Yellow x Qinchuan crosses was analyzed. Body weight and wither height of individuals with genotypes AB were higher (P < 0.05)than that of individuals with genotype BB in the Germany Yellow x Qinchua cross, but were not in the other three populations (P > 0.05).

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin and leptin receptor genes with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    da Silva, R C G; Ferraz, J B S; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Cucco, D C; Mattos, E C; Rezende, F M; Silva, S L

    2012-10-11

    Given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in Nellore cattle. We examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor SNPs with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and scrotal circumference adjusted to 550 days of age) of 2162 Bos primigenius indicus (Nellore) animals. Allele and genotypic frequencies were calculated for each marker. Allele substitution, additive and dominance effects of the polymorphisms were also evaluated. Some alleles of the molecular markers had low frequencies, lower than 1%, in the sample analyzed, although the same polymorphisms described for B. p. taurus cattle were found. Due to very low allelic frequencies, the E2JW, A59V and UASMS2 markers were not included in the analysis, because they were almost fixed. E2FB was found to be significantly associated with weight gain, ribeye area and backfat thickness. The promoter region markers, C963T and UASMS1, were also found to be significantly associated with ribeye area. T945M was significantly associated with weight gain. We conclude that the leptin and receptor gene markers would be useful for marker-assisted selection.

  17. Postweaning growth and carcass traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu maternal grandsires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for postweaning growth and carcass composition traits in terminal crossbred cattle. Postweaning growth and carcass traits were analyzed on 434 steers and 373 heifers obtained by mating F1 cows to Charolais sires. Maternal grandsires represented Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British Breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, or Friesian breeds. Breed groups were slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr (2002 and 2003). Postweaning ADG, slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, percentage Choice, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, fat thickness, retail product yield (percentage), retail product weight, fat yield (percentage), fat weight, bone yield (percentage), and bone weight were analyzed. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for all traits except dressing percentage, percentage Choice, and LM area. Marbling score for animals with Norwegian Red, Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, British Breeds, and Friesian inheritance was 550, 544, 532, 530, and 515, respectively (SEM = 8). Retail product weight for these animals was 224, 211, 227, 223, and 223 kg, respectively (SEM = 2 kg). Maternal granddam breed was not significant for any of the traits analyzed. Grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  18. Genome-wide association study for carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition, sugar, and the effects of related candidate genes in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasago, Nanae; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene analysis to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAS in our small population by performing GWAS for carcass weight (CW) and fatty acid composition; (ii) detect novel candidate regions affecting non-CW carcass traits, chemical composition and sugar; and (iii) evaluate the association of the candidate genes previously detected in CW and fatty acid composition with other economically important traits. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle and 40 657 Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. In addition, candidate gene analyses were performed to evaluate the association of three CW-related genes and two fatty acid-related genes with carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition and sugar. The significant regions with the candidate genes were detected for CW and fatty acid composition, and these results showed that a significant region would be detectable despite the small sample size. The novel candidate regions were detected on BTA23 for crude protein and on BTA19 for fructose. CW-related genes associated with the rib-eye area and fatty acid composition were identified, and fatty acid-related genes had no relationship with other traits. Moreover, the favorable allele of CW-related genes had an unfavorable effect on fatty acid composition.

  19. Comparison of discriminative indices for iron deficiency anemia and β thalassemia trait in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Matos, Januária Fonseca; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant'Ana; Stubbert, Rachel Versiani Bressane; Ferreira, Mônica Ribeiro; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Fernandes, Ana Paula Salles Moura; de Faria, José Roberto; Borges, Karina Braga Gomes; Carvalho, Maria das Graças

    2013-05-01

    To discriminate iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from β thalassemia trait (βTT), several indices obtained from modern blood count analyzers have been reported. Discrimination power of seven indices to differentiate between IDA and βTT, such as Green and King Index (GKI), RDW Index (RDWI), Srivastava Index (SRI), Mentzer Index (MI), Shine and Lal Index (SLI), Ehsani Index (EI), and Sirdah Index (SI), were evaluated. These indices were applied on 47 patients with βTT and on 289 patients with IDA, as confirmed by gold standard tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, efficiency, area under receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), and Youden's Index (YI) were calculated. GKI and RDWI showed the highest reliability, as they had the largest AUCs (0.919, 0.912, respectively) and Youden's Index (70.4, 74.6, respectively). Conversely, SLI presented a less satisfactory performance (AUC = 0.786 and YI = 6.6). Data taken together suggest the superiority of GKI and RDWI to discriminate between IDA and βTT.

  20. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation.

  1. Effect of IGF1, GH, and PIT1 markers on the genetic parameters of growth and reproduction traits in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Grupioni, Natalia Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; de Alencar, Maurício Mello; Schenkel, Flávio Schramm; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2015-01-01

    The availability of dense genomic information has increased genome-wide association studies for the bovine species; however research to assess the effect of single genes on production traits is still important to elucidate the genes functions. On this study the association of IGF1, GH, and PIT1 markers with growth and reproductive traits (birth weight, weaning weight, weight at 12 and 18 months of age, preweaning average daily weight gain, age and weight at first calving, and scrotal circumference at 12 and 18 months of age) were assessed by means of the variance component approach. The phenotypes were adjusted and then analyzed under two animal models, one which considered the polygenic and genotype (IGF1, GH or PIT1 markers) effects (Model 1), and the other which considers only the polygenic effect (Model 2). When the likelihood ratio test and the Bonferroni correction was applied at 5 % significance level, the genetic markers for the IGF1, GH, and PIT1 genes did not influence significantly the traits (p > 0.002). However, evidence of association of IGF1 with birth weight (p = 0.06) and GH with weight at first calving (p = 0.03) and with weight at 12 months of age (p = 0.08) was observed. In conclusion we could not confirm the associations between IGF1, GH, and PIT1 and growth traits that were previously reported in Canchim cattle, and no association was observed between these genes and reproductive traits. Future studies involving functional markers of IGF1, GH and PIT1 genes may help to clarify the role of these genes in growth and reproductive processes.

  2. A whole genome association study to detect additive and dominant single nucleotide polymorphisms for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Gao, Yuxuan; Kim, You-Sam; Iqbal, Asif; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Objective A whole genome association study was conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with additive and dominant effects for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. Methods The data set comprised 61 sires and their 486 Hanwoo steers that were born between spring of 2005 and fall of 2007. The steers were genotyped with the 35,968 SNPs that were embedded in the Illumina bovine SNP 50K beadchip and six growth and carcass quality traits were measured for the steers. A series of lack-of-fit tests between the models was applied to classify gene expression pattern as additive or dominant. Results A total of 18 (0), 15 (3), 12 (8), 15 (18), 11 (7), and 21 (1) SNPs were detected at the 5% chromosome (genome) - wise level for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and marbling score, respectively. Among the significant 129 SNPs, 56 SNPs had additive effects, 20 SNPs dominance effects, and 53 SNPs both additive and dominance effects, suggesting that dominance inheritance mode be considered in genetic improvement for growth and carcass quality in Hanwoo. The significant SNPs were located at 33 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions on 18 Bos Taurus chromosomes (i.e. BTA 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28, and 29) were detected. There is strong evidence that BTA14 is the key chromosome affecting CWT. Also, BTA20 is the key chromosome for almost all traits measured (WWT, YWT, LMA). Conclusion The application of various additive and dominance SNP models enabled better characterization of SNP inheritance mode for growth and carcass quality traits in Hanwoo, and many of the detected SNPs or QTL had dominance effects, suggesting that dominance be considered for the whole-genome SNPs data and implementation of successive molecular breeding schemes in Hanwoo. PMID:27221246

  3. Estimates of genetic variance and variance of predicted genetic merits using pedigree or genomic relationship matrices in six Brown Swiss cattle populations for different traits.

    PubMed

    Loberg, A; Dürr, J W; Fikse, W F; Jorjani, H; Crooks, L

    2015-10-01

    The amount of variance captured in genetic estimations may depend on whether a pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrix is used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic variance as well as the variance of predicted genetic merits (PGM) using pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrices in Brown Swiss cattle. We examined a range of traits in six populations amounting to 173 population-trait combinations. A main aim was to determine how using different relationship matrices affect variance estimation. We calculated ratios between different types of estimates and analysed the impact of trait heritability and population size. The genetic variances estimated by REML using a genomic relationship matrix were always smaller than the variances that were similarly estimated using a pedigree-based relationship matrix. The variances from the genomic relationship matrix became closer to estimates from a pedigree relationship matrix as heritability and population size increased. In contrast, variances of predicted genetic merits obtained using a genomic relationship matrix were mostly larger than variances of genetic merit predicted using pedigree-based relationship matrix. The ratio of the genomic to pedigree-based PGM variances decreased as heritability and population size rose. The increased variance among predicted genetic merits is important for animal breeding because this is one of the factors influencing genetic progress.

  4. [Polymorphism of POU1F1 gene and PRL gene and their combined effects on milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Jie; Wang, Chang-Fa; Yang, Gui-Wen; Huang, Jin-Ming; Li, Qiu-Ling; Zhong, Ji-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Three novel SNPs were found by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods were used for genotyping in 979 Chinese Holstein cattle. One SNP, G1178C, was identified in exon 2 of POU1F1 gene. Two novel SNPs, A906G and A1134G, were identified in 5'-flanking regulatory region (5'-UTR) of PRL gene. The association between polymorphisms of the two genes and milk performance traits were analyzed with PROC GLM of SAS. The results showed that GC genotype at 1178 locus of POU1F1 gene was advantageous for milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk fat yield. AG genotype at 906 locus was advantageous for milk yield. There was no significant difference between 1134 locus and milk performance traits of 5'-UTR of PRL gene. Analysis of genotype combination effect on milk production traits showed that the effect of combined genotype was not simple sum of single genotypes and the effects of gene pyramiding seemed to be more important in molecular breeding.

  5. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  6. The use of population-scale sequencing to identify CNVs impacting productive traits in different cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individualized copy number variation (CNV) maps have highlighted the need for population surveys of cattle to detect rare and common variants. While SNP and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays have provided preliminary data, next-generation sequence (NGS) data analysis offers an increased...

  7. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single nucleotide polymorphism, forage type, and body condition on production traits in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders especially in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to 1) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and 2) determine associations between SNP g...

  8. Polymorphisms in the bovine ghrelin precursor (GHRL) and Syndecan-1 (SDC1) genes that are associated with growth traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajie; Jin, Qijiang; Zhang, Chunlei; Fang, Xingtang; Gu, Chuanwen; Lei, Chuzhao; Wang, Juqiang; Chen, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Transgenically expressed Syndecan-1 was found in the hypothalamic nuclei that control energy balance, and was associated with maturity-onset obesity, while ghrelin has been shown to play important roles in the control of food intake, gastric acid secretion, energy homeostasis, and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the roles of genetic variations of Syndecan-1 and ghrelin on growth trait have few been reported in cattle. Herein, five Chinese cattle breeds were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods. The bovine ghrelin gene showed eleven SNPs g.[267G>A, 271G>A, 290C>T, 326A>G, 327T>C, 420C>A, 569A>G, 945C>T, 993C>T, 4491A>G, 4644G>A] and three SNPs g.[420C>A, 569 A>G, 945C>T] were firstly detected in cattle. The bovine Syndecan-1 gene showed two SNPs. One SNP showed a transition C>G at position 21514, resulting in a synonymous mutation p.G(GGC)169G(GGG) and another showed a transversion C>T at position 22591, resulting in a synonymous mutation p.D(GAC)283D(GAT). In ghrelin gene, no significant associations were revealed between any variant sites and body weight, average daily gain, body sizes for different growth periods (6, 12, 18, and 24 months old), as well as for the milk yield at 305 days, milk protein rate and milk fat percentage. However, the polymorphism of Syndecan-1 gene was significantly associated with bovine birth weight and body length. Hence, we first suggested that Syndecan-1 gene could be regarded as molecular marker for superior birth weight and body length.

  9. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle.

  10. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in digestive and metabolic processes associated with feed efficiency and performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Abo-Ismail, M K; Kelly, M J; Squires, E J; Swanson, K C; Bauck, S; Miller, S P

    2013-06-01

    Discovery of genetic mutations that have a significant association with economically important traits would benefit beef cattle breeders. Objectives were to identify with an in silico approach new SNP in 8 genes involved in digestive function and metabolic processes and to examine the associations between the identified SNP and feed efficiency and performance traits. The association between SNP and daily DMI, ADG, midpoint metabolic weight (MMWT), residual feed intake (RFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; the ratio of average daily DMI to ADG) was tested in discovery and validation populations using a univariate mixed-inheritance animal model fitted in ASReml. Substitution effect of the T allele of SNP rs41256901 in protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2; PRSS2) was associated with FCR (-0.293 ± 0.08 kg DMI kg(-1) BW gain; P < 0.001) and RFI (-0.199 ± 0.08 kg; P < 0.01) and although not significant in the validation population, the phase of association remained. In the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) gene, genotypes in rs42670351 were associated with RFI (P < 0.05) whereas genotypes in rs42670352 were associated with RFI (P = 0.002) and DMI (P < 0.05). Substitution of the G allele in rs42670352 was associated with DMI (-0.236 ± 0.12 kg; P = 0.055) and RFI (-0.175 ± 0.09 kg; P = 0.05). Substitution of the G allele of SNP rs42670353 was associated with ADG (0.043 ± 0.02 kg/d; P < 0.01) and FCR (0.114 ± 0.05 kg BW gain kg(-1) DMI; P < 0.05). In the validation dataset, SNP rs42670352 in gene CCKBR was significant for RFI and DMI and had the same phase of associations; SNP rs42670353 was significantly associated with FCR with same phase of association and the C allele in SNP rs42670351 was validated as decreasing DMI, RFI, and FCR. Substituting the G allele of SNP rs42670352 in CCKBR2 was associated with decreasing DMI and RFI in the validation study. New SNP were reported in genes PRSS2 and CCKBR, being associated with feed efficiency and performance traits in beef

  11. Response to divergent selection for insulin-like growth factor-I concentration and correlated responses in growth traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Hines, H C; Irvin, K M; Lee, K; Davis, M E

    2011-12-01

    A divergent selection experiment for serum IGF-I concentration was established in 1989 at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station located in Belle Valley, Ohio. One hundred spring-calving (50 high line and 50 low line) and 100 fall-calving (50 high line and 50 low line) cows with unknown IGF-I concentrations were randomly assigned to the 2 divergent selection lines. Results of this study included 2,507 calves from the 1989 through 2005 calf crops. (Co)variance components were estimated for direct and maternal additive genetic effects using an animal model and multiple-trait, derivative-free, REML (MTDFREML) computer programs. Estimated breeding values were also obtained and regressed on years to estimate direct and correlated responses to divergent selection for serum IGF-I concentration. Estimates of direct heritability for growth traits from a single trait model were moderate and ranged from 0.33 ± 0.06 for birth weight to 0.42 ± 0.06 for preweaning BW gain. Heritability estimates for direct effects were 0.44 ± 0.07, 0.43 ± 0.07, 0.35 ± 0.06, and 0.48 ± 0.07 for IGF-I concentration at d 28, 42, and 56 of the 140-d postweaning period, and for mean IGF-I concentration, respectively. Maternal heritability and the proportion of phenotypic variance due to permanent environment effect of dam were ≤0.25 for growth traits and IGF-I concentrations. Cattle in the high line had significantly (P < 0.001) greater direct effects of mean IGF-I concentration than those in low line (high line: 66.92 ± 4.40 ng/mL vs. low line: -40.82 ± 5.18 ng/mL) in 2005. Direct responses per year for mean IGF were 5.18 ng/mL in the high line and -3.76 ng/mL in the low line. The regression of direct effects of preweaning BW gain on year were not significantly different from zero in either the high or low line. However, genetic trends were negative and significant for birth weight and postweaning BW gain in the high line and were positive and significant in the low line. Results

  12. The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rodrigo Reis; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Marques, Luiz Fernando Aarão; da Silva, Luciano Pinheiro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de Almeida Torres, Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1) contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2) contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (co)variance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h2d) in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h2d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations. PMID:23569407

  13. Genetic analysis of milk production traits of polish black and white cattle using large-scale random regression test-day models.

    PubMed

    Strabel, T; Jamrozik, J

    2006-08-01

    Genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yield and persistency in the first 3 lactations of Polish Black and White cattle were estimated. A multiple-lactation model was applied with random herd-test-day effect, fixed regressions for herd-year and age-season of calving, and random regressions for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Three data sets with slightly different edits on minimal number of days in milk and the size of herd-year class were used. Each subset included more than 0.5 million test-day records and more than 58,000 cows. Estimates of covariance components and genetic parameters for each trait were obtained by Bayesian methods using the Gibbs sampler. Due to the large size and a good structure of the data, no differences in estimates were found when additional criteria for record selection were applied. More than 95% of the genetic variance for all traits and lactations was explained by the first 2 principal components, which were associated with the mean yield and lactation persistency. Heritabilities of 305-d milk yield in the first 3 lactations (0.18, 0.16, 0.17) were lower than those for fat (0.12, 0.11, 0.12) and protein (0.13, 0.14, 0.15). Estimates of daily heritabilities increased in general with days in milk for all traits and lactations, with no apparent abnormalities at the beginning or end of lactation. Genetic correlations between yields in different lactations ranged from 0.74 (fat yield in lactations 1 and 3) to 0.89 (milk yield in lactations 2 and 3). Persistency of lactation was defined as the linear regression coefficient of the lactation curve. Heritability of persistency increased with lactation number for all traits and genetic correlations between persistency in different lactations were smaller than those for 305d yield. Persistency was not genetically correlated with the total yield in lactation.

  14. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  15. Physical fitness indices and anthropometrics profiles in schoolchildren with sickle cell trait/disease.

    PubMed

    Moheeb, Hisham; Wali, Yasser A; El-Sayed, Mahmoud S

    2007-02-01

    The current studies aimed at determining physical fitness indices and anthropometrics profiles of school children with sickle cell trait (SCT) and sickle cell disease (SCD). Male school children (150) comprising 3 Groups participated in the studies. Group 1 has 50 normal healthy controls, while Groups 2 and 3 each has 50 children who were suffering from SCT and SCD, respectively. Anthropometrics measurement and parameters of physical fitness were assessed in all subjects. All children were also subjected to a 5-min running exercise test on a flat motorized treadmill at speed corresponding to 5 km/hr. Throughout the test, heart rate was monitored and recorded during exercise and for 10-min during recovery. Blood lactate was measured before and 5 min following the completion of test. The mean values of lean body mass and height were lower in the SCD children (P < 0.05) compared with the healthy subjects and SCT individuals. Children with SCD exhibited a higher mean value (P < 0.05) for percent body fat and fat mass than the normal healthy subjects and SCT individuals. Although all groups tolerated well the treadmill exercise protocol, the SCD group exhibited higher (P < 0.05) mean values of heart rate during exercise than those observed in the SCT and normal control children. In addition, SCD children showed higher serum lactate values before and after treadmill exercise compared to the other groups. Children with SCD exhibit high level of adiposity; low level of fitness and their exercise performance appears to be physiologically more stressful as indicated by heart rate and blood lactate concentration responses.

  16. Activities of some stress enzymes as indicators of slaughter cattle welfare and their relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of beef.

    PubMed

    Chulayo, A-Y; Muchenje, V

    2017-02-20

    The study determined the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in transported cattle as indicators of welfare and how they relate to beef quality. A total of 219 (n=219) (85 Beefmaster, 48 Charolaise, 32 Holstein-Friesian and 54 nondescript) cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were used in the study. Disposable vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) were used to collect 4 ml of blood samples to determine the activities of CK and LDH. The measurements of pHu and colour coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were carried out at 48 h after slaughter on the representative samples of muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL). Longer distance travelled by cattle had a significant effect (P3000 to 5000) and those that travelled for 1263 km had lower CK activities (1000). The activities of LDH were observed in cattle that travelled for 366 and 1012 km (7000) and for those that travelled for 877 and 922 km (6000). Results of the principal component analysis showed that the first three principal components (PCs) explained about 53% of the total variability. The first PC was correlated with meat quality attributes (pHu, Tm, a* and b* values). The activities of CK and LDH were related and useful to define the second PC. However, CK and LDH were not related to beef quality. Therefore, CK and LDH can be used as indicators of welfare in slaughter cattle but cannot be used to predict the quality of meat.

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping for conjugated linoleic acid, vaccenic acid and ∆(9) -desaturase in Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle using selective DNA pooling.

    PubMed

    Strillacci, M G; Frigo, E; Canavesi, F; Ungar, Y; Schiavini, F; Zaniboni, L; Reghenzani, L; Cozzi, M C; Samoré, A B; Kashi, Y; Shimoni, E; Tal-Stein, R; Soller, M; Lipkin, E; Bagnato, A

    2014-08-01

    A selective DNA pooling approach was applied to identify QTL for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vaccenic acid (VA) and Δ(9) -desaturase (D9D) milk content in Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Milk samples from 60 animals with higher values (after correction for environmental factors) and 60 animals with lower values for each of these traits from each of five half-sib families were pooled separately. The pools were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low tails at the sire and marker level for SNPs for which the sires were heterozygous. An r procedure was implemented to perform data analysis in a selective DNA pooling design. A correction for multiple tests was applied using the proportion of false positives among all test results. BTA 19 showed the largest number of markers in association with CLA. Associations between SNPs and the VA and Δ(9) -desaturase traits were found on several chromosomes. A bioinformatics survey identified genes with an important role in pathways for milk fat and fatty acids metabolism within 1 Mb of SNP markers associated with fatty acids contents.

  18. Individual Patterns in Blood-Borne Indicators of Fatigue-Trait or Chance.

    PubMed

    Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g., predominantly muscular [CK] or metabolic [U]). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. A total of 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ± 3 years) were monitored for 9 weeks throughout 2 training phases (low-intensity, high-volume [LIHV] and high-intensity, low-volume [HILV] phases). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modeling was used to differentiate inter- and intraindividual variability. Consistency of patterns was analyzed by comparing with threshold values (<0.9 or >1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥ 100%) with interindividual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for 7 individuals in LIHV and 7 in HILV; 5 responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was 2 in LIHV and 3 in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualized and multivariate approach in the assessment of

  19. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in

  20. Common and distinct modulation of electrophysiological indices of feedback processing by autistic and psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Carter Leno, Virginia; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena; McPartland, James C

    2016-01-01

    Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in common brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and nonsocial feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically developing adults (N = 31, 11 males, 18-52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback processing. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, nonsocial, positively valenced, negatively valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved processing of positively valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback processing may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior.

  1. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  2. The relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Molina, E C; Lozano, S P; Barraca, A P

    2006-09-01

    The association between visual hepatic damage, burden of Fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the Philippines. In another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of F. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. The degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of F. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of GGT and GLDH. Red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were significantly inversely related to worm burden, but animals compensated for reduced numbers of red blood cells by increasing red cell haemoglobin content.

  3. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low-heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (≥ 1.7; n = 288) or low (≤ −2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was genotyped for 434 candidate SNPs using the Sequenom MassARRAY® system. Three types of SNPs were evaluated: SNPs previously reported to be associated with reproductive traits or physically close to genetic markers for reproduction, SNPs in genes that are well known to be involved in reproductive processes, and SNPs in genes that are differentially expressed between physiological conditions in a variety of tissues associated in reproductive function. Eleven reproduction and production traits were analyzed. Results A total of 40 SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with DPR. Among these were genes involved in the endocrine system, cell signaling, immune function and inhibition of apoptosis. A total of 10 genes were regulated by estradiol. In addition, 22 SNPs were associated with heifer conception rate, 33 with cow conception rate, 36 with productive life, 34 with net merit, 23 with milk yield, 19 with fat yield, 13 with fat percent, 19 with protein yield, 22 with protein percent, and 13 with somatic cell score. The allele substitution effect for SNPs associated with heifer conception rate, cow conception rate, productive life and net merit were in the same direction as for DPR. Allele substitution effects for several SNPs associated with production traits were in the opposite direction as DPR. Nonetheless, there were 29 SNPs associated with DPR that were not negatively associated with production traits. Conclusion SNPs in a total of 40 genes associated with DPR were identified as well as SNPs for other traits. It might be feasible to include these SNPs into genomic tests of reproduction and other traits. The genes associated with DPR are likely to be

  4. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  5. Discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertility and production traits in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for specific genes involved in reproduction might improve reliability of genomic estimates for these low- heritability traits. Semen from 550 Holstein bulls of high (>= 1.7; n=288) or low (<= -2; n = 262) daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) was geno...

  6. The hunt for a functional mutation affecting conformation and calving traits on chromosome 18 in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence data from 11 US Holstein bulls were analyzed to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. The SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-109285 at 57,589,121 bp (UMD 3.1 assembly) on BTA18 has large effects on 4 measures of body shape and size, 2 measures of dystocia, longev...

  7. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  8. Genome-wide associations for investigating time-dependent genetic effects for milk production traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Bortfeldt, R H; de Koning, D J; Brockmann, G A

    2012-08-01

    Phenotypic variation in milk production traits has been described over the course of a lactation as well as between different parities. The objective of this study was to investigate whether variation in production is affected by different loci across lactations. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a 50-k SNP chip was conducted in 152 divergent German Holstein Friesian cows to test for association with milk production traits over different lactations. The first four lactations were analysed regarding milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen yield and content as well as somatic cell score. Two approaches were used: (i) Wilmink curve parameters were used to assess the genetic effects over the course of a lactation and (ii) test-day yield deviations (YD) were used as a normative approach for a GWAS. The significant effects were largest for markers affecting curve parameters for which there was a statistical power <0.8 of detection even in this small design. While significant markers for YDs were detected in this study, the power to detect effects of a similar magnitude was only 0.11, suggesting that many loci may have been missed with this approach in the present design. Furthermore, all significant effects were specific for a single lactation, leading to the conclusion that the variance explained by a certain locus changes from lactation to lactation. We confirm the common evidence that most production traits vary in the degree of persistency after the peak as a result of genetic influence.

  9. Copy number variations in Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle genomes using the massively parallel sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lim, Kyu-Sang; Lim, Won-Jun; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Soo; Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Namshin; Kim, Jeong-Dae; Kim, Jong-Bok; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lim, Dajeong

    2016-09-01

    Hanwoo is an indigenous Korean beef cattle breed, and it shared an ancestor with Yanbian cattle that are found in the Northeast provinces in China until the last century. During recent decades, those cattle breeds experienced different selection pressures. Here, we present genome-wide copy number variations (CNVs) by comparing Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle sequencing data. We used ~3.12 and ~3.07 billion sequence reads from Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 901 putative CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified throughout the genome, representing 5,513,340bp. This is a smaller number than has been reported in previous studies, indicating that Hanwoo are genetically close to Yanbian cattle. Of the CNVRs, 53.2% and 46.8% were found to be gains and losses in Hanwoo. Potential functional roles of each CNVR were assessed by annotating all CNVRs and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. We found that 278 CNVRs overlapped with cattle gene-sets (genic-CNVRs) that could be promising candidates to account for economically important traits in cattle. The enrichment analysis indicated that genes were significantly over-represented in GO terms, including developmental process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. These results provide a valuable genomic resource for determining how CNVs are associated with cattle traits.

  10. Similarity between partners in real and perceived personality traits as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    PubMed

    Nordvik, H

    1996-12-01

    From 90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that mating is random in terms of personality traits.

  11. SNP exploring in the middle and terminal regions of the IGF-1 gene and association with production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Abdolmohammadi, A; Zamani, P

    2014-04-25

    Five primer sets were designed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in middle and terminal exons (2 to 6) and in some flanking intronic regions of the bovine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. Sequencing results of PCR products for 10% of animals showed no variant in exons but a SNP at intron 4 was occurred. Both polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and high resolution melting (HRM) methods were developed to genotype samples. The PCR-RFLP results showed the presence of three fragments on agarose gel for the C allele due to two cleavage sites while two fragments for the T allele were observed. Melting curves of 123bp fragments in HRM analysis showed a difference between temperature melting (Tm) of two homozygous genotypes as the CC genotypes had higher Tm than the TT genotypes. Melting curve of the CT genotype was different and crossed two parallel patterns of homozygous genotypes. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 0.6, 0.37 and 0.03, respectively. Also, the estimated allele frequencies were 0.785 and 0.215 for the C and T alleles, respectively. Results showed higher accuracy of the HRM analysis compared to the PCR-RFLP method. Least square means (LSMs) comparison of the different genotypes in the SNP showed significant association with milk fat yield trait in the first lactation and open days after the second calving. The polymorphism did not have a significant effect on other milk production or reproduction traits. It seems that other variants or QTLs known in this region underlie genetic variation in the production and reproduction of dairy cattle.

  12. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  13. Growth curves of carcass traits obtained by ultrasonography in three lines of Nellore cattle selected for body weight.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, C C; Mercadante, M E Z; Jorge, A M; Paz, C C P; El Faro, L; Monteiro, F M

    2015-10-30

    The effect of selection for postweaning weight was evaluated within the growth curve parameters for both growth and carcass traits. Records of 2404 Nellore animals from three selection lines were analyzed: two selection lines for high postweaning weight, selection (NeS) and traditional (NeT); and a control line (NeC) in which animals were selected for postweaning weight close to the average. Body weight (BW), hip height (HH), rib eye area (REA), back fat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT) were measured and records collected from animals 8 to 20 (males) and 11 to 26 (females) months of age. The parameters A (asymptotic value) and k (growth rate) were estimated using the nonlinear model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System program, which included fixed effect of line (NeS, NeT, and NeC) in the model, with the objective to evaluate differences in the estimated parameters between lines. Selected animals (NeS and NeT) showed higher growth rates than control line animals (NeC) for all traits. Line effect on curves parameters was significant (P < 0.001) for BW, HH, and REA in males, and for BFT and RFT in females. Selection for postweaning weight was effective in altering growth curves, resulting in animals with higher growth potential.

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  15. Differences in Trait Impulsivity Indicate Diversification of Dog Breeds into Working and Show Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Driscoll, Patricia; Pilot, Malgorzata; Wright, Hannah; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Impulsiveness describes the inability to inhibit behaviour in the presence of salient cues. Trait-level impulsivity exists on a continuum and individual differences can be adaptive in different contexts. While breed related differences in behavioural tendency in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) are well established, the phenomenon within lines of a breed which have been selected more recently is not well studied, although it may challenge the popular notion of breed-typical behaviour. We describe differences in impulsivity between and within two dog breeds with working and show lines selected for different levels of impulsivity: Border Collies (herding work) and Labrador Retrievers (gun work). Recent show line selection might have lessened differences in impulsivity between breeds. We tested this hypothesis on a dataset of 1161 individuals assessed using a validated psychometric tool (Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale - DIAS). Collies were more impulsive on average, consistent with the original purpose of breed selection. Regarding line, working Collies differed from working Labradors, but show lines from the two breeds were not significantly different. Altered or relaxed artificial selection for behavioural traits when appearance rather than behaviour become the primary focus for breeders may reduce average differences in impulsivity between breeds in show lines. PMID:26963916

  16. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This

  17. Predicting complex traits using a diffusion kernel on genetic markers with an application to dairy cattle and wheat data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arguably, genotypes and phenotypes may be linked in functional forms that are not well addressed by the linear additive models that are standard in quantitative genetics. Therefore, developing statistical learning models for predicting phenotypic values from all available molecular information that are capable of capturing complex genetic network architectures is of great importance. Bayesian kernel ridge regression is a non-parametric prediction model proposed for this purpose. Its essence is to create a spatial distance-based relationship matrix called a kernel. Although the set of all single nucleotide polymorphism genotype configurations on which a model is built is finite, past research has mainly used a Gaussian kernel. Results We sought to investigate the performance of a diffusion kernel, which was specifically developed to model discrete marker inputs, using Holstein cattle and wheat data. This kernel can be viewed as a discretization of the Gaussian kernel. The predictive ability of the diffusion kernel was similar to that of non-spatial distance-based additive genomic relationship kernels in the Holstein data, but outperformed the latter in the wheat data. However, the difference in performance between the diffusion and Gaussian kernels was negligible. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability of a diffusion kernel to capture the total genetic variance is not better than that of a Gaussian kernel, at least for these data. Although the diffusion kernel as a choice of basis function may have potential for use in whole-genome prediction, our results imply that embedding genetic markers into a non-Euclidean metric space has very small impact on prediction. Our results suggest that use of the black box Gaussian kernel is justified, given its connection to the diffusion kernel and its similar predictive performance. PMID:23763755

  18. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  19. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  20. Biochemical leaf traits as indicators of tolerance potential in tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest against oxidative environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Solange E; Bulbovas, Patricia; Lima, Marcos E L; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study. We aimed at determining the tolerance potential of tree species from the Atlantic Forest remnants in SE Brazil against multiple oxidative environmental stressors. We assumed that pioneer tree species are more tolerant against oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species and that their tolerance potential vary spatially in response to distinct combined effects of oxidative environmental stressors. The study was carried out in three Atlantic Forest remnants, which differ in physiognomy, species composition, climatic characteristics and air pollution exposure. Leaves of three pioneer and three non-pioneer species were collected from each forest remnant during wet (January 2015) and dry periods (June 2015), for analyses of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury indicators. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The pioneer tree species displayed biochemical leaf traits (e.g. high levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids and lower lipid peroxidation) that indicate their higher potential tolerance against oxidative environmental stressors than non-pioneer species. The biochemical leaf traits of both successional groups of species varied between the forest remnants, in response to a linear combination of oxidative environmental stressors, from natural (relative humidity and temperature) and anthropogenic sources (ozone and nitrogen dioxide).

  1. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of either Hereford or Angus or both plus varying percentages also of Simmental, Charolais, Limo...

  2. Psychopathic traits and change on indicators of dynamic risk factors during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Martin; de Ruiter, Corine

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of treatment on forensic psychiatric inpatients, examining changes on 22 indicators of five dynamic risk factors for violence (i.e., egocentrism, hostility, impulsivity, lack of insight, and negative distrustful attitudes), and to relate these potential changes to level of psychopathy assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). Also, we studied the relationship between psychopathy and treatment compliance, as indicated by the attendance rate of therapeutic activities. Eighty-seven male patients (due to missing data on at least one measure, sample size varies from 58 to 87; 42 patients have complete datasets) were administered a standardized psychological assessment battery (self-report inventories, performance-based personality test, observer ratings) upon admission (T1) and after on average 20 months of treatment (T2). Upon admission, psychopathy (median split, PCL-R score≥22) was significantly related to a higher score on five of the 22 indicators of dynamic risk. The analyses showed no significant differences between psychopathic and non-psychopathic patients on the indicators of dynamic risk factors during 20 months of inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment. However, psychopaths showed the expected pattern of treatment noncompliance, compared to non-psychopaths. The clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Biochemical indices and life traits of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Cape Verde Islands.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Sara; Martins, Samir; Hawkes, Lucy A; Marco, Adolfo; Teodósio, M Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is an endangered marine reptile for whom assessing population health requires knowledge of demographic parameters such as individual growth rate. In Cape Verde, as within several populations, adult female loggerhead sea turtles show a size-related behavioral and trophic dichotomy. While smaller females are associated with oceanic habitats, larger females tend to feed in neritic habitats, which is reflected in their physiological condition and in their offspring. The ratio of RNA/DNA provides a measure of cellular protein synthesis capacity, which varies depending on changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of morphometric data and biochemical indices as predictors of the physiological condition of the females of distinct sizes and hatchlings during their nesting season and how temperature may influence the physiological condition on the offspring. Here we employed biochemical indices based on nucleic acid derived indices (standardized RNA/DNA ratio-sRD, RNA concentration and DNA concentration) in skin tissue as a potential predictor of recent growth rate in nesting females and hatchling loggerhead turtles. Our major findings were that the physiological condition of all nesting females (sRD) decreased during the nesting season, but that females associated with neritic habitats had a higher physiological condition than females associated with oceanic habitats. In addition, the amount of time required for a hatchling to right itself was negatively correlated with its physiological condition (sRD) and shaded nests produced hatchlings with lower sRD. Overall, our results showed that nucleic acid concentrations and ratios of RNA to DNA are an important tool as potential biomarkers of recent growth in marine turtles. Hence, as biochemical indices of instantaneous growth are likely temperature-, size- and age-dependent, the utility and

  4. Identification of SNPs in growth-related genes in Colombian creole cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Rocha, J F; Bejarano, D; Gomez, Y; Abuabara, Y; Gallego, J

    2016-09-19

    Colombian creole cattle have important adaptation traits related to heat tolerance and reproductive and productive efficiency. Romosinuano (ROMO) and Blanco Orejinegro (BON) are the most common breeds used by Colombian cattle breeders. Growth traits are of prime importance in these animals, which are mainly raised for beef production. Genes encoding growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, homeobox protein, insulin growth factor binding protein 3, leptin, and myostatin have been associated with physiological growth pathways in cattle and other species. We therefore aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes in ROMO, BON, and Zebu cattle. DNA regions of these genes were sequenced in 386 animals; 47 new SNPs were found, of which 14 were located in the exonic regions, thereby changing the protein sequence. An association of SNPs with weaning weight (WW), daily weight gain at weaning (DWG), and weight at 16 months (W16M) traits was deduced. The genetic analysis revealed several SNPs related to these traits. The SNP GhRE06.2 had a significant association with WW and the SNP Lep03.4 was highly associated with DWG and W16M. Other polymorphisms were significantly associated with WW and DWG, although they did not surpass the Bonferroni significance threshold. The new mutations identified may indicate important points of genetic control in the DNA that could be responsible for changes in the expression of the analyzed traits. These SNPs might be used in future breeding programs to improve the productive performance of cattle in beef farms.

  5. Faecal cortisol concentrations as indicator of stress during intensive fattening of beef cattle in a humid tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cruz, Bertha Clementina; Carrasco-García, Apolo Adolfo; Ahuja-Aguirre, Concepción; López-deBuen, Lorena; Rojas-Maya, Susana; Montiel-Palacios, Felipe

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluated the concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in intensively fattened beef cattle from a feedlot in a humid tropical environment. A total of 360 bulls weighing 271-371 kg were kept confined in pens from the start to the end of the fattening period (FP). At 24 h after arriving at the feedlot, cattle were distributed into the pens according to their live weight: 271-320 kg, 321-370 kg, and >370 kg. At the start of the FP, four pens of each weight group were randomly selected, and in each of them 10 faecal samples were obtained from 10 randomly selected bulls; this sampling was repeated in the same pens and in each weight group at the middle and end of the FP. The FCM were measured through enzyme immunoassay. The 271-320 kg group had higher FCM at the end of the FP (P < 0.05), the 321-370 kg group had similar FCM throughout the FP (P > 0.05), and the >370 kg group showed higher FCM at the start and end of the FP (P < 0.05). Higher FCM were observed at the middle of the FP in the 321-370 kg group, and at the end of the FP in the 271-320 kg and >370 kg groups (P < 0.05). Mean FCM obtained throughout the FP were within normal ranges for cattle, suggesting that appropriate management in feedlots in humid-tropical regions can provide bulls with a low-stress environment.

  6. Quantitative genetic analysis of responses to larval food limitation in a polyphenic butterfly indicates environment- and trait-specific effects

    PubMed Central

    Saastamoinen, Marjo; Brommer, Jon E; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2013-01-01

    Different components of heritability, including genetic variance (VG), are influenced by environmental conditions. Here, we assessed phenotypic responses of life-history traits to two different developmental conditions, temperature and food limitation. The former represents an environment that defines seasonal polyphenism in our study organism, the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, whereas the latter represents a more unpredictable environment. We quantified heritabilities using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures within an “Information Theoretical” framework in a full-sib design. Whereas development time, pupal mass, and resting metabolic rate showed no genotype-by-environment interaction for genetic variation, for thorax ratio and fat percentage the heritability increased under the cool temperature, dry season environment. Additionally, for fat percentage heritability estimates increased under food limitation. Hence, the traits most intimately related to polyphenism in B. anynana show the most environmental-specific heritabilities as well as some indication of cross-environmental genetic correlations. This may reflect a footprint of natural selection and our future research is aimed to uncover the genes and processes involved in this through studying season and condition-dependent gene expression. PMID:24223292

  7. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue - trait or chance.

    PubMed

    Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as Creatine Kinase (CK) and Urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react with different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g. predominantly muscular (CK) or metabolic (U)). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ±3 years) were monitored for nine weeks throughout two training phases (low-intensity, high-volume (LIHV) and high-intensity, low-volume (HILV)). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-to-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modelling was used to differentiate inter- and intra-individual variability. Consistency of patterns was analysed by comparison to threshold values (<0.9 or >1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥100%) with inter-individual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for seven individuals in LIHV and seven in HILV; five responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was two in LIHV and three in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualised and multivariate approach in the assessment of fatigue.

  8. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    PubMed Central

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:18986518

  9. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change.

  10. Can routinely recorded reproductive events be used as indicators of disease emergence in dairy cattle? An evaluation of 5 indicators during the emergence of bluetongue virus in France in 2007 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Lehébel, Anne; van Schaik, Gerdien; Veldhuis, Anouk; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2014-10-01

    In response to increasing risks of emerging infectious diseases, syndromic surveillance can be a suitable approach to detect outbreaks of such diseases across a large territory in an early phase. To implement a syndromic surveillance system, the primary challenge is to find appropriate health-related data. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether routinely collected dates of reproductive events in dairy cattle could be used to build indicators of health anomalies for syndromic surveillance. The evaluation was performed on data collected in France between 2003 and 2009. First, a set of 5 indicators was proposed to assess several types of reproductive disorders. For each indicator, the demographic coverage over the total number of cattle at risk was analyzed in time and space. Second, the ability to detect an emerging disease in an early phase was retrospectively evaluated during epidemics of bluetongue serotypes 1 and 8 (BTV-1, BTV-8) in France in 2007 and 2008. Reproductive indicators were analyzed weekly during these epidemics for each indicator in each infected French district (16 in 2007 and 50 in 2008 out of 94 districts). The indicators were able to detect the BTV epidemics despite their low demographic coverage on a weekly basis relatively to total number of cattle (median=1.21%; range=0-11.7%). Four indicators related to abortions, late embryonic death, and short gestations were abnormally elevated during both BTV epidemics. Median times to abnormal elevations in these indicators were 20 to 71 d after the first notification of clinical signs of BTV by veterinarians. These results demonstrate that reproduction data can be used as indicators of disease emergences, whereas in the specific case of these BTV epidemics, detection via these indicators was later than clinical detection by veterinarians. The emergence of bluetongue in 2007 in France was associated with gestations that were a few days shorter than expected. A short gestation indicator

  11. Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models. PMID:24416023

  12. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P < 0.04), calpastatin activity (P < 0.01), d-14 MFI (P < 0.02), d-7 WBSF (P < 0.05), d-14 WBSF (P < 0.04), and sensory panel juiciness score (P < 0.01), but not (P < 0.75) m-calpain activity. Measures of tenderness and palatability were generally moderately to strongly correlated (both simple and residual correlations) with calpastatin and m-calpain activity. Myofibril fragmentation index residuals (adjusted for all model components except sire) after all aging periods were fitted using nonlinear regression to the exponential curve (MFI(i) = kappa0 + kappa1 exp[kappa2 t(i)] + epsilon(i), where t(i) represents aging in days, k0 is ultimate MFI after aging, kappa1 is the difference between initial and ultimate MFI, kappa2 is the rate of increase in MFI, and epsilon(i) is the error term associated with the ith observation, assumed to be independent

  13. Red cell indices and discriminant functions in the detection of beta-thalassaemia trait in a population with high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Kela, K

    1999-01-01

    Red cell indices and discriminant functions were studied in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassaemics (337 without iron deficiency, 126 with iron deficiency) and 195 patients of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) to ascertain their utility in the detection of betathalassaemia trait (BTT). Majority of traits in both groups had an elevated RBC count (> or = 5.0 x 10(12)/L). The counts were significantly higher than of patients with IDA, only 4.6% of whom had this degree of erythrocytosis. Mean Hb concentration was significantly higher in traits as compared to iron deficient subjects (p < 0.0001). Mean MCV and MCH were significantly (p < 0.0001) lower in traits more so in those with ID as compared to patients of IDA. MCV < 80 fl and MCH < 27 pg were found to be sensitive markers in the detection of traits even in the presence of ID. Of the four discriminant functions studied MCSQ was found to be most sensitive in detection of BTT and it identified 97.9% traits. DF of England and Fraser was most specific for BTT being < 8.4 in only 6.2% patients with IDA. Detection of erythrocytosis especially in the presence of mild anaemia and calculation of discriminant functions derived from red cell indices were found to play an important role in screening for BTT even in the presence of ID and helped identify those patients who required further laboratory evaluation.

  14. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  15. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  16. Effect of personality traits, age and sex on aggressive driving: Psychometric adaptation of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huihui; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2017-04-02

    This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale (DAIS), which measures aggressive driving behaviors. Besides, demographic variables (sex and age) and the big five personality traits were examined as potential impact factors of aggressive driving. A total of 422 participants completed the DAIS, Big Five Personality Inventory (BFPI), and the socio-demographic scale. First, psychometric results confirmed that the DAIS had a stable two-factor structure and acceptable internal consistency. Then, agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively correlated with hostile aggression and revenge committed by the drivers themselves, while neuroticism was positively correlated with aggressive driving committed by the drivers themselves. Meanwhile, more agreeable drivers may perceive less hostile aggression and revenge. More neurotic drivers may perceive more aggressive warning. Finally, the effects of age and sex on aggressive driving were not same as most studies. We found that older age group perceived and committed more hostile acts of aggression and revenge than younger age groups. Female drivers of 49-60 years perceived more aggressive warnings committed by other drivers.

  17. Trait and State Craving as Indicators of Validity of VR-based Software for Binge Eating Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Dakanalis, Antonios; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Fusté-Escolano, Adela; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Riva, Giuseppe; Saldaña, Carmina; Sánchez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether virtual reality (VR) exposure to food cues is able to produce craving levels consistent with state-craving and trait-craving as assessed by the Spanish and Italian versions of the State and Trait Food Craving Questionnaires (FCQ-T/S). The results were compared in 40 patients with eating disorders (17 with binge eating disorder, 23 with bulimia nervosa) and 78 healthy control subjects without eating disorders. Controls and patients with higher levels of trait-craving and state-craving both showed a greater desire to eat during VR exposure. Results also showed that trait and state craving assessed by FCQ-T/S were able to predict the total mean craving experienced during exposure to the VR software in both clinical and control samples. These findings present preliminary evidence about the validity of a new virtual reality-based application for cue-exposure treatment in patients with eating disorders.

  18. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    PubMed

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  19. Brief communication: two-rooted lower canines--a European trait and sensitive indicator of admixture across Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine; Scott, G Richard

    2011-11-01

    With the exception of Carabelli's trait, the European dentition is better known for the morphological traits that it does not exhibit rather than the ones that it does. One root trait, however, runs counter to the characterization of reduced and simplified European crowns and roots. Although a rare trait in general, two-rooted lower canines are much more common in Europeans than in any other regional grouping and, given adequate sample sizes, can be useful in evaluating gene flow between Europeans and neighboring groups. In European samples, two-rooted lower canines consistently exhibit frequencies of 5-8%. In our sample from northern Spain, the trait attains a frequency of almost 10%. In contrast, in Sub-Saharan Africans the trait is virtually unknown while in Asian and Asian-derived populations, it varies between 0.0 and 1.0%. Here we show that two-rooted canine frequencies for new migrants along the western frontiers of China and Mongolia ranged from 0-4%. These data suggest European-derived populations migrated into western China (Xinjiang Province) and Mongolia (Bayan Olgii Aimag) sometime during the late Bronze age (1000-400 BCE).

  20. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  1. Genetic and phenotypic parameters and annual trends for milk production and fertility traits of the Sahiwal cattle in semi arid Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ilatsia, E D; Muasya, T K; Muhuyi, W B; Kahi, A K

    2007-01-01

    Data comprising 7211 lactation records of 2894 cows were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk production (lactation milk yield, LMY and lactation length, LL) and fertility (calving interval, CI; number of services per conception, NSC and age at first calving, AFC) traits. Genetic, environmental and phenotypic trends were also estimated. Variance components were estimated using univariate, bivariate and trivariate animal models on based restricted maximum likelihood procedures. Univariate models were used for each trait, while bivariate models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk production and fertility traits and between LMY, LL, CI and NSC within each lactation. Trivariate models were used in the analysis of LMY, LL, CI and NSC in the first three lactations. Heritability estimates from the univariate model were 0.16, 0.07, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.01 for LMY, LL, CI, AFC and NSC, respectively. The heritability estimates from trivariate analysis were higher for milk production traits than those from univariate analyses. Genetic correlations were high and undesirable between milk production and fertility traits, while phenotypic correlations were correspondingly low. Genetic trends were close to zero for all traits, while environmental and phenotypic trends fluctuated over the study period.

  2. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PS<1 and RR<90 breaths per minute), whereas normal RR and PS were significantly less prevalent for animals outside shade. Our findings suggest that, even in temperate summers, heat can induce thermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort.

  3. Male Courtship Behavior and Weapon Trait as Indicators of Indirect Benefit in the Bean Bug, Riptortus pedestris

    PubMed Central

    Suzaki, Yû; Katsuki, Masako; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Yasukazu

    2013-01-01

    Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male–male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male–male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male–male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection. PMID:24386170

  4. Automated Phenotyping Indicates Pupal Size in Drosophila Is a Highly Heritable Trait with an Apparent Polygenic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R. Guy; Tautz, Diethard

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus on studying human height has done more than any other genetic analysis to advance our understanding of the heritability of highly complex phenotypes. Here, we describe in detail the properties of a previously unexplored trait in Drosophila melanogaster that shares many salient properties with human height. The total length of the pupal case varies between 2.8 and 3.9 mm among natural variants, and we report that it is among the most heritable traits reported in this species. We have developed a simple semiautomatic phenotyping system with which a single operator can reliably score >5000 individuals in a day. The precision of the automated system is 0.042 mm (± 0.030 SD). All phenotyped individuals are available to be mated in subsequent generations or uniquely archived for future molecular work. We report both broad sense and narrow sense heritability estimates for two biologically distinct data sets. Narrow sense heritability (h2) ranged from 0.44 to 0.50, and broad sense heritability (H2) ranged from 0.58 to 0.61. We present results for mapping the trait in 195 recombinant inbred lines, which suggests that there are no loci with >10% effect size in this panel. We propose that pupal size genetics in Drosophila could represent a model complex trait amenable to deep genetic dissection using the automated system described. PMID:28258111

  5. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin and myogenic factor 5 muscle growth-related genes on the performance traits of Marchigiana beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sarti, F M; Lasagna, E; Ceccobelli, S; Di Lorenzo, P; Filippini, F; Sbarra, F; Giontella, A; Pieramati, C; Panella, F

    2014-09-01

    The Marchigiana is famous for its large body size and favorable dressing percentage. A myostatin (MSTN) gene mutation (a G to T transversion) was identified in the breed. The homozygote "GG" yields a "normal" phenotype, the homozygote "TT" yields a double muscled body shape but sometimes causes survival problems, and the heterozygote genotype produces an extremely muscled body without defects. In practice, Marchigiana "TT" homozygotes are culled from reproduction, but the heterozygotes are chosen as sires. The objective of this study was to assess genes involved in Marchigiana muscle development to improve selection procedures. The effects of the MSTN and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes on the growth and muscle traits in the Marchigiana breed were assessed. The effects of MSTN together with the genotype of the causative mutation (g.874G > T) and the effects of the two SNP in the promoter were studied (g.-371T > A and g.-805G > C). The SNP effects were evaluated in a comparison between the means of the several genotypes or for the average gene substitution and dominance effect. Two hundred forty-nine bullocks were evaluated using a performance test. At the beginning and end of the trial, the animals were weighed and their bodies were measured every 21 d up to 12 mo of age. In addition to these observations, morphological scores and the BLUP indices were estimated at the end of the performance test. The obtained results suggested that the MSTN g.874G > T and MYF5 SNP could be considered in the selection program of the Marchigiana breed. A MSTN g.874G > T genotyping service for the breeders could help to avoid the "TT" genotype and to select for the "GT" genotype. The "AA" MYF5 SNP genotype could also be selected for even if good muscle development yields a certain size reduction.

  6. Effects of bovine fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and growth hormone gene polymorphisms on fatty acid composition and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsuhashi, T; Maruyama, S; Uemoto, Y; Kobayashi, N; Mannen, H; Abe, T; Sakaguchi, S; Kobayashi, E

    2011-01-01

    The quality of fat is an important factor in defining the quality of meat. Fat quality is determined by the composition of fatty acids. Among lipid metabolism-related genes, including fatty acid synthesis genes, several genetic variations have been reported in the bovine fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and GH genes. In the present study, we evaluated the single and epistatic effects of 5 genetic variations (4 SNP and 1 insertion/deletion) in 4 genes (FASN, SCD, SREBP1, and GH) on the fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle and carcass and meat quality traits in 480 commercial Japanese Black cattle. Significant single effects of FASN, SCD, and GH(L127V) polymorphisms on the fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle were detected. The A293V polymorphism of SCD had the largest effect on myristic acid (C14:0, P < 0.001), myristoleic acid (C14:1, P < 0.001), stearic acid (C18:0, P < 0.001), oleic acid (C18:1, P < 0.001), and MUFA (P < 0.001). Polymorphisms in the FASN, SCD, and SREBP1 genes showed no effect on any meat yield trait. There were no significant epistatic effects on fatty acid composition among pairs of the 3 genes (FASN, SCD, and SREBP1) involved in fatty acid synthesis. No epistatic interactions (P > 0.1) were detected between FASN and SCD for any carcass trait. When the genotypes of 3 markers (FASN, SCD, and GH(L127V)) were substituted from the lesser effect allele to the greater effect allele, the proportion of C18:1 increased by 4.46%. More than 20% of the genetic variance in the C18:1 level could be accounted for by these 3 genetic markers. The present results revealed that polymorphisms in 2 fatty acid synthesis genes (FASN and SCD) independently influenced fatty acid composition in the longissimus thoracis muscle. These results suggest that SNP in the FASN and SCD genes are useful markers for the improvement of fatty acid composition in

  7. Fine-scale geographic variation in photosynthetic-related traits of Picea glauca seedlings indicates local adaptation to climate.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Villeneuve, Isabelle; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2015-08-01

    Climate-related variations in functional traits of boreal tree species can result both from physiological acclimation and genetic adaptation of local populations to their biophysical environment. To improve our understanding and prediction of the physiological and growth responses of populations to climate change, we studied the role of climate of seed origin in determining variations in functional traits and its implications for tree improvement programs for a commonly reforested boreal conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). We evaluated growth, root-to-shoot ratio (R/S), specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen (N(mass)), total non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and photosynthetic traits of 3-year-old seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using seed from six seed orchards (SO) representing the different regions where white spruce is reforested in Québec. Height and total dry mass (TDM) were positively correlated with photosynthetic capacity (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)). Total dry mass, but not height growth, was strongly correlated with latitude of seed origin (SO) and associated climate variables. A(max), g(s), g(m) and more marginally, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were positively associated with the mean July temperature of the SO, while water use efficiency (WUE) was negatively associated. Maximum rates of carboxylation (V(cmax)), maximum rates of electron transport (J(max)), SLA, N(mass), NSC and R/S showed no pattern. Our results did not demonstrate a higher Amax for northern seed orchards, although this has been previously hypothesized as an adaptation mechanism for maintaining carbon uptake in northern regions. We suggest that gs, gm, WUE and PNUE are the functional traits most associated with fine-scale geographic clines and with the degree of local adaptation of white spruce populations to their biophysical environments. These geographic patterns may reflect in situ adaptive genetic

  8. Molecular basis for residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, S S; Mujibi, F D; Sherman, E L

    2009-04-01

    Feed provision is one of the greatest costs of beef production and, with the increasing costs of feed, will remain so for the foreseeable future. Improvement in efficiency has the potential to not only increase profits for cattle producers, but also to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. Both are important in addressing the challenges of increasing feed costs and land pressure. Residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice when evaluating feed efficiency in beef cattle, especially because it is independent of growth and BW. The main inhibitor to adoption of RFI remains the cost and technical difficulty in measuring the trait. This makes RFI a prime candidate for marker-assisted selection because the trait is moderately heritable and DNA or other predictive markers could be used in selection schemes. Although multiple markers have been described over several studies, no major gene affecting RFI has been found. However, a combination of genetic markers, when examined jointly, can explain a large proportion of the genetic variation. Two main barriers remain before full adoption of markers for genetic evaluation and marker-assisted selection can be implemented. First, the genetic interaction of genes affecting RFI on other traits is, as yet, not fully understood. Second the numbers of animals with high quality estimates of RFI remains small. However, current developments indicate that these challenges will soon be overcome.

  9. Trailer temperature and humidity during winter transport of cattle in Canada and evaluation of indicators used to assess the welfare of cull beef cows before and after transport.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Kehler, C; Siemens, M; Ominski, K; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2015-07-01

    The current study evaluated 17 loads of cull beef cows transported in Canadian winter conditions to assess in-transit temperature and humidity, evaluation of events during loading and unloading, and animal condition and bruising. Regardless of the use of boards to block ventilation holes in trailers, temperatures were higher within trailers than at ambient locations during both travel and stationary periods (P < 0.01). Boarding was associated with smaller differences in trailer temperature, compared with ambient conditions, while the trailer was traveling at highway speeds versus when trailers were stationary (P < 0.01). Moisture levels within trailers were not different from ambient conditions when loads using boarding were traveling (P < 0.01), whereas loads without boarding had a larger difference (P < 0.01). The moisture within trailers relative to ambient conditions increased when trailers were stationary compared with traveling when boarding was used (P < 0.01). The majority of cattle transported were in good body condition (97.4% within BCS of 2 to 3.5) and had calm temperaments (96.7%). Although all comparisons were made, only the doghouse compartment had an increased risk of severe bruising compared with all other compartments (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 3.0 [1.6–5.5], 3.7 [2.1–6.4], 2.2 [1.3–3.7] and 3.8 [1.5–9.6] in comparison with the back, belly, deck, and nose compartments, respectively; P < 0.05). Increasing the duration of waiting to unload 30 min relative to a 1 h duration increased the odds of severe bruising by 1.18 times (95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.29; P < 0.01). Scoring systems that have been developed for auditing unloading of cattle had limited variation across loads at both loading and unloading. Pretransport assessment of animal condition using the American Meat Institute’s compromised animal score was the only scoring system that was consistent with posttransport scores. We inferred from the temperature and

  10. Vigorous Root Growth Is a Better Indicator of Early Nutrient Uptake than Root Hair Traits in Spring Wheat Grown under Low Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration and content of macro- and micronutrients were identified. A significant genetic variability in root and root hair traits as well as nutrient uptake was found. Fast and early root proliferation and long and dense root hairs enhanced uptake of macro- and micronutrients under low soil nutrient availability. Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient concentrations in the shoots, which is assumed to be important for later plant development. PMID:27379145

  11. A genome-wide association study of calf birth weight in Holstein cattle using single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes predicted from auxiliary traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has found that there is a QTL affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus (BTA) autosome 18 that may be related to increased calf birth weights, which are not routinely recorded in the US. Birth weight (BW) data from large, intensively managed dairies in eastern German...

  12. Sequence diversity and molecular evolutionary rates between buffalo and cattle.

    PubMed

    Moaeen-ud-Din, M; Bilal, G

    2015-02-01

    Identification of genes of importance regarding production traits in buffalo is impaired by a paucity of genomic resources. Choice to fill this gap is to exploit data available for cow. The cross-species application of comparative genomics tools is potential gear to investigate the buffalo genome. However, this is dependent on nucleotide sequences similarity. In this study, gene diversity between buffalo and cattle was determined using 86 gene orthologues. There was approximately 3% difference in all genes in terms of nucleotide diversity and 0.267 ± 0.134 in amino acids, indicating the possibility for successfully using cross-species strategies for genomic studies. There were significantly higher non-synonymous substitutions both in cattle and buffalo; however, there was similar difference in terms of dN- dS (4.414 versus 4.745) in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Higher rate of non-synonymous substitutions at similar level in buffalo and cattle indicated a similar positive selection pressure. Results for relative rate test were assessed with the chi-squared test. There was no significance difference on unique mutations between cattle and buffalo lineages at synonymous sites. However, there was a significance difference on unique mutations for non-synonymous sites, indicating ongoing mutagenic process that generates substitutional mutation at approximately the same rate at silent sites. Moreover, despite of common ancestry, our results indicate a different divergent time among genes of cattle and buffalo. This is the first demonstration that variable rates of molecular evolution may be present within the family Bovidae.

  13. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Colin R; Jonas, Elisabeth; Hobbs, Matthew; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2010-09-16

    An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1) and 3.5 (cohort 2) years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3), 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2), and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD < 2) were detected on eleven chromosomes. Regression analysis confirmed 28 of these QTL and an additional 17 suggestive (P < 0.1) and two significant (P < 0.05) QTL were identified using this method. QTL with pleiotropic effects for two or more tissues were identified on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 23. No tissue-specific QTL were identified.A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

  14. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system.

  15. A Comparison of Phenotypic Traits Related to Trypanotolerance in Five West African Cattle Breeds Highlights the Value of Shorthorn Taurine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, David; Peylhard, Moana; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Flori, Laurence; Sylla, Souleymane; Bolly, Seydou; Sakande, Hassane; Chantal, Isabelle; Thevenon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ) or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT), considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N’Dama (NDA), has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG) and Baoulé (BAO) breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU) and the Borgou (BOR), an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU. Conclusions We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge

  16. Association of a genetic marker at the bovine Janus kinase 2 locus (JAK2/RsaI) with milk production traits of four cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Szewczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the main components of the somatotrophic axis (GH/GHR/IGF-I/IGF-IR), great importance in the control of growth and development is also attached to the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) pathway. Induced by the GH/GHR complex, JAK2 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and in consequence, may be involved in the regulation of expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the mammary gland. Silent mutation (rs110298451) has been identified within exon 20 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 904 individuals of four dairy or dual-purpose breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliarde, Simmental and Jersey) were genotyped. A genotypic imbalance in the populations was observed. In the case of dual-purpose breeds (Montbeliarde and Simmental), the frequencies of both alleles were almost equal. In contrary, the JAK2G allele was predominant in the Polish Holstein-Friesian breed while JAK2A allele in Jersey. A pronounced relationship between JAK2/RsaI polymorphism and milk production traits was found where, irrespective of breed and lactation order, the GG genotype was significantly associated with higher milk, protein and fat yields, as compared to the AA genotype. Heterozygous individuals were generally characterised by intermediate values of the analysed milk traits. It can be argued that the JAK2 gene polymorphism is a potential marker for milk production traits. However, due to the fact that rs110298451 SNP does not directly affect amino acid sequence, other association studies involving missense mutation should also be performed.

  17. Effects of castration method and frequency of intramuscular injections of ketoprofen on behavioral and physiological indicators of pain in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; González, L A; Janzen, E; Caulkett, N A; Fireheller, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a single or multiple intramuscular (i.m.) injection of ketoprofen and castration technique on physiological and behavioral indicators of pain in beef calves. A total of 150 bull calves (284.8 ± 22.7 kg BW) were used in both experiments, each 1 conducted as a 3 × 2 factorial design, where main factors included castration technique--no castration (CT), surgical (SU), or band (BA)--and drug administration--physiological solution (PS) or i.m. injection of ketoprofen (KP; 3 mg Anafen/kg BW) in the neck of calves. Animals were weighed weekly during the experiment to calculate ADG. Behavioral responses indicative of pain and discomfort during the castration procedure were documented using a visual analog score (VAS) by an experienced observer who was blind to the treatments. Movements of the animals in the chute during castration were quantified using a strain gauge system mounted on the head gate to evaluate the escape response of the cattle. Pens were equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored for each individual. Thermographic images of the scrotal area were evaluated 24 and 0.5 h before castration, 0.5, 1, 24, 48, and 270 h postcastration, and weekly thereafter until the end of the trial. Blood samples were obtained postcastration to evaluate changes in total white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N:L) ratio. Saliva samples were taken 24 and 0.5 h before castration, immediately after castration, and 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 24, and 48 h and then 5, 7, and 14 d after castration to determine cortisol concentration. Scrotal temperature, VAS, total WBC, N:L ratio, salivary cortisol, mobility, and pressure exerted in the chute were greater (P < 0.05) and ADG and feed intake were lower (P < 0.05) in SU than in CT animals within the first week after castration. Also, BA calves had a greater (P < 0.05) scrotal temperature

  18. Further Exploring the Link Between Religion and Existential Health: The Effects of Religiosity and Trait Differences in Mentalizing on Indicators of Meaning in Life.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Clay; Roylance, Christina; Abeyta, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Religiosity contributes to perceptions of meaning. One of the cognitive foundations for religious belief is the capacity to mentalize the thoughts, emotions, and intentions of others (Theory of Mind). We examined how religiosity and trait differences in mentalizing interact to influence meaning. We hypothesized that people who are most cognitively inclined toward religion (high mentalizers) receive the greatest existential benefits (i.e., high and secure meaning) from religiosity. We assessed individual differences in mentalizing and religiosity, and measured indicators of meaning. Results confirmed that the combination of high mentalizing and high religiosity corresponded to the highest levels of existential health.

  19. Climate Adaptation of Tropical Cattle.

    PubMed

    Barendse, W

    2017-02-08

    There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits. However, further improvement in heat tolerance and other adaptation traits will need to use the entire genome and all physical and physiological systems. Apart from the response to heat, climate forcing through methane emission identifies dry season weight loss as an important if somewhat neglected trait in climate adaptation of cattle. The use of genome-estimated breeding values in tropical areas is in its infancy and will be difficult to implement, but will be essential for rapid, coordinated genetic improvement. The difficulty of implementation cannot be exaggerated and may require major improvements in methodology.

  20. Effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system and fasting period on physiological indicators and meat quality traits of lambs.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Serhat; Erdoğan, Sibel; Kor, Dilek; Kor, Aşkın

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system on blood and rumen parameters and meat-quality traits of Norduz lambs. Eighty lambs were divided into two groups according to diet (AH: alfalfa hay; BAH: alfalfa supplemented with 500 g/head barley) for 21 days. Following this period, lambs from each group were distributed among four groups according to pre-slaughter fasting period as 0, 12, 24 or 48 h. Cortisol concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the 24 h and 48 h groups when compared to the 0 h group (p<0.01). Diet and fasting period had limited effect on muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH·L*, WHC and moisture decreased in line with increases in the fasting period (p<0.01). In conclusion, carcass conformation and some meat quality traits were better in BAH lambs. Fasting had a negative effect on some meat quality parameters, with significant increases in some physiological stress indicators after fasting periods of 24 h or longer.

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. Derivation of sustainable breeding goals for dairy cattle using selection index theory.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H M; Christensen, L G; Groen, A F

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be added to market economic values in the breeding goal to define sustainable breeding goals. The first method was restricted indices. A consequence of adding a nonmarket value to a market economic value for a given functional trait is less selection emphasis on milk yield. In the second method, the loss in selection response in milk resulting from greater emphasis on functional traits was quantified. The 2 methods were demonstrated using a breeding goal for dairy cattle with 4 traits (milk yield, mastitis resistance, conception rate, and stillbirth). Nonmarket values derived separately using restricted indices were 0.4 and 2.6 times the value of market economic values for mastitis resistance and conception rate, respectively. Nonmarket values for mastitis resistance and conception rate were both lower when derived simultaneously than when derived separately. This was due to the positive genetic correlation between mastitis resistance and conception rate, and because both traits are negatively correlated with milk yield. Using the second method and accepting a 5% loss in selection response for milk yield, nonmarket values for mastitis, conception rate, and stillbirth were 0.3, 1.4, and 2.9 times the market economic values. It was concluded that the 2 methods could be used to derive nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle.

  3. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    PubMed

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  4. Growth and Development Symposium: Impacts of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Holland, B P; Mills, R L; Maxwell, C L; Farney, J K; Terrill, S J; Step, D L; Richards, C J; Burciaga Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation caused by bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers and feedlot managers. Inflammation decreases DMI, ADG, and G:F in feedlot calves, decreasing growth rate and increasing days on feed, which results in economic losses during the feeding period. During the past decade, marketing of feedlot animals has changed from selling cattle on a live basis to a grid-based marketing system. When cattle are marketed on a live basis, the economic effects of BRD stop at increased health cost and decreased feedlot performance, carcass weight, and death loss. However, when cattle are marketed in a grid-based system, inflammation has the potential to also affect carcass cutability and quality. The effects of inflammation on feedlot cattle in regards to performance are well understood; however, specific effects on cattle growth and ultimately carcass merit are not as well described. Recent studies in feedlot cattle have indicated that the incidence of BRD decreases both HCW and marbling; however, mechanisms are not understood. Research in other species has demonstrated that during the acute phase response, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote skeletal muscle catabolism to supply AA and energy substrates for immune tissues. Further, during this early immune response, the liver changes its metabolic priorities to the production of acute phase proteins for use in host defense. Together these dramatic shifts in systemic metabolism may explain the detrimental effects on performance and carcass traits commonly associated with BRD in feedlot calves. Moreover, recent studies relative to human health have revealed complex multilevel interactions between the metabolic and immune systems, and highlighted inflammation as being a significant contributor to major metabolic diseases. The objective of this paper is to review data to help explain the economical and physiological effects of inflammation on cattle growth and

  5. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis of liver fluke in bison from Bialowieza Primaeval Forest indicates domestic cattle as the likely source of infection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Stephen M; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Kozak, Monika; Wedrychowicz, Halina; Teofanova, Denitsa; Prodohl, Paulo; Brennan, Gerry; Fairweather, Ian; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan

    2013-01-16

    We have determined the mitochondrial genotype of liver fluke present in Bison (Bison bonasus) from the herd maintained in the Bialowieza National Park in order to determine the origin of the infection. Our results demonstrated that the infrapopulations present in the bison were genetically diverse and were likely to have been derived from the population present in local cattle. From a consideration of the genetic structure of the liver fluke infrapopulations we conclude that the provision of hay at feeding stations may be implicated in the transmission of this parasite to the bison. This information may be of relevance to the successful management of the herd.

  6. A comparative study of ejaculate traits in three endangered ungulates with different levels of inbreeding: fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of reproductive and genetic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Gomendio, M; Cassinello, J; Roldan, E R

    2000-01-01

    We studied three closely related species of endangered gazelles (Gazella dorcas, Gazella dama and Gazella cuvieri) with different levels of inbreeding in order to determine at which intensities inbreeding influences ejaculate traits. We also examined whether fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a reliable indicator of genetic as well as reproductive stress. Our results show that, within each population, the individual coefficient of inbreeding is inversely related to ejaculate quality only in the species with the highest levels of inbreeding (G. cuvieri). In addition, FA is a reliable indicator of individual levels of inbreeding in both the species with the highest levels of inbreeding (G. cuvieri) and the species with intermediate levels of inbreeding (G. dama). Thus, FA appears in individuals whose levels of inbreeding are still not high enough to affect male reproductive potential and should therefore be considered a sensitive indicator of genetic stress. Finally, FA is also a reliable indicator of male reproductive stress since it is related to individual semen quality in all the species studied. PMID:10853729

  7. Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from supershedding cattle.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Ahmed, Rafiq; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Schmidt, John W; Bono, James L

    2013-07-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10(4) CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram or greater are now referred to as supershedders. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of E. coli O157:H7 strain type to supershedding and to determine if supershedding was restricted to a specific set of E. coli O157:H7 strains. Fecal swabs (n = 5,086) were collected from cattle at feedlots or during harvest. Supershedders constituted 2.0% of the bovine population tested. Supershedder isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA), Stx-associated bacteriophage insertion (SBI) site determination, and variant analysis of Shiga toxin, tir, and antiterminator Q genes. Isolates representing 52 unique PFGE patterns, 19 phage types, and 12 SBI clusters were obtained from supershedding cattle, indicating that there is no clustering to E. coli O157:H7 genotypes responsible for supershedding. While being isolated directly from cattle, this strain set tended to have higher frequencies of traits associated with human clinical isolates than previously collected bovine isolates with respect to lineage and tir allele, but not for SBI cluster and Q type. We conclude that no exclusive genotype was identified that was common to all supershedder isolates.

  8. Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donthu, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

  9. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease.

  10. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Freua, M C; Do, D N; Ventura, R V; Kadarmideen, H N; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-10-17

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feedlots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

  11. Beef cattle in the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2014-01-01

    In 2050, beef likely will be produced much as occurs currently, as (1) a by-product of dairying-cull cows and calves not needed as replacements; (2) intensively managed cattle in environments rich in feed resources; or (3) extensively managed cattle grazing land unsuitable for tillage, with calves often moving to richer feed environments. Genetic progress will continue to depend on information such as weaning weights, but in addition, genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic information will be obtained from blood, hair, semen, and/or biopsies of embryos.Most cattle will be genetically modified for efficient growth, desirable carcass traits, and management traits such as disease resistance. Some strains of cattle will have Y-chromosome-dependent terminal cross traits; sexed semen thus will automatically result in males with terminal cross characteristics and females with maternally desirable traits. In most cases, mother cows will have shorter gestations and smaller frame sizes than currently to decrease nutrient requirements for maintenance. The cow herd may disappear with some intensively managed systems; with sexed semen, each female can replace herself with a female calf and then be fattened for slaughter. The flexibility of being a ruminant will continue to be exploited by using a variety of feedstuffs, some of which are otherwise of little value.

  12. Multibreed Genomic Evaluations in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic evaluation models were developed and tested using 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2...

  13. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  14. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Silvia; Mancini, Giordano; Chillemi, Giovanni; Pariset, Lorraine; Valentini, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV) was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs) to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  15. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value < 0.01) with more than four breeds on chromosomes 6, 7, 13, 16 and 22. The strongest selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding.

  16. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  17. Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

    2013-01-01

    While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0

  18. Selection enhanced estimates of µ-calpain, calpastatin, and dacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 genetic effects on pre-weaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in composite ... cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of the composite MARC III population for markers allowed better estimates of effects and inheritance of markers for targeted carcass quality traits (n=254) and nontargeted traits and an evaluation of SNP specific residual variance models for tenderness. Genotypic effects of CAPN1 haplotyp...

  19. Evaluating Subtest "g" Saturation Levels via the Single Trait-Correlated Uniqueness (STCU) SEM Approach: Evidence in Favor of Crystallized Subtests as the Best Indicators of "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gignac, Gilles E.

    2006-01-01

    Several published claims have asserted that the general factor of intelligence derived from conventional intelligence batteries such as the Wechsler scales are biased in favor of verbal intelligence subtests, resulting in the observation of excessively large "g" factor loadings from these subtests. Using the single trait-correlated…

  20. Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

    2013-03-01

    The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.

  1. Integrating Sequence-based GWAS and RNA-Seq Provides Novel Insights into the Genetic Basis of Mastitis and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Connecting genome-wide association study (GWAS) to biological mechanisms underlying complex traits is a major challenge. Mastitis resistance and milk production are complex traits of economic importance in the dairy sector and are associated with intra-mammary infection (IMI). Here, we integrated IMI-relevant RNA-Seq data from Holstein cattle and sequence-based GWAS data from three dairy cattle breeds (i.e., Holstein, Nordic red cattle, and Jersey) to explore the genetic basis of mastitis resistance and milk production using post-GWAS analyses and a genomic feature linear mixed model. At 24 h post-IMI, genes responsive to IMI in the mammary gland were preferentially enriched for genetic variants associated with mastitis resistance rather than milk production. Response genes in the liver were mainly enriched for variants associated with mastitis resistance at an early time point (3 h) post-IMI, whereas responsive genes at later stages were enriched for associated variants with milk production. The up- and down-regulated genes were enriched for associated variants with mastitis resistance and milk production, respectively. The patterns were consistent across breeds, indicating that different breeds shared similarities in the genetic basis of these traits. Our approaches provide a framework for integrating multiple layers of data to understand the genetic architecture underlying complex traits. PMID:28358110

  2. Integrating Sequence-based GWAS and RNA-Seq Provides Novel Insights into the Genetic Basis of Mastitis and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-03-30

    Connecting genome-wide association study (GWAS) to biological mechanisms underlying complex traits is a major challenge. Mastitis resistance and milk production are complex traits of economic importance in the dairy sector and are associated with intra-mammary infection (IMI). Here, we integrated IMI-relevant RNA-Seq data from Holstein cattle and sequence-based GWAS data from three dairy cattle breeds (i.e., Holstein, Nordic red cattle, and Jersey) to explore the genetic basis of mastitis resistance and milk production using post-GWAS analyses and a genomic feature linear mixed model. At 24 h post-IMI, genes responsive to IMI in the mammary gland were preferentially enriched for genetic variants associated with mastitis resistance rather than milk production. Response genes in the liver were mainly enriched for variants associated with mastitis resistance at an early time point (3 h) post-IMI, whereas responsive genes at later stages were enriched for associated variants with milk production. The up- and down-regulated genes were enriched for associated variants with mastitis resistance and milk production, respectively. The patterns were consistent across breeds, indicating that different breeds shared similarities in the genetic basis of these traits. Our approaches provide a framework for integrating multiple layers of data to understand the genetic architecture underlying complex traits.

  3. A comparison of THI indices leads to a sensible heat-based heat stress index for shaded cattle that aligns temperature and humidity stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, A.; Horovitz, Talia; Kaim, M.; Gacitua, H.

    2016-10-01

    The combined temperature-humidity heat stress is estimated in farm animals by indices derived of an index based on human thermal comfort sensation. The latter index consists of temperature and humidity measures that sum to form the temperature-humidity index (THI). The hitherto unknown relative contribution of temperature and humidity to the THI was examined. A temperature-humidity data set (temperature 20-42 °C and relative humidity 10-70 %) was used to assess by regression procedures the relative weights of temperature and humidity in the variance of THI values produced by six commonly used heat stress indices. The temperature (Ta) effect was predominant (0.82-0.95 of variance) and humidity accounted for only 0.05 to 0.12 of THI variance, half of the variance encountered in animal responses to variable humidity heat stress. Significant difference in THI values was found between indices in the relative weights of temperature and humidity. As in THI indices, temperature and humidity are expressed in different physical units, their sum has no physical attributes, and empirical evaluations assess THI relation to animal responses. A sensible heat THI was created, in which at higher temperatures humidity reaches 0.25 of sensible heat, similarly to evaporative heat loss span in heat stressed animals. It relates to ambient temperature-humidity similarly to present THI; its values are similar to other THI but greater at higher humidity. In warm conditions, mean animal responses are similar in both indices. The higher sensitivity to humidity makes this index preferable for warm-humid conditions.

  4. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.

  5. Eosinophilic myositis in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G

    1991-01-01

    Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289

  6. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  7. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  8. Identification of genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is jointly determined by productivity and feed requirements, both of which are economically relevant traits in beef cattle production systems. The objective of this study was to identify genes/QTLs associated with components of feed efficiency in Nelore cattle using Illumina BovineHD...

  9. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  10. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle. PMID

  11. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle.

  12. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  13. Identification of mitochondrial DNA substitutions related to meat quality in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Mannen, H; Morimoto, M L; Oyamat, K; Mukai, F; Tsuji, S

    2003-01-01

    Complete sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of eight Japanese Black cattle were determined to investigate the relationships between mt deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) displacement loop (D-loop) types and other mtDNA regions and to identify the variation in the coding region that may influence the economic traits. The survey of mitochondrial sequences in the encoding region revealed 14 substitutions including six antonymous substitutions and one in 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). Three methods of polymorphic DNA analyses (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], mismatch PCR-RFLP, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism [SSCP]) were performed on these seven candidate substitutions (base pair [bp] 2,232, 12,158, 12,908, 13,310, 14,122, 14,140, and 14,565) for 202 Japanese Black cattle. The substitution of bp 13,310 was observed in all samples, but not in the reference sequence, indicating that this is a minor substitution or a sequencing mistake in the reference sequence. The substitutions at bp 14,122, 14,140, and 14,565 were observed in only a few samples, suggesting that these were also minor substitutions. The substitutions at bp 2,232 (16S rRNA), 12,158, and 12,908 (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain-5) were closely related to mitochondrial D-loop types that have previously been related to differences in the carcass traits of Japanese Black cattle. Evaluation of the effects on six carcass traits with mixed model procedures suggests that the bp 2,232 substitution affects longissimus muscle area and beef marbling score. The substitution at bp 2,232 is a strong candidate for the mitochondrial effect on meat quality.

  14. Differential macrophage function in Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda Jane; Woodman, Sally; Pennelegion, Christopher; Patterson, Robert; Stuart, Emma; Hosker, Naomi; Siviter, Peter; Douglas, Chloe; Whitehouse, Jessica; Wilkinson, Will; Pegg, Sherri-Anne; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Werling, Dirk

    2016-11-15

    There is strong evidence that high yielding dairy cows are extremely susceptible to infectious diseases, and that this has severe economic consequences for the dairy industry and welfare implications. Here we present preliminary functional evidence showing that the innate immune response differs between cow breeds. The ability of macrophages (MØ) to kill pathogens depends in part on oxygen-dependent and independent mechanisms. The oxygen-dependent mechanisms rely on the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, respectively). ROS production has been shown to activate the inflammasome complex in MØ leading to increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Conversely RNS inhibits inflammasome mediated IL-1β activation, indicating a division between inflammasome activation and RNS production. In the present study MØ from Brown Swiss (BS) cattle produce significantly more RNS and less IL-1β when compared to cells from Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle in response to bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, BS MØ killed ingested Salmonella typhimurium more efficiently, supporting anecdotal evidence of increased disease resistance of the breed. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) stimulated IL-1β secretion in cells from both breeds, but was more pronounced in HF MØ. Blocking RNS production by l-arginase completely abolished RNS production but increased IL-1β secretion in BS MØ. Collectively these preliminary data suggest that the dichotomy of inflammasome activation and RNS production exists in cattle and differs between these two breeds. As pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways are involved in the assessed functional differences presented herein, our data potentially aid the identification of in vitro predictors of appropriate innate immune response. Finally, these predictors may assist in the discovery of candidate genes conferring increased disease resistance for future use in

  15. Molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of bovine growth hormone receptor, a quantitative trait locus

    PubMed Central

    Varvio, S.-L; Iso-Touru, T; Kantanen, J; Viitala, S; Tapio, I; Mäki-Tanila, A; Zerabruk, M; Vilkki, J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have indicated growth hormone receptor (GHR) as a candidate gene affecting cattle milk yield and composition. In order to characterize genetic variation at GHR in cattle, we studied European and East African breeds with different histories of selection, and Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa, Bison bison and Rangifer tarandus as references. We sequenced most of the cytoplasmic domain (900 bp of exon 10), 89 bp of exon 8, including the putative causative mutation for the QTL effect, and 390 bp of intron 8 for comparison. In the cytoplasmic domain, seven synonymous and seven non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in cattle. Three non-synonymous SNPs were found in sheep and one synonymous SNP in yak, while other studied species were monomorphic. Three major haplotypes were observed, one unique to African breeds, one unique to European breeds and one shared. Bison and yak haplotypes are derivatives of the European haplotype lineage. Most of the exon 10 non-synonymous cattle SNPs appear at phylogenetically highly conserved sites. The polymorphisms in exon 10 cluster around a ruminant-specific tyrosine residue, suggesting that this site may act as an additional signalling domain of GHR in ruminants. Alternative explanations for the persistent polymorphism include balancing selection, hitch-hiking, pleiotropic or sexually antagonistic fitness effects or relaxed functional constraints. PMID:18381258

  16. Turning science on robust cattle into improved genetic selection decisions.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R

    2012-04-01

    More robust cattle have the potential to increase farm profitability, improve animal welfare, reduce the contribution of ruminant livestock to greenhouse gas emissions and decrease the risk of food shortages in the face of increased variability in the farm environment. Breeding is a powerful tool for changing the robustness of cattle; however, insufficient recording of breeding goal traits and selection of animals at younger ages tend to favour genetic change in productivity traits relative to robustness traits. This paper has extended a previously proposed theory of artificial evolution to demonstrate, using deterministic simulation, how choice of breeding scheme design can be used as a tool to manipulate the direction of genetic progress, whereas the breeding goal remains focussed on the factors motivating individual farm decision makers. Particular focus was placed on the transition from progeny testing or mass selection to genomic selection breeding strategies. Transition to genomic selection from a breeding strategy where candidates are selected before records from progeny being available was shown to be highly likely to favour genetic progress in robustness traits relative to productivity traits. This was shown even with modest numbers of animals available for training and when heritability for robustness traits was only slightly lower than that for productivity traits. When transitioning from progeny testing to a genomic selection strategy without progeny testing, it was shown that there is a significant risk that robustness traits could become less influential in selection relative to productivity traits. Augmentations of training populations using genotyped cows and support for industry-wide improvements in phenotypic recording of robustness traits were put forward as investment opportunities for stakeholders wishing to facilitate the application of science on robust cattle into improved genetic selection schemes.

  17. Genetic variability of Wagyu cattle estimated by statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kenji

    2011-06-01

    The genetic evaluation of economically important traits utilizes estimates of genetic variability, which are represented by heritability. This review summarizes the published heritabilities of traits estimated in Wagyu cattle. Two different mean heritabilities, unweighted and weighted by standard errors, were calculated. In Japanese Black cattle, the average unweighted and weighted direct heritabilities of birth weight were 0.35 and 0.28, respectively, whereas the respective maternal heritabilities were 0.17 and 0.07. The mean unweighted heritability of calf market weight was estimated to be 0.30 in Japanese Black cattle. The mean unweighted heritability of daily gain during performance testing was 0.29 in Japanese Black and 0.40 in Japanese Shorthorn cattle. In Japanese Black cattle, the unweighted mean heritability was 0.48 for carcass weight, 0.46 for rib-eye area, 0.38 for rib thickness, 0.39 for subcutaneous fat thickness, and 0.55 for marbling. The mean weighted heritability of the calving interval was low, and estimated to be 0.05. In general, the heritabilities estimated in Wagyu cattle were similar to those estimated in other beef breeds.

  18. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  20. Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2013-04-25

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and

  1. The identification of a putative mutation for SLICK hair coat in Senepol cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted, Criollo-derived cattle breeds. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. The goal of thi...

  2. A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Nelore cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian Nelore cattle have been selected for growth traits over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genomic regions altered by artificial selec...

  3. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ≥ 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an

  4. Immunocontraception for Managing Feral Cattle in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals’ welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  5. Getting the most out of genomics-how we need to improve novel trait phenotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tremendous advancement has been made toward the use of genomics in National Cattle Evaluation of beef cattle during the last several years. While the use of genomics to augment EPD has be positive, there still are very few genetic predictions for novel traits (e.g., feed efficiency, fertility, long...

  6. Genetic analysis of heat stress effects on yield traits, udder health, and fatty acids of Walloon Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hammami, H; Vandenplas, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Rekik, B; Bastin, C; Gengler, N

    2015-07-01

    Genetic parameters that considered tolerance for heat stress were estimated for production, udder health, and milk composition traits. Data included 202,733 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score (SCS), 10 individual milk fatty acids (FA) predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry, and 7 FA groups. Data were from 34,468 first-lactation Holstein cows in 862 herds in the Walloon region of Belgium and were collected between 2007 and 2010. Test-day records were merged with daily temperature-humidity index (THI) values based on meteorological records from public weather stations. The maximum distance between each farm and its corresponding weather station was 21km. Linear reaction norm models were used to estimate the intercept and slope responses of 23 traits to increasing THI values. Most yield and FA traits had phenotypic and genetic declines as THI increased, whereas SCS, C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, and 4 FA groups (unsaturated FA, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and long-chain FA) increased with THI. Moreover, the latter traits had the largest slope-to-intercept genetic variance ratios, which indicate that they are more affected by heat stress at high THI levels. Estimates of genetic correlations within trait between cold and hot environments were generally high (>0.80). However, lower estimates (<=0.67) were found for SCS, fat yield, and C18:1 cis-9, indicating that animals with the highest genetic merit for those traits in cold environments do not necessarily have the highest genetic merit for the same traits in hot environments. Among all traits, C18:1 cis-9 was the most sensitive to heat stress. As this trait is known to reflect body reserve mobilization, using its variations under hot conditions could be a very affordable milk biomarker of heat stress for dairy cattle expressing the equilibrium between intake and mobilization under warm conditions.

  7. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  8. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  9. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  10. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  11. [Analysis of POU1F1 gene polymorphisms in Qinchuan cattle and Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin-Jun; Liu, Bo; Fang, Xin-Tang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Run-Feng; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2006-11-01

    PCR-RFLP was applied to analyze the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in 218 Qinchuan cattle (QQ) and Chinese Holstein cattle (HC). Results demonstrated Hinf I polymorphisms in the 451 bp PCR product in the two populations. The frequencies of alleles A/B in QQ and HC populations were 0.232/0.768 and 0.132/0.868, respectively. The frequencies of three genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.030/0.403/0.567 and 0.007/0.251/0.742, respectively. Qinchuan cattle population was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus, but Chinese Holstein cattle population was not. The gene heterozygosity/effective allele gene number/Shannon information entropy/polymorphism information content of Qinchuan cattle and Chinese Holstein cattle populations were listed for 0.356/1.553/0.541/0.292 and 0.229/1.297/0.390/0.203, respectively. All indices were higher in the Qinchuan cattle population.

  12. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sommavilla, Roberta; Faucitano, Luigi; Gonyou, Harold; Seddon, Yolande; Bergeron, Renée; Widowski, Tina; Crowe, Trever; Connor, Laurie; Scheeren, Marina Bergoli; Goumon, Sébastien; Brown, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Factors, such as ambient conditions, travel duration and vehicle design/compartment location have an impact on the welfare of pigs during transport, carcass bruises and meat quality. Based on this, we aimed to assess the effects of these factors on blood creatine kinase, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, and pigs’ heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Although increased blood cortisol and creatine-kinase levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress. Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK), lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT), behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02), after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001) and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002). In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04) in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01) concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001), and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001), truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001), and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to

  13. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  14. Breed variation and genetic parameters for growth and body development in diverse beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, R A; Pitchford, W S; Deland, M P B; McKiernan, W A

    2007-02-01

    Conformation scores can account for more than 20% of cattle price variation at Australian livestock sales. However, there are limited available references which define genetic factors relating objective live developmental traits to carcass composition. Weaning and post-weaning weight, height, length, girth, muscle (ratio of stifle to hip width) and fat depth of 1202 progeny from mature Hereford cows (637) mated to seven sire breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue) were examined for growth and development across ages. Crossbred Wagyu and Jersey were both lighter in weight and smaller in size (height, length and girth) than purebred Hereford and crossbred Angus, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue. Within the five larger crossbreds, there were significant changes in relative weight from weaning to 600 days. Sire breeds differed in fat depth, with Angus being the fattest (9% on average fatter than Hereford and Wagyu), and Jersey 5% less fat than Hereford, followed by South Devon and Limousin (19% lower than Hereford) and Belgian Blue (39% lower than Hereford). Direct heritability ranged from 19 to 42% and was higher than the proportion of total phenotypic variance accounted for by maternal effects (which ranged from 0 to 17%) for most body measurement traits except for weight (38 v. 18%) and girth (36 v. 9%) traits at weaning, an indication of maternal effect on some body conformation traits at early ages. Muscularity (19 to 44%) and fat depth (26 to 43%) were moderately to highly heritable across ages. There were large differences for growth and the objective measures of body development between crossbreds with a degree of overlap among the progeny of the seven sire breeds. The variation between genetic (positive) and environmental (negative) correlations for dry versus wet season average daily gains in weight and fat, suggested the potential use of live-animal conformation traits for within breed selection of genetically

  15. The Genetic Architecture of Climatic Adaptation of Tropical Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C.; Chan, Eva K. F.; Johnston, David J.; Hawken, Rachel J.; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.; Burrow, Heather M.; Henshall, John M.; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  16. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy. PMID:21777492

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci and Antagonistic Associations for Two Developmentally Related Traits in the Drosophila Head

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Federico H.

    2017-01-01

    In insects, some developmentally related traits are negatively correlated. Here, we mapped Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for traits of eye size and head capsule, in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Drosophila melanogaster. Composite interval mapping identified QTL on all major chromosomes. Two negatively correlated traits (size of eyes and between-eyes distance) were influenced by one QTL that appeared to be antagonistic between the traits (QTL cytological range is 25F5–30A6), consistent with a negative genetic correlation between these traits of the head capsule. Comparisons of QTL across traits indicated a nonrandom distribution over the genome, with a considerable overlap between some QTL across traits. Developmentally-related traits were influenced by QTL in a pattern that is consistent both with 1) the sign of the genetic correlation between the traits and 2) a constraint in the micro-evolutionary differentiation in the traits. PMID:28130460

  18. Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results.

  19. Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights, scrotal circumference, and testicular volume measured at different ages in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silva, J A V; Sesana, R C; Sesana, J C; Junqueira, J B; Albuquerque, L G

    2010-04-01

    Data from 129,575 Nellore cattle born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to the Jacarezinho cattle-raising farm, were used to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference measured at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12), and 18 (SC18) mo of age and testicular volume measured at the same ages (TV9, TV12, and TV18) and to determine their correlation with weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW), to provide information for the definition of selection criteria in beef cattle. Estimates of (co)variance components were calculated by the REML method applying an animal model in single- and multiple-trait analysis. The following heritability estimates and their respective SE were obtained for WW, YW, SC9, SC12, SC18, TV9, TV12, and TV18: 0.33 +/- 0.02, 0.37 +/- 0.03, 0.29 +/- 0.03, 0.39 +/- 0.04, 0.42 +/- 0.03, 0.19 +/- 0.04, 0.26 +/- 0.05, and 0.39 +/- 0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation between WW and YW was positive and high (0.80 +/- 0.04), indicating that these traits are mainly determined by the same genes. Genetic correlations between the growth traits and scrotal circumference measures were positive and of low to moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.38 +/- 0.04. On the other hand, increased genetic associations were estimated between scrotal circumference and testicular volume at different ages (0.61 +/- 0.04 to 0.86 +/- 0.04). Selection for greater scrotal circumference in males should result in greater WW, YW, and testicular volume. In conclusion, in view of the difficulty in measuring testicular volume, there is no need to change the selection criterion from scrotal circumference to testicular volume in genetic breeding programs of Zebu breeds.

  1. Association between GNRHR, LHR and IGF1 polymorphisms and timing of puberty in male Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bovines, there are significant differences within and among beef breeds in the time when bulls reach puberty. Although the timing of puberty is likely to be a multigenic trait, previous studies indicate that there may also be single genes that exert major effects on the timing of puberty within the general population. Despite its economic importance, there are not many SNPs or genetic markers associated with the age of puberty in male cattle. In the present work, we selected three candidate genes, GNRHR, LHR and IGF1, and associated their polymorphisms with the age of puberty in Angus male cattle. Results After weaning, 276 Angus males were measured every month for weight (W), scrotal circumference (SC), sperm concentration (C) and percentage of motility (M). A total of 4 SNPs, two within GNRHR, one in LHR and one in IGF1 were genotyped using the pyrosequencing technique. IGF1-SnaBI SNP was significant associated (P < 0.01) with age at SC 28 cm, but it were not associated with age at M 10% and C 50 million. Genotype CC exhibited an average age at SC 28 cm of 7 and 11 days higher than CT (p = 0.037) and TT (p = 0.012), respectively. This SNP explained 1.5% of the genetic variance of age of puberty at SC28. LHR-I499L, GNRHR-SNP5 and GNRHR-SNP6 were not associated with any of the measurements. However, GNRHR haplotypes showed a suggestive association with age at SC 28 cm. Conclusions The findings presented here could support the hypothesis that IGF1 is a regulator of the arrival to puberty in male calves and is involved in the events that precede and initiate puberty in bull calves. Given that most studies in cattle, as well as in other mammals, were done in female, the present results are the first evidence of markers associated with age at puberty in male cattle. PMID:22480211

  2. Evaluating the tuberculosis hazard posed to cattle from wildlife across Europe.

    PubMed

    Hardstaff, Joanne L; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R; White, Piran C L

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and other closely related members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) infects many domestic and wildlife species across Europe. Transmission from wildlife species to cattle complicates the control of disease in cattle. By determining the level of TB hazard for which a given wildlife species is responsible, the potential for transmission to the cattle population can be evaluated. We undertook a quantitative review of TB hazard across Europe on a country-by-country basis for cattle and five widely-distributed wildlife species. Cattle posed the greatest current and potential TB hazard other cattle for the majority of countries in Europe. Wild boar posed the greatest hazard of all the wildlife species, indicating that wild boar have the greatest ability to transmit the disease to cattle. The most common host systems for TB hazards in Europe are the cattle-deer-wild boar ones. The cattle-roe deer-wild boar system is found in 10 countries, and the cattle-red deer-wild boar system is found in five countries. The dominance of cattle with respect to the hazards in many regions confirms that intensive surveillance of cattle for TB should play an important role in any TB control programme. The significant contribution that wildlife can make to the TB hazard to cattle is also of concern, given current population and distribution increases of some susceptible wildlife species, especially wild boar and deer, and the paucity of wildlife TB surveillance programmes.

  3. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  4. A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

  5. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle.

  6. The diversity of bovine MHC class II DRB3 and DQA1 alleles in different herds of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Taku; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Aida, Yoko

    2011-02-01

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future.

  7. Short communication: Heritability estimates for susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection defined by ELISA and fecal culture test results in Jersey cattle.

    PubMed

    Zare, Y; Shook, G E; Collins, M T; Kirkpatrick, B W

    2014-07-01

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), an enteric disorder in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, causes economic losses in excess of $200 million annually to the US dairy industry. Costly diagnostic testing, cumbersome control programs, incurability, and ineffective vaccination all make M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility a good candidate for genetic studies and genetic selection a potentially useful adjunct to management-based control programs. No report has been published for heritability of susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and heritability for susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Jersey cattle. Data consisted of complete serum ELISA and partial fecal culture results on a total of 2,861 Jersey cows from 23 commercial herds throughout the United States after editing. Four M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis susceptibility phenotypes were defined using (1) ELISA sample-to-positive ratios as a continuous trait, (2) ELISA results as a binary trait (positive=1, negative=0), (3) ELISA results as an ordered categorical trait, and (4) a combined test in which ELISA and fecal culture results were both taken into account in a binary analysis. Three statistical models, including linear, binary threshold, and ordered threshold sire models, were used to analyze the data. All analyses were executed using the restricted maximum likelihood method in ASReml 3 software. The heritability estimates were low to moderate and ranged from 0.08 (±0.03) to 0.27 (±0.11) based on different trait definitions. The nonzero heritability indicates that susceptibility to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey cattle is influenced by genetic factors. Therefore, selection of the least susceptible animals could decrease genetic predisposition to M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in Jersey populations in future

  8. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

    2003-01-01

    lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef.

  9. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    population was also assessed. The results showed that it is important to account for relatedness among bulls in the reference population. Our studies indicate that the prediction method, the contribution ratio of including animals, and genetic relatedness could affect the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle, when including genotyped cows in the reference population.

  10. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle.

    PubMed

    Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2015-10-01

    A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre's polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre's polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from -0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from -0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.

  11. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-05-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer. A total of approximately 3.12 and 3.07 billion sequence reads were mapped to the bovine reference sequence assembly (UMD 3.1) at an average of approximately 10.71- and 10.53-fold coverage for Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle, respectively. A total of 17,936,399 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were yielded, of which 22.3% were found to be novel. By annotating the SNPs, we further retrieved numerous nonsynonymous SNPs that may be associated with traits of interest in cattle. Furthermore, we performed whole-genome screening to detect signatures of selection throughout the genome. We located several promising selective sweeps that are potentially responsible for economically important traits in cattle; the PPP1R12A gene is an example of a gene that potentially affects intramuscular fat content. These discoveries provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds.

  12. Effects of production circumstances on expected responses for growth and carcass traits to selection of bulls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, H; Groen, A F

    1999-05-01

    Economic values of growth and carcass traits in Japanese beef cattle for production systems with various types of integration of levels/ stages (cow-calf and feedlot segments and the integrated system) and production circumstances (including 20% higher genetic levels of the traits, management, and economic alternatives) were used to examine responses to selection. Discounted economic values with interest rates of 0, 4.2 (Japanese average), and 8.4% were obtained to investigate the effect of discounting on selection efficiency. Traits considered were daily gain in the feedlot, marbling score, birth weight, weaning weight, and mature weight. The effects of discounting were small. Correlated responses to selection were not always economically favorable for all situations. Selecting bulls for the base situation (i.e., the typical biological and economic conditions for the production of Japanese Black cattle) resulted in negative genetic changes in weaning weight and mature weight in the feedlot segment. Higher genetic levels of daily gain and weaning weight affected efficiency of selection. Although effects of management and economic alternatives on responses to selection were generally small, lighter market weight influenced responses to selection. The results indicate that predicted correlated responses to selection are sensitive to production systems and some production circumstances.

  13. Enhancing knowledge and technology adoption in a misunderstood discipline: The weight trait project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently several commercial DNA marker panels are available for complex traits. In the fall of 2009, the American Angus Association integrated the results of an Angus-specific marker panel into their national cattle evaluation for carcass traits. Despite this advancement, there still exists treme...

  14. Genome-wide CNV analysis reveals variants associated with growth traits in Bos indicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Apart from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), copy number variation (CNV) is another important type of genetic variation, which may affect growth traits and play key roles for the production of beef cattle. To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) for CNV and body traits in be...

  15. [Clinical application of computed tomography in cattle].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Schnetzler, C; Hagen, R; Schwarz, A; Kircher, P

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography involves the use of x-rays to produce cross-sectional images of body regions. It provides non-overlapping, two-dimensional images of all desired planes as well as three-dimensional reconstruction of regions of interest. There are few reports on the clinical use of computed tomography in farm animals. Its use in cattle is limited by high cost, the application of off-label drugs and the need for general anaesthesia. In cattle computed tomography is indicated primarily for diseases of the head, e.g. dental diseases and otitis media, and neurological disorders. Less often it is used for diseases of the vertebrae and limbs. In valuable cattle, the results of computed tomography can be an important part of preoperative planning or be used to avoid unnecessary surgery when the prognosis is poor.

  16. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  17. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  18. A practical longitudinal model for evaluating growth in Gelbvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Robbins, K R; Misztal, I; Bertrand, J K

    2005-01-01

    Genetic evaluation of growth in Gelbvieh beef cattle was examined by multiple-trait (MTM) and random regression (RRM) analysis. The data set comprised 541,108 animals with 1,120,086 records. Approximately 15% of the animals in the data set had at least one record measured outside of the accepted MTM age ranges for weaning weight (Wwt) and yearling weight (Ywt). Fourteen percent of Wwt records and 19% of Ywt records were measured outside the accepted ranges for MTM analysis, and thus were excluded from MTM evaluations. Two RRM evaluations were performed using cubic Legendre polynomials (RRML) and linear splines (RRMS) with three knots at 1, 205, and 365 d of age. Data Set 1 (d1) utilized all available records, whereas Data Set 2 (d2) included only records measured within MTM ranges (1 d, 160 to 250 d, and 320 to 410 d). The RRML models did not reach convergence until diagonalization was imposed. After diagonalization, it was found that all longitudinal models required fewer iterations to converge than the MTM. Correlations between the MTM, RRML-d2, and RRMS-d2 evaluations were >or=0.99 for all three traits, indicating that these models were equivalent when predicting breeding values from data within the MTM age ranges. Correlations between MTM, RRML-d1, and RRMS-d1 were >0.99 for Bwt and >0.95 for Wwt and Ywt. The lower correlations for Wwt and Ywt indicate that the added information does affect breeding value prediction. The RRM has the capability to incorporate records measured at all ages into genetic evaluations at a computing cost similar to the MTM.

  19. [Genetic mapping of loci responsible for milk quality parameters in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Smaragdov, M G

    2006-01-01

    The review presents a definition of loci controlling quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci, QTLs) and localization of all currently known QTLs responsible for milk production traits in dairy cattle. The QTL number and chromosome localization are verified, with special reference to chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 14, 20, and 23. In a number of cases, close location of QTLs for mastitis and for milk production traits was found. Some aspects of QTL pleiotropy and epistasis are discussed and mapping methods of major QTLs are listed.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals the PLAG1 Gene for Knuckle, Biceps and Shank Weight in Simmental Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Huijiang; Zhu, Bo; Niu, Hong; Zhang, Wengang; Xia, Jiangwei; Gao, Xue; Li, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Carcass traits of beef cattle have been genetically improved to increase yield of high quality meat. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful method to identify genetic variants associated with carcass traits. For the 770K genotyped SNPs from 1141 Chinese Simmental cattle, we used the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) to perform a genome-wide association study for knuckle, biceps and shank of beef carcass traits. Seventeen significantly associated SNPs were found, which are located on BTA6, BTA14 and BTA15. Interestingly, one pleiotropic quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN), named BovineHD1400007259 (p < 10−8) within the well-known gene region PLAG1-CHCHD7 on BTA14, was found to govern variation of the knuckle, biceps and shank traits. The QTN accounted for 8.6% of phenotypic variance for biceps. In addition, 16 more SNPs distributed on BTA14 were detected as being associated with the carcass traits. PMID:27997562

  1. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (<20% and >20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  2. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application.

    PubMed

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E

    2006-05-01

    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  3. Occurrence of Ticks in Cattle in the New Pastoral Farming Areas in Rufiji District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Kamilius A; Magwisha, Henry B; Rukambile, Elpidius J; Ruheta, Martin R; Kimboka, Expery J; Malulu, Deusdedit J; Malele, Imna I

    2016-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases plus trypanosomosis are a constraint to cattle rearing in Tanzania. Rufiji district was not known for important ticks infesting cattle because inhabitants were not engaged in keeping livestock. Not only has settlement of pastoralists and cattle in Rufiji increased the number of cattle but also cattle have been the source of bringing in and spreading of ticks. This study investigated tick species that have been introduced and managed to establish themselves in the new livestock farming areas in cattle in Rufiji. Tick distribution study was undertaken in three villages of Chumbi ward seasonally in 2009, 2011, and 2012. The identified ticks were Amblyomma variegatum (56.10%), Rhipicephalus evertsi (10.25%), R. microplus (27.40%), and R. appendiculatus (6.19%) out of 12940 ticks. Results indicate that ticks are present in the new livestock settlement areas. The occurrence of ticks is correlated with the recent settlement of cattle in the district.

  4. Temperament type specific metabolite profiles of the prefrontal cortex and serum in cattle.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response.

  5. Temperament Type Specific Metabolite Profiles of the Prefrontal Cortex and Serum in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Bodo; Hadlich, Frieder; Brandt, Bettina; Schauer, Nicolas; Graunke, Katharina L.; Langbein, Jan; Repsilber, Dirk; Ponsuksili, Siriluk; Schwerin, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the number of studies investigating temperament in farm animals has increased greatly because temperament has been shown not only to affect handling but also reproduction, health and economically important production traits. However, molecular pathways underlying temperament and molecular pathways linking temperament to production traits, health and reproduction have yet to be studied in full detail. Here we report the results of metabolite profiling of the prefrontal cortex and serum of cattle with distinct temperament types that were performed to further explore their molecular divergence in the response to the slaughter procedure and to identify new targets for further research of cattle temperament. By performing an untargeted comprehensive metabolite profiling, 627 and 1097 metabolite features comprising 235 and 328 metabolites could be detected in the prefrontal cortex and serum, respectively. In total, 54 prefrontal cortex and 51 serum metabolite features were indicated to have a high relevance in the classification of temperament types by a sparse partial least square discriminant analysis. A clear discrimination between fearful/neophobic-alert, interested-stressed, subdued/uninterested-calm and outgoing/neophilic-alert temperament types could be observed based on the abundance of the identified relevant prefrontal cortex and serum metabolites. Metabolites with high relevance in the classification of temperament types revealed that the main differences between temperament types in the response to the slaughter procedure were related to the abundance of glycerophospholipids, fatty acyls and sterol lipids. Differences in the abundance of metabolites related to C21 steroid metabolism and oxidative stress indicated that the differences in the metabolite profiles of the four extreme temperament types could be the result of a temperament type specific regulation of molecular pathways that are known to be involved in the stress and fear response

  6. On the reality and relevance of traits.

    PubMed

    Stagner, R

    1977-04-01

    A review of published research on traits of personality is focused on the controversy over situationism vs. trait theory. Extreme emphasis on situationism is interpreted as a return to the atomistic psychologies of Wundt, Titchener, Watson, and Weiss. Available data are interpreted to indicate that "trait" can be defined operationally, that existing measures are adequately reliable, and that stability over long periods of time contradicts the situationist thesis. Trait measures predict behavior in the laboratory, in education, and industry. The trait construct should be retained in the vocabulary of scientific psychology.

  7. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  8. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation.

  9. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  10. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  11. Influence of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA on immunological parameters in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogamy increases the risk of manifestation of deleterious recessive genes. Mitochondrial DNA allows the separation of American Zebu (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) and evaluate the effect of mitochondrial DNA on productive traits of cattle. However, the effect of endogamy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on the immune system remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between endogamy, mtDNA and immune parameters. Results A total of 86 cattle (43 cows and 43 calves) were used in this study. Age, endogamy, milk yield, and origin of mtDNA were measured and their influence on immunological parameters was evaluated. Older cows had increased CD4+ T cells, decreased CD21+ and γδhigh T cells as well as increased CD4+/CD8+ and T/B ratio. Multiple regression analysis indicated that endogamy in calves was associated with increased CD8+ T and CD21+ B lymphocytes, and decreased γδhigh T cells in peripheral blood. Cows with medium and lower endogamy had a lower percentage of B lymphocytes and γδlow T cells and cows with lower endogamy had higher levels of γδ T cells and γδhigh T cells, as well as the CD4+/CD48+ cell ratio. Calves with higher endogamy had higher levels of CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas calves with lower endogamy had lower levels of γδlow T cells. Conclusions These results demonstrated for the first time that endogamy influences the immune system of cattle. PMID:24694022

  12. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  13. Genetic associations of visual scores with subsequent rebreeding and days to first calving in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Morotti, N P; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-12-01

    Records of Nellore animals born from 1990 to 2006 were used to estimate genetic correlations of visual scores at yearling (conformation, C; finishing precocity, P; and muscling, M) with primiparous subsequent rebreeding (SR) and days to first calving (DC), because the magnitude of these associations is still unknown. Genetic parameters were estimated by multiple-traits Bayesian analysis, using a nonlinear (threshold) animal models for visual scores and SR and a linear animal models for weaning weight (WW) and DC. WW was included in the analysis to account for the effects of sequential selection. The posterior means of heritabilities estimated for C, P, M, SR and DC were 0.24 ± 0.01, 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.30 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.06 ± 0.02, respectively. The posterior means of genetic correlations estimated between SR and visual scores were low and positive, with values of 0.09 ± 0.02 (C), 0.19 ± 0.03 (P) and 0.18 ± 0.05 (M). On the other hand, negative genetic correlations were found between DC and C (-0.11 ± 0.09), P (-0.19 ± 0.09) and M (-0.16 ± 0.09). The primiparous rebreeding trait has genetic variability in Nellore cattle. The genetic correlations between visual scores, and SR and DC were low and favourable. The genetic changes in C, P and M were 0.02, 0.03 and 0.03/year, respectively. For SR and DC, genetic trends were 0.01/year and -0.01 days/year, respectively, indicating that the increase in genetic merit for reproductive traits was small over time. Direct selection for visual scores together with female reproductive traits is recommended to increase the fertility of beef cows.

  14. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  15. Genome-wide detection of signatures of selection in Korean Hanwoo cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Korean Hanwoo cattle have been intensively selected for production traits, especially high intramuscular fat content. It is believed that ancient crossings between different breeds contributed to forming the Hanwoo, but little is known about the genomic differences and similarities between other...

  16. Evolutionary and functional features of copy number variation in the cattle genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic structural variations are an important source of genetic diversity. Copy number variations (CNVs), gains and losses of large regions of genomic sequence between individuals of a species, are known to be associated with both diseases and phenotypic traits. In cattle, as well as many other spe...

  17. US consortium for the genetic improvement of feed efficiency in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection is the only technology proven to unabatedly increase the food produced per animal. However, the cost and difficulty of measurement of feed efficiency (FE) in cattle has constrained quantitative genetic improvement to primarily output traits such as growth, meat yield and quality. As the wo...

  18. Gut bacterial communities and their association with production parameters in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the past decade, the development and use of novel nutritional, genomic, and genetic improvement technologies has promoted and lead to great increases in the genetic propensity of beef cattle for a variety of traits including growth, carcass composition, and specifically feed efficiency. Howe...

  19. Recent artificial selection in U.S. Jersey cattle impacts autozygosity levels of specific genomic regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of artificial selection in U.S. Jersey cattle were identified by examining changes in haplotype homozygosity for a resource population of animals born between 1962 and 2005. Genetic merit of this population changed dramatically during this period for a number of traits, especially ...

  20. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    PubMed

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta

  1. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  2. The Vertebrate Trait Ontology: a controlled vocabulary for the annotation of trait data across species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ontologies to standardize biological data and facilitate comparisons among datasets has steadily grown as the complexity and amount of available data have increased. Despite the numerous ontologies available, one area currently lacking a robust ontology is the description of vertebrate traits. A trait is defined as any measurable or observable characteristic pertaining to an organism or any of its substructures. While there are several ontologies to describe entities and processes in phenotypes, diseases, and clinical measurements, one has not been developed for vertebrate traits; the Vertebrate Trait Ontology (VT) was created to fill this void. Description Significant inconsistencies in trait nomenclature exist in the literature, and additional difficulties arise when trait data are compared across species. The VT is a unified trait vocabulary created to aid in the transfer of data within and between species and to facilitate investigation of the genetic basis of traits. Trait information provides a valuable link between the measurements that are used to assess the trait, the phenotypes related to the traits, and the diseases associated with one or more phenotypes. Because multiple clinical and morphological measurements are often used to assess a single trait, and a single measurement can be used to assess multiple physiological processes, providing investigators with standardized annotations for trait data will allow them to investigate connections among these data types. Conclusions The annotation of genomic data with ontology terms provides unique opportunities for data mining and analysis. Links between data in disparate databases can be identified and explored, a strategy that is particularly useful for cross-species comparisons or in situations involving inconsistent terminology. The VT provides a common basis for the description of traits in multiple vertebrate species. It is being used in the Rat Genome Database and Animal QTL

  3. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  4. Temporal dynamics between cattle in-stream presence and suspended solids in a headwater catchment.

    PubMed

    Terry, Julie A; McW H Benskin, Clare; Eastoe, Emma F; Haygarth, Philip M

    2014-07-01

    Cattle in-stream activity is potentially an important contributor to water pollution from agriculture. Here we present research on the physical movements of cattle within a stream on suspended solid concentrations (SSC). This study used camera surveillance to monitor the in-stream activity of dairy cattle in an unfenced reach over a four-month period. Results were compared against high-resolution SSC data. Over the days that cattle grazed the field, 57.9% of the instances when SSC crossed the 25 mg l(-1) Freshwater Fish Directive guideline threshold can be attributed to cattle presence in the stream. Flow was the main driver of total sediments transported over the study period, and no relationship was found between SSC and the absolute number of cattle feet in the water. Hysteresis analysis indicated a 'first-flush' of local sediments rapidly mobilised during the non-cattle related SSC events, a result of cattle proximity to channel margins. Results demonstrate a temporal lag between cattle in-stream presence and a critical amount of their contribution to sediment load, and that monitoring only instantaneously with cattle activity may lead to underestimation of their pollution impact.

  5. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes and meat cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Laura M J de F; Damé, Maria Cecília F; Cademartori, Beatris G; da Cunha Filho, Nilton A; Farias, Nara Amélia da R; Ruas, Jerônimo L

    2013-09-01

    Serum samples from 169 water buffaloes and 121 beef cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive results were obtained in 27.2% of water buffaloes and 17.4% of cattle. Statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the prevalence in cattle and buffalo (p ≤ 0.05). The highest titres found in positive animals were 1:256 (buffaloes) and 1:64 (cattle). In both bovine species, toxoplasmosis frequency in young animals (less than 2 years old) was lower compared to older individuals, although the differences seen in cattle were not statistically significant.

  6. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  7. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  8. Genotype by feeding system interaction in the genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Valverde, R; Peralta-Aban, J A; Núñez-Domínguez, R; Ruíz-Flores, A; García-Muñiz, J G; García-Peniche, T B

    2010-12-01

    Results of studies in dairy cattle about the magnitude of the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) are variable, depending on the definitions of genotype and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of the interaction of genotype and feeding system (confinement and grazing) in the Mexican genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield. The number of lactations and animals in the pedigree used were 5122 and 18 432. An animal model and the MTDFREML program were used to estimate genetic parameters and predict genetic values of the animals. Bivariate analysis was carried out considering the performance of confined and grazing cows as two different traits. Three indicator variables were used to assess GEI: (i) magnitude of the genetic correlation coefficients, (ii) correlation between predicted breeding values and (iii) frequency of coincidence in the ranking of top sires. The magnitude of GEI depended on the choice of the indicator variable. The estimate of genetic correlation coefficient less than unity (0.76; P < 0.05) suggested the presence of biologically important GEI. The differences in phenotypic averages and variances between confinement and grazing systems seem to be the main causes for the genotype by environment interaction detected. However, the correlation coefficient between breeding values from confined and grazing animals (0.96) and the frequency of coincidence between breeding values of common sires within the top 100 in confinement and grazing (0.86) indicated low-to-moderate re-ranking of animals or top sires. In addition, the high correlations between predicted breeding values of Mexican genetic evaluation and the two environments (0.99 and 0.93 for confinement and grazing) indicated that for the two feeding systems, breeding values from national analyses could be safely used.

  9. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  10. Ruminal fermentation and microbial ecology of buffaloes and cattle fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Lwin, Khin-Ohnmar; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Lapitan, Rosalina M; Del-Barrio, Arnel N; Fujihara, Tsutomu; Matsui, Hiroki

    2012-12-01

    Although buffaloes and cattle are ruminants, their digestive capabilities and rumen microbial compositions are considered to be different. The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen microbial ecology of crossbred water buffaloes and cattle that were fed the same diet. Cattle exhibited a higher fermentation rate than buffaloes. Methane production and methanogen density were lower in buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis of Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone library showed that the diversity of groups within a species was significantly different (P < 0.05) between buffalo and cattle and most of the clones were affiliated with group 2 of the species. Population densities of F.succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens were higher until 6 h post-feeding in cattle; however, buffaloes exhibited different traits. The population of anaerobic fungi decreased at 3 h in cattle compared to buffaloes and was similar at 0 h and 6 h. The diversity profiles of bacteria and fungi were similar in the two species. The present study showed that the profiles of the fermentation process, microbial population and diversity were similar in crossbred water buffaloes and crossbred cattle.

  11. Genetic trends for live weight traits reflect breeding strategies in registered Charolais Farms in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; Lopez-Bustamante, L A

    2016-12-01

    Genetic trends are commonly used to verify genetic improvement; however, there are few reports on beef cattle in Mexico. Data from 1998 to 2013 from four Charolais bull breeding farms were examined to verify the genetic responses to different breeding management and selection criteria. Analysis included the comparison of regression lines of breeding values for birth (BW), weaning (WW) and yearling weights (YW), and maternal weaning weight (MWW) on the year of birth of the animals. Results revealed differential genetic progress for BW and YW and indicated that the overall analysis may have diluted the perception of genetic progress from the farmer's point of view. The use of breeding values as a tool for selection is effective to achieve genetic progress, even in negatively correlated traits, such as birth weight and yearling weight.

  12. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  13. Developmental and epigenetic anomalies in cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Suzuki, J; Goff, A K; Filion, F; Therrien, J; Murphy, B D; Kohan-Ghadr, H R; Lefebvre, R; Brisville, A C; Buczinski, S; Fecteau, G; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V

    2012-08-01

    Many of the developmental anomalies observed in cloned animals are related to foetal and placental overgrowth, a phenomenon known as the 'large offspring syndrome' (LOS) in ruminants. It has been hypothesized that the epigenetic control of imprinted genes, that is, genes that are expressed in a parental-specific manner, is at the root of LOS. Our recent research has focused on understanding epigenetic alterations to imprinted genes that are associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as early embryo in vitro culture (IVC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle. We have sought and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in Bos indicus DNA useful for the analysis of parental-specific alleles and their respective transcripts in tissues from hybrid embryos derived by crossing Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. By analysing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes SNRPN, H19 and the IGF2R in cattle, we demonstrated that there is a generalized hypomethylation of the imprinted allele and the biallelic expression of embryos produced by SCNT when compared to the methylation patterns observed in vivo (artificially inseminated). Together, these results indicate that imprinting marks are erased during the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus during early development, indicating that such epigenetic anomalies may play a key role in mortality and morbidity of cloned animals.

  14. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century.

  15. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Françoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania. PMID:21785686

  16. Tracing the genetic roots of the indigenous White Park Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, A; Alderson, L; Fandrey, E; Lieckfeldt, D; Soederlund, T K; Froelich, K

    2013-08-01

    The White Park Cattle (WPC) is an indigenous ancient breed from the British Isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. The WPC has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. Altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. In this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 WPC and three intronic fragments of genes from the Y chromosome of three bulls. We observed six novel mitogenomic lineages that have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. We found no evidence that the WPC is a descendant of a particular North or West European branch of aurochs. The WPC mitogenomes are grouped in the T3 cluster together with most other domestic breeds. Nevertheless, both molecular markers support the primitive position of the WPC within the taurine breeds.

  17. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Coxiella burnetii in Korean Native Cattle, Dairy Cattle, and Dogs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Doo; Jang, Hyung Gwan; Lee, Seung-Joon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2017-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of the seroprevalence of previous exposure to C. burnetii in dogs, dairy cattle, and Korean native cattle (a primarily beef breed) in South Korea. Serum samples obtained from 3087 Korean native cattle, 1224 dairy cattle, and 1023 dogs were collected from eight provinces in South Korea, and IFA and ELISA were performed to test for seropositivity. The prevalence of C. burnetii was 1.7% in Korean native cattle, 10.5% in dairy cattle, and 2.9% in dogs. This is the first report identifying previous exposure to C. burnetii in South Korean dogs. Furthermore, the presence of C. burnetii antibodies in companion and feral dogs indicates that dogs can be a potential reservoir species for zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in South Korea. Therefore, more detailed studies aiming to clarify epidemiological factors should be performed in the future.

  18. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  19. Infectivity of sarcocystis spp. from bison, elk, moose, and cattle for cattle via sporocysts from coyotes.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Dubey, J P; Leek, R G

    1982-08-01

    Bison bison (bison), Cervus canadensis (elk), Alces alces (moose), and Bos taurus (cattle) musculature containing Sarcocystis spp. cysts was fed to laboratory raised Canis latrans (coyotes), Sporocysts collected from the feces of coyotes fed musculature of each of the ruminant species were fed to four groups of three laboratory-raised domestic calves, respectively, to determine if Sarcocystis spp. was transmissible from wild to domestic ruminants and if so, to compare clinical signs of infection and morphologic features of cysts with those resulting from infection with Sarcocystis bovicanis. All calves fed sporocysts of Sarcocystis from coyotes that ate bison or cattle muscle had similar clinical signs and harbored morphologically similar parasites, suggesting that both bison and cattle are intermediate hosts for S. bovicanis and that this species is transmissible between the two ruminant species. All calves fed sporocysts from coyotes that ate elk muscle or moose muscle remained asymptomatic but one calf in each group had intramuscular cysts. The finding of relatively large numbers of intramuscular cysts in one calf fed sporocysts of elk origin and smaller numbers in one calf fed sporocysts of moose origin could represent either spurious natural infections or indicate low infectivity of Sarcocystis spp. from elk and moose to cattle.

  20. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo...

  1. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  2. A genetic investigation of isle of Jersey cattle, the foundation of the Jersey breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jersey, one of the oldest dairy breeds, was founded nearly 200 years ago on the Channel Island of Jersey. As early as 1763, legislation banned cattle importation to the island, leading to the development of the Jersey breed. Records indicate considerable cattle exportation from Jersey Island from t...

  3. Characterization of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strains isolated from supershedding cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports have indicated that a small proportion of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of this organism between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 10**4 CFU of E. coli O157: H7/gram or greater are now referred to as su...

  4. Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from super-shedding cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recent reports have indicated that a small sub-population of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of the pathogen between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram are now referred to as su...

  5. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  6. Genome-wide association study of concentrations of iron and other minerals in longissimus muscle of Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Garrick, D J; Tait, R G; Garmyn, A J; Duan, Q; Liu, Q; Mayes, M S; Van Eenennaam, A L; VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation and identify SNP and chromosomal regions associated with mineral concentrations in LM of Angus beef cattle. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained, and concentrations of 7 minerals, including iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Genomic DNA extracted from the ground beef sample used for mineral composition was genotyped with the Bovine SNP50 Infinium II BeadChip, and effects of SNP on each trait were estimated using the Bayes-Cπ module of GenSel software. Pedigree-based estimates of heritabilities and corresponding genetic variances indicate iron was the only mineral concentration that could be considered a good candidate for manipulation by genomic selection. The amount of variation that could be accounted for by SNP genotypes was concordant with pedigree-based heritabilities and varied from very low for potassium and sodium (<0.09) to medium high (0.37) for iron. Although significant chromosomal regions were identified for all minerals analyzed in this study, further study focused on iron. Seven regions on 6 chromosomes (1, 2, 7, 10, 15, and 28) were identified to have a major effect on the iron content of LM in Angus cattle. The accuracy of direct genomic values (DGV) for iron concentration was estimated using a 5-fold cross-validation strategy. The accuracy of DGV estimated as the genetic correlation between DGV and the phenotype (iron concentration) adjusted for contemporary groups was 0.59. A bivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic correlations between iron concentrations and a reduced set of economically important carcass traits: HCW, rib eye area, calculated USDA yield grade, percent KPH, and marbling score. The genetic correlations between iron concentration and HCW, percentage KPH, marbling score, and rib eye area were small (-0.19 to 0.15) and nonsignificant. Although still weak (0.22), a positive significant genetic

  7. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ≤3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( < 0.01) compared to that of the EXC cohorts. Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and

  8. Whole Trait Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  9. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W; Lenstra, J A; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is still debated, some of the extant primitive cattle populations are believed to possess the aurochs-like primitive features. In this study, we use genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess relationship, admixture patterns and demographic history of an ancient aurochs sample and European cattle populations, several of which have primitive features and are suitable for extensive management. The principal component analysis, the model-based clustering and a distance-based network analysis support previous works suggesting different histories for north-western and southern European cattle. Population admixture analysis indicates a zebu gene flow in the Balkan and Italian Podolic cattle populations. Our analysis supports the previous report of gene flow between British and Irish primitive cattle populations and local aurochs. In addition, we show evidence of aurochs gene flow in the Iberian cattle populations indicating wide geographical distribution of the aurochs. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) reveal that demographic processes like genetic isolation and breed formation have contributed to genomic variations of European cattle populations. The ROH also indicate recent inbreeding in southern European cattle populations. We conclude that in addition to factors such as ancient human migrations, isolation by distance and cross-breeding, gene flow between domestic and wild-cattle populations also has shaped genomic composition of European cattle populations. PMID:27677498

  10. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  11. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites.

  12. Differential gene expression segregates cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P; Coussens, Paul M; Grooms, Daniel L; Bolin, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

  13. Cortical Gyrification Patterns Associated with Trait Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Miskovich, Tara A.; Pedersen, Walker S.; Belleau, Emily L.; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Larson, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous literature has revealed structural abnormalities in trait anxiety and related disorders, but no study to our knowledge has examined gyrification in trait anxiety. We utilized a relatively novel measure, the local gyrification index (LGI), to explore differences in gyrification as a function of trait anxiety. We obtained structural MRI scans using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner on 113 young adults. Results indicated a negative correlation between trait anxiety and LGI in the left superior parietal cortex, specifically the precuneus, reflecting less cortical complexity among those high on trait anxiety. Our findings suggest that aberrations in cortical gyrification in a key region of the default mode network is a correlate of trait anxiety and may reflect disrupted local parietal connectivity. PMID:26872350

  14. Estimation of the intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus thoracis in crossbred beef cattle based on live animal measurements.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Purwin, Cezary

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of live animal measurements in estimating the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of m. longissimus thoracis (MLT) in beef cattle. Live animal measurements were performed in young crossbred bulls (96) and steers (59), the offspring of Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolais), at the end of the fattening period. The content of intramuscular fat was determined in samples from MLT by chemical analyses. A prediction model was developed by stepwise regression. In the validation model, the values of R(2)=0.74, RMSE=0.37% were determined. The results indicate that selected biometric (chest width, chest girth) ultrasound measurements (thickness of subcutaneous rump and back fat) and selected blood parameters (triglycerides) can be used to predict IMF content with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyzed parameters could constitute a valuable tool in the process of selecting beef quality traits and determining the slaughter value of young beef cattle.

  15. Analysis of longitudinal data of beef cattle raised on pasture from northern Brazil using nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernando B; da Silva, Marcelo C; Marques, Ednira G; McManus, Concepta M

    2012-12-01

    This study was undertaken to aim of estimating the genetic parameters and trends for asymptotic weight (A) and maturity rate (k) of Nellore cattle from northern Brazil. The data set was made available by the Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders and collected between the years of 1997 and 2007. The Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz, and logistic nonlinear models were fitted by the Gauss-Newton method to weight-age data of 45,895 animals collected quarterly of the birth to 750 days old. The curve parameters were analyzed using the procedures GLM and CORR. The estimation of (co)variance components and genetic parameters was obtained using the MTDFREML software. The estimated heritability coefficients were 0.21 ± 0.013 and 0.25 ± 0.014 for asymptotic weight and maturity rate, respectively. This indicates that selection for any trait shall results in genetic progress in the herd. The genetic correlation between A and k was negative (-0.57 ± 0.03) and indicated that animals selected for high maturity rate shall result in low asymptotic weight. The Von Bertalanffy function is adequate to establish the mean growth patterns and to predict the adult weight of Nellore cattle. This model is more accurate in predicting the birth weight of these animals and has better overall fit. The prediction of adult weight using nonlinear functions can be accurate when growth curve parameters and their (co)variance components are estimated jointly. The model used in this study can be applied to the prediction of mature weight in herds where a portion of the animals are culled before they reach the adult age.

  16. Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) capacity in cattle serum

    PubMed Central

    Sueishi, Yoshimi; Kamogawa, Erisa; Kimura, Anna; Kitahara, Go; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Oowada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) activity in cattle and human sera was evaluated with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Scavenging rates against six active species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen were quantified. The difference in the electron spin resonance signal intensity in the presence and absence of the serum was converted into the scavenging rates. Comparative MULTIS measurements were made in sera from eight beef cattle, three fetal calves and fifteen healthy human volunteers. Further, we determined the MULTIS value of albumin, the most abundant component in serum. MULTIS values in cattle sera indicated higher scavenging activity against most free radical species tested than human sera. In particular, cattle serum scavenging activities against superoxide and methyl radical were higher than human serum by 2.6 and 3.7 fold, respectively. In cattle serum, albumin appears to play a dominant role in MULTIS activity, but in human serum that is not the case. Previous data indicated that the abundance of uric acid in bovine blood is nearly 80% less than humans; however, this difference does not explain the deviation in MULTIS profile. PMID:28163386

  17. Students' perceptions of school climate and trait test anxiety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang Yang

    2012-12-01

    In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.

  18. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  19. Database of cattle candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Ogorevc, J; Kunej, T; Razpet, A; Dovc, P

    2009-01-01

    A cattle database of candidate genes and genetic markers for milk production and mastitis has been developed to provide an integrated research tool incorporating different types of information supporting a genomic approach to study lactation, udder development and health. The database contains 943 genes and genetic markers involved in mammary gland development and function, representing candidates for further functional studies. The candidate loci were drawn on a genetic map to reveal positional overlaps. For identification of candidate loci, data from seven different research approaches were exploited: (i) gene knockouts or transgenes in mice that result in specific phenotypes associated with mammary gland (143 loci); (ii) cattle QTL for milk production (344) and mastitis related traits (71); (iii) loci with sequence variations that show specific allele-phenotype interactions associated with milk production (24) or mastitis (10) in cattle; (iv) genes with expression profiles associated with milk production (207) or mastitis (107) in cattle or mouse; (v) cattle milk protein genes that exist in different genetic variants (9); (vi) miRNAs expressed in bovine mammary gland (32) and (vii) epigenetically regulated cattle genes associated with mammary gland function (1). Fourty-four genes found by multiple independent analyses were suggested as the most promising candidates and were further in silico analysed for expression levels in lactating mammary gland, genetic variability and top biological functions in functional networks. A miRNA target search for mammary gland expressed miRNAs identified 359 putative binding sites in 3′UTRs of candidate genes. PMID:19508288

  20. Genetic and economic evaluation of Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Kahi, A K; Hirooka, H

    2005-09-01

    Deterministic simulation was used to evaluate 10 breeding schemes for genetic gain and profitability and in the context of maximizing returns from investment in Japanese Black cattle breeding. A breeding objective that integrated the cow-calf and feedlot segments was considered. Ten breeding schemes that differed in the records available for use as selection criteria were defined. The schemes ranged from one that used carcass traits currently available to Japanese Black cattle breeders (Scheme 1) to one that also included linear measurements and male and female reproduction traits (Scheme 10). The latter scheme represented the highest level of performance recording. In all breeding schemes, sires were chosen from the proportion selected during the first selection stage (performance testing), modeling a two-stage selection process. The effect on genetic gain and profitability of varying test capacity and number of progeny per sire and of ultrasound scanning of live animals was examined for all breeding schemes. Breeding schemes that selected young bulls during performance testing based on additional individual traits and information on carcass traits from their relatives generated additional genetic gain and profitability. Increasing test capacity resulted in an increase in genetic gain in all schemes. Profitability was optimal in Scheme 2 (a scheme similar to Scheme 1, but selection of young bulls also was based on information on carcass traits from their relatives) to 10 when 900 to 1,000 places were available for performance testing. Similarly, as the number of progeny used in the selection of sires increased, genetic gain first increased sharply and then gradually in all schemes. Profit was optimal across all breeding schemes when sires were selected based on information from 150 to 200 progeny. Additional genetic gain and profitability were generated in each breeding scheme with ultrasound scanning of live animals for carcass traits. Ultrasound scanning of live

  1. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  2. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  3. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

  4. Papillomas and cancer in cattle.

    PubMed

    Campo, M S

    1987-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce hyperproliferation of epithelial cells of the skin or mucosa (papillomas), and certain types can also infect fibroblasts. They are a very heterogeneous group of viruses, and individual types are associated with specific lesions. The papillomas are mostly benign but some tumours may eventually undergo malignant conversion when genetic or environmental factors are involved. In cattle, bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) is the causative agent of papillomas of the alimentary canal, which can become the focus for the development of carcinomas in animals feeding on the bracken fern. These animals are immunosuppressed and are often affected also by adenocarcinomas of the lower bowel and by carcinomas and haemangiosarcomas of the urinary bladder. Persistent, widespread papillomatosis and cancers of both the alimentary tract and the urinary bladder have been experimentally reproduced in animals either kept on a diet of bracken or immunosuppressed with azathioprine. As is the case for the naturally occurring cancers, no viral DNA was detected in the experimental cancers of the upper alimentary canal or of the lower bowel, indicating that the viral genome is not required for the maintenance of the malignant state. On the contrary, BPV-2 DNA was detected in several bladder cancers, both natural and experimental, suggesting that this virus can be present in a latent form and can be involved in malignant transformation. Further evidence of latent infection was provided by the onset of BPV-1 or BPV-2 skin warts in papillomatosis-free animals. These findings are obviously relevant to the human disease.

  5. Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Gerami, Farzad; Moghaddam, Parviz R; Ghorbani, Reza; Hassani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure.

  6. Time trends, environmental factors and genetic basis of semen traits collected in Holstein bulls under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Karoui, Sofiene; Díaz, Clara; Serrano, Magdalena; Cue, Roger; Celorrio, Idoia; Carabaño, María J

    2011-03-01

    The fact that results of artificial insemination (AI) are declining in highly selected dairy cattle populations has added a renewed interest to the evaluation of male fertility. Data from 42,348 ejaculates collected from 1990 to 2007 on 502 Holstein bulls were analysed in a Bayesian framework to provide estimates of the evolution of semen traits routinely collected in AI centres throughout the last decades of intense selection for production traits and estimate genetic parameters. The traits under consideration were volume (VOL), concentration (CONC), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (NESPZ), mass motility score (MM), individual motility (IM), and post-thawing motility (PTM). The environmental factors studied were year-season and week of collection, which account for changes in environmental and technical conditions along time, age at collection, ejaculate order, time from previous collection (TPC) and time between collection and freezing (TCF) (only for PTM). Bull's inbreeding coefficient (Fi), bull's permanent environmental and additive genetic effects were also considered. The use of reduced models was evaluated using the Bayes factor. For all the systematic effects tested, strong or very strong evidence in favour of including the effect in the model was obtained, except for Fi for motility traits and TCF for PTM. No systematic time trends for environment or bull effects were observed, except for PTM, which showed an increasing environmental trend, associated with improvements in freezing-thawing protocols. Heritability estimates were moderate (0.16-0.22), except for IM, which presented a low value (0.07). Genetic correlations among motilities and between motilities and CONC were large and positive [0.38-0.87], VOL showed a negative correlation with CONC (-0.13) but with ample HPD 95%. The magnitude of heritabilities would allow an efficient selection if required and grants the use of these traits as indicators of the sperm viability component of bulls

  7. Exploring callous and unemotional traits in youth via general personality traits: An eye toward DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Natasha E; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-07-01

    The current study aimed at better understanding callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth within a traditional personality trait/temperament framework as well as in relation to current proposals for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Participants were 174 mothers and their sons age 11-16 years. Mothers and youth reported on youth CU traits and general personality trait/ temperament dimensions. Overall, analyses revealed significant unique associations of personality trait/temperament dimensions with CU total and subscale scores. Personality trait/temperament dimensions explained 36% to 58% of the variance in CU subscales and total score. Furthermore, specific personality dimensions differentially and uniquely predicted various CU subscales, indicating marked specificity in association such that these traits should be considered separately rather than as a single unit. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of considering traditional personality trait models to understand "callous and unemotional" traits and risk for psychopathy more fully. Additionally, our findings bear implications for the conceptualization and operationalization of these traits in DSM-5.

  8. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  9. Estimates of genetic parameters for stayability and their associations with traits of economic interest in Gir dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Silva, R M O; Boligon, A A; Fernandes, A R; Vercesi Filho, A E; El Faro, L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G; Fraga, A B

    2016-02-19

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for stayability at 60 months of age (STAY60) and its association with first lactation cumulative milk yield (P305), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI), in order to adopt these traits as selection criteria for longevity in Gir dairy cattle. Records for 2770 cows born between 1982 and 2008 from six herds in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Paraíba were analyzed. The (co)variance components were estimated by a Bayesian approach using bivariate animal models. The heritability estimates were 0.37 ± 0.09, 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.06, and 0.07 ± 0.03 for STAY60, P305, AFC, and FCI, respectively. The genetic correlations of STAY60 with P305, AFC, and FCI were moderate to high, with values of 0.61 (0.17), -0.44 (0.23), and 0.88 (0.13), respectively. STAY60, P305, and AFC exhibited additive genetic variability, and these traits should be considered in selection indices. The indirect selection for longevity through the correlated responses of early-expression traits, such as milk production at first lactation, could be used to improve the ability of animals to remain in the herd.

  10. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  11. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    to exert only limited effects on the REC traits. Instead, breeders may be able to exploit genetic variations in the %CY, particularly RECFAT and RECPROTEIN. This last component is not explained by the milk protein content, suggesting that its direct selection could be beneficial for cheese production aptitude. Collectively, our findings indicate that breeding strategies aimed at enhancing CY and REC could be easily and rapidly implemented for dairy cattle populations in which FTIR spectra are routinely acquired from individual milk samples.

  12. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Diversity in Salmonella from Humans and Cattle, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Afema, J A; Mather, A E; Sischo, W M

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understand source and transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) and Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans and cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST and SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST and SN from humans (P < 0.0001). While these findings could be consistent with the belief that cattle are a source of resistant ST and SN for people, occurrence of profiles unique to cattle and not observed in temporally related human isolates indicates these profiles are circulating in cattle only. We used various measures to assess AMR diversity, conditional on the weighting of rare versus abundant profiles. AMR profile richness was greater in the common serovars from humans, although both source data sets were dominated by relatively few profiles. The greater profile richness in human Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, and this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans and cattle, the expected and observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella and associated resistance from humans and cattle may not be

  14. Relationship of fatty acid composition to intramuscular fat content in beef from crossbred Wagyu cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E C; Lozeman, F J; Mir, P S; Laroche, A; Bailey, D R; Weselake, R J

    1999-07-01

    The deposition of i.m. fat, or marbling, in cattle is recognized as a desirable carcass trait in North American beef grading schemes. In order to investigate the relationship between degree of marbling and fatty acid composition of whole bovine muscle, we extracted the total lipid from pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) (n = 23) and longissimus (n = 36) muscles from Wagyu crossbred cattle that were assigned Canadian Grading Agency marbling scores ranging from 1 to 8 on an inverse 10-point scale (i.e., a score of 1 indicated "very abundant" marbling and a score of 10 would be assigned to a carcass "devoid" of marbling). Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of the total lipid and triacylglycerol fractions were resolved and quantified through GLC. Marbling scores were negatively associated with total lipid from both PCD (r = -.57, P < .01) and longissimus (r = -.80, P < .001). Differences between PCD and longissimus were found for almost all FAME studied from both lipid fractions, but no differences (P > .05) were seen when the monounsaturated:saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios were compared. Heifers had higher (P < .05) oleic acid content and lower (P < .05) palmitic acid content in lipid extracted from both muscles, resulting in higher (P < .05) MUFA/SFA ratios than those for steers. The relative amount of myristic acid increased as the lipid content (total lipid and triacylglycerol) increased in either longissimus (r values from .48 to .55; n = 36; P < .01) or PCD muscles (r from .67 to .76; n = 23; P < .001). The relative amount of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 isomer) from total lipid was negatively associated with all chemical measurements of lipid from the longissimus (r from -.52 to -.64; n = 36; P < .001) and PCD muscles (r from -.75 to -.85; n = 23; P < .001). This association was not significant (P > .1) for either muscle when linoleic acid from the triacylglycerol fraction was examined, suggesting the negative association between this fatty acid and lipid

  15. Biological and ecological traits of marine species.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark John; Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the 'status' of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them.

  16. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Simon; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Vandepitte, Leen; Tuama, Éamonn Ó; Lear, Dan; Tyler-Walters, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species), namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them. PMID:26312188

  17. Systematic Profiling of Short Tandem Repeats in the Cattle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Haasl, Ryan J.; Sun, Jiajie; Zhou, Yang; Bickhart, Derek M.; Li, Junya; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Lewin, Harris A.

    2017-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites, are genetic variants with repetitive 2–6 base pair motifs in many mammalian genomes. Using high-throughput sequencing and experimental validations, we systematically profiled STRs in five Holsteins. We identified a total of 60,106 microsatellites and generated the first high-resolution STR map, representing a substantial pool of polymorphism in dairy cattle. We observed significant STRs overlap with functional genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). We performed evolutionary and population genetic analyses using over 20,000 common dinucleotide STRs. Besides corroborating the well-established positive correlation between allele size and variance in allele size, these analyses also identified dozens of outlier STRs based on two anomalous relationships that counter expected characteristics of neutral evolution. And one STR locus overlaps with a significant region of a summary statistic designed to detect STR-related selection. Additionally, our results showed that only 57.1% of STRs located within SNP-based linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks whereas the other 42.9% were out of blocks. Therefore, a substantial number of STRs are not tagged by SNPs in the cattle genome, likely due to STR's distinct mutation mechanism and elevated polymorphism. This study provides the foundation for future STR-based studies of cattle genome evolution and selection. PMID:28172841

  18. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle in China.

    PubMed

    El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Jilei; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Lanjing; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Zhenwen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, a zoonosis which occurs worldwide. As there is little reliable data on the organism in China, we investigated C. burnetii infections in dairy cattle herds around the country. Opportunistic whole blood samples were collected from 1140 dairy cattle in 19 herds, and antibodies to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens were detected using commercial ELISA kits. Seropositive cattle (381/1140, 33 %) were detected in 13 of the 15 surveyed provinces and in 16 of the 19 herds (84 %) studied. Our data indicates C. burnetii is widespread in China and that animal and human health workers should be aware of the possibility of Q fever infection in their patients.

  19. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  20. Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

    2012-05-01

    Reproductive potential was assessed for stable fly cohorts fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood. Flies provided chicken blood oviposited 20% more eggs per day than did those fed cattle or horse blood. However, flies provided cattle or horse blood were fecund 50% longer. When both egg viability and number of eggs produced were considered, lifetime reproductive potential was almost twice as high for flies fed cattle or chicken blood than for flies fed horse blood. Maternal investment, which took egg production and volume into account, was higher in cohorts fed cattle blood (70 mm3) when compared with the other treatments (chicken = 54 mm3, horse = 55 mm3). This is the first report of stable flies producing viable eggs after feeding on bird blood. Results from this study in addition to field observations indicate that stable fly interactions with birds may be limited to relatively low risk scenarios.

  1. Serological characteristics of affected cattle during an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2014-01-01

    During an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by the Akabane virus (AKAV) in 2010, 210 serum samples were collected from the affected cattle, and serological investigations for the AKAV were performed using a serum neutralization test (SNT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositive rates for SNT and ELISA were 90.0 and 85.2 %, respectively. The titers of SNT (log2) against the AKAV were higher than 4.0 in the highly affected cattle (80.0 %). This finding indicates that most affected cattle were infected with the AKAV and that strong immune responses against this virus were elicited in affected cattle. The strong immune response to the AKAV in cattle may provide insight into the occurrence of bovine encephalomyelitis caused by the AKAV.

  2. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Heidar; Mohammadzadeh, Abdolmajid; Gharekhani, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran) from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%). The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite. PMID:25568696

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in slaughtered native cattle in Kurdistan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Heidar; Mohammadzadeh, Abdolmajid; Gharekhani, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed pathogen which causes abortion in cattle leading to economic loss in the cattle industry. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in the native cattle slaughtered in various areas of Kurdistan province (western Iran) from September 2010 to September 2011. Serum samples from 368 cattle slaughtered in seven slaughterhouses in this region were taken for detection of anti-N. caninum antibodies using commercial N. caninum ELISA kit. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 29 samples (7.80%). The present study was the first report of Neospora infection in this region and indicated that native cattle of Kurdistan province were exposed to this parasite.

  4. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  5. Dominance and parent-of-origin effects of coding and non-coding alleles at the acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene on milk production traits in German Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Christa; Edel, Christian; Weikard, Rosemarie; Thaller, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substantial gene substitution effects on milk production traits have formerly been reported for alleles at the K232A and the promoter VNTR loci in the bovine acylCoA-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene by using data sets including sires with accumulated phenotypic observations of daughters (breeding values, daughter yield deviations). However, these data sets prevented analyses with respect to dominance or parent-of-origin effects, although an increasing number of reports in the literature outlined the relevance of non-additive gene effects on quantitative traits. Results Based on a data set comprising German Holstein cows with direct trait measurements, we first confirmed the previously reported association of DGAT1 promoter VNTR alleles with milk production traits. We detected a dominant mode of effects for the DGAT1 K232A and promoter VNTR alleles. Namely, the contrasts between the effects of heterozygous individuals at the DGAT1 loci differed significantly from the midpoint between the effects for the two homozygous genotypes for several milk production traits, thus indicating the presence of dominance. Furthermore, we identified differences in the magnitude of effects between paternally and maternally inherited DGAT1 promoter VNTR – K232A haplotypes indicating parent-of-origin effects on milk production traits. Conclusion Non-additive effects like those identified at the bovine DGAT1 locus have to be accounted for in more specific QTL detection models as well as in marker assisted selection schemes. The DGAT1 alleles in cattle will be a useful model for further investigations on the biological background of non-additive effects in mammals due to the magnitude and consistency of their effects on milk production traits. PMID:17892573

  6. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  7. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E. Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P.; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W. Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  8. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  9. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  10. Genetic analyses of early-expressed reproduction traits of Boran and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey in Central Highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Berhanu; Chakravarty, Ashim Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess early-expressed reproductive traits of Boran cattle and their crosses with Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF). The traits studied were age at first services (AFS), number of services for first conception, age at first calving (AFC), first dry period (FDP), first calving interval (FCI), and first service period (FSP). Genetic group and period of birth/calving had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on reproductive traits. The Boran cattle were inferior to HF or Jersey crosses. First crosses (F 1) for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) showed a significantly (p < 0.05) younger AFS (by 7.25 months) and AFC (by 10.75 months), had shorter FCI (by 63.27 days), FDP (by 61.13 days), and FSP (by 60.3 days), and needed less (by 0.35) numbers of services per first conception as compared to the Boran cattle. The F 1 for Jersey and Boran (50 % Jersey: 50 % Boran) crosses showed better performance than the F 1 for HF and Boran (50 % HF: 50 % Boran). Heritability values for AFS and AFC were the highest and were estimated at 0.51 ± 0.10 and 0.49 ± 0.13, respectively, and lowest heritability was recorded for FDP (0.02 ± 020) and FSP (0.10 ± 0.29). The genetic correlation was highest (0.10 ± 0.20) between AFS and AFC and was lowest (-0.01 ± 0.66) between FCI and FSP. The breed additive for Jersey was only significant (p < 0.01) for AFS and AFC. The crossing of HF with Boran cattle has desirably reduced 9.16 ± 2.88 months in AFS; the corresponding reduction in AFS was 3.49 ± 3.59 months by crossing with Jersey. The performance comparisons and genetic and crossbreeding parameters indicated that crossbreeding of Boran with HF or Jersey can improve reproductive performance.

  11. Signatures of contemporary selection in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Glick, G; Shirak, A; Uliel, S; Zeron, Y; Ezra, E; Seroussi, E; Ron, M; Weller, J I

    2012-07-01

    Strong selection in the Israeli Holstein dairy cattle population over the last three decades should have left clear signatures of selection. Two experimental approaches were applied to detect evidence of contemporary selection based on the 54K BeadChip genotypes of ~1000 Israeli Holstein bulls: (i) the long-range haplotype test, which searches for structural evidence resulting from selective sweep, and (ii) direct analysis of the changes in haplotypes frequencies over time combined with linkage disequilibrium blocks haplotype-based association analysis. Ten traits were analyzed: the PD07 Israeli selection index, milk, milk fat, % fat, milk protein, % protein, somatic cell score, female fertility, milk production persistency and herd life. The long-range haplotype test detected ~15% of the 3288 haplotypes that showed significant positive frequency trends (P < 0.05) and was significantly correlated with the substitution effects of the haplotypes and the selection intensities for the different traits. Thirty signatures of recent selection, which correspond to both approaches and affect the Israeli PD07 selection index, were identified on 17 of the 29 autosomes. The second experimental approach also was used to estimate the selection intensity of the different traits. The correlation between the selection intensities for the traits analyzed, derived from changes in haplotype frequencies in the population of bulls, and those derived from trait-based analysis of the cow population was 0.93 over all traits. Thus, the changes in haplotypes frequencies in the bulls' population accurately estimate genetic trends in the general cow population and can be used to detect signatures of recent selection.

  12. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle.

  13. Estimation of genetic parameters for functional longevity in the South African Holstein cattle using a piecewise Weibull proportional hazards model.

    PubMed

    Imbayarwo-Chikosi, V E; Ducrocq, V; Banga, C B; Halimani, T E; van Wyk, J B; Maiwashe, A; Dzama, K

    2017-03-14

    Non-genetic factors influencing functional longevity and the heritability of the trait were estimated in South African Holsteins using a piecewise Weibull proportional hazards model. Data consisted of records of 161,222 of daughters of 2,051 sires calving between 1995 and 2013. The reference model included fixed time-independent age at first calving and time-dependent interactions involving lactation number, region, season and age of calving, within-herd class of milk production, fat and protein content, class of annual variation in herd size and the random herd-year effect. Random sire and maternal grandsire effects were added to the model to estimate genetic parameters. The within-lactation Weibull baseline hazards were assumed to change at 0, 270, 380 days and at drying date. Within-herd milk production class had the largest contribution to the relative risk of culling. Relative culling risk increased with lower protein and fat per cent production classes and late age at first calving. Cows in large shrinking herds also had high relative risk of culling. The estimate of the sire genetic variance was 0.0472 ± 0.0017 giving a theoretical heritability estimate of 0.11 in the complete absence of censoring. Genetic trends indicated an overall decrease in functional longevity of 0.014 standard deviation from 1995 to 2007. There are opportunities for including the trait in the breeding objective for South African Holstein cattle.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term.

  15. Traits as dimensions or categories? Developmental change in the understanding of trait terms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Celia M; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that young children have relatively well-developed trait concepts. However, this literature overlooks potential age-related differences in children's appreciation of the fundamentally dimensional nature of traits. In Study 1, we presented 4-, 5-, and 7-year-old children and adults with sets of characters and asked them to indicate the preferences of a target character who shared appearance attributes with one character (appearance match) and shared a common trait with the other character (trait match). Traits were presented in a way that emphasized either their categorical or their dimensional nature. When the dimensional nature of trait terms was emphasized, the youngest children made fewer trait-based inferences, and the use of traits increased with age. In Study 2, we gave 4-year-old children and adults the same task except that the extent to which appearance cues could serve as a meaningful basis of judgment was varied. Results were consistent with the findings of Study 1, although children were more likely to rely on dimensional presentations of traits in the absence of strong appearance cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulatio