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Sample records for cattle sheep pigs

  1. Making slaughterhouses more humane for cattle, pigs, and sheep.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Temple

    2013-01-01

    When a stunning method is being evaluated, it is essential that the animal-handling and restraint methods that are used with it are also examined. This makes it possible to determine the effect of the entire system on animal welfare. Cattle, pigs, and sheep will move easily through the races at a slaughter plant if visual distractions such as reflections on shiny metal, dangling chains, moving equipment, or people up ahead are removed. The most important scientific research on captive bolt, CO2, and electrical stunning methods is reviewed. A common mistake made by people evaluating insensibility is to misinterpret reflexive leg kicks as a sign of return to sensibility. When religious slaughter is being evaluated, the variable of how the animal is restrained must be separated from the variable of slaughter without stunning. Slaughter can be done with a high level of animal welfare.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle from Grenada and Carriacou, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, A; Kumthekar, S; Tiwari, K; Nyack, B; Deokar, M S; Stratton, G; Macpherson, C N L; Sharma, R N; Dubey, J P

    2011-10-01

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Grenada is considered high. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in Caribbean Islands. Serum samples of 750 food animals in Grenada and Carriacou were tested for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, 1∶25 or higher) were found in 23.1% of 247 pigs, 44.1% of 204 sheep, 42.8% of 180 goats, and 8.4% of 119 cattle. Seroprevalence increased with age, indicating postnatal acquisition of T. gondii. Antibody titers of 1∶200 or higher were present in 65 of 90 seropositive sheep, 61 of 77 seropositive goats, and 23 of 57 seropositive pigs. However, none of the cattle had a MAT titer of 1∶200, suggesting that bovines are a poor host for T. gondii. Results indicate that pigs, sheep, and goats could be important sources of T. gondii infection if their meat is consumed undercooked.

  3. Effective population sizes in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and goats estimated from census and herdbook data.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J G

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of effective population sizes (Ne ) in livestock require good quality data and specialized skills for their computation and analysis. Ne can be estimated by Wright's equation Ne =4MF/(M+ F) (M, F being sires and dams, respectively), but this requires assumptions which are often not met. Total census sizes Nc of livestock breeds are collated globally. This paper investigates whether estimates of Ne can be made from Nc ; this would facilitate conservation monitoring. Some Ne methodologies avoid the assumptions of Wright's equation and permit measurement, rather than estimation, of Ne . Those considered here employ, respectively, linkage disequilibrium (LD) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (yielding Ne (LD)), and genealogical analysis (rate of increase of inbreeding, DF), yielding Ne (DF). Considering breeds of cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and goats for which Nc and either Ne (LD) or N e(DF) are known (totals of 203 breeds and 321 breeds, respectively), proportionality has been investigated between Nc and these measures of Ne . Ne (LD) was found to increase with Nc , significantly in sheep and horses, less so in cattle, but not at all in pigs. Ne (DF) was correlated with log10(Nc ) in cattle, sheep and horses (53, 56, 43 breeds, respectively). Ne (LD) was correlated in cattle (73 breeds) and pigs (31 breeds) with the log10 transformation of Ne as calculated by Wright's equation. Further verification and refinement are needed, particularly of census data, but credible predictions of Ne are obtainable by applying the following multipliers to log10(Nc ): cattle 17.61, sheep 97.72, horse 70.78. For cattle and pigs, multiplying log10(Ne (Wright)) by, respectively, 40.69 and 60.09, also gives credible predictions. Such census-based estimates of Ne could in principle be generated by non-specialists and are likely to be suited to audits of conservation activity when financial resources or availability of data are limiting. The ratio Ne /Nc varied among

  4. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in Switzerland: a serosurvey based on meat juice analysis of slaughtered pigs, wild boar, sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Berger-Schoch, A E; Bernet, D; Doherr, M G; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2011-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases worldwide and is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Besides vertical infection during pregnancy, humans can get infected post-natally either by peroral uptake of sporulated Toxoplasma oocysts or by ingestion of tissue cysts upon consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The aim of this study was to approximate the risk of human infection via meat consumption by estimating the seroprevalence of T. gondii in slaughtered animals in Switzerland and to compare data with prevalences assessed 10 years ago. The study included pigs, cattle, sheep and wild boar of different age groups and housing conditions whenever possible and applicable. A P-30-ELISA was used to detect T. gondii-specific antibodies and to determine seroprevalences in meat juice of slaughtered animals. A total of 270 domestic pigs (120 adults, 50 finishing, 100 free-ranging animals), 150 wild boars, 250 sheep (150 adults, 100 lambs) and 406 cattle (47 calves, 129 heifers, 100 bulls, 130 adult cows) were tested. Seropositivity increased with the age of the assessed animals. Independent of the age-group, the overall seroprevalence was lowest in wild boars (6.7%), followed by pigs (23.3%), cattle (45.6%) and sheep (61.6%), respectively. Conventional fattening pigs and free-ranging pigs surprisingly had comparable seroprevalences (14.0% and 13.0%, respectively). Unlike in other European countries, where generally a decrease in the number of seropositive animals had been observed, we found that the prevalence of seropositive animals, when compared with that of 10 years ago, had increased for most species/age groups. Conclusively, the results demonstrated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii in animals slaughtered for meat production and revealed that increasing age of the animals is a more important risk factor than housing conditions in Switzerland.

  6. Prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in feline faeces (oocysts) and meat from sheep, cattle and pigs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Berger-Schoch, A E; Herrmann, D C; Schares, G; Müller, N; Bernet, D; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2011-05-11

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects almost all warm blooded animal species including humans, and is one of the most prevalent zoonotic parasites worldwide. Post-natal infection in humans is acquired through oral uptake of sporulated T. gondii oocysts or by ingestion of parasite tissue cysts upon consumption of raw or undercooked meat. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oocyst-shedding by cats and to assess the level of infection with T. gondii in meat-producing animals in Switzerland via detection of genomic DNA (gDNA) in muscle samples. In total, 252 cats (44 stray cats, 171 pet cats, 37 cats with gastrointestinal disorders) were analysed coproscopically, and subsequently species-specific identification of T. gondii oocysts was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Furthermore, diaphragm samples of 270 domestic pigs (120 adults, 50 finishing, and 100 free-range animals), 150 wild boar, 250 sheep (150 adults and 100 lambs) and 406 cattle (47 calves, 129 heifers, 100 bulls, and 130 adult cows) were investigated by T. gondii-specific real-time PCR. For the first time in Switzerland, PCR-positive samples were subsequently genotyped using nine PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) loci (SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) for analysis. Only one of the cats shed T. gondii oocysts, corresponding to a T. gondii prevalence of 0.4% (95% CI: 0.0-2.2%). In meat-producing animals, gDNA prevalence was lowest in wild boar (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.0-3.7%), followed by sheep (2.0%; 95% CI: 0.1-4.6%) and pigs (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%). The highest prevalence was found in cattle (4.7%; 95% CI: 2.8-7.2%), mainly due to the high prevalence of 29.8% in young calves. With regard to housing conditions, conventional fattening pigs and free-range pigs surprisingly exhibited the same prevalence (2.0%; 95% CI: 0.2-7.0%). Genotyping of oocysts shed by the cat showed T. gondii with clonal Type II alleles and the Apico I

  7. Survey of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead in kidney of cattle, horse, sheep and pigs from rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dokić, Maja; Sedak, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Trace element (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb) concentrations were determined in the kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs from rural areas of Croatia. Arsenic concentrations in kidney tissues ranged from 0.013 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in As kidney levels were observed among species. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in horses and ranged 0.029-47.4 and 0.009-0.13 mg kg(-1), respectively. The European Union maximum levels for Cd in kidney were exceeded by 92.3% of horses, 14% of cattle and 16% of sheep. The highest mean Cu levels were found in sheep and horse (8.53 and 8.45 mg kg(-1)). Mean Hg concentrations in kidney of cattle, sheep, horses and pigs were 0.051, 0.011, 0.034 and 0.094 mg kg(-1), respectively, and the highest levels of Pb were found in cattle (1.71 mg kg(-1)). Significant differences in Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations between animal species were observed.

  8. Comparison of the direct antiglobulin rosetting reaction (DARR) and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) for demonstration of sIg-bearing lymphocytes in pigs, sheep and cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Binns, R M; Licence, S T; Symons, D B; Gurner, B W; Coombs, R R; Walters, D E

    1979-01-01

    Tests with untreated and trypsin-treated red cells (rbc) from a variety of species showed that anti-Ig-coupled pig RBC are good indicator cells for the study of ruminant blood sIg + lymphocytes by the DARR test; coupled donkey and rabbit RBC are suitable for investigating pig lymphocytes. The different species showed the following percentages of sIg + lymphocytes (M +/- SE) by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and the direct antiglobulin rosetting reaction (DARR) respectively:pigs 9.2 +/- 0.7% and 16.3 +/- 1.2%; sheep 20.2 +/- 1.2% and 33.1 +/- 1.6%; Cattle 13.5 +/- 1.4% and 28.9 +/- 3.5%. The mean ratio of sIg + lymphocytes shown by the two tests (DARR/DIF) for each species was 1.80 +/- 0.08 for pigs, 1.73 +/- 0.7 for sheep and 2.15 +/- 0.18 for cattle. Preincubation of pig and sheep lymphocytes at 37 degrees for 1 h did not alter the proportion of sIg + lymphocytes detected by either test. Thus the DARR test reveals a further population of sIg + lymphocytes in addition to that detected by immunofluorescence, whose number is proportional to the B population as measured by DIF and whose sIg is intimately associated with the membrane. PMID:374254

  9. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line.

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the genitalia of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs.

    PubMed

    Ladds, P W

    1993-03-01

    The essential steps in embryology of the genitalia and its sexual differentiation, are briefly reviewed. The major intersex states in domestic ruminants and pigs are briefly considered. Major attention is directed to anomalies of the reproductive organs of mature female and male animals that are likely to compromise fertility. Emphasis is placed on clinical and pathologic findings and on occurrence and pathogenesis of recorded defects.

  11. A comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method

    PubMed Central

    Yániz, Jesús L; Capistrós, Sara; Vicente-Fiel, Sandra; Hidalgo, Carlos O; Santolaria, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA) combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. The use of the PI/PSA combination and CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method allowed the capture, morphometric analysis, and differentiation of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes and whole heads, and the assessment of acrosomal integrity with a high precision in the three species studied. For the size of the head and nuclear area, the relationship between the three species may be summarized as bull > ram > boar. However, for the other morphometric parameters (length, width, and perimeter), there were differences in the relationships between species for sperm nuclei and whole sperm heads. Bull sperm acrosomes were clearly smaller than those in the other species studied and covered a smaller proportion of the sperm head. The acrosomal morphology, small in the bull, large and broad in the sheep, and large, long, and with a pronounced equatorial segment curve in the boar, was species-characteristic. It was concluded that there are clear variations in the size and shape of the sperm head components between the three species studied, the acrosome being the structure showing the most variability, allowing a clear distinction of the spermatozoa of each species. PMID:27624987

  12. Cattle, sheep and pigs vaccinated against foot and mouth disease: does trade in these animals and their products present a risk of transmitting the disease?

    PubMed

    Garland, A J M; de Clercq, K

    2011-04-01

    The foot and mouth disease (FMD) status of a country or region has a profound bearing on access to export markets for live animals and animal products. In countries without FMD-free status, and in accordance with the international standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), restrictions may be applied to trade in both vaccinated and unvaccinated animals and their products. Available information suggests that, provided there is compliance with essential criteria concerning vaccines, vaccination and other zoosanitary measures (especially quarantine and ante- and post-mortem inspection), the risk of spreading FMD through the importation of vaccinated cattle, sheep and pigs is extremely small. The risk from products derived from vaccinated animals is even smaller, provided that appropriate risk mitigation measures are applied. Knowledge of the zoosanitary status of the exporting country is critical for risk assessment, but can be difficult to verify. Although empirical evidence and practical experience strongly indicate low risk, it is not possible to assert that the risk is zero for vaccinated animals or their products. In the absence of key factual data, risk analysis is only practicable on a qualitative or semi-quantitative basis. However, a very low level of risk is both unavoidable and acceptable if such trade is to be conducted.

  13. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  14. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  15. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  16. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  17. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.

  18. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  19. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  20. Infection of cattle with Border disease virus by sheep on communal alpine pastures.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Büchi, R; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sheep grazing communal alpine pastures with cattle can transmit Border disease virus (BDV) to cattle. A total of 1170 sheep and 923 cattle were tested for BDV using RT-PCR (sheep) and for pestivirus antibodies using an ELISA (cattle), respectively, before being moved to one of 4 pastures (A, B, C and D). Eight sheep from pasture C were viraemic. 396 of 923 cattle examined before the pasture season were seronegative. The latter were re-examined after the pasture season and 99 were seropositive or indeterminate. Antibody specificity was determined in 25 of these using a serum neutralization test (SNT). BDV infection was confirmed in 10 cattle and was considered likely in 8 others. BVDV infection was confirmed in 4 cattle and considered likely in 3 after pasturing. The study has shown that the transmission of BDV from sheep to cattle is possible on communal alpine pastures.

  1. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  2. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  3. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  4. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  5. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  6. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  7. Comparative digestibility by cattle versus sheep: effect of forage quality.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Lopez, R; Sankey, C; Capitan, B M; Holland, B P; Balstad, L A; Krehbiel, C R

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of forage quality on apparent total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle versus sheep. Five yearling English crossbred (Hereford × Angus) steers (440.4 ± 35.6 kg of initial BW) and 5 yearling whiteface (Rambouillet × Columbia × Debouillet) wethers (44.4 ± 4.6 kg of initial BW), each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 forage sources within ruminant specie, and the study was conducted over 3 periods. For forage source, both animal and period served as the blocking factor with all forage sources represented once within each animal and all forage sources represented at least once within each period. The treatment structure was arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with ruminant species (2) and forage source (3) as the factors. Forage sources were 1) alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa; 17.5% CP and 34.1% NDF, DM basis), 2) warm-season grass hay mix (Bothriochloa ischaemum and Cynodon dactylon; 7.3% CP and 74.7% NDF, DM basis), and 3) lovegrass hay (Eragrostis curvula; 2.5% CP and 81.9% NDF, DM basis). As a percent of BW, steers and wethers consumed similar (P ≤ 0.06) amounts of forage, and intake was more influenced by forage quality (P < 0.001) than ruminant species (P = 0.35). When expressed per unit of metabolic BW, cattle consumed more (P < 0.001) DM, NDF, and N than sheep. Apparent total tract digestibility was similar among steers and wethers when alfalfa or grass hay was fed, but decreased to a greater extent in wethers when low-quality lovegrass hay was fed (ruminant species × diet interaction, P ≤ 0.01). Rate (%/h) of ruminal NDF disappearance was greater (P = 0.02) for alfalfa and grass hay than lovegrass, but was not influenced (P = 0.12) by ruminant species. In addition, ruminal DM fill was influenced more (P < 0.01) by forage than by ruminant species (P = 0.07). Steers and wethers had greater (P < 0.01) DM fill from grass hay and lovegrass hay than alfalfa before and 5 h

  8. Poisoning by Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Bezerra, Cícero W; Medeiros, Marcia A; da Silva, Tatiane R; Neto, Eldinê G Miranda; Medeiros, Rosane M T

    2014-05-01

    Talisia esculenta is a tree that produces pitomba, a fruit consumed by human beings in several regions of Brazil. The current study reports 3 outbreaks of poisoning by leaves and fruits of T. esculenta affecting sheep and cattle and the experimental reproduction of the disease in sheep. In the first investigated outbreak, sheep ingested the leaves of the plant; another outbreak affected cattle and sheep that ingested leaves and fruits; and in a third outbreak, sheep ingested only the fruits. The animals developed severe nervous signs, but most recovered. Poisoning was reproduced experimentally in 5 sheep by the administration of 30-60 g of leaves/kg body weight and in 2 sheep with doses of 5 and 10 g of seeds/kg body weight, respectively. No significant necropsy or histologic lesions were found.

  9. Detection of T. gondii in tissues of sheep and cattle following oral infection.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Maley, S W; Thomson, K; Nicoll, S; Wright, S; Buxton, D; Innes, E A

    1999-10-01

    It has been reported in the literature that cattle are more resistant to toxoplasmosis than sheep. Congenital disease due to T. gondii infection is rarely reported in cattle whereas the parasite is a major cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in sheep. It is believed that sheep remain chronically infected for life. Undercooked meat from infected sheep is an important source of infection for man. In contrast cattle are thought to harbour fewer parasite tissue cysts which may not persist for the lifetime of the host. Therefore, cattle are believed to pose less of a risk for human infection. In this study we examined the presence of T. gondii within a range of tissues in sheep and cattle at 6 weeks and 6 months following oral infection with 10(3) or 10(5) sporulated oocysts of T. gondii. The presence of parasite was determined by bioassay in mice and using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results from this study show that T. gondii was more frequently and consistently detected in sheep, in particular within brain and heart tissues, whereas parasites were not detected in the samples of tissues taken from cattle. T. gondii was more frequently detected in sheep given the higher dose of T. gondii. Examination of tissues at either 6 weeks or 6 months after infection did not appear to affect the distribution of T. gondii. The polymerase chain reaction has more specificity and sensitivity when detecting the presence of T. gondii in large animals than histological detection.

  10. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  11. Quantification of cattle DNA using quantitative competitive PCR with sheep DNA as competitor.

    PubMed

    Mariasegaram, Maxy; Robinson, Nicholas Andrew; Goddard, Michael Edward

    2006-02-01

    A novel method was developed to enable accurate and high-throughput measurement of cattle DNA concentration using quantitative competitive PCR, with sheep DNA as competitor. While quantitative competitive PCR has been used extensively for the quantification of specific RNA or DNA molecules, they have required development of internal standards with matching primer binding sites and similar amplification efficiencies to the target molecule. To develop such as assay can constitute a significant work-up. Instead, by utilizing the tendency of microsatellites developed in one species to amplify homologous loci across closely related species removes the need for internal standard development. Two cattle microsatellite markers were identified that produced distinct sheep specific peaks in an electropherogram. A standard graph was plotted for various dilutions of a cattle standard and a constant amount of sheep competitor. The sheep DNA, which is co-amplified with the cattle template in the PCR reaction served as the internal standard. The cattle DNA concentration of an unknown sample was determined by relating the ratio of sheep to cattle PCR product peaks to the standard curve. The standard deviation between replicate measurements of cattle DNA was 0.52 ng/microl using this method.

  12. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. Secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation (VI) and/or RT-PCR. Serum was tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV. To estimate FMDV transmission, the VI, RT-PCR and serology results were used. The partial reproduction ratio R0p i.e. the average number of new infections caused by one infected sheep introduced into a population of susceptible cattle, was estimated using either data of the whole infection chain of the experimental epidemics (the transient state method) or the final sizes of the experimental epidemics (the final size method). Using the transient state method, R0p was estimated as 1.0 (95% CI 0.2 - 6.0) using virus isolation results and 1.4 (95% CI 0.3 - 8.0) using RT-PCR results. Using the final size method, R0p was estimated as 0.9 (95% CI 0.2 - 3.0). Finally, R0p was compared to the R0’s obtained in previous transmission studies with sheep or cattle only. This comparison showed that the infectivity of sheep is lower than that of cattle and that sheep and cattle are similarly susceptible to FMD. These results indicate that in a mixed population of sheep and cattle, sheep play a more limited role in the transmission of FMDV than cattle. PMID:24886222

  13. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle from Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Fernando Jorge Rodrigues; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Alcântara, Adrianne Mota de; Pinheiro, José Wilton; Sena, Maria José de; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease of global distribution that affects all warm-blooded animals. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and identify the risk factors associated with its occurrence in domestic ruminants raised on the island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and to confirm that cattle and sheep raised in Fernando de Noronha Island present statistically different T. gondii prevalence rates. Serum samples were collected from sheep (n=240) and cattle (n=140) for the detection of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Samples were collected from all the animals on all the farms. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression. The prevalence rate of positive sheep was 85.0% while that of cattle was 10.7%. A multivariate analysis revealed that the site of contact of sheep with felines was a risk factor. For cattle, the risk factors identified in this study were: extensive farming system, water source, more than three cats per farm, and the presence of rats in feed storage locations. The findings revealed a significant difference in the prevalence rates in sheep and cattle raised in this insular environment.

  14. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal..., DEVICES AND CERTIFICATES § 312.2 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of... subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  15. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  16. Pig and Goat Blood as Substitutes for Sheep Blood in Blood-Supplemented Agar Media

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Chandar; Gordon, Rhonda; Shaw, Helene; Fonseca, Kevin; Olsen, Merle

    2000-01-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO2, but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available. PMID:10655351

  17. Pig and goat blood as substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented agar media.

    PubMed

    Anand, C; Gordon, R; Shaw, H; Fonseca, K; Olsen, M

    2000-02-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO(2), but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available.

  18. Addition of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process and improves vermicompost quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Rozatti, Marcos A T; Martins, Marcos F Leal

    2017-03-01

    Animal waste is usually a good substrate for vermicomposting. However, numerous animal husbandry systems use bedding that consists primarily of lignocellulosic substrates, which hinders earthworm and microorganism's development and thus, the entire bioconversion process. One possible solution is to mix the used bedding with other waste materials that are more amenable to earthworm ingestion and can provide better conditions for earthworm population growth. Here, we have aimed to examine the effectiveness of such procedure by mixing rice-husk-based sheep bedding with cattle manure in different proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). We have carried out vermicomposting experiments in benchtop vermireactors inoculated with 0.88kg of dry matter (sheep bedding+cattle manure). Data used in the Principal Component Analysis were the multiple vermicomposting variables (i.e., EC; pH; HA/FA and C/N ratios; P, K, cellulose, and hemicellulose content). The effect of the treatment on earthworm count was analyzed with ANOVA. We have observed that the addition of at least 25% of cattle manure to sheep bedding allows vermicomposting process but it is necessary 148days to obtain a stabilized vermicompost. However, increasing the proportion of cattle manure to sheep bedding, the vermicomposting time decreases proportionally to 94days. We concluded that vermicomposting can be considered a bioprocess to stabilize rice husk after being used as sheep bedding.

  19. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  20. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  1. Comparison of the serum toxicokinetics of larkspur toxins in cattle, sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep are thought to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants. In this study, we compared the serum toxicokinetic profile of toxic lark...

  2. Chromosome banding and gene localizations support extensive conservation of chromosome structure between cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Hediger, R; Ansari, H A; Stranzinger, G F

    1991-01-01

    By using three gene probes, one derived from the porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and two from bovine cytokeratin genes, type I (KRTA) and type II (KRTB), the hypothesis of conservation of genome structure in two members of the family Bovidae was examined. Gene mapping data revealed the MHC to be in chromosome region 23q15----q23 in cattle (BOLA) and 20q15----q23 in sheep (OLA). KRTA was localized to chromosome region 19q25----q29 in cattle and 11q25----q29 in sheep and KRTB to 5q14----q22 in cattle and 3q14----q22 in sheep. The banding patterns of the chromosome arms to which the loci were assigned were identical in both species. Moreover, the resemblances of GTG- or QFQ-banding patterns between the cattle and sheep karyotypes illustrated further chromosome homologies. These studies, based on gene mapping comparisons and comparative cytogenetics, document that within bovid chromosomes, homology of banding patterns corresponds to a homologous genetic structure. Hence, we propose that gene assignments on identified chromosomal segments in one species of the Bovidae can be extrapolated, in general, to other bovid species based on the banding homologies presented here.

  3. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF ANTIBODIES TO TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SHEEP, CATTLE, AND BUFFALOES IN PUNJAB, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure employing sampling software ‘survey toolbox’. In the first step, villages were...

  4. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of emergent Arcobacter spp. isolated from cattle and sheep in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Raeisi, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    This study is conducted to determine the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Arcobacter spp. isolated from clinically healthy food animals. A total of 308 samples from cattle (200) and sheep (108) were collected from Shiraz slaughterhouse, southern Iran to investigate the presence of the important Arcobacter spp. using cultivation and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter isolates was determined for 18 antibiotics using disk diffusion method. Among 308 samples, 27 (8.7%) and 44 (14.28%) were positive for the presence of Arcobacter species with cultivation and PCR procedures, respectively. The predominant species was A. butzleri in both cattle (58.33%) and sheep (55%). In addition, concurrent incidence of the species was observed in 25% of the positive samples. All Arcobacter isolates were resistant to rifampicin, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim and cephalothin. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin. No significant difference among cattle and sheep isolates in resistance pattern was observed. The results indicate that cattle and sheep are significant intestinal carriers for Arcobacter spp. Moreover, tetracycline and aminoglycosides showed great effects on Arcobacter species in antibiogram test and can be used for treatment of human Arcobacter infections.

  5. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P

    2010-02-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies.

  6. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    PubMed Central

    HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  7. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures.

  8. Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor.

  9. Rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes--a possible T-cell marker in the pig.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, C; Binns, R M

    1975-01-01

    A proportion of pig lymphocytes form rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Factors affecting their demonstration have been investigated, and a standard technique defined. Rosette-forming lymphocytes lacked surface immunoglobulin detected by immunofluorescence and formation of rosettes was not inhibited by anti-immunoglobulin or anti-PLA sera, but was by anti-thymus serum. Of 18 species' erythrocytes tested only sheep, Barbary sheep and Mouflon erythrocytes formed rosettes in similar percentages. Fetal sheep erythrocytes formed no rosettes at 6o days of gestation and developed adult levels by term. Rosettes were formed by the majority of thymus cells, by only few bone marrow cells and by intermediate proportions of cells in other lymphoid tissues correlating with the probable order of T cell content. In pig fetuses, thymus contained postnatal levels of rosette-forming cells by 69 days, when such cells were not detected in other tissues. These data support the contention that SRBC rosettes are formed by T lymphocytes.

  10. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and cattle breeders].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Beaujean, D J M A

    2006-08-05

    It was recently observed that pig breeders in The Netherlands often carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). These MRSA strains are related to MRSA strains found in pigs. A case-control study showed that not only pig breeders but also cattle breeders are at risk of carrying MRSA. It is advised to keep pig breeders, if they are admitted to a hospital, in isolation until surveillance cultures are proven negative. This also applies to veterinarians and slaughterhouse personnel. For cattle breeders screening without isolation on admission to a hospital is sufficient.

  11. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus.

  12. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert.

  13. Bacteriophages for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry and pigs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Gyles, C L; Huff, W E; Ojha, S; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Donoghue, A M

    2008-12-01

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications of phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indicate that phage therapy is potentially useful in virulent Salmonella and E. coli infections in chickens, calves and pigs, and in control of the food-borne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter jejuni in chickens and E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. However, more rigorous and comprehensive research is required to determine the true potential of phage therapy. Particular challenges include the selection and characterization of phages, practical modes of administration, and development of formulations that maintain the viability of phages for administration. Also, meaningful evaluation of phage therapy will require animal studies that closely represent the intended use, and will include thorough investigation of the emergence and characteristics of phage resistant bacteria. As well, effective use will require understanding the ecology and dynamics of the endemic and therapeutic phages and their interactions with target bacteria in the farm environment. In the event that the potential of phage therapy is realized, adoption will depend on its efficacy and complementarity relative to other interventions. Another potential challenge will be regulatory approval.

  14. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  15. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (0.15 ± 0.08 nmol/min·mg) compared to cattle. In sheep, the relative involvement of both FMO and CYP systems (FMO/CYP) was 36/64. Virtually, only the CYP system appeared to be involved in the production of MNPSO2 in cattle liver. Methimazole significantly reduced (41 to 79%) the rate of MNPSO2 production in sheep liver microsomes whereas it did not inhibit MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive

  16. A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in triacyglyceride and fatty acid synthesis and storage in cattle muscle are correlated with intramuscular fat (IMF)%. Are the same genes also correlated with IMF% in sheep muscle, and can the same set of genes be used to estimate IMF% in both species? Results The correlation between gene expression (microarray) and IMF% in the longissimus muscle (LM) of twenty sheep was calculated. An integrated analysis of this dataset with an equivalent cattle correlation dataset and a cattle differential expression dataset was undertaken. A total of 30 genes were identified to be strongly correlated with IMF% in both cattle and sheep. The overlap of genes was highly significant, 8 of the 13 genes in the TAG gene set and 8 of the 13 genes in the FA gene set were in the top 100 and 500 genes respectively most correlated with IMF% in sheep, P-value = 0. Of the 30 genes, CIDEA, THRSP, ACSM1, DGAT2 and FABP4 had the highest average rank in both species. Using the data from two small groups of Brahman cattle (control and Hormone growth promotant-treated [known to decrease IMF% in muscle]) and 22 animals in total, the utility of a direct measure and different estimators of IMF% (ultrasound and gene expression) to differentiate between the two groups were examined. Directly measured IMF% and IMF% estimated from ultrasound scanning could not discriminate between the two groups. However, using gene expression to estimate IMF% discriminated between the two groups. Increasing the number of genes used to estimate IMF% from one to five significantly increased the discrimination power; but increasing the number of genes to 15 resulted in little further improvement. Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of a comparative approach to identify robust estimators of IMF% in the LM in cattle and sheep. We have also demonstrated a number of approaches (potentially applicable to much smaller groups of animals than conventional methods

  17. The use of epigenetic phenomena for the improvement of sheep and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Michael E.; Whitelaw, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the evidence for inheritance across generations of epigenetic marks and how this phenomenon could be exploited in the cattle and sheep industries. Epigenetic marks are chemical changes in the chromosomes that affect the expression of genes and hence the phenotype of the cell and are passed on during mitosis so that the daughter cells have the same chemical changes or epigenetic marks as the parent cell. Although most epigenetic marks are wiped clean in the process of forming a new zygote, some epigenetic marks (epimutations) may be passed on from parent to offspring. The inheritance of epigenetic marks across generations is difficult to prove as there are usually alternative explanations possible. There are few well documented cases, mainly using inbred strains of mice. The epimutations are unstable and revert to wild type after a few generations. Although, there are no known cases in sheep or cattle, it is likely that inherited epimutations occur in these species but it is unlikely that they explain a large part of the inherited or genetic variation. There is limited evidence in mice and rats that an environmental treatment can cause a change in the epigenetic marks of an animal and that this change can be passed on the next generation. If inherited epimutations occur in sheep and cattle, they will already be utilized to some extent by existing genetic improvement programs. It would be possible to modify the statistical models used in the calculation of estimated breeding values to better recognize the variance controlled by epimutations, but it would probably have, at best, a small effect on the rate on genetic (inherited) gain achieved. Although not a genetic improvement, the inheritance of epigenetic marks caused by the environment experienced by the sire offers a new opportunity in sheep and cattle breeding. However, at present we do not know if this occurs or, if it does, what environmental treatment might have a beneficial effect. PMID

  18. Comparative hepatic and extrahepatic enantioselective sulfoxidation of albendazole and fenbendazole in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Virkel, G; Lifschitz, A; Sallovitz, J; Pis, A; Lanusse, C

    2004-05-01

    The enantioselective sulfoxidation of the prochiral anthelmintic compounds albendazole (ABZ) and fenbendazole (FBZ) was investigated in liver, lung and small intestinal microsomes obtained from healthy sheep and cattle. The microsomal fractions were incubated with a 40 microM concentration of either ABZ or FBZ. Inhibition of the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) system was carried out by preincubation with 100 microM methimazole (MTZ) either with or without heat pretreatment (2 min at 50 degrees C). ABZ and FBZ were metabolized to the (+) and (-) enantiomers of their sulfoxide metabolites, named albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OFZ), respectively. ABZ sulfoxidation rates were higher (p < 0.001) than those observed for FBZ. The FMO-mediated liver sulfoxidation of ABZ was enantioselective (100%) toward the (+) ABZSO production in both species. Liver sulfoxidation of FBZ by FMO was also enantioselective toward (+) OFZ (sheep = 65%; cattle = 79%). Cytochrome P450 was found to be mainly involved in the production of (-) ABZSO in the liver. MTZ did not affect the sulfoxidation of ABZ by lung microsomes, which may indicate that FMO is not involved in the production of ABZSO in this tissue. A significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of (-) ABZSO production by liver microsomes was observed after ABZ incubation in the presence of erythromycin (cattle = 21%) and ketoconazole (sheep = 36%). Both CYP3A substrates induced a reduction in the production of (-) ABZSO (sheep = 67-78%, cattle = 50-78%) by lung microsomes. Overall, the results reported here contribute to the identification of the metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used for parasite control in ruminants.

  19. Naturally occurring sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in North American pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cases of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in pigs were diagnosed on a small farm in New York State, and in Kentucky, U.S.A. In both cases initial diagnosis was based on histopathological changes representing typical lymphoproliferative vasculitis in multiple tissues of the affect...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from sheep, cattle and deer on New Zealand pastoral farms.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Pleydell, Eve; Price-Carter, Marian; Prattley, Deborah; Collins, Desmond; de Lisle, Geoffrey; Vogue, Hinrich; Wilson, Peter; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to describe the molecular diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates obtained from sheep, cattle (beef and dairy) and deer farms in New Zealand. A total of 206 independent MAP isolates (15 beef cattle, 89 dairy cattle, 35 deer, 67 sheep) were sourced from 172 species-mobs (15 beef cattle, 66 dairy cattle, 31 deer, 60 sheep). Seventeen subtypes were identified, using a combination of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and short sequence repeat (SSR) methods. Rarefaction analysis, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), Fst pairwise comparisons and proportional similarity index (PSI) were used to describe subtype population richness, genetic structure and potential associations between livestock sectors and New Zealand two main islands (North and South). The rarefaction analysis suggests a significantly higher subtype richness in dairy cattle herds when compared to the other livestock sectors. AMOVA results indicate that the main source of subtype variation is attributable to the livestock sector from which samples were sourced suggesting that subtypes are generally sector-specific. The pairwise Fst results were similar, with low Fst values for island differences within a livestock sector when compared to between sector analyses, representing a low subtype differentiation between islands. However, for a given island, potential associations were seen between dominant subtypes and specific livestock sectors. Three subtypes accounted for 76% of the isolates. The most common of these was isolated from sheep and beef cattle in the North Island, the second most frequent subtype was mainly isolated from dairy cattle (either island), while the third most common subtype was associated with deer farmed in the South Island. The PSI analysis suggests similarities in subtypes sourced from sheep and beef cattle. This contrasted with the isolates sourced from other livestock sectors, which tended to present sector

  1. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings.

  2. Schmallenberg Virus in Belgium: Estimation of Impact in Cattle and Sheep Herds.

    PubMed

    Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  4. Rosette formation of pig T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, C; Binns, R M

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of sheep RBC rosette formation to density of thymus and blood lymphocytes was investigated. Thymocyte density was unimodal and cells of all densities rosetted equally. Blood lymphocyte density was bimodal with most rosette-forming cells in the denser ficoll layers. Papain treatment of SRBC increases rosette formation with blood lymphocytes while apparently maintaining specificity of T cells.

  5. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  6. Coprological survey of parasitic infections in pigs and cattle in slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kita, Toshimasa; Narushima, Tsuguto; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2009-08-01

    A coprological survey was performed at a slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan, from 2004 to 2007 on 129 pigs reared in 8 prefectures, and on 213 cattle reared in 21 prefectures. Eimeria spp., Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus spp. infections were found in 52 (40.3%), 32 (24.8%), 19 (14.7%) and 3 pigs (2.3%), respectively, while Eimeria spp., Capillaria bovis and Trichuris sp. infections were detected in 163 (76.5%), 15 (7.0%) and 8 cattle (3.8%), respectively. Our results suggest that environmentally resistant oocysts and eggs of parasites could be widespread at the farms examined.

  7. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Sklyarov, Oleg; Shumilov, Konstantin; Klimanov, Arkadii; Denisov, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The article presents a brief history of the brucellosis prevention in animals in the world and in the Russian Federation. Data are taken from studies on the immunogenic activity and epizootic efficacy of vaccines against brucellosis in animals, which made it possible, in the final analysis, to regard these preparations as highly important for brucellosis prevention. The relationship between the epizootic brucellosis situation in Russia and the employment of specific agents in targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats, and the sequence of their use, are presented briefly, substantiating the feasibility of their use and improvement.

  8. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    PubMed

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  9. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Page, P; Iveson, T; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2014-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious foot disease causing severe lameness in dairy cattle (worldwide) and sheep (UK). This study investigated whether DD Treponema phylogroups can be present on equipment used to trim ruminant hooves and, therefore, consider this trimming equipment as a possible vector for the transmission of DD. Equipment was tested after being used to trim DD symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle and sheep hooves, and subsequently after disinfection of equipment. After trimming, 'Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like', 'Treponema phagedenis-like' and 'Treponema denticola/T putidum-like' DD spirochaetes, were shown to be present on 23/37 (62%), 21/37 (57%) and 20/37 (54%) of knives, respectively. After disinfection, detection rates for the DD treponemes were 9/37 (24%), 6/37 (16%) and 3/37 (8%), respectively. Following culture of a swab, an isolate belonging to the T phagedenis-like spirochaetes was identified from a knife sample after trimming a DD positive cow. No isolates were obtained from knife samples after disinfection. This new data has, for the first time, identified treponemes in the farm environment, and highlighted disinfection of hoof trimming equipment between animals and between farms, as a logical precaution to limit the spread of DD.

  10. Macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs: use and development of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, Satu; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-05-01

    Macrolides and lincosamides are important antibacterials for the treatment of many common infections in cattle and pigs. Products for in-feed medication with these compounds in combination with other antimicrobials are commonly used in Europe. Most recently approved injectable macrolides have very long elimination half-lives in both pigs and cattle, which allows once-only dosing regimens. Both in-feed medication and use of long-acting injections result in low concentrations of the active substance for prolonged periods, which causes concerns related to development of antimicrobial resistance. Acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides among food animal pathogens, including some zoonotic bacteria, has now emerged. A comparison of studies on the prevalence of resistance is difficult, since for many micro-organisms no agreed standards for susceptibility testing are available. With animal pathogens, the most dramatic increase in resistance has been seen in the genus Brachyspira. Resistance towards macrolides and lincosamides has also been detected in staphylococci isolated from pigs and streptococci from cattle. This article reviews the use of macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs, as well as the development of resistance in target and some zoonotic pathogens. The focus of the review is on European conditions.

  11. Comparison of direct culture versus PCR for the detection of Brucella in aborted fetuses of cattle and sheep in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Buyukcangaz, E; Sen, A; Carli, K T; Kahya, S

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this study was to detect Brucella in samples from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle in Turkey using PCR and bacteriological analysis, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR. Organ homogenates from 38 aborted fetuses of cattle and 56 aborted fetuses of sheep were tested. All organ homogenates were cultured for bacteriological analysis, and all of the homogenates and the Brucella isolates obtained by culture were examined with a commercial PCR kit. On bacteriological analysis, Brucella species were found in 30 (31.9 per cent) of the 94 organ homogenates, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 22 (39.3 per cent) from sheep. Using PCR, a total of 29 (30.9 per cent) homogenates were positive for Brucella species, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 21 (37.5 per cent) from sheep. Compared with the bacteriological method, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the PCR kit used in this study were 83 per cent and 94 per cent, respectively.

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in camel, cattle, goat and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep and goats are harve...

  13. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  14. Rostellar hook morphology of larval Echinococcus granulosus isolates from the Indian buffalo and Iranian sheep, cattle and camel.

    PubMed

    Gholami, S; Irshadullah, M; Mobedi, I

    2011-09-01

    Isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from the Indian buffalo and Iranian sheep, cattle and camels were characterized on the basis of rostellar hook morphology of the protoscolices. Results obtained indicated phenotypic polymorphism among parasites isolated from different host species. Isolates from buffalo are morphologically quite different from those of the more common sheep and cattle isolates and may represent a different strain, adapted to buffalo. In the Sari region of northern Iran, two morphologically distinct forms of E. granulosus, one in sheep and one in camels, were identified. Total length and handle length of both large and small hooks were considered the most variable characteristics which could be used not only for differentiating parasite isolates from different host species but also the origin of infection in the definitive host. We therefore suggest that larval hook morphology may be considered as a valid criterion for the identification of E. granulosus strains in Iran.

  15. Airborne Salmonella and Listeria associated with Irish commercial beef, sheep and pig plants.

    PubMed

    Okraszewska-Lasica, Wioletta; Bolton, D J; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A

    2014-06-01

    Air samples from lairage, hide/fleece pulling or dehairing/scraping, evisceration and chilling areas in commercial beef, sheep and pig plants were examined for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, by impaction or sedimentation onto selective (Brilliant Green Agar, BSA; Listeria Selective Agar, LSA) and non-selective (Plate Count Agar, PCA) media. Both pathogens were frequently detected in all three plants. Improved recoveries were achieved by combining sedimentation, and broth based resuscitation, suggesting cell injury. Salmonella were recovered from all three plants, with the highest counts on BGA in the pig plant. The most common serotypes were S. Typhimurium in the beef/sheep plants and S. Derby in the pig plant. Very low counts of L. monocytogenes (e.g. 2.6CFUm(2)) were detected at hide removal on LSA sedimentation plates in the beef plant. These included serogroup 1/2a-3a and 1/2b-3b-7. Pathogen counts in the three plants were generally very low, suggesting that air is unlikely to be a significant source of carcass or plant surface contamination.

  16. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  17. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  18. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  19. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in tissues of cattle, sheep, and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.H.; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Buhs, R.P.; Green, M.; Sestokas, R.; Vandenheuvel, W.J.; Arison, B.H.; Jacob, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    The metabolic disposition of ivermectin, a new antiparasitic drug, has been studied in cattle, sheep, and also in rats dosed with the drug labeled with tritium in the C-22,23 positions. In the edible tissues of these animals, the unaltered drug was the major tissue residue component and was quantitated by HPLC-reverse isotope dilution assay. The depletion half-lives of the drug ranged between 1 and 6 days, similar to those of the total tissue residue in these species. Most metabolites present in the liver tissues were more polar than the parent drug. Based on spectral (NMR, mass spectrometric) analysis and chromatographic comparison with authentic compounds prepared by in vitro rat or steer microsomal incubations, three of these metabolites have been isolated and identified as the hydroxylation derivatives of ivermectin, i.e. 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1a, its monosaccharide, and 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1b.

  20. Interlaboratory and between-specimen comparisons of diagnostic tests for leptospirosis in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Collins-Emerson, Julie M; Heuer, Cord; Hill, Fraser I; Tisdall, David J; Wilson, Peter R; Benschop, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    A study was performed to investigate interlaboratory test agreement between a research and a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory on blood and urine samples, and to investigate test agreement between blood, urine, and kidney samples (research laboratory) for leptospirosis diagnosis. Samples were sourced from 399 sheep and 146 beef cattle from a local abattoir. Interlaboratory agreement for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results on urine samples was almost perfect (kappa = 0.90), despite the use of different amplification targets (DNA gyrase subunit B gene vs. 16s ribosomal RNA gene), chemistries (SYTO9 vs. TaqMan probe), and pre-PCR processing. Interlaboratory agreement for microscopic agglutination test (MAT) positivity was almost perfect (kappa = 0.93) for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo subtype Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) but moderate (kappa = 0.53) for Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona). Among animals that had different titers recorded, higher Hardjobovis and lower Pomona titers were reported by the commercial laboratory than by the research laboratory (P < 0.005). These interlaboratory comparisons can assist researchers and diagnosticians in interpreting the sometimes discrepant test results. Within the research laboratory, the comparison of qPCR results on urine and kidney showed almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.84), suggesting that the qPCR on these 2 specimens can be used interchangeably. The agreement between MAT positivity and urine and kidney qPCR results was fair (kappa = 0.32 and kappa = 0.33, respectively). However, the prevalence ratio of urine and kidney qPCR positivity in Hardjobovis-seropositive versus Hardjobovis-seronegative sheep indicated that Hardjobovis seropositivity found in sheep may be able to predict shedding or renal carriage.

  1. Susceptibility of sheep, human, and pig erythrocytes to haemolysis by the antimicrobial peptide Modelin 5.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sarah R; Phoenix, David A

    2014-09-01

    Modelin-5-CONH2, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, was used to gain an insight into species-selective haemolytic activity. The peptide displayed limited haemolytic activity against sheep (12%), human (2%), and pig (2%) erythrocytes. Our results show that Modelin-5-CONH2 had a disordered structure in the presence of vesicles formed from sheep, human, and pig erythrocyte lipid extract (<26% helical) yet folded to form helices in the presence of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane interface (e.g. >42% in the presence of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Monolayer studies showed a strong correlation between anionic lipid content and monolayer insertion and lysis inducing surface pressure changes of 9.17 mN m(-1) for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine compared with PC monolayers, which induced pressure changes of ca. 3 mN m(-1). The presence of cholesterol in the membrane is shown to increase the packing density as the PC:sphingomyelin (SM) ratio increases so preventing the peptide from forming a stable association with the membrane. The data suggests that the key driver for membrane interaction for Modelin-5-CONH2 is the anionic lipid attraction. However, the key factors in the species-specific haemolysis level for this peptide are the differing packing densities which are influenced by the SM:PC:cholesterol ratio.

  2. Bacteriophage for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry, and pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indica...

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts.

  4. Pathogenic characteristics of the Korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Oem, J K; Yeh, M T; McKenna, T S; Hayes, J R; Rieder, E; Giuffre, A C; Robida, J M; Lee, K N; Cho, I S; Fang, X; Joo, Y S; Park, J H

    2008-05-01

    Experimental infection of susceptible cattle and pigs showed that the O/SKR/AS/2002 pig strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an infection that is highly virulent and contagious in pigs but very limited in cattle. Pigs directly inoculated with, or exposed to swine infected with, strain O/SKR/AS/2002 showed typical clinical signs, including gross vesicular lesions in mouth and pedal sites. In addition, FMDV was isolated from, and FMDV genomic RNA was detected in, blood, serum, nasal swabs and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid early in the course of infection. Antibodies against the non-structural protein (NSP) 3ABC were detected in both directly inoculated and contact pigs, indicating active virus replication. In contrast, the disease in cattle was atypical. After inoculation, lesions were confined to the infection site. A transient viraemia occurred 1 and 2 days after inoculation, and this was followed by the production of antibodies to NSP 3ABC, indicating subclinical infection. No clinical disease was seen, and no antibodies to NSP 3ABC were present in contact cattle. Additionally, no virus or viral nucleic acid was detected in blood, nasal swab and OP fluid samples from contact cattle. Thus, the virus appeared not to be transmitted from infected cattle to contact cattle. In its behaviour in pigs and cattle, strain O/SKR/AS/2002 resembled the porcinophilic FMDV strain of Cathay origin, O/TAW/97. However, the latter, unlike O/SKR/AS/2002, has reduced ability to grow in bovine-derived cells. The porcinophilic character of O/TAW/97 has been attributed to a deletion in the 3A coding region of the viral genome. However, O/SKR/AS/2002 has an intact 3A coding region.

  5. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  6. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii Antibodies in Bulk Milk from Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Kersh, Gilbert J

    2017-04-01

    This large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors for the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk derived from dairy cattle, sheep, and goats in Jordan. Bulk milk samples were collected from 78 dairy cattle, 48 sheep, and 23 goat farms from various places in Jordan according to the density of these animal species in each region of the country. The samples were tested for C. burnetii antibodies using the CHEKIT Q-Fever Antibody ELISA kit. A standardized questionnaire was also used to collect data from each farm to identify and rank the risk factors for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The results revealed that 62.9% (95% confidence interval: 55.1 to 70.0%) of the tested ruminant farms were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Positive results were obtained from 70.9% (60.6 to 79.5%) of dairy cattle farms, 52.1% (38.3 to 65.5%) of sheep farms, and 56.0% (37.1 to 73.3%) of goat farms. Six factors were associated with the presence of these antibodies on cattle farms, and five factors were associated with these antibodies on sheep and goat farms (chi-square test). The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that large dairy cattle farms, farms that add new animals to the herd, farms that infrequently clean the feeders, and farms in particular areas are 28.6, 19.9, 8.0, and 6.4 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. Sheep and goat farms that mix their animals with those from other farms, graze more than 5 km, and infrequently sanitize the feeders were 8.0, 0.06, and 13.6 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. These data reveal the widespread exposure of Jordanian ruminants to C. burnetii and suggest a high risk for public health.

  8. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-08-30

    Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.

  10. Systematic review of the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo; Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis or Johne's disease (JD) in domestic ruminants and wild species. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the prevalence of paratuberculosis among farmed animals (cattle, sheep, and goats) in Latin America and the Caribbean. The initial search for existing publications reporting systematic reviews and primary studies was carried out by searching the available databases. For the final selection of studies, an initial screen for basic eligibility and a detailed appraisal of quality were performed. After study selection, the relevant data were extracted. The detailed appraisal generated 24 publications that reported 52 studies, of which 73.1, 11.5, and 15.4 % were from cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively. Thirty-three (63.5 %) of the studies were animal level studies, while 19 (36.5 %) were herd-/flock-level studies. No flock-level studies on prevalence in sheep were found. Studies in Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed an overall prevalence of 16.9 (95 % CI (confidence interval) 13.2-20.5) and 75.8 % (95 % CI 50.1-101.5) in cattle at the animal and herd levels, respectively; the prevalence was 16 % (95 % CI 7.9-24.1) in sheep at the animal level and 4.3 % (95 % CI 1.9-6.8) and 3.7 % (95 % CI 0.1-7.4) in goats at the animal and flock levels, respectively. In general, prevalence results reported by the studies were insufficient to accurately determine the prevalence of paratuberculosis in farmed animals in Latin America and the Caribbean. Several flaws in the design of studies limit the quality of evidence regarding the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the region.

  11. In vitro culture and embryo metabolism of cattle and sheep embryos - a decade of achievement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J G

    2000-07-02

    At the beginning of the 1990s, co-culture of cattle and sheep embryos was the most favoured method to support embryo development, but the use of this system has hampered progress in raising the efficiency of embryo production. Furthermore, little was known of the requirements of embryos and the biochemistry of early embryo development. As the decade progressed, energy metabolism studies improved our understanding of the energy substrate requirements for embryo development. Furthermore, an appreciation of the reproductive tract environment increased. This resulted in more "defined" systems, which have evolved further in the development of "sequential" media systems, where components change in accordance to the needs of the embryo. Nevertheless, wholly defined systems, such as the replacement of albumin with PVA, are less able to support similar levels of development as protein-containing medium, and the resulting embryos are metabolically compromised. This highlights the nutritive role of albumin. One area in which much work has been conducted, but yet no unifying theory has emerged, is that of the interactive roles of growth factors (including autocrine/paracrine), cytokines and extra-cellular matrix molecules in the development of a viable embryo. A new concept is that of regulation of energy metabolism. Compounds such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), NaN(3) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have been shown to increase embryo development and quality of resulting embryos. This demonstrates that the process of ATP production is a key regulator of in vitro embryo development.

  12. Advanced comparative cytogenetic analysis of X chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, sheep, and human.

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; Rebl, A; Di Berardino, D; Goldammer, T; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2012-05-01

    Based on a recently generated comprehensive gene map for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) with an approximately even locus distribution, we assigned selected bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes corresponding to these OARX loci to Bubalus bubalis (BBU) and Bos taurus (BTA) by comparative fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to improve cytogenetically the X chromosome maps in these species. Twenty-five added loci in BBUX and BTAX, respectively, contribute to a more detailed description of the cytogenetic organization of these chromosomes. Further seven loci were identified in OARX and two DNA probes were assigned to X and Y chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, and sheep, respectively, and thus identified loci in the pseudoautosomal region. The additional assignments double the number of cytogenetic loci in BBUX and increase their number in BTAX and OARX. The larger quantity of cytogenetic anchors allows a more precise morphological comparison of bovid X chromosomes among each other and with the Homo sapiens (HSA) X chromosome. The anchor loci confirm and refine syntenic fragments in HSAX and identify several evolutionary breakpoints between the compared chromosomes. The cytogenetic assignments in BBUX, BTAX, and OARX represent useable anchors for the ongoing genome sequence assembly in Bovidae.

  13. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in reproduction of sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Gulliver, C E; Friend, M A; King, B J; Clayton, E H

    2012-03-01

    The positive effects of fat and energy supplementation on improvements in reproduction are well documented. However, the specific effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3) on reproductive success in ruminants have not been examined in detail. While the link between n-3 and markers associated with reproduction, in particular, prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) and the link between PGF(2α) and reproductive outcomes are well established, evidence of a direct effect of high n-3 diets on measurable reproductive outcomes in ruminants is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to examine the effect of n-3 on a number of reproductive markers and measurable outcomes in sheep and cattle. There is strong evidence linking consumption of diets high in n-3 with reduced circulating peripheral inflammatory markers such as PGF(2α). Inflammatory eicosanoids including PGF(2α), in particular, can significantly affect reproduction outcomes such as the onset of oestrus, embryo survival and parturition. While there is also evidence linking n-3 supplementation with longer time to oestrus and parturition associated with reduced PGF(2α), the effects of n-3 on other measurable outcomes of reproductive success, such as pregnancy rate, embryo survival and intergenerational effects on the health and production of offspring are largely unknown. Similarly, the effects of diets high in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on male fertility are also unknown.

  14. Use of a percutaneous transabdominal catheter for management of obstructive urolithiasis in goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs: 69 cases (2000-2014).

    PubMed

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Heller, Meera C; Balcomb, Christie C; Angelos, John A

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a percutaneous transabdominal catheter (PTC) for urinary bladder drainage in goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs with obstructive urolithiasis. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 43 goats, 10 sheep, and 16 potbellied pigs (all males) with obstructive urolithiasis evaluated at the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. PROCEDURES Medical records of goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs examined because of obstructive urolithiasis from January 2000 through December 2014 were reviewed. Records of animals for which a standard PTC had been placed into the urinary bladder as part of disease management were selected. Data were collected regarding signalment, complications associated with PTC placement, and duration of PTC placement prior to removal. RESULTS 42 of 43 goats, 5 of 10 sheep, and all potbellied pigs were castrated. Median (range) duration of PTC placement was 2 (1 to 4) days for goats, 1 (1 to 4) day for sheep, and 1 (1 to 3) day for potbellied pigs. Complications associated with PTC placement included blockage of the catheter by urine sediment, perforation of the cecum, and migration of the catheter out of the urinary bladder. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Placement of a PTC into the urinary bladder allowed for effective stabilization of goats, sheep, and potbellied pigs with obstructive urolithiasis while acid-base and electrolyte imbalances were corrected. Use of a PTC should be considered for urinary bladder drainage during medical management or prior to surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis for these species.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Nielsen, E M; Madsen, M; Engberg, J

    1997-01-01

    The MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined for 202 Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 123 Campylobacter coli isolates, and 6 Campylobacter lari isolates from humans and food animals in Denmark. The C. jejuni isolates originated from humans (75), broilers (95), cattle (29), and pigs (3); the C. coli isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1). All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Only a few C. jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to tetracycline was more common among C. jejuni isolates from humans (11%) than among C. jejuni isolates from animals (0 to 2%). More resistance to streptomycin was found among C. jejuni isolates from cattle (10%) than among those from humans (4%) or broilers (1%). A greater proportion of C. coli than of C. jejuni isolates were resistant to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates were in most cases either coresistant to tylosin, spiramycin, and erythromycin or susceptible to all three antibiotics. More macrolide-resistant isolates were observed among C. coli isolates from swine (79%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (18%) and humans (14%). Twenty-four percent of C. coli isolates from pigs were resistant to enrofloxacin, whereas 29% of C. coli isolates from humans and none from broilers were resistant. More resistance to streptomycin was observed among C. coli isolates from swine (48%) than among C. coli isolates from broilers (6%) or humans (0%). The six C. lari isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents except ampicillin and nalidixic acid. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance was found only at relatively low frequencies among C. jejuni and C. lari isolates. Among C. coli isolates, especially from swine, there was a high level of resistance to macrolides and streptomycin. Furthermore, this study showed differences in the resistance

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  17. Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Imamovic, Lejla; Jofre, Juan; Muniesa, Maite

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in animal environments. bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M) (clusters 1 and 9), and mecA were quantified by quantitative PCR in 71 phage DNA samples from pigs, poultry, and cattle fecal wastes. Densities of 3 to 4 log(10) gene copies (GC) of bla(TEM), 2 to 3 log(10) GC of bla(CTX-M), and 1 to 3 log(10) GC of mecA per milliliter or gram of sample were detected, suggesting that bacteriophages can be environmental vectors for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes.

  18. Screening of different sample types associated with sheep and cattle for the presence of nematophagous fungi in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kui-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Long-Jie; Chen, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Ming-Wang; Wu, Jia-Yan; Li, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Jing; Wei, Shuan; Chen, Chun-Rong; Ma, Zhong-Ren; Xu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Feng; Hu, Qian-Lin; Fang, Wen-Xiu; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhu, Wen-Long; Li, Dan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Bing; Wang, Fan; Yang, Zai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1502 samples, including feces of sheep (793) and cattle (348), pasture soil (118), dung compost (147) and barn soil (96), were examined between October 2012 and August 2014 to discover potential strains of nematophagous fungi for the biological control of livestock-parasitic nematodes. These samples were collected from 87 sites located in 48 counties of 20 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) of China. Fungi were identified down to a species level. Four hundred and seventy-seven isolates, which were distributed in 8 genera and 28 taxa, were identified as nematophagous fungi. Nematode-trapping fungi included 17 species and one unidentified species of Arthrobotrys, two of Dactylella, Drechslerella dactyloides, and Duddingtonia flagrans. Five identified species and two unidentified species of endoparasitic fungi were isolated. The predominant species from all regions were Arthrobotrys oligospora, followed by Arthrobotrys musiformis, Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) thaumasiun, and Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) microscaphoides. Species with adhesive networks were the most frequently isolated. Among the endoparasitic fungi, Podocrella harposporifera (Harposporium anguillulae) was the most common species, followed by Harposporium lilliputanum and Harposporium arcuatum. Based on Shannon diversity index, the diversity levels of nematophagous fungi were relatively higher in samples associated with cattle, barn soil, and subtropical monsoon climate zone. Three species isolated from this study, namely, Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys salina (Monacrosporium salinum), and Arthrobotrys oligospora var. sarmatica, are newly recorded in China, and 20 species (including one unidentified species) are newly recorded in sheep and cattle barn soils worldwide.

  19. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7 in European cattle and sheep: diagnostic considerations and effect of previous BTV exposure.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Wernike, Kerstin; Batten, Carrie A; Savini, Giovanni; Edwards, Lorraine; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Teodori, Liana; Oura, Chris A L; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-10-12

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants that is closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). The present study examines the outcome of an experimental EHDV-7 infection of Holstein cattle and East Frisian sheep. Apart from naïve animals that had not been exposed to BTV, it included animals that had been experimentally infected with either BTV-6 or BTV-8 two months earlier. In addition, EHDV-infected cattle were subsequently challenged with BTV-8. Samples were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits and a custom NS3-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Virus isolation was attempted in Vero, C6/36 and KC cells (from Culicoides variipennis), embryonated chicken eggs and type I interferon receptor-deficient IFNAR(-/-) mice. EHDV-7 productively infected Holstein cattle, but caused no clinical signs. The inoculation of East Frisian sheep, on the other hand, apparently did not lead to a productive infection. The commercial diagnostic kits performed adequately. KC cells proved to be the most sensitive means of virus isolation, but viremia was shorter than 2 weeks in most animals. No interference between EHDV and BTV infection was observed; therefore the pre-existing immunity to some BTV serotypes in Europe is not expected to protect against a possible introduction of EHDV, in spite of the close relation between the viruses.

  20. Nutritional studies on East African herbivores. 1. Digestibilities of dry matter , crude fibre and crude protein in antelope, cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Arman, P; Hopcraft, D

    1975-03-01

    1. A series of digestibility trials was done using four animals of each of the following species: Friesian cattle (Bos taurus), Boran zebu cattle (Bos indicus), Corriedale sheep, fat-tailed sheep, eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and bush duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.). 2. Two batches of pelleted food were prepared from ground maize cobs, cassava, whs (A-E) were prepared containing 65 (A)-135 (E) g crude protein (nitrogen times 6-25)/kg dry matter. The crude-fibre contents of all the diets were similar (120-138 g/kg dry matter). 3. The animals were given the high-protein diet (E), then given diets with decreasing protein contents finishing with the low-protein (A). The antelope and half the sheep were given diets from the first batch of pelleted food, the other four sheep and all the cattle were given diets from the second batch of food. 4. In sheep, there were significant differences in digestibility between the two batches of food. 5. There were no significant differences in the over-all mean digestibilities of all diets when given to cattle (both species) and sheep. However, with diet E, dry-matter digestibility was higher in sheep than in cattle (P smaller than 0-05): the reverse was true with diet A (P smaller than 0-001). Crude-fibre and crude-protein digestibilities followed a similar pattern. The differences between Corriedale and fat-tailed sheep were not significant. The only significant difference between the two species of cattle was the higher digestibility of crude protein in Borans given diet E (P smaller than 0-05). 6. The over-all mean digestibility of the dry matter was higher (P smaller than 0-001) in hartebeest and duiker than in sheep; in Thomson's gazelle (P smaller than 0-01) and eland (P smaller than 0-001) it was lower than in sheep. The values for crude-fibre digestibilities varied in a similar way. 7. The mean apparent digestibility of

  1. Standards for Clostridium chauvoei vaccine--the relationship between the response of guinea pigs and sheep following vaccination and challenge with virulent C. chauvoei.

    PubMed

    Crichton, R; Harriss, D A; McKay, D J

    1986-03-01

    Twelve commercial 5-component clostridial vaccines with known variations in potency of the blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei) component, were simultaneously tested in sheep and guinea pigs. Controlled challenge experiments provided evidence of a highly significant correlation in the response of the 2 species. The guinea pig laboratory model is considered to be a valid indicator of field performance for vaccines containing blackleg antigen.

  2. Cytogenetic anchoring of radiation hybrid and virtual maps of sheep chromosome X and comparison of X chromosomes in sheep, cattle, and human.

    PubMed

    Goldammer, Tom; Brunner, Ronald M; Rebl, Alexander; Wu, Chun Hua; Nomura, Ko; Hadfield, Tracy; Maddox, Jill F; Cockett, Noelle E

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive physical map was generated for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) based on a cytogenomics approach. DNA probes were prepared from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-243 sheep library and were assigned to G-banded metaphase spreads via fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). A total of 22 BACs gave a single hybridization signal to the X chromosome and were assigned out of 32 tested. The positioned BACs contained 16 genes and a microsatellite marker which represent new cytogenetically mapped loci in the sheep genome. The gene and microsatellite loci serve to anchor between the existing radiation hybrid (RH) and virtual sheep genome (VSG) maps to the cytogenetic OARX map, whilst the BACs themselves also serve as anchors between the VSG and the cytogenetic maps. An additional 17 links between the RH and cytogenetic maps are provided by BAC end sequence (BES) derived markers that have also been positioned on the RH map. Comparison of the map orders for the cytogenetic, RH, and virtual maps reveals that the orders for the cytogenetic and RH maps are most similar, with only one locus, represented by BAC CH243-330E18, mapping to relatively different positions. Several discrepancies, including an inverted segment are found when comparing both the cytogenetic and RH maps with the virtual map. These discrepancies highlight the value of using physical mapping methods to inform the process of future in silico map construction. A detailed comparative analysis of sheep, human, and cattle mapping data allowed the construction of a comparative map that confirms and expands the knowledge about evolutionary conservation and break points between the X chromosomes of the three mammalian species.

  3. The development of PCR methodology for the identification of species of the tapeworm Moniezia from cattle, goats and sheep in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T D; Le, Q D; Huynh, V V; Nguyen, S T; Nguyen, T V; Vu-Khac, H

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of Moniezia spp. in domestic ruminants in central Vietnam and to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to distinguish M. expansa from M. benedeni. Among 2040 examined domestic animals (540 cattle, 800 goats, 700 sheep) Moniezia was recovered from 5.4% of cattle, 16.4% of sheep and 20.6% of goats. A set of primers for PCR was designed to classify M. expansa and M. benedeni based on the amplification of DNA corresponding to the internal transcribed spacer of 5.8S rRNA. The 457 specimens (75 from cattle, 162 from goats, 150 from sheep, 30 from horses, 30 from chickens and 10 from dogs) were subjected to PCR for classification of Moniezia spp. PCR products with the expected sizes were amplified from bovine, ovine and caprine specimens. No specific PCR products were found for specimens from horses, chickens and dogs. Of the 75 specimens from cattle, nine were classified as M. expansa and 66 were M. benedeni. Among 162 caprine specimens, 138 were M. expansa and 24 were M. benedeni. The distribution of M. expansa and M. benedeni in 150 ovine specimens was 132 and 18, respectively. These results show that M. expansa is dominant in goats and sheep, whereas M. benedeni is more common in cattle; PCR can be used for classification of these two species.

  4. Exploratory trial to determine the efficacy of the PYthon and the PYthon Magnum slow-release insecticide ear tags for the control of midges (Culicoides spp.), attacking sheep and cattle and flies attacking cattle.

    PubMed

    Goosen, H; de Vries, P J T; Fletcher, M G

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the prophylactic action of the chemical combination zeta-cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide, administered by means of slow-release insecticide-impregnated ear tags, against biting midges (Culicoides spp) attacking sheep and against midges, horn flies (Haematobia irritant), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), and houseflies (Musca domestica) attacking cattle. Treated sheep and cattle were protected 100 percent against blood-feeding midges for two months and there was a clear reduction in the number of midges collected from treated animals. Three days after the ear tags were attached to cattle, the number of horn flies on the cattle was reduced to practically zero and remained at a low level until the end of the trial (day 85). There was also a strong reduction in the numbers of stable flies and houseflies counted.

  5. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Damgaard, Dana; Alexander, Trevor W; Dugan, Mike E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2006-03-08

    The persistence of plant-derived recombinant DNA in sheep and pigs fed genetically modified (Roundup Ready) canola was assessed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis of DNA extracted from digesta, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, and visceral organs. Sheep (n = 11) and pigs (n = 36) were fed to slaughter on diets containing 6.5 or 15% Roundup Ready canola. Native plant DNA (high- and low-copy-number gene fragments) and the cp4 epsps transgene that encodes 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase were tracked in ruminal, abomasal, and large intestinal digesta and in tissue from the esophagus, rumen, abomasum, small and large intestine, liver, and kidney of sheep and in cecal content and tissue from the duodenum, cecum, liver, spleen, and kidney of pigs. High-copy chloroplast-specific DNA (a 520-bp fragment) was detected in all digesta samples, the majority (89-100%) of intestinal tissues, and at least one of each visceral organ sample (frequencies of 3-27%) from sheep and swine. Low-copy rubisco fragments (186- and 540-bp sequences from the small subunit) were present at slightly lower, variable frequencies in digesta (18-82%) and intestinal tissues (9-27% of ovine and 17-25% of porcine samples) and infrequently in visceral organs (1 of 88 ovine samples; 3 of 216 porcine samples). Each of the five cp4 epsps transgene fragments (179-527 bp) surveyed was present in at least 27% of ovine large intestinal content samples (maximum = 64%) and at least 33% of porcine cecal content samples (maximum = 75%). In sheep, transgene fragments were more common in intestinal digesta than in ruminal or abomasal content. Transgene fragments were detected in 0 (esophagus) to 3 (large intestine) GI tract tissues from the 11 sheep and in 0-10 of the duodenal and cecal tissues collected from 36 pigs. The feed-ingested recombinant DNA was not detected in visceral tissues (liver, kidney) of lambs or in the spleen from pigs. Of note, however, one liver and one kidney sample from

  6. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hoseinzadeh, Saeid; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Aski, Hesamaddin Shirzad; Berizi, Enayat

    2016-01-01

    Although poultry meat is considered as the main source for human Campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from Shiraz slaughterhouse. The animals were clinically healthy before being slaughtered. The samples were cultured according to the specific cultivation method under thermophilic conditions. The susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates were determined for 13 antimicrobial agents. All enriched samples and cultured isolates were targeted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and multiplex PCR for determining their species. Among 302 fecal samples, 65 (21.5%) and 205 (67.8%) samples were positive for the presence of Campylobacter species with the cultivation and PCR techniques, respectively. All 65 distinct isolates were susceptible to neomycin and colistin and the isolates showed high resistance to cephalotin (83.0%) and ciprofloxacin (67.7%). After the multiplex PCR, 78.5% of total positive samples showed the simultaneous presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In conclusion, the results emphasized that non-poultry farms are important as a possible source of Campylobacter infections. PMID:27872721

  8. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-09

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission.

  9. Comparison of cattle and sheep colonic permeabilities to horseradish peroxidase and hamster scrapie prion protein in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKie, A; Zammit, P; Naftalin, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Paracellular permeability to solutes across the descending colon is much higher in cattle than sheep. This is a possible route for transmission of infective materials, such as scrapie prion.
AIMS—To compare the permeabilities of labelled scrapie prion protein and other macromolecules in bovine and ovine descending colons in vitro.
METHODS—Using fresh slaughterhouse material, transepithelial fluxes of macromolecules across colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers were measured by monitoring transport of either enzyme activity or radioactivity.
RESULTS—The comparative bovine to ovine permeability ratio of the probes increased with molecular weight: from 3.1 (0.13) for PEG400 to 10.67 (0.20) (p<0.001) for PEG4000; and from 1.64 (0.17) for microperoxidase to 7.03 (0.20) (p<0.001) for horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The permeability of 125I-labelled inactivated Syrian hamster scrapie prion protein (ShaPrPsc) was 7.02 (0.33)-fold higher in bovine than ovine colon (p<0.0025). In each species, the probe permeabilities decreased according to the formula: P = Po.exp(−K.ra). The "ideal" permeabilities, Po are similar, however, K(ovine) = 2.46 (0.20) cm/h/nm exceeds K(bovine) = 0.85 (0.15) cm/h/nm (p<0.001) indicating that bovine colon has a higher proportion of wide pores than ovine. Image analysis confirmed that HRP permeated through the bovine mucosal layer via a pericryptal paracellular route much more rapidly than in sheep.
CONCLUSIONS—These data may imply that scrapie prion is transmitted in vivo more easily across the low resistance bovine colonic barrier than in other species.


Keywords: cattle; sheep; colon; paracellular permeability; horseradish peroxidase; hamster scrapie prion protein PMID:10562587

  10. Comparison of the diurnal pattern and magnitude of velocities of goats (Capra Hircus), sheep (Ovis Aries), horses (Equus Caballus) and cattle (Bos Taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ungulates were bred over the last four thousand years to provide man with food, fiber and motive power. Cattle, horses, sheep and goats arose from different animal ancestors and serve different purposes based upon their unique characteristics. We hypothesized that each species would have ...

  11. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  12. Differential molecular identification of Taeniid spp. and Sarcocystis spp. cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Villalobos, N; Montero, E; Morales, J; Sanz, R Alamo; Muro, A; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E; Gárate, T

    2006-11-30

    In the present work, the species-specific identification of Taeniid spp. cysticerci and sarcocystis cysts isolated from infected pigs and cattle was achieved by PCR. In particular: (i) multiplex-PCR derived from HDP2 DNA fragment, specific for Taenia saginata/Taenia solium; (ii) PCRs and PCR-RFLPs of the rDNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) for the differential diagnosis of taeniids; (iii) PCR derived from the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing, specific for Sarcoystis spp. The combined application of these three PCR protocols provided an unequivocally specific diagnosis of T. saginata, T. solium, T. hydatigena, Sarcocystis hominis and Sarcocystis suihominis, and may have practical application in the identification of calcified degenerating or morphologically dubious cysts, for example in the slaughter house situation or in human biopsy samples.

  13. Epidemiological relatedness and clonal types of natural populations of Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga toxins in separate populations of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Beutin, L; Geier, D; Zimmermann, S; Aleksic, S; Gillespie, H A; Whittam, T S

    1997-01-01

    Two separate animal populations consisting of a herd of cattle (19 animals) and a flock of sheep (25 animals) were investigated for strains of Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (STEC) over a time period of 6 months. Thirty-three STEC were isolated from 63.2% of cattle and grouped into 11 serotypes and eight electrophoretic types (ETs) by multilocus enzyme analysis. In sheep, 88% of the animals excreted STEC (n = 67 isolates) belonging to 17 different serotypes and 12 different ETs. STEC from cattle and sheep differed with respect to serotype, and only 4 of the 16 ETs occurred in both animal populations. In cattle, ET14 (O116:H21) strains predominated, whereas other STEC serotypes occurred only sporadically. The predominating STEC types in sheep were ET4 (O125 strains), ET11 (O128:H2 and others), and ET14 (O146:H21). In contrast to their diversity, STEC originating from the same animal population were similar with respect to Shiga toxin (stxy genes. Almost all STEC isolated from cattle were positive for stx2 and stx2c; only one was positive for stx1. In sheep, almost all STEC isolated were positive for stx1 and stx2, whereas stx2c was not found. XbaI-digested DNAs of genetically closely related O146:H21 strains have different restriction profiles which were associated with size alterations in XbaI fragments hybridizing with stx1- and stx2-specific DNA probes. Our results indicate that stx-encoding bacteriophages might be the origin of the genetic heterogeneity in STEC from animals. PMID:9172336

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in cattle, sheep, and goats at consorted rearing from the State of Piauí, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ângela Piauilino; Miranda, Dayane Francisca Higino; Rodrigues, Huanna Waleska Soares; da Silva Carneiro Lustosa, Micherlene; Martins, Gustavo Henrique Chaves; Mineiro, Ana Lys Bezerra Barradas; Castro, Vanessa; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; de Sousa Silva, Silvana Maria Medeiros

    2017-03-29

    Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is considered one of the main causes responsible for the negative economic impact on global livestock by causing reproductive problems. The research aimed to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle, sheep, and goats at consorted rearing in the micro-region of Teresina, Piauí state, northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify prevalent serovars and risk factors associated with seroprevalence. Serum samples were analyzed in 336 sheep, 292 goats, and 253 cattle using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Overall, 378 samples were positive to MAT, with seroprevalence of 42.9%. The prevalences in cattle, sheep, and goats were 50.5, 40.5, and 34.6%, respectively. All herds presented at least one seropositive animal; the Hardjo/Wolffi serovar association was the most common in cattle and Icterohaemorrhagiae in goats and sheep. Beef production (OR = 4.9), cattle herd over 35 animals (OR = 4.0), feeding on pasture (OR = 6.4), weir and/or stream as water source (OR = 2.1), and no veterinary services (OR = 2.9) were risk factors for cattle infection. For sheep, intensive management system (OR = 5.3), suspended slatted facilities (OR = 2.2), more than 20 sheep in reproductive age (OR = 1.9), and absence of deworming (OR = 3.5) were the risk factors, while for goats, the identified risk factors were sheep herd over 52 animals (OR = 1.9) and no veterinary services (OR = 1.8). We conclude that the infection was spreading in consorted herds in this region. Thus, it would be interesting and important to conduct educative activities to farmers on the economic impacts of this disease and the need of preventive and control strategies mainly focused on sanitary measures and animal handling.

  15. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in the eyes of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in contact with a human population.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Ali, H A; ElJakee, J A; Galal, H M

    2013-06-01

    This work is an example of cooperation between veterinary and human medicine being fully complementary and at the same time, indispensable to improve our knowledge on animal chlamydiosis. This study investigated the existence of ocular chlamydiae and determined the prevalence of its presence, chlamydiosis, in asymptomatic and diseased farm animals and adjacent humans. Data were obtained by the omp2 gene family Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. Two hundred cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and 44 human specimens were also examined. Conjunctival swabs from both the eyes were collected from all animals and humans using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for chlamydiae by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, modified Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining (FA), immunoperoxidase, CFT and PCR. The PCR-RFLP revealed that Chlamydophila psittaci demonstrated in the conjunctival samples of cattle (68% asymptomatic and 88% diseased), of buffalo (68% asymptomatic and 72% diseased), of sheep (68% asymptomatic and 80% diseased), of goat (76% asymptomatic and 92% diseased) and of humans (77% asymptomatic and 82% diseased). The Cp. psittaci was the only chlamydiae demonstrated in all of the ocular conjunctival samples, which confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. Statistically, the animal species factor was calculated and was found to be of no significance. Yet, there appeared to be a significant difference in the percentage of animal that tested positive using the different methods. Detection of Cp. psittaci in most samples confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans.

  16. Improved molecular detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species applied to Amblyomma ticks collected from cattle and sheep in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, S; Geysen, D; Ameni, G; Asfaw, Y; Berkvens, D

    2015-02-01

    Detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species in animals and tick vectors is crucial for an understanding of the epidemiology of diseases caused by these pathogens. In this study, a pair of primers designated EBR2 and EBR3 was designed from the Anaplasma 16S rDNA sequence and was used along with a previously described primer EHR 16SD for the simultaneous detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species by nested PCR. The primers were used to amplify 925bp of DNA from known species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Restriction with MboII and MspI enzymes allowed Ehrlichia and Anaplasma speciation. Restriction with MboII differentiated between An. marginale, Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia) sp. Omatjenne, and An. centrale with An. marginale and Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia) sp. Omatjenne yielding 2 distinct fragments each while An. centrale produced 3 distinct bands. Ehrlichia ruminantium and An. phagocytophylum remained undigested. Subsequent restriction with MspI differentiated E. ruminantium from An. phagocytophylum with 2 and 4 fragments, respectively. When used on tick samples from the field, 63 ticks (16.4%) out of 384 collected from cattle and sheep were positive for one or more species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. The positivity ranged from 6.3% at Andasa to 36.7% at Habernosa. Higher overall infection rates were found in Amblyomma lepidum than in Amblyomma variegatum ticks (p=0.009). Amblyomma lepidum from Habernosa were more often infected with all detected species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia than Am. variegatum. At Bako, however, Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia) sp. Omatjenne was detected only in Am. variegatum. A significantly higher proportion of ticks collected from cattle (20.6%) was found positive than in those collected from sheep (3.3%) (p=0.003). Simultaneous detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and correct identification of mixed infections was possible. Since the ticks were collected from animals, the occurrence of the major species of Ehrlichia and

  17. The effect of vaccination on undetected persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds and sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Schley, D; Paton, D J; Cox, S J; Parida, S; Gubbins, S

    2009-10-01

    The importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. Using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persistence in diseased and subclinically infected animals. We show that the number of persistently infected animals in a group is predominantly determined by the number of animals initially infected on premises--the high variability of which ultimately limits the accuracy of any predictions of carrier numbers based upon transmission models. Furthermore, results suggest that, within a cattle herd, carrier numbers may be increased if challenge occurs shortly after vaccination. We show that the quality of inspection is the principal factor influencing whether or not carrier herds occur and that, by reducing clinical signs, the application of vaccination in regularly checked stock also results in an increase in undetected persistently infected animals. Where clinical detection would be poor regardless of the use of vaccination (i.e. particularly in sheep), vaccination will result in a reduction in the probability of a group containing undetected carriers: otherwise there is a benefit only if vaccination is applied sufficiently far in advance of any challenge. The implications of the results for serosurveillance are discussed, including the requisite test sensitivity and practices for successful implementation.

  18. Pre-fertilization zona pellucida hardening by different cross-linkers affects IVF in pigs and cattle and improves embryo production in pigs.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Grullon, Luis Alberto; Aviles, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (resistance to proteolysis) has been classically identified as a post-fertilization event that contributes to the block to polyspermy. Di-(N-succinimidyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropionate (DSP), a permeable amine-reactive cross-linker, was recently shown to induce pre-fertilization ZP hardening and to improve porcine IVF productivity. The objectives of this study were to investigate i) how DSP affects pre-fertilization ZP hardening and IVF in cattle, ii) if a non-permeable amine-reactive cross-linker such as bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) affects ZP hardening and IVF in cattle and pigs, and iii) whether DSP or BS3, if improvement in IVF productivity was demonstrated in either species, affects in vitro embryo development. Bovine and porcine in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the cross-linkers (0.06, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) for 30 min. Then they were subjected to ZP digestion or IVF. In cattle, both DSP and BS3 induced ZP hardening and decreased the penetration rate, although monospermy, penetration, or male pronuclear formation was not affected. In pigs, BS3 treatment induced ZP hardening, decreased penetration and male pronuclear formation, and increased monospermy. IVF productivity only improved when porcine oocytes were exposed to DSP. When porcine zygotes derived from this treatment were further cultured in vitro, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates increased. These results support the idea that mechanisms involved in the prevention of polyspermic fertilization in cattle and pigs have different efficiencies, and ZP hardening induced by DSP cross-linker may be useful for improving porcine embryo production.

  19. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  20. Detection of Brucella species in the milk of infected cattle, sheep, goats and camels by PCR.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Mahmoud E R; Amin, A S

    2002-05-01

    One hundred and three milk samples were collected from 52 cows, 21 ewes, 18 goats and 12 camels. The animals tested positive to at least one of the following: (1) standard tube agglutination test (SAT); (2) Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT); (3) milk ring test (MRT). All milk samples were examined by culture and single-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detection of Brucella species. The PCR assay amplified Brucella-DNA from 29 bovine milk samples, 10 from sheep, 13 from goats and one from a camel. The direct culture method detected Brucella organisms from 24 samples of cows' milk, 12 from sheep, 10 from goats and failed to detect any Brucella organisms from camels' milk. PCR detected up to 100 colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus per millilitre of milk in 100% of diluted milk samples, and 1000 CFU of B. melitensis from 70% of milk samples. Although the overall sensitivity of the PCR was higher than the culture method, it should be possible to increase the sensitivity to detect lower numbers of Brucella organisms in field samples. The speed and sensitivity of the PCR assay suggest that this technique could be useful for detection of Brucella organisms in bovine milk, as well as in sheep, goat, and camels milk.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  2. An exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of UK cattle and sheep farmers.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Claire; Nielsen, Louise; Thomson, Kim; Gunn, George

    2008-11-17

    At present, collective action regarding bio-security among UK cattle and sheep farmers is rare. Despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot and mouth disease (FMD), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. To explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio-security behaviour among cattle and sheep farmers in the United Kingdom (UK). In total, we interviewed 121 farmers in South-West England and Wales. The main analytical tools included a content, cluster and logistic regression analysis. The results of the content analysis illustrated apparent 'dissonance' between bio-security attitudes and behaviour.(1) Despite the heavy toll animal disease has taken on the agricultural economy, most study participants were dismissive of the many measures associated with bio-security. Justification for this lack of interest was largely framed in relation to the collective attribution or blame for the disease threats themselves. Indeed, epidemic diseases were largely related to external actors and agents. Reasons for outbreaks included inadequate border control, in tandem with ineffective policies and regulations. Conversely, endemic livestock disease was viewed as a problem for 'bad' farmers and not an issue for those individuals who managed their stock well. As such, there was little utility in forming groups to address what was largely perceived as an individual problem. Further, we found that attitudes toward bio-security did not appear to be influenced by any particular source of information per se. While strong negative attitudes were found toward specific sources of bio-security information, e.g. government leaflets, these appear to simply reflect widely held beliefs. In relation to actual bio-security behaviours, the logistic

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2016-12-05

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers.

  4. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle from Grenada and Carriacou, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Grenada is considered high. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in Caribbean Islands. Serum samples of 750 food animals in Grenada and Carriacou were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using th...

  6. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals.

  7. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions. PMID:21745408

  8. The physiological and metabolic impacts on sheep and cattle of feed and water deprivation before and during transport.

    PubMed

    Hogan, James P; Petherick, J Carol; Phillips, Clive J C

    2007-06-01

    Sheep and cattle are frequently subjected to feed and water deprivation (FWD) for about 12 h before, and then during, transport to reduce digesta load in the gastrointestinal tract. This FWD is marked by weight loss as urine and faeces mainly in the first 24 h but continuing at a reduced rate subsequently. The weight of rumen contents falls although water loss is to some extent masked by saliva inflow. FWD is associated with some stress, particularly when transportation is added. This is indicated by increased levels of plasma cortisol that may be partly responsible for an observed increase in the output of water and N in urine and faeces. Loss of body water induces dehydration that may induce feelings of thirst by effects on the hypothalamus structures through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. There are suggestions that elevated cortisol levels depress angiotensin activity and prevent sensations of thirst in dehydrated animals, but further research in this area is needed. Dehydration coupled with the discharge of Na in urine challenges the maintenance of homeostasis. In FWD, Na excretion in urine is reduced and, with the reduction in digesta load, Na is gradually returned from the digestive tract to the extracellular fluid space. Control of enteropathogenic bacteria by normal rumen microbes is weakened by FWD and resulting infections may threaten animal health and meat safety. Recovery time is required after transport to restore full feed intake and to ensure that adequate glycogen is present in muscle pre-slaughter to maintain meat quality.

  9. Characterization of Fasciola hepatica genotypes from cattle and sheep in Iran using cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1).

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Izadpanah, Afshin

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the genetic variation among 19 different isolates of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and sheep in different areas of Iran using sequence data for mitochondrial DNA gene, the subunit 1 of cytochrome C oxidase gene (CO1). Four different CO1 genotypes were detected among F. hepatica isolates that showed five variable nucleotide positions (accession nos.; GQ398051, GQ398052, GQ398053, GQ398054). Nucleotide sequence variation among 19 isolates for CO1 analyzed in this study ranged from 0% to 0.98% in Iran. Among the five polymorphism sites identified in this study, only one (T to G at position 51 in 5'end of GQ175362) resulted in putative amino acid alteration of phenylalanine (TTT) to leucine (TTG) in CO1. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed that host associations and geographic location are likely not useful markers for Fasciola genotype classification. In addition, morphological analysis showed that the ratios of body length and body width of some (n = 5) of the 19 examined F. hepatica isolates were intermediate between F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, representing the substantial polymorphism of the F. hepatica species and the difficulty in the accurate recognition based on morphological features. In conclusion, Iranian F. hepatica exhibited the presence of considerable genetic diversity at CO1.

  10. Molecular characterization, occurrence, and immunogenicity in infected sheep and cattle of two minor outer membrane proteins of Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Tibor, A; Saman, E; de Wergifosse, P; Cloeckaert, A; Limet, J N; Letesson, J J

    1996-01-01

    Screening of a Brucella abortus genomic library with two sets of monoclonal antibodies allowed the isolation of the genes corresponding to two minor outer membrane proteins (OMP10 and OMP19) found in this bacterial species. Sequence analysis of the omp10 gene revealed an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 126 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence of the insert producing the OMP19 protein contains two overlapping open reading frames, the largest of which (177 codons) was shown to encode the protein of interest. Analysis of the N-terminal sequences of both putative proteins revealed features of a bacterial signal peptide, and homology to the bacterial lipoprotein processing sequence was also observed. Immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies specific for OMP10 or OMP19 showed that both proteins are present in the 34 Brucella strains tested, representing all six Brucella species and all their biovars. The OMP19 detected in the five Brucella ovis strains examined migrated at an apparent molecular weight that is slightly higher than those of the other Brucella species, confirming the divergence of B. ovis from these species. OMP10 and OMP19 were produced in recombinant Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity for serological analysis. A large fraction of sera from sheep naturally infected with Brucella melitensis were reactive with these proteins in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas sera from B. abortus-infected cattle were almost completely unreactive in this assay. PMID:8557326

  11. First survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shemshad, Masoomeh; Shemshad, Khadijeh; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokri, Majid; Barmaki, Alireza; Baniardalani, Mojgan; Rafinejad, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods Nearly about 2 638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan's livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken. PMID:23569956

  12. Canadian veterinarians’ use of analgesics in cattle, pigs, and horses in 2004 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Hewson, Caroline J.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Lemke, Kip A.; Barkema, Herman W.

    2007-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many veterinarians may not use analgesics in livestock for routine surgical procedures or painful disease states. To investigate this, we conducted a national mail survey of a random sample of 1431 Canadian veterinarians (response rate, 50.1%). Questions primarily concerned veterinarians’ analgesic usage for common surgeries and medical conditions in beef and dairy cattle, pigs, and horses, and attitudes toward pain management. More than 90% of veterinarians used analgesic drugs for equine surgeries, for cesarean section in sows and cows, and for bovine claw amputation and omentopexy. However, in these and other categories, the analgesics used were often inadequate, and many veterinarians did not give analgesics to young animals. When castrated, < 0.001% of piglets received analgesia, compared with 6.9% of beef calves and 18.7% of dairy calves ≤ 6 mo of age, 19.9% of beef calves and 33.2% of dairy calves > 6 mo of age, and 95.8% of horses. Respondents largely agreed that there are no long-acting, cost-effective analgesics available for use in livestock (median rating 8/10; interquartile range 4–9), and that the long or unknown withdrawal periods of some drugs outweighed the benefits of using them (median rating 7/10; interquartile range 4–9). The results indicate an urgent need for veterinarians to manage pain in livestock better. Continuing education would help, as would an increase in the number of approved, cost-effective analgesic drugs with known withdrawal periods. PMID:17334029

  13. Nutritive value of the meat and bone meals from cattle or pigs in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Karakas, P; Versteegh, H A; van der Honing, T Y; Kogut, T J; Jongbloed, A W

    2001-08-01

    The nutritive value of meat and bone meals (MBM) was assessed for broilers. The MBM was produced according to the revised (pressure) processing system ordered by the European Union (EC 96/449). Three batches of MBM from cattle (MBMcattle) and three from pigs (MBMpig) with different ash contents (224, 306, 387, and 209,293, 430 g/kg, respectively) were tested for digestibility at a 10% inclusion level. The MBMcattle and MBMpig with the lowest ash (224 and 209 g/kg, respectively) were tested also at 20% inclusion. A basal diet (corn-soybean meal) was used as a control. Two-week-old broiler chickens were used in four replicates per treatment (14 to 32 d of age). The AMEn of MBM was high (10.51 to 13.04 MJ/kg DM). Species origin had no significant effect, whereas more ash and a higher inclusion level decreased the AMEn. The factors investigated showed no significant effect on the excretal digestibility of CP or on total AA. Excretal digestibility of total amino acids (AA) ranged from 60 to 65%. The ileal digestibility of CP and AA of MBMpig with 209 g/kg ash was also tested at 10 and 20% inclusion. Excretal digestibility was significantly higher than ileal digestibility of CP (63.8 and 55.8%, respectively) and total AA (60.9 and 56.2%, respectively). The 20% inclusion level resulted in a lower digestibility for both methods. The digestibility of CP was measured by four different in vitro techniques, based on pepsin digestibility. The data showed a large variation and did not correlate at all with the in vivo digestibility values.

  14. Comparative analysis of Brucella serotype A and M and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Aragón, V; Marín, C; Alonso, B; Font, M; Moreno, E; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1993-01-01

    Hapten polysaccharides of Brucella smooth M and A serotypes were prepared from Brucella sp. and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 by previously described hydrolytic (O chain) or nonhydrolytic (native hapten [NH]) procedures. The purified polysaccharides differed only in the presence (O chain) or absence (NH) of lipopolysaccharide core sugars. The polysaccharides were compared by reverse radial immunodiffusion for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle (Brucella abortus biotype 1 [A serotype] and Brucella melitensis biotype 3 [AM serotype]), sheep (B. melitensis biotypes 1 [M serotype] and 3), and goats (B. melitensis biotype 1). The reverse radial immunodiffusion test with the NH from B. melitensis 16 M (serotype M) showed the highest sensitivity (89.6 to 97.3%), regardless of the host species and the serotype of the infecting Brucella sp. Y. enterocolitica O:9 NH (A serotype) was useful for diagnosing disease in cattle infected with B. abortus biotype 1, but not in cattle infected with B. melitensis biotype 3, sheep, or goats. The different results obtained with the serotype M and A polysaccharides and the sera from animals infected with M, A, and AM serotypes of Brucella spp. showed that in naturally infected animals, a large proportion of the antibodies are directed to or react with a previously defined common epitope(s) (J. T. Douglas and D. A. Palmer, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1353-1356, 1988) different from the A or M epitopes. By using the radial immunodiffusion test with B. melitensis 16M NH, it was possible to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle, sheep, and goats with a sensitivity and specificity similar to that of the complement fixation test. PMID:8308104

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems.

    PubMed

    Omer, M K; Skjerve, E; Holstad, G; Woldehiwet, Z; Macmillan, A P

    2000-10-01

    Samples from 2427 cattle, 661 goats, 104 sheep, 98 camels and 82 horses were screened for brucella infections by the Rose Bengal Test and positive reactors confirmed by the complement fixation test. In cattle, the highest individual seroprevalence was in dairy herds kept under the intensive husbandry system, with an individual prevalence of 8.2% and unit (herd) seroprevalence of 35.9%. This was followed by the pastoral husbandry system in the Western Lowlands with 5.0% individual but a higher unit (vaccination site) prevalence of 46.1%. The lowest was in the mixed crop-livestock system in the Southern Highlands with individual 0.3% and unit (village) prevalence of 2.4%. In sheep and goats, no positive animals were detected in the mixed crop-livestock areas. In the Eastern Lowlands individual prevalences of 3.8% (goats) and 1.4% (sheep) and unit prevalence of 33.3% (goats) and 16.7% were found, while 14.3% of individual goats and 56.3% of the units in the Western Lowlands were positive. No positive horses were found. The present study documents the first serological evidence of Brucella spp. infection in camels (3.1%) in Eritrea.

  16. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems.

    PubMed Central

    Omer, M. K.; Skjerve, E.; Holstad, G.; Woldehiwet, Z.; Macmillan, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Samples from 2427 cattle, 661 goats, 104 sheep, 98 camels and 82 horses were screened for brucella infections by the Rose Bengal Test and positive reactors confirmed by the complement fixation test. In cattle, the highest individual seroprevalence was in dairy herds kept under the intensive husbandry system, with an individual prevalence of 8.2% and unit (herd) seroprevalence of 35.9%. This was followed by the pastoral husbandry system in the Western Lowlands with 5.0% individual but a higher unit (vaccination site) prevalence of 46.1%. The lowest was in the mixed crop-livestock system in the Southern Highlands with individual 0.3% and unit (village) prevalence of 2.4%. In sheep and goats, no positive animals were detected in the mixed crop-livestock areas. In the Eastern Lowlands individual prevalences of 3.8% (goats) and 1.4% (sheep) and unit prevalence of 33.3% (goats) and 16.7% were found, while 14.3% of individual goats and 56.3% of the units in the Western Lowlands were positive. No positive horses were found. The present study documents the first serological evidence of Brucella spp. infection in camels (3.1%) in Eritrea. PMID:11117970

  18. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  19. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  20. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  1. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  2. Few Highly Abundant Operational Taxonomic Units Dominate within Rumen Methanogenic Archaeal Species in New Zealand Sheep and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Seedorf, Henning; Kittelmann, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing and analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplicons were performed to estimate the composition of the rumen methanogen community in 252 samples from eight cohorts of sheep and cattle, separated into 16 different sample groups by diet, and to determine which methanogens are most prominent in the rumens of farmed New Zealand ruminants. Methanobacteriales (relative abundance ± standard deviation, 89.6% ± 9.8%) and Methanomassiliicoccales (10.4% ± 9.8%) were the two major orders and contributed 99.98% (±0.1%) to the rumen methanogen communities in the samples. Sequences from Methanobacteriales were almost entirely from only four different species (or clades of very closely related species). Each was detectable in at least 89% of the samples. These four species or clades were the Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii clade and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade with a mean abundance of 42.4% (±19.5% standard deviation) and 32.9% (±18.8%), respectively, and Methanosphaera sp. ISO3-F5 (8.2% ± 6.7%) and Methanosphaera sp. group5 (5.6% ± 5.7%). These four species or clades appeared to be primarily represented by only one or, in one case, two dominant sequence types per species or clade when the sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 99% sequence identity. The mean relative abundance of Methanomassiliicoccales in the samples was relatively low but exceeded 40% in some of the treatment groups. Animal feed affected the apparent methanogen community structure of both orders, as evident from differences in relative abundances of the major OTUs in animals under different feeding regimens. PMID:25416771

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  4. High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and

  5. High-throughput direct fecal PCR assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Plain, Karren M; Marsh, Ian B; Waldron, Anna M; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and

  6. The prevalence and characterization of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and pigs in an abattoir in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, P. H.; Yam, W. C.; Ng, W. W.; Peiris, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in cattle and pigs in a Hong Kong abattoir. Faecal and carcass samples collected from 986 cattle and 487 pigs from an abattoir were tested for verotoxin (VT) by PCR and cytotoxicity assays. VTEC was isolated from 415 and 1-8% of cattle faecal and carcass samples and from 2.1 and 0.2% of porcine faecal and carcass samples, respectively. Amongst 409 VTEC isolates from cattle, 9 were serotype O157:H7 and eaeA+. The most prevalent vt genotype among bovine VTEC was vtl+vt2 (73.8%) and in porcine VTEC was vt2e+ (30%). None of the porcine VTEC isolates and 9.3% of the bovine VTEC isolates was eaeA+. The non-O157 serogroup VTEC isolates carrying eaeA and EHEC-hlyA belonged to serogroups O172, O15, O84, O91, O110 and O121. The local dietary preference for pork or chicken (rather than beef), the low VTEC carriage in pigs, the rarity of additional virulence factors (caeA) in VTEC isolated from cattle may explain the apparently low incidence of human diarrhoeal disease associated with VTEC in Hong Kong hitherto. However, the presence of non-O157 VTEC strains carrying the eacA virulence marker in cattle highlights the fact that sole reliance on sorbitol-MacConkey agar for screening human VTEC isolates may underestimate the human disease burden. The changing dietary habits of the population in Hong Kong reinforce the need for continued vigilance. PMID:11349966

  7. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  8. A determination and comparison of urease activity in feces and fresh manure from pig and cattle in relation to ammonia production and pH changes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production.

  9. Sequence of specific mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment from Egyptian buffalo is used as a pattern for discrimination between river buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2011-08-01

    Characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of domestic species are always in demand. This is particularly due to recent food scares and the crisis of biodiversity resulting from the huge ongoing illegal traffic of endangered species. The aim of this study was to develop a new and easy method for domestic species identification (river buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) based on the analysis of a specific mitochondrial nucleotide sequence. For this reason, a specific fragment of Egyptian buffalo mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (422 bp) was amplified by PCR using two universal primers. The sequence of this specific fragment is completely conserved between all tested Egyptian buffaloes and other river buffaloes in different places in the world. Also, the lengths of the homologous fragments were less by one nucleotide (421 bp) in case of goats and two nucleotides (420 bp) in case of both cattle and sheep. The detection of specific variable sites between investigated species within this fragment was sufficient to identify the biological origin of the samples. This was achieved by alignment between the unknown homologous sequence and the reference sequences deposited in GenBank database (accession numbers, FJ748599-FJ748607). Considering multiple alignment results between 16S rRNA homologous sequences obtained from GenBank database with the reference sequence, it was shown that definite nucleotides are specific for each of the four studied species of the family Bovidae. In addition, other nucleotides are detected which can allow discrimination between two groups of animals belonging to two subfamilies of family Bovidae, Group one (closely related species like cattle and buffalo, Subfamily Bovinae) and Group two (closely related species like sheep and goat, Subfamily Caprinae). This 16S DNA barcode character-based approach could be used to complement cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) in DNA barcoding. Also, it is a

  10. Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products in South Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P A; Cerdán Malo, A T; Ellin, M; Ashton, R; Harkin

    2001-02-28

    A 1 year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle and sheep at slaughter, on beef and lamb carcasses and in raw beef and lamb products from retail butchers' shops was performed in the Sheffield area. Each month, samples of rectal faeces were collected immediately after slaughter from 400 cattle and 600 sheep, and 400-430 samples of raw meat products were purchased from butchers' shops. Meat samples were also obtained from 1500 beef and 1500 lamb carcasses. All samples were examined for E. coli O157 by enrichment culture, immunomagnetic separation and culture of magnetic particles onto cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar. Raw meat products were also examined for numbers of generic E. coli by a standard membrane culture method. E. coli O157 was isolated from 620 (12.9%) of 4800 cattle, 100 (7.4%) of 7200 sheep, 21 (1.4%) of 1500 beef carcasses, 10 (0.7%) of 1500 lamb carcasses and from 22 (0.44%) of 4983 raw meat products. E. coli O157 was isolated more frequently from lamb products (0.8%) than from beef products (0.4%). Numbers of generic E. coli in meat products reached seasonal peaks in July and August with counts of > 10(4)/g occurring more frequently in lamb products (50.8 and 42.4%, respectively) than in beef products (19.3 and 23.8%, respectively). The majority of E. coli O157 strains, from animals, carcasses and meat samples, were isolated during the summer. Most were verocytotoxigenic as determined by Vero cell assay and DNA hybridisation, eaeA gene positive and contained a 92 kb plasmid. The isolates were compared with 66 isolates from human cases over the same period. A combination of phage type, toxin genotype and plasmid analysis allowed subdivision of all the E. coli O157 isolates into 96 subtypes. Of these subtypes, 53 (55%) were isolated only from bovine faecal samples. However, 61 (92%) of the 66 isolates from humans belonged to 13 subtypes which were also found in the animal population.

  11. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  12. A serological investigation of pestiviruses in sheep in eastern border of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Mehmet; Duz, Erkan; Karaca, Mehmet; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Keles, Ihsan; Bakir, Bahtiyar; Tasal, Ibrahim

    2011-12-01

    All pestiviruses are important veterinary pathogens causing economic losses in cattle, sheep, and pigs. In this study, blood samples randomly collected from 465 sheep were analysed for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus, border disease virus) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the province of Van and their towns. The seroprevalance were estimated as 75.9% and 60.0-82.5% in the sampled animals and sampled towns, respectively. The results revealed that pestiviruses are important abort pathogens in the province of Van and their towns.

  13. Immunization of guinea-pigs and cattle with a reduced dose Clostridium chauvoei vaccine produced in a semi-synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C M; Botha, W J; Schoeman, J H

    1986-03-01

    A semi-synthetic culture medium and method are described for the production of a reduced dose Clostridium chauvoei vaccine. The vaccine gave excellent results in guinea-pigs, and 2 injections of 2.0 ml protected cattle against challenge with 2 M.L.D. of a virulent culture for at least 12 months. The suitability of C. chauvoei Strain OP64 as a vaccine strain was confirmed.

  14. Binding of Sperm to the Zona Pellucida Mediated by Sperm Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins is not Species-Specific in vitro between Pigs and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Yasuomi; Kanai-Kitayama, Saeko; Suzuki, Reiichiro; Sato, Reiko; Toma, Kazunori; Geshi, Masaya; Akagi, Satoshi; Nakano, Minoru; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are candidates for the basis of species-selective interaction of gametes during mammalian fertilization. In this study, we sought to clarify the roles of sugar residues in the species-selective, sperm–oocyte interaction in pigs and cattle. Acrosome-intact porcine and bovine sperm exhibited their strongest binding affinities for β-Gal and α-Man residues, respectively. Porcine-sperm specificity changed from β-Gal to α-Man after the acrosome reaction, while bovine-sperm specificity did not. Binding of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm decreased after trypsinization, indicating that the carbohydrate-binding components are proteins. While immature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm, oocytes matured in vitro bound similar numbers of homologous and heterologous sperm. Lectin staining revealed the aggregation of α-Man residues on the outer surface of the porcine zona during maturation. In both species, zona-free, mature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm. The lectin-staining patterns of the zona pellucida and zona-free oocytes coincided with the carbohydrate-binding specificities of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm, respectively, supporting the involvement of carbohydrates in gamete recognition in pigs and cattle. These results also indicate that sperm-zona pellucida and sperm–oolemma bindings are not strictly species-specific in pigs and cattle, and further suggest that sperm penetration into the zona and/or fusion with oolemma may be species-specific between pigs and cattle. PMID:24970158

  15. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    PubMed

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.

  16. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from sheep and goats show reduced persistence in bovine macrophages than cattle, bison, deer and wild boar strains regardless of genotype.

    PubMed

    Abendaño, Naiara; Sevilla, Iker A; Prieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon A; Alonso-Hearn, Marta

    2013-05-03

    Assessment of the virulence of isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) exhibiting distinct genotypes and isolated from different hosts may help to clarify the degree to which clinical manifestations of the disease in cattle can be attributed to bacterial or to host factors. The objective of this study was to test the ability of 10 isolates of Map representing distinct genotypes and isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat), and wildlife animal species (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) to enter and grow in bovine macrophages. The isolates were previously typed using IS1311 PCR followed by restriction endonuclease analysis into types C, S or B. Intracellular growth of the isolates in a bovine macrophage-like cell line (BoMac) and in primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was evaluated by quantification of CFU numbers in the initial inoculum and inside of the host cells at 2h and 7 d p.i. using an automatic liquid culture system (Bactec MGIT 960). Individual data illustrated that growth was less variable in BoMac than in MDM cells. All the isolates from goat and sheep hosts persisted within BoMac cells in lower CFU numbers than the other tested isolates after 7 days of infection regardless of genotype. In addition, BoMac cells exhibited differential inflammatory, apoptotic and destructive responses when infected with a bovine or an ovine isolate; which correlated with the differential survival of these strains within BoMac cells. Our results indicated that the survival of the tested Map isolates within bovine macrophages is associated with the specific host from which the isolates were initially isolated.

  17. [Risk of Echinococcus granulosus becoming endemic in Dutch cattle].

    PubMed

    Berends, I M G A; Holzhauer, M; van der Giessen, J W B; van Schaik, G

    2009-02-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is rare in The Netherlands and most human patients originate from southern Europe and Africa, where E. granulosus is still endemic in sheep, cattle, and pigs. Since the accession of some south-eastern European countries to the European Union, a large number of cattle have been imported from this area, according to national import data. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of re-introduction of E. granulosus in The Netherlands via the import of cattle from these endemic areas. The number of infected imported cattle was determined by correcting the number of imported cattle with the national animal prevalence of E. granulosus in the country of origin. In 2007, the number of imported E. granulosus-infected cattle varied from 0 (Cyprus) to 4,934 (Romania, accounting for 90% of all positive cattle). The likelihood of detecting E. granulosus at slaughter is low--we assumed, based on confirmed cases, that only 10% of infected cattle will be detected during visual inspection at slaughter. In 2007, 542 infected cattle were probably culled in The Netherlands (assuming that cattle younger than 3 months were not infected). Since the lungs and livers of cattle approved for human consumption may be processed into dog food, there is a risk that dogs that eat E. granulosus-containing dog food may become infected and in turn infect humans. On the basis of a model that assumed that only cattle older than 3 months at the moment of importation were a risk, 23 dogs may have been exposed to E. granulosus in 2007. To reduce the risk of importing E. granulosus, measures should be taken, such as declaring the lungs and livers of Romanian cattle unfit for human consumption and banning the use of infected raw lung and liver in dog food.

  18. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  19. A critical analysis of disease-associated DNA polymorphisms in the genes of cattle, goat, sheep, and pig.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Kgwatalala, Patrick; Ibeagha, Aloysius E; Zhao, Xin

    2008-04-01

    Genetic variations through their effects on gene expression and protein function underlie disease susceptibility in farm animal species. The variations are in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions/insertions of nucleotides or whole genes, gene or whole chromosomal rearrangements, gene duplications, and copy number polymorphisms or variants. They exert varying degrees of effects on gene action, such as substitution of an amino acid for another, shift in reading frame and premature termination of translation, and complete deletion of entire exon(s) or gene(s) in diseased individuals. These factors influence gene function by affecting mRNA splicing pattern or by altering/eliminating protein function. Elucidating the genetic bases of diseases under the control of many genes is very challenging, and it is compounded by several factors, including host x pathogen x environment interactions. In this review, the genetic variations that underlie several diseases of livestock (under monogenic and polygenic control) are analyzed. Also, factors hampering research efforts toward identification of genetic influences on animal disease identification and control are highlighted. A better understanding of the factors analyzed could be better harnessed to effectively identify and control, genetically, livestock diseases. Finally, genetic control of animal diseases can reduce the costs associated with diseases, improve animal welfare, and provide healthy animal products to consumers, and should be given more attention.

  20. Most probable number method combined with nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and enumeration of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in intestinal contents of cattle, pig and chicken.

    PubMed

    Miwa, N; Nishina, T; Kubo, S; Atsumi, M

    1997-02-01

    The most probable number (MPN) method combined with a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) for the detection and enumeration of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the intestinal contents of cattle, pig and chicken was examined. Ten-fold serial dilutions of samples were added to three tubes of enrichment medium, which were incubated at 37 degrees C for 20-24 hr, and the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene was detected by nested PCR from the enrichment culture without isolating the organism. The results obtained by this method with artificially contaminated intestinal contents were significantly correlated with those obtained by a plate count method. When the method was applied to the detection and enumeration of indigenous enterotoxigenic C. perfringens, the organism was found in two, two and three samples of 10 intestinal contents of cattle, pig and chicken, respectively. Most of the positive samples contained fewer than 10 MPN/g of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens, except one sample of chicken, which contained 1.5 x 10(2) MPN/g. The MPN method combined with nested PCR is easy to perform and may be a useful tool for the detection and enumeration of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens in intestinal contents.

  1. A microbiological assay to estimate the antimicrobial activity of parenteral tildipirosin against foodborne pathogens and commensals in the colon of beef cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Pridmore, A; Shaw, A; Wilhelm, C; Menge, M; Kilp, S; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2016-06-01

    Tildipirosin (TIP) is a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide authorized for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory disease. The pH dependency of macrolide antimicrobial activity is well known. Considering that the pH in the colon contents of growing beef cattle and pigs is usually below pH 7.0, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of TIP against foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter (C.) coli, C. jejuni and Salmonella enterica and commensal species including Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, E. faecium and Escherichia coli were determined under standard (pH 7.3 ± 1) or neutral as well as slightly acidic conditions. A decrease in pH from 7.3 to 6.7 resulted in an increase in MICs of TIP. Except for the MICs > 256 μg/mL observed in the resistant subpopulation of the C. coli and the Enterococcus species, the MIC ranges increased from 2-8 μg/mL to 64-> 256 μg/mL for Salmonella enterica and E. coli, from 8-16 μg/mL to 32-128 μg/mL for the two Campylobacter species, and from 4-32 μg/mL to 128-> 256 μg/mL for both Enterococcus species. To estimate the antimicrobial activity of TIP in the colon contents of livestock during recommended usage of the parenterally administered TIP (Zuprevo(®) ), and to compare this with the increased MICs at the slightly acidic colonic pH, we developed and validated a microbiological assay for TIP and used this to test incurred faecal samples collected from cattle and pigs. Microbiological activity of luminal TIP was determined in aqueous supernatants from diluted faeces, using standard curves produced from TIP-spiked faecal supernatants. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for TIP was 1 μg/mL (ppm). In a cattle study (n = 14), 3 of 28 faecal samples collected 24 and 48 h post-treatment were found to contain TIP above the LOQ (concentrations of 1.3-1.8 ppm). In another cattle study (n = 12) with faecal samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post-treatment, TIP concentrations were above the LOQ in 4 of the 8 h samples (1

  2. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-11-20

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  3. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  4. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Brucella Spp. Infection in Traditional Cattle, Sheep and Goats Reared in Urban, Periurban and Rural Areas of Niger

    PubMed Central

    Boukary, Abdou Razac; Saegerman, Claude; Abatih, Emmanuel; Fretin, David; Alambédji Bada, Rianatou; De Deken, Reginald; Harouna, Halimatou Adamou; Yenikoye, Alhassane; Thys, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Niamey, Niger, interactions within the interface between animals, humans and the environment induce a potential risk of brucellosis transmission between animals and from animals to humans. Currently, little is known about the transmission of Brucella in this context. Results 5,192 animals from 681 herds were included in the study. Serum samples and hygroma fluids were collected. A household survey enabled to identify the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis. The true adjusted herd-level prevalence of brucellosis ranged between 11.2% and 17.2% and the true adjusted animal-population level prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9–1.8%) based on indirect ELISA test for Brucella antibodies. Animals aged of 1–4 years were found to be more susceptible than animals less than 1 year old (Odds ratio [OR] of 2.7; 95% CI: 1.43–5.28). For cattle, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were higher in rural compared to the periurban areas (OR of 2.8; 95% CI: 1.48–5.17) whereas for small ruminants the risk of seropositivity appeared to be higher in urban compared to periurban areas (OR of 5.5; 95% CI: 1.48–20.38). At herd level, the risk of transmission was increased by transhumance (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 2.84–10.41), the occurrence of abortions (OR of 3.0; 95% CI: 1.40–6.41), and for herds having more than 50 animals (OR of 11.0; 95% CI: 3.75–32.46). Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from the hygromas. Conclusion brucellosis in Niger is a serious problem among cattle especially in the rural areas around Niamey and among sheep in the urban areas of Niamey. The seroprevalence varies across strata and animal species with important risk factors including herd size, abortion and transhumance at herd level and age at animal population level. For effective control of brucellosis, an integrated approach seems appropriate involving all stakeholders working in public and animal health. PMID:24358261

  5. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. PMID:25746997

  6. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability.

  7. Early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency vaccine.

    PubMed

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Zhidong; Bittner, Hilary; Hole, Kate; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Alexandersen, Soren; Vosloo, Wilna

    2015-01-09

    In 2009-2011, spread of a serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belonging to the South East Asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in Japan and Korea. The O1 Manisa vaccine (belonging to the Middle East-South Asian topotype) was used at high potency in Korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. However, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the O1 Manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. In this study, the early protection afforded with a high potency (>6 PD50) FMD O1 Manisa vaccine against challenge with the O/SKR/2010 virus was tested in sheep. Sheep (n=8) were vaccinated 4 days prior to continuous direct-contact challenge with donor sheep. Donor sheep were infected with FMDV O/SKR/2010 by coronary band inoculation 24h prior to contact with the vaccinated animals, or unvaccinated controls (n=4). Three of the four control sheep became infected, two clinically. All eight O1 Manisa vaccinated sheep were protected from clinical disease. None had detectable antibodies to FMDV non-structural proteins (3ABC), no virus was isolated from nasal swabs, saliva or oro-pharyngeal fluid and none became carriers. Using this model of challenge, sheep were protected against infection as early as 4 days post vaccination.

  8. Green offal inspection of cattle, small ruminants and pigs in the United Kingdom: Impact assessment of changes in the inspection protocol on likelihood of detection of selected hazards.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Dadios, Nikolaos; Reinmann, Karin; Guitian, Javier; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2015-06-01

    The changes in detection of selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards due to the change in current inspection of green offal in cattle, small ruminants and pigs were assessed. With respect to public health and animal health, the conditional likelihood of detection with the current green offal inspection was found to be low for eleven out of the twenty-four selected hazard-species pairings and very low for the remaining thirteen pairings. This strongly suggests that the contribution of current green offal inspection to risk mitigation is very limited for public and animal health hazards. The removal of green offal inspection would reduce the detection of some selected animal welfare conditions. For all selected public and animal health as well as welfare hazards, the reduced detection could be compensated with other pre-harvest, harvest and/or post-harvest control measures including existing meat inspection tasks.

  9. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-09-24

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN(-/-)) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN(+/+)) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases.

  10. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN−/−) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN+/+) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases. PMID:26400270

  11. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley, CO AGENCY... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  12. Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Slurry Storage: Impacts of Temperature and Potential Mitigation through Covering (Pig Slurry) or Acidification (Cattle Slurry).

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, Tom; Hunt, John; Perazzolo, Francesca; Provolo, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS). Cumulative emissions of both gases were influenced by mean temperature over the storage period. Methane emissions from the control treatments over the 2-mo storage periods for the cool, temperate, and warm periods were 0.3, 0.1, and 34.3 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for CS and 4.4, 20.1, and 27.7 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for PS. Respective NH emissions for each period were 4, 7, and 12% of initial slurry N content for CS and 12, 18, and 28% of initial slurry N content for PS. Covering PS with clay granules reduced NH emissions by 77% across the three storage periods but had no impact on CH emissions. Acidification of CS reduced CH and NH emissions by 61 and 75%, respectively, across the three storage periods. Nitrous oxide emissions were also monitored but were insignificant. The development of approaches that take into account the influence of storage timing (temperature) and duration on emission estimates for national emission inventory purposes is recommended.

  13. ESTviewer: a web interface for visualizing mouse, rat, cattle, pig and chicken conserved ESTs in human genes and human alternatively spliced variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Chi; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2005-05-15

    ESTviewer is a web application for interactively visualizing human gene structures, with emphasis on mammalian and avian expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that are conserved in the human genome and alternatively spliced (AS) variants. AS variants from the UCSC, Vega and PSEP annotations are presented in this application for comparison. EST data from six species, human, mouse, rat, cattle, pig and chicken, are mapped to the human genome to show cross-species EST conservation in annotated exonic and intronic regions. Cross-species EST conservation is evolutionarily and functionally important because it represents the effects of selection pressure on genic regions and transcriptome over evolutionary time. Emphatically, ESTviewer provides a convenient tool to compare highly conserved non-human ESTs and human AS variants. The application takes human gene accession Ids or coordinates of genomic sequences as inputs and presents annotated gene structures and their AS variants. In addition, the lengths and percentages of human genic regions covered by ESTs are displayed to show the level of EST coverage of different species. The percentages of the UCSC, Vega and PSEP annotated exons covered by ESTs of the six studied species are also displayed in the interface.

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2013-07-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV.

  15. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In t...

  16. Functional differences in the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor axis in cattle and pigs: implications for post-partum nutrition and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C

    2008-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) control growth and lactation in cattle and swine. Insulin participates in the endocrinology of growth and lactation because insulin and GH are antagonistic in their actions. Dairy cows experience a period of negative energy balance during the first 4-8 weeks post-partum. During this period, their somatotropic axis (comprised of GH, the GH receptor and IGF-I) becomes uncoupled and there is elevated GH and diminished IGF-I in the circulation. Blood insulin concentrations are low as well. Sows are different from dairy cows because their somatotropic axis remains coupled during lactation and both GH and IGF-I are elevated. Nonetheless, sows that become catabolic during lactation will have reduced IGF-I concentrations. Sows are inseminated after weaning so their metabolic state is different from post-partum beef and dairy cows that are inseminated when they are lactating. Dairy cows are fed ad libitum and naturally have low IGF-I during lactation. Sows have elevated IGF-I when they are well-fed. A threshold of IGF-I protein in follicular fluid may be met by local ovarian (paracrine/autocrine) and endocrine sources of IGF-I. Nutritionally induced changes in insulin and in liver IGF-I secretion that arise from perturbations of the somatotropic axis have a direct effect on the ovary through the endocrine actions of insulin and IGF-I. Sows and cows that are nutritionally compromised have low concentrations of insulin and IGF-I in their blood and this theoretically reduces ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins. Although sows are inseminated after weaning, there appear to be carry-over effects of the previous lactation on the ovarian follicular populations that develop after the sow is weaned. Understanding the mechanisms through which metabolic hormones control ovarian function may lead to improved reproductive management of both pigs and cattle because lactation and post-partum reproduction are closely tied in

  17. Lipomatous muscular 'dystrophy' of Piedmontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, E; Amedeo, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Destefanis, G; Di Stasio, L; Valenza, F; Capucchio, M T

    2012-11-01

    Lipomatous myopathy is a degenerative muscle pathology characterized by the substitution of muscle cells with adipose tissue, sporadically reported in cattle, pigs, and rarely in sheep, horses and dogs. This study investigated the pathology of this myopathy in 40 muscle samples collected from regularly slaughtered Piedmontese cattle living in Piedmont region (Italy). None of the animals showed clinical signs of muscular disease. Muscle specimens were submitted to histological and enzymatic investigations. Gross pathology revealed a different grade of infiltration of adipose tissue, involving multiple or single muscles. The most affected regions were the ventral abdomen and the shoulders, especially the cutaneous muscles and the muscles of the thoracic group. Morphological staining revealed an infiltration of adipose tissue varying in distribution and severity, changes in muscle fibre size and increased number of fibres with centrally located nuclei, suggesting muscle degeneration-regeneration. Necrosis and non-suppurative inflammatory cells were also seen. Furthermore, proliferation of connective tissue and non-specific myopathic changes were present. Chemical and physical characteristics of the affected tissue were also evaluated. The authors discuss about the aetiopathogenesis and classification of this muscle disorder whose histological lesions were similar to those reported in human dystrophies.

  18. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Looringh van Beeck, Frank A.; Reinink, Peter; Hermsen, Roel; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Laven, Marielle J.; Fun, Axel; Troskie, Milana; Schoemaker, Nico J.; Morar, Darshana; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Vervelde, Lonneke; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; van Eden, Willem; Van Rhijn, Ildiko

    2009-01-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have been well characterized in humans and mice, but it is unknown whether they are present in other species. Here we describe the invariant TCR α chain and the full length CD1d transcript of pig and horse. Molecular modeling predicts that porcine (po) invariant TCR α chain/poCD1d/α-GalCer and equine (eq) invariant TCR α chain/eqCD1d/α-GalCer form complexes that are highly homologous to the human complex. Since a prerequisite for the presence of NKT cells is the expression of CD1d protein, we performed searches for CD1D genes and CD1d transcripts in multiple species. Previously, cattle and guinea pig have been suggested to lack CD1D genes. The CD1D genes of European taurine cattle (Bos taurus) are known to be pseudogenes because of disrupting mutations in the start codon and in the donor splice site of the first intron. Here we show that the same mutations are found in six other ruminants: African buffalo, sheep, bushbuck, bongo, N’Dama cattle, and roe deer. In contrast, intact CD1d transcripts were found in guinea pig, African elephant, horse, rabbit, and pig. Despite the discovery of a highly homologous NKT/CD1d system in pig and horse, our data suggest that functional CD1D and CD1d-restricted NKT cells are not universally present in mammals. PMID:19185921

  19. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  20. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains.

  1. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  2. Sticky-trapping biting midges (Culicoides spp.) alighting on cattle and sheep: effects of trap colour and evidence for host preference.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G M; Jess, S; Gordon, A W; Murchie, A K

    2014-08-01

    Sticky traps were mounted on heifers and sheep to assess Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preference. Initially, four coloured 200-cm(2) sticky traps (white, clear, yellow and blue) were attached to the backs of each of ten Friesian heifers that were released into open pasture for 24 h, repeated on six occasions. More Obsoletus group Culicoides were caught on the white and clear traps than on the yellow and blue. Trap position on the right or left flank also affected midge catch, probably due to heifer orientation in the field. Next, six Friesian heifers and six Charollais hoggets each had one clear and one white sticky strap attached to their backs for one 24-h period per week, repeated for 24 weeks. Overall, Obsoletus group Culicoides comprised 91.8% (n = 5, 955) of the midge catch but there was no evidence of host preference, either discounting or including host live weight in the analyses. However, Pulicaris group Culicoides did demonstrate a significant host preference for sheep, providing that the analysis was adjusted for live weight. On heifers, the Pulicaris group comprised 7.5% of biting midges caught, whereas on hoggets, it comprised 12.7%.

  3. Sex identification of pigs using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the amelogenin gene.

    PubMed

    Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Iwamoto, Masaki; Kawarasaki, Tatsuo; Onishi, Akira

    2008-11-01

    The amelogenin (AMEL) gene exists on both sex chromosomes of various mammalian species and the length and sequence of the noncoding regions differ between the two chromosome-specific alleles. Because both forms can be amplified using a single primer set, the use of AMEL in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods has facilitated sex identification in various mammalian species, including cattle, sheep and humans. In this study, we designed PCR primers to yield different-sized products from the AMEL genes on the X (AMELX) and Y (AMELY) chromosomes of pigs. PCR amplification of genomic DNA samples collected from various breeds of pigs (European breeds: Landrace, Large White, Duroc and Berkshire; Chinese breeds: Meishan and Jinhua and their crossbreeds) yielded the expected products. For all breeds, DNA from male pigs produced two bands (520 and 350 bp; AMELX and AMELY, respectively), whereas samples from female pigs generated only the 520 bp product. We then tested the use of PCR of AMEL for sex identification of in vitro-produced (IVP) porcine embryos sampled at 2 or 5 to 6 days after fertilization; germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes and electroactivated embryos were used as controls. More than 88% of the GV-stage oocytes and electroactivated embryos yielded a single 520 bp single band and about 50% of the IVP embryos tested produced both bands. Our findings show that PCR analysis of the AMEL gene is reliable for sex identification of pigs and porcine embryos.

  4. Characterization of pig lymphocyte receptors for allogeneic and non-allogeneic erythrocytes. I. Apparent common identity of both receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, H

    1982-01-01

    In the pig thymus, the proportion of allogeneic (or autologous) erythrocyte rosette forming cells (P-RFC) is always lower than that of sheep erythrocyte (non-allogeneic) rosette forming cells (S-RFC) even under saturated RBC/lymphocyte ratios and optimal dextran concentration. This difference accounted for lymphocytes rosetting with sheep erythrocytes and not with pig erythrocytes (P-S+ cells), as opposed to those lymphocytes which are able to bind both types of erythrocytes (P+S+ cells). Since formation of both sheep and pig erythrocyte rosettes is inhibited similarly by anti-T receptor serum, is inhibited reciprocally by sheep and pig erythrocyte membrane fragment and is similarly trypsin sensitive, it was concluded that the same receptor was responsible for both sheep and pig rosette formation. Furthermore it was found that P+S+ cells had a higher avidity for sheep erythrocytes (and lower for pig erythrocytes) than the other subset which did not bind pig erythrocytes. PMID:6180852

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, Lieza; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Romito, Marco; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Clift, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2-98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65-77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91-97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6-95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9-99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9-100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.

  6. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections.

  7. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of glucocorticoid residues in edible tissues of swine, cattle, sheep, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-10-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin.

  8. Cases of parasitic pneumonia in Scottish cattle.

    PubMed

    2016-02-06

    Parasitic pneumonia in cattleNutritional osteodystrophy in cattleWhite liver disease in lambsErysipelas in pigsLead poisoning and atherosclerosis in an eagle These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for October 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  9. The contribution of the maternal immune system to the establishment of pregnancy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fair, Trudee

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells play an integral role in affecting successful reproductive function. Indeed, disturbed or aberrant immune function has been identified as primary mechanisms behind infertility. In contrast to the extensive body of literature that exists for human and mouse, studies detailing the immunological interaction between the embryo and the maternal endometrium are quite few in cattle. Nevertheless, by reviewing the existing studies and extrapolating from sheep, pig, mouse, and human data, we can draw a reasonably comprehensive picture. Key contributions of immune cell populations include granulocyte involvement in follicle differentiation and gamete transfer, monocyte invasion of the peri-ovulatory follicle and their subsequent role in corpus luteum formation and the pivotal roles of maternal macrophage and dendritic cells in key steps of the establishment of pregnancy, particularly, the maternal immune response to the embryo. These contributions are reviewed in detail below and key findings are discussed.

  10. Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphisms are associated with growth and meat quality traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Beiyao; Liu, Guiqiong; Peng, Yuqin; Qian, Hongguang; Liu, Jiasen; Jiang, Xunping; Mara, Adama

    2014-10-01

    The involvement of melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) in food intake and body weight regulation is well characterized. MC4R mutations are the most frequent monogenic cause of human obesity. Significant associations have been revealed between MC4R mutations and productive traits in pigs, cattle and poultry. Herein, fluorescence-based conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis was used to identify two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region (93G>A and 292G>A) and two SNPs in the 3'-UTR area (1016G>A and 1240T>C) of MC4R gene in 132 German Merino sheep. We found that the 1016G>A mutation in the 3'-UTR was significantly associated with body weight at 120 and 180 days, average daily gain, back fat thickness and loin-eye area. Allele A located at the 292th position of MC4R gene representing Arg98 was associated with significantly higher loin-eye area in sheep. For the synonymous 93G>A mutation, A allele carrier animals had higher back fat thickness. Our results provide evidence that the MC4R gene may be a candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits with MC4R SNPs being potentially valuable as genetic markers for economic traits in German Merino sheep.

  11. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  12. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  13. Like pigs, and unlike other breeds of cattle examined, mature Angus-derived adipocytes may extrude lipid prior to proliferation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Duarte, Marcio S.; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Paulino, Pedro V.R.; Chen, Jie; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Hausman, Gary J.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that mature adipocytes are able to dedifferentiate in vitro into progeny cells, which possess proliferative capacity and mutilineage potential. Our present study confirms that mature adipocytes derived from Angus cattle also dedifferentiate into proliferative-competent progeny cells. However, this report is unlike any published for all other breeds of cattle we have worked with or that we have seen in published reports, in which mature adipocytes retain and distribute lipids into daughter cells symmetrically or asymmetrically. In the present work, we noted that Angus-derived mature adipocytes extruded a majority of their cellular lipid droplets prior to cell division. In this manner, these cells are processing lipid in a manner observed in mature adipocytes isolated from swine tissue. These results suggest that regulation of the mechanism(s) underlying lipid processing might be different between and within animal breeds. Lipid processing in beef-derived adipocytes during dedifferentiation may serve as a unique animal model for studying lipid metabolism during reverse adipogenesis. PMID:23700538

  14. Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Claire; Meyer, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    A new influenza virus, genus D, isolated in US pigs and cattle, has also been circulating in cattle in France. It was first identified there in 2011, and an increase was detected in 2014. The virus genome in France is 94%–99% identical to its US counterpart, which suggests intercontinental spillover. PMID:25628038

  15. First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Travería, G E; Zumarraga, M; Etchechoury, I; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Pinedo, M F Alvarado; Pavlik, I; Pribylova, R; Romero, J R

    2013-01-01

    We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  16. Pestivirus infection in sheep and goats in West Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2010-12-01

    Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.

  17. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously

  18. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. An Autosomal Genetic Linkage Map of the Sheep Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A. M.; Dodds, K. G.; Ede, A. J.; Pierson, C. A.; Montgomery, G. W.; Garmonsway, H. G.; Beattie, A. E.; Davies, K.; Maddox, J. F.; Kappes, S. W.; Stone, R. T.; Nguyen, T. C.; Penty, J. M.; Lord, E. A.; Broom, J. E.; Buitkamp, J.; Schwaiger, W.; Epplen, J. T.; Matthew, P.; Matthews, M. E.; Hulme, D. J.; Beh, K. J.; McGraw, R. A.; Beattie, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation fullsib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 222. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. PMID:7498748

  20. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats.

  1. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  2. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andréoletti, Olivier; Castilla, Joaquín; Herva, María Eugenia; Morales, Mónica; Alamillo, Elia; San-Segundo, Fayna Díaz; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Langeveld, Jan; Torres, Juan María

    2007-01-01

    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions from BSE-infected sheep was examined and compared to the transmission of original cattle BSE in cattle and sheep scrapie prions. Our results indicate no transmission barrier for sheep BSE prions to infect BoPrP-Tg110 mice, but the course of the disease is accelerated compared to the effects of the original BSE isolate. The shortened incubation period of sheep BSE in the model was conserved in subsequent passage in BoPrP-Tg110 mice, indicating that it is not related to infectious titer differences. Biochemical signature, lesion profile, and PrP(Sc) deposition pattern of both cattle and sheep BSE were similar. In contrast, all three sheep scrapie isolates tested showed an evident transmission barrier and further adaptation in subsequent passage. Taken together, those data indicate that BSE agent can be altered by crossing a species barrier, raising concerns about the virulence of this new prion towards other species, including humans. The BoPrP-Tg110 mouse bioassay should be considered as a valuable tool for discriminating scrapie and BSE in sheep.

  3. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  4. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  5. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  6. Pathogenesis of Influenza D Virus in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Alicia K.; Genova, Suzanne; Epperson, William B.; Smith, David R.; Schneider, Liesel; Barton, Kathleen; McCuan, Katlin; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir of a novel member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which has been tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV). Although isolated from sick animals, it is unclear whether IDV causes any clinical disease in cattle. To address this aspect of Koch's postulates, three dairy calves (treatment animals) held in individual pens were inoculated intranasally with IDV strain D/bovine/Mississippi/C00046N/2014. At 1 day postinoculation, a seronegative calf (contact animal) was added to each of the treatment animal pens. The cattle in both treatment and contact groups seroconverted, and virus was detected in their respiratory tracts. Histologically, there was a significant increase in neutrophil tracking in tracheal epithelia of the treatment calves compared to control animals. While infected and contact animals demonstrated various symptoms of respiratory tract infection, they were mild, and the calves in the treatment group did not differ from the controls in terms of heart rate, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature. To mimic zoonotic transmission, two ferrets were exposed to a plastic toy fomite soaked with infected nasal discharge from the treatment calves. These ferrets did not shed the virus or seroconvert. In summary, this study demonstrates that IDV causes a mild respiratory disease upon experimental infection of cattle and can be transmitted effectively among cattle by in-pen contact, but not from cattle to ferrets through fomite exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that cattle are a natural reservoir for the virus. IMPORTANCE A novel influenza virus, tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in swine, cattle, sheep, and goats. Among these hosts, cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir. In this study, we show that cattle experimentally infected with IDV can shed virus and transmit it to other cattle through direct contact, but not to ferrets through

  7. Predictive mutational bioinformatic analysis of variation in the skin and wool associated corneodesmosin (CDSN) gene in sheep.

    PubMed

    Siva Subramaniam, Nitthiya; Morgan, Eleanor; Bottomley, Steven; Tay, Sharon; Gregg, Keith; Lee, Chee Yang; Wetherall, John; Groth, David

    2012-05-01

    Corneodesmosin (CDSN) is an important component of the desmosome in the epidermal cornified stratum and inner root sheath of hair follicles. DNA from a sheep BAC clone previously identified by us to contain CDSN was PCR amplified using cattle-derived primers and the product sequenced. A region of 4579 bp containing CDSN was shown to contain two exons separated by one intron and spanning 3683 bp. The DNA encodes a predicted protein of 546 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis shows that sheep CDSN falls within a clade containing cattle and other ruminant-like species. Comparison of sequences generated from 12 unrelated merino sheep and the International Sheep Genome Consortium (ISGC) data identified 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 4579 bp region of which 16 are contained within coding sequences (1 in 80 bp). The SNPs identified in this study will add to the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) SNP panel, which will allow extensive haplotyping of the sheep MHC in future studies.

  8. Sheep pox: experimental studies with a west african isolate.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Bundza, A; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Thomas, F C

    1986-08-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection.The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle.

  9. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Di Pietro, Francesco; Frisiello, Michele; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%). The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4%) supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected) sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  10. Teratogenicity of a mutagenised Rift Valley fever virus (MVP 12) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P; Erasmus, B J; Vorster, J H

    2002-03-01

    A 5-fluorouracil mutagenised Rift Valley fever virus strain, which was shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in cattle and sheep, was evaluated for its ability to cause teratogenic effects in pregnant sheep. A group of 50 sheep at various stages of pregnancy was inoculated with the virus and the pregnancies followed to term. There were two abortions and 14% of the lambs produced by vaccinated ewes showed teratogenic effects, the most prevalent being spinal hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, brachygnathia inferior and arthrygryposis. The foetal malformations of the central nervous and musculo-skeletal systems were mostly consistent with those observed in sheep vaccinated with the attenuated Smithburn RVF strain. The teratogenic effects of MVP12 were not seen in previous experiments by other authors as immunisation of sheep took place in the second to third trimester of pregnancy, when the foetal brain tissue has completed most of its cell division.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Burgstaller, Jörg P; Schinogl, Pamela; Dinnyes, Andras; Müller, Mathias; Steinborn, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88). The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR). For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR). We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs) of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6) indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5%) was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones tested, whereby all but

  12. Cytokine production by blue tongue virus-infected fetal sheep cells.

    PubMed Central

    Enright, F M; Osburn, B I

    1979-01-01

    The migration inhibition of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages by a factor(s) from media obtained from blue tongue virus-infected monolayer cultures was studied. Medium from blue tongue virus-infected sheep fetal cell cultures inhibited migration of guinea pig macrophages from agarose droplets. Medium from control cultures and stock virus did not inhibit macrophage migration. Medium containing migration inhibiting factor(s) in vitro induced an inflammatory reaction in the skin of a newborn sheep. The inflammatory reaction was observed 20 h after intradermal inoculation. The skin reaction consisted of infiltrates of mononuclear leukocytes in the superficial dermis. Control medium and stock virus caused no skin reaction. Images PMID:225275

  13. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  14. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  15. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  16. Application of Selection Mapping to Identify Genomic Regions Associated with Dairy Production in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; García-Gámez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i) identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii) identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity) in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs) by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses) were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1), whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A) were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep. PMID:24788864

  17. Intensive sheep and beef production from pasture--a New Zealand perspective of concerns, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R

    2014-11-01

    This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells from pigs and other ungulate species: an alternative to embryonic stem cells?

    PubMed

    Ezashi, T; Telugu, B P V L; Roberts, R M

    2012-08-01

    Robust embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from livestock species have been difficult to derive and maintain, and unlike mouse ESC, have not contributed to our ability to understand directed differentiation in vitro. Nor have such cells yet provided a simpler means than pronuclear injection to manipulate the genomes of agriculturally important species, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated by reprogramming somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, with a set of stemness genes, most usually but not exclusively POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, offer an alternative to ESC in these regards, as they exhibit a pluripotent phenotype resembling that of ESC, yet are readily generated in the laboratory. Accordingly, such cells, in association with cloning technologies, may be useful for introducing complex genetic changes into livestock, although this potential has yet to be demonstrated. Porcine iPSC may be especially valuable because the pig is a prime biomedical model for tissue transplantation. In general, iPSC from livestock, like those from humans, are of the epiblast type and depend upon FGF2 and activin/nodal signalling systems to maintain their pluripotency and growth. Recent experiments, in which newly reprogrammed porcine and bovine cells were selected on a LIF-based medium in presence of specific protein kinase inhibitors, have allowed iPSC cells of the naïve type, resembling the more amenable blastocyst-derived mouse ESC and iPSC to be isolated. However, hurdles still remain if such cells are to achieve their biotechnological promise.

  19. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  20. Toxicity of the lichen secondary metabolite (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Dailey, R N; Montgomery, D L; Ingram, J T; Siemion, R; Vasquez, M; Raisbeck, M F

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity following ingestion of the vagrant, foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa was identified as the putative etiology in the death of an estimated 400-500 elk on the Red Rim-Daley Wildlife Habitat Management Area in Wyoming during the winter of 2004. A single, unsubstantiated report in 1939 attributed toxicity of X. chlorochroa in cattle and sheep to usnic acid, a common lichen secondary metabolite. To test the hypothesis that usnic acid is the proximate cause of death in animals poisoned by lichen, domestic sheep were dosed PO with (+)-usnic acid. Clinical signs in symptomatic ewes included lethargy, anorexia, and signs indicative of abdominal discomfort. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities were considerably elevated in symptomatic sheep. Similarly, only symptomatic ewes exhibited appreciable postmortem lesions consisting of severe degenerative appendicular skeletal myopathy. The median toxic dose (ED(50)) of (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep was estimated to be between 485 and 647 mg/kg/day for 7 days.

  1. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  2. Species-specific PCR for the identification of Cooperia curticei (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Amarante, M R V; Bassetto, C C; Neves, J H; Amarante, A F T

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural ruminants usually harbour mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. A specific diagnosis is important because distinct species can differ significantly in their fecundity and pathogenicity. Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants in subtropical/tropical environments. In Brazil, C. punctata is more adapted to cattle than sheep. Additionally, C. spatulata appears to be more adapted to cattle, whereas C. curticei is more adapted to sheep. However, infection of sheep with C. punctata is common when cattle and sheep share the same pasture. Although morphological analyses have been widely used to identify nematodes, molecular methods can overcome technical limitations and help improve species-specific diagnoses. Genetic markers in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been used successfully to detect helminths. In the present study, the ITS-1 region was analysed and used to design a species-specific oligonucleotide primer pair to identify C. curticei. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was sequenced and showed 97% similarity to C. oncophora partial ITS-1 clones and 99% similarity to the C. curticei sequence JF680982. The specificity of this primer pair was corroborated by the analysis of 17 species of helminths, including C. curticei, C. punctata and C. spatulata. Species-specific diagnosis, which has implications for rapid and reliable identification, can support studies on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematodes in a particular geographical location.

  3. Husbandry risk factors associated with subclinical coccidiosis in young cattle.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E S E; Smith, R P; Ellis-Iversen, J

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an observational longitudinal study of cattle farms in England and Wales, which aimed to identify management practices associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. infection in young cattle. Thirty cattle farms situated in England and Wales were selected and one group of more than 20 young cattle aged 5-18 months of age was monitored on each farm. Three variables were identified as significantly associated with status in a multivariable model. The odds of finding Eimeria spp. were lower on farms that kept sheep on the same premises as the cattle, as was an increase in the maximum age within the sampled group. The latter probably reflects the development of post-infection immunity within the sampled animals. Good water-trough hygiene protected against Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, with the odds of detection being higher on farms where it was reported that the water troughs were not cleaned and emptied more than once per month. The value of frequent emptying and cleaning of water troughs in reducing the exposure of calves to Eimeria spp. and thus lowering the impact of coccidiosis, both clinical and subclinical should be communicated to cattle farmers.

  4. Suspected botulism in three intensively managed Australian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Trueman, K F; Bock, R E; Thomas, R J; Taylor, J D; Green, P A; Roeger, H M; Ketterer, P J

    1992-05-02

    Serious outbreaks of a paralytic disease in cattle occurring in the spring and summer of 1988 were investigated on three farms in south eastern Queensland, Australia. On one farm 237 (31 per cent) of 770 cattle died, on the second 109 (40 per cent) of 271 cattle died and on the third 30 (8 per cent) of 380 cows died. Botulism was suspected on the basis of the clinical signs, the lack of significant pathology, a failure to incriminate other agents and a positive feeding trial in one sheep. Laboratory tests for the presence of botulinum toxin failed to confirm this diagnosis, and further feeding trials using ingredients of two rations were also negative.

  5. Does Coxiella burnetii affect reproduction in cattle? A clinical update.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F

    2014-08-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis produced by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that is widely distributed worldwide. Domestic ruminants are the most important source of C. burnetii for human infection. In sheep and goats, abortion is the main clinical consequence of infection, yet the symptoms described in cattle have so far been inconsistent. Q fever has been also scarcely reported in cattle, most likely because of its difficult diagnosis at the farm level and because of the many existing responsible C. burnetii strains. In this report, the effects of C. burnetii infection or Q fever disease on the reproductive behaviour of dairy cattle are reviewed, with special emphasis placed on the scarcity of data available and possible control actions discussed.

  6. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  7. [Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].

    PubMed

    Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F

    2014-04-02

    Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation.

  8. Identification and sequence analysis of the keratin-associated protein 24-1 (KAP24-1) gene homologue in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huitong; Gong, Hua; Yan, Wei; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2012-12-10

    Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are major structural components of hair and wool fibres, and play a critical role in determining the properties of the fibre. While over 100 KAP genes that have been grouped into 27 KAP families have been identified in mammals, most homologues remain unidentified in sheep. A BLAST search of the Ovine Genome Assembly v2.0 using a human KRTAP24-1 coding sequence (NM_001085455), identified a putative ovine KAP24-1 gene clustered with six other known KAP genes on chromosome 1. The KAP24-1 gene was amplified from the genomic DNA of 260 New Zealand Romney-cross sheep and stem-loop conformational polymorphism (SLCP) analysis of the amplicons revealed four unique banding-patterns, representing four different DNA sequences. These sequences were not closely homologous with any known ovine KRTAP and the highest similarity was with KRTAP24-1 sequences from humans, cattle, dog, pig, Sumatran orangutan and northern white-cheeked gibbon. This suggests that the sequences were allelic variants of ovine KRTAP24-1. Among these four sequences, seven nucleotide substitutions in the coding region were identified and four of the substitutions were non-synonymous. The putative ovine KAP24-1 polypeptide consisted of 252 amino acids. While probably belonging to the high-sulphur KAP group, the polypeptide had a moderate level of cysteine, but a high content of serine and tyrosine. The polypeptide possesses two putative N-glycosylation sites and a number of residues that may be O-glycosylated and/or phosphorylated.

  9. Sheep as a Potential Source of Bovine TB: Epidemiology, Pathology and Evaluation of Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mendoza, M; Romero, B; Del Cerro, A; Gortázar, C; García-Marín, J F; Menéndez, S; Mourelo, J; de Juan, L; Sáez, J L; Delahay, R J; Balseiro, A

    2016-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) infection is infrequently diagnosed in sheep. Most reports are from single individual cases or flock outbreaks. However, in Spain several outbreaks have been reported recently, all of which had epidemiological links with TB-infected cattle herds. A total of 897 sheep suspected of being infected with TB and belonging to 23 flocks cohabiting with TB-infected cattle herds and/or goats were tested between 2009 and 2013 in Galicia (north-western Spain), using pathological, immunological and molecular techniques. Of these, 50.44% were positive by culture, 83.23% by histopathology and 24.92%, 4.86% and 59.42% by single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT), interferon-γ and ELISA, respectively. Results suggest that in circumstances akin to those in our study, sheep may be considered as a potential source of TB. We conclude that under similar conditions, serious consideration should be given to TB testing sheep, as they may represent a potential risk to other susceptible co-habiting species. The SITT and ELISA are recommended as the simplest and most cost-effective initial approaches for the diagnosis of TB in sheep under field conditions. However, when possible, interferon-γ should be applied to increase sensitivity.

  10. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  11. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  12. Orthopedic conditions of small ruminants. Llama, sheep, goat, and deer.

    PubMed

    Kaneps, A J

    1996-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the foot, infectious arthritis, angular limb deformities, patellar luxation, tendon contracture and injuries, and fractures encountered in sheep, goats, llamas, and deer are reviewed. These species share similar orthopedic problems to cattle, but management conditions, particularly for pet animals, may place special demands on the veterinarian treating these disease conditions. The mild temperament and relatively small body size of these animals make them excellent candidates for treatment of orthopedic problems often not amenable to practical treatment in larger or more fractious animals.

  13. Conditioned aversion induced by Baccharis coridifolia in sheep and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil Baccharis coridifolia is an important toxic plant. The poisoning occurs when animals raised in areas without the plant are transported to, and allowed to graze in, pastures infested by B. coridifolia. Intoxication risk increases considerably when recently transported animals are s...

  14. Experimental Transmission of Bighorn Sheep Sinus Tumors to Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fox, K A; Wootton, S; Marolf, A; Rouse, N; LeVan, I; Spraker, T; Miller, M; Quackenbush, S

    2016-11-01

    Bighorn sheep sinus tumors are a recently described disease affecting the paranasal sinuses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Several features of this disease suggest an infectious cause, although a specific etiologic agent has not been identified. To test the hypothesis that bighorn sheep sinus tumors are caused by an infectious agent, we inoculated 4 bighorn sheep lambs and 4 domestic sheep lambs intranasally with a cell-free filtrate derived from a naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumor; we held 1 individual of each species as a control. Within 18 months after inoculation, all 4 inoculated domestic sheep (100%) and 1 of the 4 inoculated bighorn sheep (25%) developed tumors within the ethmoid sinuses or nasal conchae, with features similar to naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumors. Neither of the uninoculated sheep developed tumors. Histologically, the experimentally transmitted tumors were composed of stellate to spindle cells embedded within a myxoid matrix, with marked bone production. Tumor cells stained positively with vimentin, S100, alpha smooth muscle actin, and osteocalcin, suggesting origin from a multipotent mesenchymal cell. A periosteal origin for these tumors is suspected. Immunohistochemical staining for the envelope protein of JSRV (with cross-reactivity to ENTV) was equivocal, and PCR assays specific for these agents were negative.

  15. Dissemination of brain emboli following captive bolt stunning of sheep: capacity for entry into the systemic arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    Coore, R R; Love, S; McKinstry, J L; Weaver, H R; Phillips, A; Hillman, T; Hiles, M J; Shand, A; Helps, C R; Anil, M H

    2004-05-01

    The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United Kingdom and the recognition of a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prompted revision of the guidelines for slaughter of cattle and sheep to prevent contamination of the edible parts of the carcass with central nervous system tissue. We previously showed that captive bolt gun stunning, which is routinely used for the slaughter of cattle and sheep, causes entry of fragments of central nervous system tissue into the jugular vein. To determine whether such tissue can traverse pulmonary capillaries to enter the systemic circulation, we introduced small volumes of brain tissue that had been disrupted by stunning with a captive bolt gun into the jugular vein of sheep sent for slaughter. We examined aortic blood samples by immunocytochemistry for neurofilament and S100 proteins and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glial fibrillary acidic protein and found fragments of neurofilament- and S100-immunopositive central nervous system tissue in samples from 2 of 11 sheep and elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein in 6 sheep. Our findings suggest that central nervous system tissue that is dislodged during routine captive bolt gun stunning and slaughter of sheep can enter the systemic arterial circulation and that, in some cases, this method of slaughter of an animal infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy would be likely to contaminate edible parts of the carcass with infective material.

  16. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma ovis strains from bighorn sheep in Montana.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José; Atkinson, Mark W; Hogg, John T; Miller, David S; Naranjo, Victoria; Almazán, Consuelo; Anderson, Neil; Kocan, Katherine M

    2006-04-01

    Wildlife reservoir species and genetic diversity of Anaplasma ovis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) have been poorly characterized. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), captured in Montana from December 2004 to January 2005, were tested for antibodies to Anaplasma spp.; the presence of A. ovis was determined by the characterization of major surface protein msp4 sequences. Anaplasma antibodies were detected in 25/180 (14%) sampled bighorn sheep and A. ovis msp4 sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced from 9/23 (39%) of seropositive animals. All animals were negative by PCR for the related pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale. All msp4 sequences identified in the bighorn sheep were identical and corresponded to a single A. ovis genotype that was identical to a sheep isolate reported previously from Idaho. The finding of a single genotype of A. ovis in this wild herd of bighorn sheep was in contrast to the genetic diversity reported for A. marginale in cattle herds in the western United States and worldwide. These results demonstrated that bighorn sheep may be a wildlife reservoir of A. ovis in Montana.

  17. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  18. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  19. Detection of Theileria lestoquardi cross infection in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Jolodar, Abbas; Rasooli, Aria; Darabifard, Ameneh

    2016-12-01

    Theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi (malignant ovine theileriosis) in sheep and Theileria annulata (tropical theileriosis) in cattle is an important hemoprotozoal tick-borne disease in Iran. Due to major biologic and phylogenic similarities of these two species, this study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of natural infections with T.lestoquardi and T.annulata in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Fifty one cattle were selected based on clinical signs of theileriosis and confirmation by microscopic examination of blood smears. Blood samples were collected from each animal and hematologic and microscopic examinations were performed. Theileria piroplasmic forms were detected in all affected cattle. Pale mucous membranes (43.14%), icterus (11.76%) and fever (70.6%) were also observed. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed T. annulata infection in all tested cattle while coinfections with T. lestoquardi were found in two samples (3.92%). All sampled cattle including the two with mixed species Theileria infection were anemic. This is the first report of Theileria species cross infections in cattle with clinical theileriosis in Iran. It can be concluded that cattle can be infected with both pathogenic Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. annulata which can be an important issue in the epidemiology and spread of ovine malignant theileriosis.

  20. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non-bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  1. Characterizing foraging patterns among cattle and bonded and non- bonded small ruminants using spatial point process techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two mixed-species livestock groups were monitored while foraging on 410 ha of brush-infested Southern New Mexico rangeland during July and August 1988. The groups consisted of crossbred Bos taurus and Bos indicus beef cattle with white-faced sheep (Ovis aries) and mohair goats (Capra hircus). The b...

  2. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  3. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  4. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  5. Immunohistochemical distinction between preclinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thuring, C M A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M; Vromans, M E W; van Zijderveld, F G; Sweeney, T

    2005-01-01

    Sheep are susceptible experimentally to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the clinical signs being indistinguishable from those of scrapie. Because of the possibility of natural ovine BSE infection, laboratory tests are needed to distinguish between scrapie and BSE infection. The objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) PrPSc accumulates in biopsy samples of the tonsil or third eyelid, or both, of BSE-infected sheep before the appearance of clinical disease, and (2) such samples from BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep differ in respect of PrPSc accumulations. Homozygous ARQ sheep (n = 10) were dosed orally at 4-5 months of age with a brain homogenate from BSE-infected cattle. Third eyelid and tonsillar biopsy samples were taken at < or = 6 monthly intervals post-infection and examined immunohistochemically for PrPSc. Third eyelid protuberances were difficult to identify, resulting in many unsuitable samples; however, third eyelid samples shown to contain lymphoid follicles were invariably negative for PrPSc. In contrast, tonsillar biopsy samples became positive for PrPSc from 11 to 20 months post-infection. Consistent differences in the morphology of PrPSc granules in tingible body macrophages (TBMs) between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep were detected with anti-peptide antibodies directed towards amino acids 93-106 of the ovine prion protein: thus, PrPSc appeared as single granules in TBMs of tonsillar sections from BSE-infected sheep, whereas clusters of PrPSc granules were observed within TBMs in the tonsils of scrapie-infected sheep. In contrast, antibodies against epitopes situated N- and C-terminally from the 93-106 region of the ovine prion protein revealed no differences between BSE- and scrapie-infected sheep in terms of PrPSc granules in TBMs.

  6. Congenital defects of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1993-03-01

    With increasing incrimination of viruses, plants, and drugs as causes of ovine congenital defects, concerted efforts are required to identify environmental teratogens. Expanding knowledge of congenital defects requires studying as many defective lambs as possible; recording and documenting; detailed diagnostic examinations; genetic analyses and chromosomal examinations, whenever possible; and field investigations. Adopting standardized classification, terminology, and diagnostic procedures should improve descriptions, diagnoses, and interdisciplinary exchange of information. That, in turn, should improve our knowledge of and diagnosis of congenital defects of sheep in the future. Finally, veterinary clinicians and diagnosticians are encouraged to take an interest in congenital defects and teratology.

  7. Hydrops foetalis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Plant, J W; Lomas, S T; Harper, P A; Duncan, D W; Carroll, S N

    1987-10-01

    Hydrops foetalis was observed in foetuses from a sheep flock in southern New South Wales over 4 years. Ewes showed marked abdominal distension and most died at parturition, being unable to deliver large affected foetuses. These had birth weights up to 18 kg and exhibited severe generalised oedema of subcutaneous tissues, fluid accumulation in the serous cavities and oedema of the placenta. Microscopically, there was a generalised extramedullary haemopoiesis and massive oedema, consistent with a chronic foetal anaemia. No infectious or environmental factors could be incriminated in the outbreak. The clinical and pathological findings resemble those of the homozygous alpha-thalassaemia in infants associated with haemoglobin Bart's.

  8. [Animal welfare aspects in raising sheep].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2004-03-01

    Basing on experience in sheep herd health service light is thrown on sheep keeping in Germany concerning protection of sheep against cruelty. Despite there is at the moment no legislative regulation especially on keeping sheep, there exist a number of local and european recommendations. Cruelty and undesirable or avoidable disorders and loads occur in small sheep flocks often due to unawareness of the owner who keeps his sheep as a hobby. In large herds the increasing flock size and the more and more extensive husbandry clash increasingly with the requirements of the sheep.

  9. Field investigations of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in Syria, 1990-1996.

    PubMed

    Darwish, M; Benkirane, A

    2001-12-01

    The authors present the epidemiological status of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants in Syria from 1990 to 1996, based on laboratory findings at the Brucellosis Centre, Damascus. Initial investigations using the Rose Bengal plate test, the complement fixation test and a miniaturised variant of the slow agglutination test were conducted throughout the country in 1990 and 1991, revealing an overall herd seroprevalence rate of 3.14% in cattle herds and 2.94% in small ruminant flocks. Although partially biased by previous vaccination of young female cattle with S19 vaccine, these figures indicate that brucellosis in cattle is widespread, particularly in the urban governorates (provinces) of Damascus, Aleppo and Suwaydah. Brucellosis seroprevalence in sheep and goats was relatively high in the governorates of Damascus, Aleppo and Dara'a. The results of a second series of investigations, performed between 1992 and 1996, show that herd seroprevalence in cattle decreased steadily from 17.48% in 1992, to 2.59% in 1996, in the Government-owned farms, while seroprevalence increased in the private sector during the same period. The difference may be explained by the restriction of brucellosis vaccination to public farms (although this was far from systematic), combined with partial application of a 'test-and-slaughter' policy. In sheep and goats, brucellosis seroprevalence fluctuated in the two sectors, but was higher in the private sector where husbandry is principally extensive. Bacteriological investigations led to the isolation of Brucella melitensis biovars 2 and 3 in sheep and B. abortus biovar 9 in cattle. Although no specific methodology was employed, particularly with regard to sampling, this study is significant as the first international report of the distribution of brucellosis in Syria. Further, well-structured studies are required, the results of which could be used to plan an appropriate national control programme for brucellosis.

  10. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in veterinarians associated with cattle obstetrics, Bavaria, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Helen; Brockmann, Stefan O; Kleinkauf, Niels; Klinc, Christina; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Stark, Klaus; Jansen, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Infection can result in severe disease. However, little is known about the risk of infection in veterinarians. In a cross-sectional study among German veterinarians, participants provided sera and completed an exposure questionnaire. We investigated predictors for seropositivity using multivariable logistic regression modelling. The 424 participants' median age was 40 (18-74) years, and 276 (65%) were female. Sera of 162 (38%) were positive for Coxiella burnetii phase II IgG antibodies (by ELISA and IFAT). Predictors for seropositivity were occupational exposure to cattle (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.64-4.87), occupational exposure to sheep (2.09, 1.22-3.58), male sex (1.9, 1.15-3.13), and increasing age (30-39 years: 4.91, 2.00-12.04; 40-49 years: 5.32, 2.12-13.33; >50 years: 6.70, 2.60-17.25; compared with <30 years). When investigating occupational exposure to cattle and sheep in detail in a separate model, the seroprevalence increased with increasing numbers of cattle obstetrics procedures performed per month, and with increasing numbers of individual cattle treated per week. The high antibody prevalence implies a high lifetime-risk of Q fever in veterinarians. Cattle veterinarians, especially those frequently performing obstetrics, should be counseled early in their career on the clinical picture of Q fever, and on specific risks.

  11. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans.

  12. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  13. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  14. Evaluation of efficacy, potential for vector transmission and duration of immunity testing of MP-12, an attenuated Rift Valley fever virus vaccine candidate, in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. There are currently no fully licensed vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus in the US. Studies in sheep and cattle have found an attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious, and a conditi...

  15. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle.

  16. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6–8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  18. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  19. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  20. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  1. Sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep poxviruses.

    PubMed

    El-Kenawy, A A; El-Tholoth, M S

    2010-12-01

    In Egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (LSD) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (Kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. In the present study 15 skin nodules from LSD suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (SP) suspected sheep were collected. Hyperimmune rabbit sera to Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)/Ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (SPV)/ Kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. The causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence (IF) and immunoperoxidase techniques. Of the 15 skin nodules suspected of LSD, 10 showed a positive reaction and 3 out of 5 skin scabs suspected of sheeppox were found to be positive. An antigenic correlation between field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain was studied using prepared hyperimmune sera. Also, nucleotide sequence of the PCR amplified attachment gene fragments of field skin isolate of LSDV, tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain, field skin isolate of SPV and SPV /Kenyan vaccinal strain were compared. The results revealed that the four used viruses were antigenically identical. Sequence analysis indicated that field skin LSDV isolate is more related to tissue culture adapted LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain than to vaccinal SPV/ Kenyan strain and the skin isolate of SPV is more closely related to field skin isolate of LSDV than to SPV/Kenyan vaccinal strain. Thus, further study should be applied on the advantage of a LSD vaccine prepared from LSDV in protection of cattle against LSD compared to the commonly used sheep pox vaccine.

  2. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  3. Isolation, sequence identification and expression profile of three novel genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A from Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    He, Y D; Liu, D D; Xi, D M; Yang, L Y; Tan, Y W; Liu, Q; Mao, H M; Deng, W D

    2010-01-01

    Complete coding sequences of three Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries) genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A were amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of cattle or other mammals known to be highly homologous to sheep ESTs. The Black-boned sheep Rab2A gene encodes a protein of 226 amino acids which contains the conserved putative RabL2 domain and is highly homologous to the Rab2A proteins of seven other species--cattle (96%), human (83%), Sumatran orangutan (82%), rat (81%), mouse (80%), African clawed frog (72%) and zebrafish (71%). The Black-boned sheep Rab3A gene encodes a protein of 220 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab3 domain and is very similar to the Rab3A proteins of four species--cattle (99%), African clawed frog (99%), Western clawed frog (98%) and zebrafish (95%). And the Black-boned sheep Rab7A gene encodes a protein of 207 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab7 domain and has high homology with the Rab7A proteins of six other species--human (99%), dog (99%), Sumatran orangutan (99%), zebrafish (97%), rabbit (97%) and African clawed frog (96%). Analysis of the phylogenetic tree has demonstrated that the Black-boned sheep Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A proteins share a common ancestor and the tissue expression analysis has shown that the corresponding genes are expressed in a range of tissues including leg muscle, kidney, skin, longissimus dorsi muscle, spleen, heart and liver. Our experiment is the first to provide the primary foundation for a further insight into these three sheep genes.

  4. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  5. Fecundity genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H

    2004-07-01

    Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  6. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

  7. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  8. Genomic location and characterisation of MIC genes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Birch, James; De Juan Sanjuan, Cristina; Guzman, Efrain; Ellis, Shirley A

    2008-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related (MIC) genes have been previously identified and characterised in human. They encode polymorphic class I-like molecules that are stress-inducible, and constitute one of the ligands of the activating natural killer cell receptor NKG2D. We have identified three MIC genes within the cattle genome, located close to three non-classical MHC class I genes. The genomic position relative to other genes is very similar to the arrangement reported in the pig MHC region. Analysis of MIC cDNA sequences derived from a range of cattle cell lines suggest there may be four MIC genes in total. We have investigated the presence of the genes in distinct and well-defined MHC haplotypes, and show that one gene is consistently present, while configuration of the other three genes appears variable.

  9. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  10. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

    1994-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  11. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD.

  12. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of the Tritrichomonas foetus PIG30/1 isolate from pigs reveals close association with Tritrichomonas foetus BP-4 isolate 'bovine genotype'.

    PubMed

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Mueller, Kai; Conesa, Ana; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus was described as a commensal of the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs before it was recognised as the cause of reproductive tract disease of cattle. T. foetus also causes chronic large bowel diarrhoea in domestic cats. Multi-locus genotyping and comparative transcriptome analysis has previously revealed that T. foetus isolated from cat and cattle hosts are genetically distinct, referred to as the 'feline genotype' and 'bovine genotype', respectively. Conversely, multi-locus genotyping has grouped porcine T. foetus with the 'bovine genotype'. To compare the extent of the similarity between porcine T. foetus and cattle 'bovine genotype' isolates, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to produce the first cell-wide transcriptome library of porcine T. foetus PIG30/1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the PIG30/1 with the published bovine (BP-4) and feline (G10/1) transcriptomes revealed that the porcine T. foetus shares a 4.7 fold greater number of orthologous genes with the bovine T. foetus than with the feline T. foetus. Comparing transcription of the virulence factors, cysteine proteases (CP) between the three isolates, the porcine T. foetus was found to preferentially transcribe CP8 like the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus, compared to thehigh transcription of CP7 seen for 'feline genotype' T. foetus. At the cell-wide transcriptome level, the porcine T. foetus isolate (PIG30/1) groups closer with the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus rather than the 'feline genotype' T. foetus.

  13. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  14. Vaccinia Virus Recombinants: Expression of VSV Genes and Protective Immunization of Mice and Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackett, M.; Yilma, T.; Rose, J. K.; Moss, B.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. When DNA copies of messenger RNA's for the G or N proteins of VSV were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized VSV polypeptides. After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV. In cattle, the degree of protection against intradermalingually injected VSV was correlated with the level of neutralizing antibody produced following vaccination.

  15. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to 9 rotavirus strains representing 7 G-serotypes in sheep sera.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Lanza, I; Alvarez, M; Cármenes, P

    1995-08-01

    Neutralizing antibodies to 9 rotavirus strains representing serotypes G1, G3, G5, G6, G8, G9, and G10 were investigated in 212 ovine serum samples from 3 age groups, 1-week-old lambs, 2- to 3-months-old lambs and adult sheep. All sera from 1-week-old lambs had neutralizing antibodies to all 9 rotavirus strains. Both neutralizing antibody titers and prevalences to all 9 strains markedly decreased in the 2- to 3-months-old lamb group and increased again in the adult sheep group. Also, adult sheep sera neutralized a larger number of rotavirus strains than 2- to 3-months-old lamb sera. The highest neutralizing antibody titers and prevalences were found to strains B223 and K923, representing serotype G10, to strain RRV, representing serotype G3, and to strain NCDV, representing serotype G6, indicating that these could be the predominant 3 rotavirus serotypes in Spanish sheep. The rotavirus serotypes infecting sheep observed by us differ from those described for cattle, where G6 is the most prevalent serotype followed by G10, and G3 has been seldom found. Very low prevalences were observed for strains WA and OSU representing serotypes G1 and G5 respectively, suggesting that they probably do not infect sheep and neutralizing antibodies found are derived from heterotypic responses to other serotypes. Intermediate prevalences and titers were found to strains UK (serotype G6), 69M (serotype G8) and WI61 (serotype G9). Neutralizing antibodies distinguished between different strains sharing their VP7 specificity: B223 and K923, a bovine and an ovine serotype G10 strains, and NCDV and UK, two serotype G6 bovine rotavirus strains with different VP4 antigen.

  16. Efficient Production and Cellular Characterization of Sheep Androgenetic Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Iuso, Domenico; Toschi, Paola; di Egidio, Fiorella; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Ptak, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production of androgenetic embryos in large animals is a complex procedure. Androgenetic embryos have been produced so far only in cattle and sheep using pronuclear transfer (PT) between zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) of previously enucleated oocytes. PT is required due to the poor developmental potential of androgenotes derived from IVF of enucleated oocytes. Here we compare the developemt to blastocyst of androgenetic embryos produced by the standard pronuclear transfer and by fertilization of oocytes enucleated in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium, without pronuclear transfer. The enucleation in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium abolished almost completely the manipulation-induced activation, significantly improving the development to blastocyst of the androgenetic embryos (IVF followed by PT; 18.6%: IVF only; 17.7%, respectively). Karyotype analysis of IVF revealed a similar proportion of diploid embryos in androgenetic and control blastocysts (35% and 36%, respectively), although mixoploid blastocysts were frequently observed in both groups (64%). Androgenotes had lower total cell numbers than control and parthenogenetic embryos, but more cells in ICM cells comparing to parthenogenotes (30.42 vs. 17.15%). Higher expression of the pluripotency-associated gene NANOG, and trophoblastic-specific gene CDX2, were also observed in androgenotes compared to parthenogenotes and controls. The global methytion profile of androgenetic embryos was comparable to controls, but was lower than parthenogenetic embryos. The cell composition and methylation pattern we have detected in monoparental sheep monoparental embryos are unprecedented, and differ considerably from the standard reference mouse embryos. Altogether, these finding indicate significant differences across species in the molecular mechanisms regulating early development of monoparental embryos, and highlights the need to study postimplantation development of androgenetic embryos in sheep. PMID:22043807

  17. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep.

  18. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  19. The transgenic expression of human follistatin-344 increases skeletal muscle mass in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fei; Fang, Rui; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Xin; Chang, Wen; Zhang, Zaihu; Li, Ning; Meng, Qingyong

    2017-02-01

    Follistatin (FST), which was first found in the follicles of cattle and pigs, has been shown to be an essential regulator for muscle development. Mice that were genetically engineered to overexpress Fst specifically in muscle had at least twice the amount of skeletal muscle mass as controls; these findings are similar to earlier results obtained in myostatin-knockout mice. However, the role of follistatin in skeletal muscle development has yet to be clarified in livestock. Here, we describe transgenic Duroc pigs that exogenously express Fst specifically in muscle tissue. The transgenic pigs exhibited an increased proportion of skeletal muscle and a reduced proportion of body fat that were similar to those reported in myostatin-null cattle. The lean percentage of lean meat was significantly higher in the F1 generation of TG pigs (72.95 ± 1.0 %) than in WT pigs (69.18 ± 0.97 %) (N = 16, P < 0.05). Myofiber hypertrophy was also observed in the longissimus dorsi of transgenic pigs, possibly contributing to the increased skeletal muscle mass. Western blot analysis showed a significantly reduced level of Smad2 phosphorylation and an increased level of Akt(S473) phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle tissue of the transgenic pigs. Moreover, no cardiac muscle hypertrophy or reproductive abnormality was observed. These findings indicate that muscle-specific Fst overexpression in pigs enhances skeletal muscle growth, at least partly due to myofiber hypertrophy and providing a promising approach to increase muscle mass in pigs and other livestock.

  20. Seroprevalence of bluetongue disease in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khezri, Mohammad; Azimi, Seyed Mahmud

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rates of bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran. Bluetongue virus, an economically important orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and it can infect all ruminant species. Overall, 26 serotypes have been reported around the world. Due to its economic impact, bluetongue (BT) is an Office of International des Epizooties (OIE)-listed disease. A total of 756 sera samples collected during 2007-2008, were available. Sera were tested with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). The seroprevalence rate in sheep was 40.87%. The rate of positivity in sheep in west and northwest was 46.10% and 33.75%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antibodies in serum was in West Azerbaijan (64.86%), and lower was in Ardabil (23.77%). PMID:25653797

  1. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallographic studies of galectin-11 from domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Dhanasekaran; Littler, Dene; Shahine, Adam; Troy, Sally; Johnson, Matthew; Rossjohn, Jamie; Piedrafita, David; Beddoe, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that translate glycan recognition into cellular effects. Galectin-11 is a unique member of the galectin family that is only expressed in ruminants such as sheep, goat and cattle and that plays a critical role in several important biological processes, such as reproduction and parasite-mediated innate immune responses. Currently, these two areas are of major importance for the sustainability of ruminant livestock production. Despite the emerging biological significance of galectin-11, no structural information is available. It is expected that structural studies will unravel the functional mechanisms of galectin-11 activity. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ruminant-specific galectin-11 from domestic sheep and the collection of X-ray data to 2.0 Å resolution are reported.

  2. The effects of arsenic contaminated drinking water of livestock on its total levels in milk samples of different cattle: Risk assessment in children.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Talpur, Farah Naz; Akhtar, Asma

    2016-12-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the arsenic (As) levels in milk samples of different milch animals, sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes and camels in Tharparkar, Pakistan. The concentration of As in the milk samples of cows, buffalos, sheep, goats and camels were observed in the range of 15.1-18.4, 2.6-7.7, 25.7-33.2, 10.5-37.3 and 6.6-13.7 μg/L, respectively. The levels of As in livestock drinking water of each farms/flocks was found in the range of 238-2000 μg L(-1). A positive correlation with Pearson correlation coefficients, ranged as, 0.926-0.974 (p = 0.001-0.011) was observed between the As concentration in milk samples of cattle and in corresponding drinking water of farms/flocks. The high bio-transfer factor of As was occurred in the milk samples of sheep. The content of As in scalp hair of children was observed to be elevated, who consumed milk of lower cattle (sheep and goat) than cow and camel. The As content in scalp hair directly proportional to the age of children. The hazardous quotient value of As due to consumption of milk was observed in decreasing order as, sheep > goats > camels > cows. The total hazardous quotient or noncarcinogenic risk values for children consuming the milk of sheep, goat, cow and camels were found >1 of reference dose for As, creates adverse effects on health in childhood stage. The children of all three age group have higher carcinogenic risk factor who are consuming milk of goat and sheep than larger cattle.

  3. [Sequence characterization of the 5'-Flanking region of the GHR gene in Tibetan sheep].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Jie; Wei, Ya-Ping; Zhong, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Lu, Hong; Tong, Zi-Bao

    2007-08-01

    The 5'-Flanking sequence (including the P1 promotor and exon 1A) of the GHR gene in Oura-type Tibetan sheep (O. aries) was cloned by T-A method and sequenced (GenBank accession No. EF116490). Characterization and comparison of this sequence with mouflons (O. musimon), goat (C. hircus), cattle (B. taurus) and European bison (B. bonasus) orthologues were also conducted. Results showed that: 1) The 5'-flanking region contained many potential transcriptional factor binding sites such as those for C/EBPb, C/EBP, SP1, Cap, USF, HFH-2, HNF-3b, and Oct-1, which might have an important effect on transcription activation and regulation as well as tissue-specific expression. The rate of repetitive sequences was 2.55% and no SINEs, LINEs, LTR anti-transcription elements or DNA transposon elements were found, although one (TG)11 microsatellite was found. 2) In the P1 promotor region, sequence homology between the Tibetan sheep and mouflon, goat, cattle and European bison was 99.7%, 94.2%, 85.9% and 86.5%, respectively, while that for exon 1A was 99.0%, 97.0%, 92.7% and 94.6%, respectively. 3) The molecular phylogenetic tree among these species, constructed by the neighborhood joining method based on the sequences of no-coding region of the GHR genes, placed the two Bovinae species on one branch and the three Caprinae species on the other. Tibetan sheep and mouflons were joined first, followed by the goat, and then the Bovinae species, including the cattle and European bison. This result of phylogenetic clustering was not only identical to the taxonomy, but also to the phylogenetic clustering using the mitochondrial DNA of these species.

  4. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  5. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  6. Prenatal development of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Gilanpour, Hassan; Radmehr, Bijan

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at clarifying the detailed morphological and topographical changes of the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk of sheep during fetal development. Bilateral micro-dissection of the thoracic sympathetic trunk was performed on 40 sheep fetuses aged 6-20 weeks (18 males and 22 females) under a stereomicroscope. The cervicothoracic ganglion (CTG) was observed on 75/80 sides (93.7%) and was composed of the caudal cervical and the first thoracic ganglia on 45/80 sides (56.2%), and of the caudal cervical and the first two thoracic ganglia on 30/80 sides (37.5%). The presence of the two last (12th-13th) thoracic ganglia was not constant. The influence of the sex, the side of the body, and the ages of the fetus on the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep were identified. In spite of the differences in the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk between early and late fetal developments, the morphology and topography of the older fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk tended to be similar to that of the adult sheep. To comprehend the comparative morphology of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk more completely, our results were compared with previous studies. Consequently, differences and similarities in the composition and position of the CTG, presence of single caudal cervical ganglion without fusion to the thoracic ganglia, and absence of the thoracic ganglia, and presence of splitting of the interganglionic branch were found among sheep, pig, and human fetuses. Therefore, sheep might be the appropriate animal model to be applied in human sympathetic nervous system.

  7. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  8. Effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis and metabolism in the pig.

    PubMed

    Odensvik, K; Cort, N; Basu, S; Kindahl, H

    1989-09-01

    The effect of flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism was evaluated in the pig in vivo. It was found that the prostaglandin metabolite, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha, was decreased in the peripheral circulation within 20 min of injection of the drug. In therapeutic doses in the pig the drug had no effect on the metabolism of PGF2 alpha. Flunixin was compared with some other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an in vitro test system utilizing sheep vesicular gland microsomes. It was concluded that this drug is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.

  9. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  10. Similar patterns of infection with bovine foamy virus in experimentally inoculated calves and sheep.

    PubMed

    Materniak, Magdalena; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin; Kuzmak, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are the least known retroviruses commonly found in primates, cats, horses, and cattle. Although FVs are considered apathogenic, simian and feline FVs have been shown to be associated with some transient health abnormalities in animal models. Currently, data regarding the course of infection with bovine FV (BFV) are not available. In this study, we conducted experimental infections of natural (cattle) and heterologous (sheep) hosts with the BFV(100) isolate and monitored infection patterns in both hosts during the early phase postinoculation as well as after long-term infection. Four calves and six sheep inoculated with BFV(100) showed no signs of pathology but developed persistent infection, as confirmed by virus rescue, consistent detection of BFV-specific antibodies, and presence of viral DNA. In both hosts, antibodies against BFV Gag and Bet appeared early after infection and persisted at high and stable levels while seroreactivity toward Env was consistently detectable only in BFV-infected sheep. Interestingly, the BFV proviral DNA load was highest in lung, spleen, and liver and moderate in leukocytes, while salivary glands contained either low or undetectable DNA loads in calves or sheep, respectively. Additionally, comparison of partial BFV sequences from inoculum and infected animals demonstrated very limited changes after long-term infection in the heterologous host, clearly less than those found in BFV field isolates. The persistence of BFV infection in both hosts suggests full replication competence of the BFV(100) isolate with no requirement of genetic adaptation for productive replication in the authentic and even in a heterologous host.

  11. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  12. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  13. Comparison of the cross-antibody response induced in sheep by inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 and Hobi-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Colao, Valeriana; Cavaliere, Nicola; Lovero, Angela; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-06-01

    Hobi-like pestivirus, a new tentative species within genus Pestivirus, was firstly detected in foetal bovine serum batches and later associated to respiratory distress and reproductive failures in cattle. In the present study, the cross-antibody response between bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and the emerging pestivirus was evaluated in the sheep model. Ten sheep were immunised against BVDV-1 or Hobi-like pestivirus using inactivated preparations and the induced antibody responses were evaluated against the homologous and heterologous viruses. The results showed that heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than the homologous ones, thus suggesting the need to develop specific vaccines against the emerging pestiviral species.

  14. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-07-13

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice.

  15. Malignant catarrhal fever in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig. A potential threat to pigs in mixed-species exhibits?

    PubMed

    Lapp, S; Förster, C; Kummrow, M; Wohlsein, P; Haist, V

    2015-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) represents a sporadic and often fatal disease in various ungulate species including rarely swine. A close contact between susceptible and reservoir species of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a requirement for virus transmission. As in ruminants, a rapid course of disease with lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrotizing vasculitis in multiple organs is frequently seen in porcine MCF. This report describes a case of MCF in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig, which was kept in a zoological exhibit with direct contact to various ruminants. It represents the first description of porcine MCF with proven natural OvHV-2 infection in Germany. OvHV-2 should be considered as cause of fatalities among swine especially in mixed-species exhibits as present in many zoological gardens. Also farm pigs kept in free ranging husbandry systems with potential contact to sheep and other ruminant species may be at risk.

  16. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  17. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  18. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  19. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  20. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  1. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Éverton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

  2. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2007-03-31

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  3. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  4. Is the decline of desert bighorn sheep from infectious disease the result of low MHC variation?

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Espeleta, G A; Hedrick, P W; Kalinowski, S T; Garrigan, D; Boyce, W M

    2001-04-01

    Bighorn sheep populations have greatly declined in numbers and distribution since European settlement, primarily because of high susceptibility to infectious diseases transmitted to them from domestic livestock. It has been suggested that low variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, the most important genetic aspect of the vertebrate immune system, may result in high susceptibility to infectious disease. Therefore, we examined genetic polymorphism at a MHC gene (Ovca-DRB) in a large sample, both numerically and geographically, of bighorn sheep. Strikingly, there were 21 different alleles that showed extensive nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence. In other words, low MHC variation does not appear to be the basis of the high disease susceptibility and decline in bighorn sheep. On the other hand, analysis of the pattern of the MHC polymorphism suggested that nonsynonymous substitutions predominated, especially at amino acids in the antigen-binding site. The average overall heterozygosity for the 16 amino acid positions that are part of the antigen binding site is 0.389 whereas that for the 67 amino acid positions not involved with antigen binding is 0.076. These findings imply that the diversity present in this gene is functionally significant and is, or has been, maintained by balancing selection. To examine the evolution of DRB alleles in related species, a phylogenetic analysis including other published ruminant (Bovidae and Cervidae) species, was carried out. An intermixture of sequences from bighorn sheep, domestic sheep, goats, cattle, bison, and musk ox was observed supporting trans-species polymorphism for these species. To reconcile the species and gene trees for the 104 sequences examined, 95 'deep coalescent' events were necessary, illustrating the importance of balancing selection maintaining variation over speciation events.

  5. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  6. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  7. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries.

  8. [Electron microscopic studies in enzootic muscular dystrophy in cattle].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, V; Kursa, J

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to examine the sekeletal muscles of young cattle, aged between 13 and 24 months, with spontaneous enzootic myodystrophy (nutritional myodegeneration due to selenium deficiency, white muscle disease). The animals had been received from Sumava District, Southern Bohemia, an area known for shortage of selenium. Outbreaks of clinical illness were recorded from them between four and 18 days from the beginning of grazing. Most of the ultrastructural changes included decomposition of myofibrils and hyalinisation of fibres as well as defective fibril synthesis (Z-striation abnormality), some of the latter phenomena recordable even from regenerating fibre. However, minor disorders only were established from the mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, components of sarcoplasm, and vessels. There were far-reaching ultrastructural similarities to nutritional myodegeneration of sheep. The changes recorded are likely to suggest a specific role played by selenium in the formation and preservation of myofibril proteins.

  9. Mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda: a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (Bos primigenius) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and is endemic in most developing countries. To date, studies done in Uganda have documented the prevalence of M. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. Pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural Uganda. It is therefore of public health interest that they are not a source of human infections. As a follow up to previously published findings on mycobacteria in pigs, this study was aimed at investigating the occurrence and molecular characteristics of M. bovis detected in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda. One hundred fifty mesenteric lymph nodes with lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were collected from approximately one thousand slaughtered pigs in Mubende district over a period of five months. The isolation and identification of M. bovis was done using conventional mycobacteriological methods. Mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) were identified to species level using deletion analysis. Molecular typing was done using Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Molecular data were analysed and interpreted using MIRU-VNTR plus, SpolDB4.0 and the Mycobacterium bovis spoligo database. Results Of the examined animals, one boar and two sows from Madudu Sub County were infected with M. bovis which presented as lesions of a deep yellow colour and a grit-like texture in the mesenteric lymph nodes. This represents 2% (3/150) of the lymph nodes where lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were detected. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolates from the infected pigs showed identical MIRU-VNTR profile and spoligotype (SB1469). Conclusions This is the first study documenting the occurrence of M. bovis in slaughter pigs in

  10. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  11. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo...

  12. Evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of and risk factors for Bluetongue serotype 1 epidemics in sheep Extremadura (Spain), 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Linaza, Ana V; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Moreno, José Carlos; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet. This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from 2007 to 2011 and to identify the risk factors that contributed to the seasonal occurrence of BTV-1 in this region. The results showed that risk factors contributing to BTV-1 occurrence in sheep changed between 2007 and 2011. Initially, when the population was still immunologically naïve, the main risk factors for BTV-1 occurrence were extensive management practices, large sheep farms and Culicoides abundance on farms. However, after the implementation of vaccination, other factors became more relevant for BTV-1 occurrence, mostly related to BTV reservoirs, such as the proximity of cattle farms or the introduction of cattle into farms. The Talaverana sheep breed also seemed to be associated with a significantly higher risk of BTV-1 occurrence, although it may be due to confounding factors, such as the geographical concentration of where this breed is kept and/or management practises used for this breed. The results of this study suggest that preventive and control strategies, including vaccination and active surveillance strategies, should be primarily focused on cattle farms kept in close vicinity to sheep flocks as well as in high-risk sheep farms (i.e. farms with a large farm size keeping both cattle and sheep and with a high number of animal introductions). Methods and results presented here may be used to guide decisions for the

  13. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  14. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  15. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  16. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  17. Enhanced Virulence of Sheep-Passaged Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent Is Revealed by Decreased Polymorphism Barriers in Prion Protein Conversion Studies

    PubMed Central

    Priem, Jan; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; van Keulen, Lucien J. M.; van Zijderveld, Fred G.; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called “resistant” sheep ARR variant). IMPORTANCE Prion diseases such as scrapie in sheep and goats, BSE in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. BSE is known to

  18. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  19. Epidemiological Significance of the Domestic Black Pig (Sus scrofa) in Maintenance of Bovine Tuberculosis in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Piera; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Aronica, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Fiasconaro, Michele; Cifani, Noemi; Corneli, Sara; Biasibetti, Elena; Biagetti, Massimo; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Cagiola, Monica; Pasquali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an emerging disease among wild animals in many parts of the world. Wildlife reservoir hosts may thus represent a potential source of infection for livestock and humans. We investigated the role played by the Sicilian black pig, an autochthonous free- or semi-free-ranging domestic pig breed, as a potential source of bTB infection in an area where bTB prevalence in cattle is high. We initially performed a preliminary field study to assess the occurrence of bTB in such animals. We sampled 119 pigs at abattoir and found 6.7% and 3.4% of them to be affected by gross tuberculous-like lesions (TBL) and Mycobacterium bovis culture positive, respectively. We then proceeded to investigate the dissemination and characteristics of lesions in a second field study performed on 100 animals sampled from infected herds. Here, tissues collected at the abattoir were examined macroscopically, microscopically, and by culture tests. Most pigs with TBL showed generalized lesions in both gross and histological examinations (53% and 65.5%, respectively). Head lymph nodes were the most frequently affected in both localized and generalized TB cases observed macroscopically and microscopically. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent. The molecular characterization of isolates from both field studies by spoligotyping and analysis of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, followed by their comparison to isolates of cattle origin, suggested a potential transmission of mycobacteria from domestic animals to black pigs and vice versa. Our findings, along with ethological, ecological, and management considerations, suggest that the black pig might act as a bTB reservoir in the ecosystem under study. However, additional studies will be necessary to establish the true epidemiological significance of the Sicilian black pig. PMID:22322347

  20. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China.

  1. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  2. Nonsurgical embryo recovery and transfer in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C

    2016-07-01

    The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.

  3. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  4. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... including cattle; sheep; pigs; goats; llamas; alpacas; and poultry only happens at petting zoos or on farm ...

  5. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  6. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  7. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  8. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  9. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  10. Factors affecting the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

  11. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg Virus Antibodies among Dairy Cattle, the Netherlands, Winter 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Willie L.A.; Quak, Sjaak; de Boer-Luijtze, Els; van der Spek, Arco N.; Bouwstra, Ruth; Maas, Riks; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; de Kluijver, Eric P.; van Schaik, Gerdien; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%–100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country. PMID:22709656

  12. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  13. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dairy Cattle with Reproductive Problems in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Elfahal, Abdelghafar M.; Elhassan, Amira M.; Hussien, Mohammed O.; Enan, Khalid A.; Musa, Azza B.; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals in most parts of the world. The disease is common among sheep and goats and it is recognized as one of the major causes of reproductive failure in these animals. Cattle, on the other hand, can be infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality has not been recorded. This survey was carried out to study the prevalence of this disease in cattle in Khartoum and Gazira States (Sudan). 181 sera samples collected from dairy cattle with reproductive problems were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by ELISA. The prevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in cattle at herd level was 44.8% (13/29). Herd level infection rates were 50% and 33.3% in Khartoum and Gazira States, respectively. The overall prevalence of T. gondii at individual level in both states was 13.3% (24/181). The prevalence was 12.7% (17/134), was 14.9% (7/47) in Khartoum and Gazira State, respectively. There was significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in the age group less than one year old (36.4%) than in other age groups and in males (30.8%) than in females (11.9%) while no significant relationship was discerned regarding breed, location, season, or signs of reproductive disease. PMID:24171116

  15. Comprehensive Insights in the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Genome Using New WGS Data of Sheep Strain JIII-386 from Germany

    PubMed Central

    Möbius, Petra; Hölzer, Martin; Felder, Marius; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Groth, Marco; Köhler, Heike; Reichwald, Kathrin; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium (M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)—the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease—affects cattle, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. To decipher phenotypic differences among sheep and cattle strains (belonging to MAP-S [Type-I/III], respectively, MAP-C [Type-II]), comparative genome analysis needs data from diverse isolates originating from different geographic regions of the world. This study presents the so far best assembled genome of a MAP-S-strain: Sheep isolate JIII-386 from Germany. One newly sequenced cattle isolate (JII-1961, Germany), four published MAP strains of MAP-C and MAP-S from the United States and Australia, and M. a. subsp. hominissuis (MAH) strain 104 were used for assembly improvement and comparisons. All genomes were annotated by BacProt and results compared with NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) annotation. Corresponding protein-coding sequences (CDSs) were detected, but also CDSs that were exclusively determined by either NCBI or BacProt. A new Shine–Dalgarno sequence motif (5′-AGCTGG-3′) was extracted. Novel CDSs including PE-PGRS family protein genes and about 80 noncoding RNAs exhibiting high sequence conservation are presented. Previously found genetic differences between MAP-types are partially revised. Four of ten assumed MAP-S-specific large sequence polymorphism regions (LSPSs) are still present in MAP-C strains; new LSPSs were identified. Independently of the regional origin of the strains, the number of individual CDSs and single nucleotide variants confirms the strong similarity of MAP-C strains and shows higher diversity among MAP-S strains. This study gives ambiguous results regarding the hypothesis that MAP-S is the evolutionary intermediate between MAH and MAP-C, but it clearly shows a higher similarity of MAP to MAH than to Mycobacterium intracellulare. PMID:26384038

  16. Sheep carrying pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3 in the feces at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Joutsen, Suvi; Eklund, Kirsi-Maria; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-12-25

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a heterogeneous species including non-pathogenic strains belonging to biotype 1A and pathogenic strains belonging to biotypes 1B and 2-5. Pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-4 carrying the ail virulence gene have frequently been isolated from domestic pigs at slaughter. In sheep, mostly non-pathogenic biotype 1A strains have been reported. In our study, the prevalence of ail-positive Y. enterocolitica was studied by PCR and culturing in 406 young sheep (<1year of age) and 139 older sheep at slaughter in Finland. When using PCR, the detection rate was 11% (45/406) in young sheep originating from 11 (18%) farms. Surprisingly, Y. enterocolitica belonging to bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 5/O:3, carrying both chromosomal and plasmid-borne virulence genes, were isolated from the fecal samples of 10 (2%) and 23 (4%) sheep, respectively. All isolates of bioserotypes 2/O:9 (19 isolates) and 5/O:3 (53 isolates) carried the chromosomal virulence genes ail, inv, ystA, and myfA, and almost all isolates (71/72) also carried the virulence genes virF and yadA located on the virulence plasmid. The isolates showed high susceptibility to tested antimicrobials and low genetic diversity by PFGE. Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 5/O:3 is a very rare bioserotype, and has earlier only sporadically been reported in European wildlife and in sheep in Australia and New Zealand. Bioserotype 2/O:9 is a common bioserotype found in humans with yersiniosis, and has sporadically been isolated in wild and domestic animals.

  17. Inherited abnormalities of skeletal development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K G; Piripi, S A; Dittmer, K E

    2008-09-01

    Inherited diseases of the skeleton are reported less often in sheep than in most other domestic animal species but are likely to occur more frequently than the veterinary literature would suggest. Although most are lethal or semi-lethal, the gene frequency for some of these diseases has reached surprisingly high levels in defined populations, presumably due either to the founder effect or the presence of a selective advantage of heterozygous individuals. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, pathology, mode of inheritance and molecular basis of skeletal diseases known to have a genetic aetiology in sheep. Inherited skeletal diseases of sheep are potential models for studying the treatment of similar diseases in humans.

  18. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  19. Noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Elmetwally, M; Rohn, K; Meinecke-Tillmann, S

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to cattle or horses, uterine blood flow in small ruminants has been investigated predominantly after surgical intervention and chronic instrumentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical applicability of noninvasive color Doppler sonography to characterize blood flow in the maternal uterine artery of sheep, n = 11 (18 pregnancies) and goats, n = 11 (20 pregnancies). The following parameters were measured transrectally or transabdominally: blood flow volume, time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), Time-averaged mean velocity, impedance of blood flow (AB or systolic/diastolic [S/D] velocity ratio), peak velocity of blood flow and blood flow acceleration. Examinations started 2 weeks after breeding and continued at 2-week intervals until parturition. Outcomes for sheep and goats were similar and will be discussed together. Based on noninvasive color Doppler sonography, blood flow volume increased (approximately 60-fold, P < 0.0001) until the end of pregnancy, with a rapid increase early in gestation, and a slow increase after week 18. Time-averaged maximum velocity in the uterine artery increased (approximately 4-fold; P < 0.0001) throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats. Furthermore, for uterine artery blood flow, there was an effect of stage of pregnancy on PI and RI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), both indices decreased until the end of gestation. Time-averaged mean velocity decreased from week 18 to 20 in both species. The blood flow acceleration increased (P < 0.0001) until week 16 and week 14 in sheep and goats, respectively, and then decreased until parturition. Similar to PI and RI, vascular impedance of the uterine decreased (P < 0.0001) throughout pregnancy. This is apparently the first study using noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout physiological pregnancy in small ruminants. Clearly, this technology facilitates repeated

  20. Natural Immunity of Sheep and Lambs Against the Schmallenberg Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Kukielka, D; Mouriño, M; Paradell, H; Plaja, L; Urniza, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Since the first reports of the Schmallenberg disease (SBD) outbreaks in late 2011, the disease has spread across Europe, affecting cattle and sheep farms. While Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes a mild clinical disease in adults, infection of pregnant females may lead to the production of typical congenital malformations (CMFs) in their offspring. It is speculated that the immunity acquired after a SBV infection is effective in preventing further infections. However, this has not been proven in naturally infected sheep, especially if they are pregnant when reinfected. The aim of this study was to monitor the natural immunity in SBV-infected sheep. Twenty-four ewes from the only Spanish farm with a SBV OIE-notified outbreak were sampled. Subsequently, nine pregnant ewes were inoculated with SBV infectious plasma under controlled conditions. Six of them were euthanized before delivery, and their fetuses were inspected for lesions indicative for the SBV infection. The three remaining ewes were allowed to deliver one lamb each. Inoculation of the lambs was scheduled at approx. 3 months after birth. All samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-PCR, and for antibodies by an indirect ELISA and a virus neutralization test (VNT). The majority of the 24 ewes showed a serological reaction against SBV. The three ewes that were allowed to lamb down demonstrated variable degrees of seroconversion which corresponded to the levels of immune reaction observed in their lambs. Moreover, no viral RNA was detected, no lesions were observed in the fetuses, and no clinical signs were detected in the inoculated animals. These findings suggest that the immunity acquired by sheep following a natural SBV infection could be sufficient to stop SBV reinfection. However, vaccination could be a valuable tool to control SBV infections and associated economic losses as it affords a more uniform and predictable protection at the flock/herd level.

  1. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides of different epitopic structures in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Marín, C; Aragón, V; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-11-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939-1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen.

  2. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  3. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    PubMed Central

    Stahel, Anina B. J.; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of “exotic” farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where “exotic” water buffaloes were kept together with “native” animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats. PMID:24386255

  4. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    PubMed

    Stahel, Anina B J; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  5. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  6. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  7. Abundance, distribution, and removals of feral pigs at Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steve; Kendall, Steve J.; Judge, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit (HFU) of Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (BINWRC) has intensively monitored non-native ungulate presence and distribution during surveys of all managed areas since 1988. In this report we: 1) provide results from recent ungulate surveys and the number of removals at HFU to determine the distribution, abundance, and efficacy of removals of feral pigs, the dominant ungulate, from 2010 to 2015; 2) present results of surveys of the presence and distribution of several ungulate species at the Kona Forest Unit (KFU) of BINWRC from November of 2012 to April of 2015; 3) present results of surveys of weed presence and cover at both refuge units; and 4) present comparative analyses of forest canopy cover at KFU from visual estimates and geospatial imagery. Removals of feral pigs at HFU appear to have significantly decreased pig abundance over the study period from 2010–2015. A grand total of 1,660 feral pigs were removed from managed areas of HFU from 2010 until September of 2015. Management units 2 and 4 contained the majority of pigs at HFU. Recent surveys recorded high densities of pigs in the unenclosed, unmanaged area of Lower Maulua, reaching 14.9 ± (3.2) pigs/km2 in March of 2015. The total amount of ungulate sign ranged from 22.2 to 54.3 percent of plots surveyed at KFU from November of 2012 to April of 2015. The ability to differentiate sign of ungulate species remains problematic at KFU; although there appears to have been a significant decline in feral cattle sign at KFU, this result is likely to be unreliable because cattle and pig sign were not differentiated consistently during later surveys. Spatial distributions in weed cover are distinctive; however, some weed species may not be reliably represented due to observers’ inconsistencies in recording data and abilities to recognize less common weeds.

  8. Echinococcus granulosus: DNA extraction from germinal layers allows strain determination in fertile and nonfertile hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Kamenetzky, L; Canova, S G; Guarnera, E A; Rosenzvit, M C

    2000-06-01

    A method for the isolation of Echinococcus granulosus DNA from germinal layers of hydatid cysts is described. The method includes a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/chloroform extraction and an adsorption to diatomaceous earth suspension. DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction was obtained and used for parasite strain determination by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing. Fertile and nonfertile cyst isolates from sheep, cattle, pigs, and humans were characterized. Hitherto, no direct parasite strain characterization has been made on nonfertile hydatid cysts, whereas here we report that nonfertile hydatid cysts were produced by sheep strain (G1 genotype) in sheep, cattle, and humans and by pig strain (G7 genotype) in pigs.

  9. Vitamin E kinetics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M; Karpinski, K

    1987-07-01

    1. Kinetics of physiological doses of D-alpha-[5-Me-3H]tocopherol (200 microCi) administered to twenty-four sheep were studied using one of four routes: intravenous, oral (capsules), intraruminal and intramuscular. 2. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein periodically for 96 h after the intravenous and oral administrations, for 168 h after the intraruminal administration and for 216 h after the intramuscular administration. 3. The study indicated that the biological availability of alpha-tocopherol followed the order intravenous greater than intramuscular greater than oral greater than intraruminal. 4. The rate of elimination was in the order intravenous greater than oral greater than intraruminal approximately intramuscular. 5. The intravenous route was fitted with a three-compartment model, whereas the other routes exhibited a good fit for either a one- or two-compartment model.

  10. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock.

  11. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  12. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  13. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  14. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  15. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  16. Presence of contagious yawning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Kohei; Uchida, Mona; Matsuki, Naoaki; Yamazaki, Atusi

    2017-01-01

    Contagious yawning is triggered by others yawning, and it has previously been reported in humans, primates and several experimental and companion mammals. Whereas it might be a response to an innate releasing mechanism, contagious yawning is also considered to involve emotional contagion. Here, we demonstrate that sheep, the animal model of livestock animals, also experience contagious yawning. Twelve adult castrated Corriedale sheep were used in this study. Pairs of sheep were adjacently restrained with or without a wooden divider panel to shield them from viewing the other. Their behaviors were video-recorded for 3 days in each condition. Sheep yawned 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.1 times/day/head in the unshielded and shielded conditions, respectively. Unshielded restrained sheep yawned within 1 min after the other one 11.1% of the time, while shielded pairs did not exhibit contagious yawning. Rumination was also highly synchronized under the unshielded condition. These data reveal that contagious yawning and behavioral synchronicity occur in ruminants like sheep, making them a suitable animal model to investigate contagious yawning and the underlying mechanism.

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals common differential and global gene expression profiles in bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16) infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Prasad, Minakshi; Mishra, Bina; Manjunath, Siddappa; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Bhuvana Priya, G; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad; Kumar, Amit; Balodi, Shweta; Deora, Anupama; Saxena, Shikha; Gandham, Ravi Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important infectious, arthropod borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV). Sheep are considered the most susceptible hosts, while cattle, buffalo and goats serve as reservoirs. The viral pathogenesis of BTV resulting in presence or absence of clinical disease among different hosts is not clearly understood. In the present study, transcriptome of sheep and goats peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with BTV-16 was explored. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified were found to be significantly enriched for immune system processes - NFκB signaling, MAPK signaling, Ras signaling, NOD signaling, RIG signaling, TNF signaling, TLR signaling, JAK-STAT signaling and VEGF signaling pathways. Greater numbers of DEGs were found to be involved in immune system processes in goats than in sheep. Interestingly, the DEHC (differentially expressed highly connected) gene network was found to be dense in goats than in sheep. Majority of the DEHC genes in the network were upregulated in goats but down-regulated in sheep. The network of differentially expressed immune genes with the other genes further confirmed these findings. Interferon stimulated genes - IFIT1 (ISG56), IFIT2 (ISG54) and IFIT3 (ISG60) responsible for antiviral state in the host were found to be upregulated in both the species. STAT2 was the TF commonly identified to co-regulate the DEGs, with its network showing genes that are downregulated in sheep but upregulated in goats. The genes dysregulated and the networks perturbed in the present study indicate host variability with a positive shift in immune response to BTV in goats than in sheep.

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  2. Determination of pig sex in meat and meat products using multiplex real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Krischek, C; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2012-07-01

    For specific production lines, European retail companies demand exclusively female pork meat. To control the quality of their suppliers the identification and a quantitative detection of the animal sex origin of the meat is therefore of importance for meat processors. To enable a fast and reliable detection of male pig meat, a real time-PCR-system was designed in the present study. This was based on the genes AMEL-X and AMEL-Y. The real time-PCR assay allowed the detection of male pig meat at a concentration of 1% yielding a detection probability of 100% while the detection probability investigating meat samples containing 0.1% male pig meat was 44.4%. The analytic sensitivity of this system was assessed to be <5 pg DNA per PCR reaction. The assessment of the accuracy of the real time-PCR assay to correctly identify sex individuals was investigated with 62 pigs including males (n=29) and females (n=33) belonging to different breeds/lines. With the newly designed test all analysed animals were correctly sexed. No amplification was obtained with cow, goat, sheep, turkey and chicken genomic DNA. The presented assay can be used for sex diagnosis, for the detection of male pig meat and for meat quality control.

  3. Effective generation of transgenic pigs and mice by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. Results The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C), is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH analysis and F2 transmission in pigs. Furthermore, expression of the transgene is demonstrated in 61% (35/57) of transgenic pigs (F0 generation). Conclusions Our data suggests that LB-SMGT could be used to generate transgenic animals efficiently in many different species. PMID:11964188

  4. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  5. Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding.

    PubMed

    Evershed, Richard P; Payne, Sebastian; Sherratt, Andrew G; Copley, Mark S; Coolidge, Jennifer; Urem-Kotsu, Duska; Kotsakis, Kostas; Ozdoğan, Mehmet; Ozdoğan, Aslý E; Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier; Akkermans, Peter M M G; Bailey, Douglass; Andeescu, Radian-Romus; Campbell, Stuart; Farid, Shahina; Hodder, Ian; Yalman, Nurcan; Ozbaşaran, Mihriban; Biçakci, Erhan; Garfinkel, Yossef; Levy, Thomas; Burton, Margie M

    2008-09-25

    The domestication of cattle, sheep and goats had already taken place in the Near East by the eighth millennium bc. Although there would have been considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from living animals-that is, traction and wool-the first clear evidence for these appears much later, from the late fifth and fourth millennia bc. Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first practised remain unknown. Organic residues preserved in archaeological pottery have provided direct evidence for the use of milk in the fourth millennium in Britain, and in the sixth millennium in eastern Europe, based on the delta(13)C values of the major fatty acids of milk fat. Here we apply this approach to more than 2,200 pottery vessels from sites in the Near East and southeastern Europe dating from the fifth to the seventh millennia bc. We show that milk was in use by the seventh millennium; this is the earliest direct evidence to date. Milking was particularly important in northwestern Anatolia, pointing to regional differences linked with conditions more favourable to cattle compared to other regions, where sheep and goats were relatively common and milk use less important. The latter is supported by correlations between the fat type and animal bone evidence.

  6. Micro-indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Shimizu, Y

    1977-01-01

    A micro-indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was developed for detecting antibody against transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus of pigs. TGE virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures was highly purified and concentrated by the combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, treatment with fluorocarbon, and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Tanned sheep erythrocytes were sensitized with purified virus for use in the IHA test. The results of testing 104 serum samples collected from pigs in the field indicated that the IHA antibody titers were approximately five times higher than those obtained by a serum neutralization test and that there was good correlation between the antibody titers determined by the two tests. High IHA antibody titers developed in pigs experimentally exposed to virulent TGE virus. Sensitized sheep erythrocytes were stable under long-term storage at 4 degrees C (at least for 50 days). The conclusions made are that the IHA test described is more sensitive than the serum neutralization test for the detection of TGE antibody and may be of value for serodiagnosis of TGE. Images PMID:197119

  7. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  8. Eosinophilic myositis in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G

    1991-01-01

    Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289

  9. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  10. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  11. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  12. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.

  13. Systemic and local immune responses in sheep after Neospora caninum experimental infection at early, mid and late gestation.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Horcajo, Pilar; Castaño, Pablo; del Carmen Ferreras, María; Jiménez-Pelayo, Laura; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Ferre, Ignacio; Hemphill, Andrew; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-06

    Besides its importance in cattle, Neospora caninum may also pose a high risk as abortifacient for small ruminants. We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant sheep with 10(6) Nc-Spain7 tachyzoites is strongly dependent on the time of gestation. In the current study, we assessed peripheral and local immune response in those animals. Serological analysis revealed earlier and higher IFN-γ and IgG responses in ewes infected at early (G1) and mid (G2) gestation, when abortion occurred. IL-4 was not detected in sera from any sheep. Inflammatory infiltrates in the placenta mainly consisted of CD8+ and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells and macrophages (CD163+). The infiltrate was more intense in sheep infected at mid-gestation. In the foetal mesenchyme, mostly free tachyzoites were found in animals infected at G1, while those infected in G2 displayed predominantly particulate antigen, and parasitophorous vacuoles were detected in sheep infected at G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine mRNA expression was found in all groups, displaying a strengthened upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-4 and milder increases of TNF-α and IL-10, reminiscent of a mixed Th1 and Th2 response. IL-12 and IL-6 were only slightly upregulated in G2, and TGF-β was downregulated in G1 and G2, suggestive of limited T regulatory (Treg) cell activity. No significant expression of TLR2 or TLR4 could be detected. In summary, this study confirms the pivotal role of systemic and local immune responses at different times of gestation during N. caninum infection in sheep.

  14. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  15. Behavior of sheep drinking ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, J R; Deam, D R; Denton, D A; Tarjan, E; Weisinger, R S

    1995-06-01

    Sheep that were habituated to drinking 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution instead of water were subjected to proven thirst stimuli to study the effect of chronic ethanol intake on brain mechanisms subserving thirst. Sheep that had not previously drunk 10% ethanol were also tested. All sheep were trained to press a pedal that delivered 50 ml/press of fluid (either 10% ethanol or water) into a drinking cup. In some experiments, fluids were presented in bins. All animals had access to only one fluid at a time. Five ethanol-drinking sheep appeared healthy and maintained body weight over 18 mo. They always preferred water to 10% ethanol. The intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) at 3.8 micrograms/h for 2 h increased ethanol intake from 15 +/- 10 to 200 +/- 55 ml in the 1st h, but 2,850 +/- 320 ml of water was drunk in the 2nd h. The icv infusion of 500 mM NaCl had a similar effect. After fluid deprivation for 22 or 46 h, ethanol intake in 1 h of access was only 280 +/- 40 and 400 +/- 90 ml, respectively, and 24-h intake was not increased. Water-drinking sheep drank 1,300 +/- 195 ml of water in 1 h after 22-h water deprivation, and 24-h intake was 1.5 times normal. The icv infusion of ANG II in these sheep increased water intake in 1 h from 10 +/- 10 to 1,630 +/- 250 ml and intake of 10% ethanol to only 310 +/- 60 ml. In conclusion, sheep accept 10% ethanol as a substitute for water for daily drinking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. [The veterinary pharmacopoeia of Peter Bodmer, blacksmith and cattle doctor in Därligen 1836].

    PubMed

    Kalbermatter, T

    2006-01-01

    The manuscript entitled "My pharmacopoeia Peter Bodmer in Därligen--1836" [Arzeneybuch mein Peter Bodmer in Därligen pro. 1836] contains a collection of a total of 227 remedies for the treatment of cattle, horses, pigs and human beings. The author Peter Bodmer was born on 15 November 1811 in Därligen on the shores of Lake Thun and worked as a smith and a cattle doctor. The manuscript cannot offer a full overview of the therapeutic possibilities in veterinary medicine at that time. The remedies mainly describe the peroral dispensing of herbal preparations. The use of medicinal plants, however, would only partially measure up to modern phytotherapy. Bodmer's manuscript provides a certain insight into the traditional herbal folk remedies used on animals and humans in the rural Bernese Oberland at that time.

  17. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  18. Cystic echinococcosis in Turkey: genetic variability and first record of the pig strain (G7) in the country.

    PubMed

    Snábel, V; Altintas, N; D'Amelio, S; Nakao, M; Romig, T; Yolasigmaz, A; Gunes, K; Turk, M; Busi, M; Hüttner, M; Sevcová, D; Ito, A; Altintas, N; Dubinský, P

    2009-07-01

    A sample of 22 Echinococcus granulosus isolates collected from 12 sheep and ten humans from a focus of cystic echinococcosis in western Turkey was examined by DNA sequencing of four mitochondrial genes (cox1, atp6, nad1, rrnS). Results demonstrated the presence of two species of E. granulosus complex, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. canadensis. Of E. granulosus sensu stricto, the G1 genotype (including three microvariants) was found in 17 isolates from humans and sheep, the G3 genotype and an intermediate form G1/G3 in one isolate each (both from sheep). Of E. canadensis, the pig strain G7 was found in three isolates from sheep and human. This is the first report of this strain in Turkey. Its presence has implications for local control programs due to its shorter maturation rate in dogs compared with E. granulosus sensu stricto. Goat and/or wild boar are likely reservoirs for G7 in the region. We provided further data on the pattern and frequency of nucleotide substitutions within the G1/G3 cluster. Based on our results and GenBank records, G2 (Tasmanian sheep strain) is not considered as a discrete genotypic unit, as its sequences at polymorphic sites conform to microvariants of both G1 and (more often) G3.

  19. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  20. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  2. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  3. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  4. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  5. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  6. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  7. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  8. Climate Adaptation of Tropical Cattle.

    PubMed

    Barendse, W

    2017-02-08

    There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits. However, further improvement in heat tolerance and other adaptation traits will need to use the entire genome and all physical and physiological systems. Apart from the response to heat, climate forcing through methane emission identifies dry season weight loss as an important if somewhat neglected trait in climate adaptation of cattle. The use of genome-estimated breeding values in tropical areas is in its infancy and will be difficult to implement, but will be essential for rapid, coordinated genetic improvement. The difficulty of implementation cannot be exaggerated and may require major improvements in methodology.

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health.

  10. Protection of Cattle against Foot-and-Mouth Disease by a Synthetic Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarchi, Richard; Brooke, Gerald; Gale, Charles; Cracknell, Victor; Doel, Timothy; Mowat, Noel

    1986-05-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide consisting essentially of two separate regions (residues 141 to 158 and 200 to 213) of a virus coat protein (VP1) from the 01 Kaufbeuren strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus was prepared free of any carrier protein. It elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected cattle against intradermolingual challenge by inoculation with infectious virus. Comparative evaluation of this peptide with a single-site peptide (residues 141 to 158) in guinea pigs suggests the importance of the VP1 carboxyl terminal residues in enhancing the protective response.

  11. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  12. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution.

    PubMed

    Virtue, W A; Clayton, J W

    1997-02-24

    The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with dischargers as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's investigation of pollution from the organophosphate (OP) sheep dips, Diazinon and Propetamphos, and their effects on surface waters throughout its area. Examination of historical incidents and a preliminary survey of sheep farms in the Ettrick Water catchment in 1989 confirmed the potential for serious pollution. Comparison of OP concentrations in the Ettrick with strategic sites throughout the catchment confirmed the widespread nature of the problem and led to visits to every sheep farmer in the Board's area in 1990 and 1991, when 795 dippers were investigated. The study involved risk assessments of the location of dippers and the spent dip disposal practice which confirmed that poor siting, inadequate disposal and particularly poor management of the dipping operation were responsible for the pollution problems observed. Practical advice on the management of dipping and disposal of spent dip was given individually to farmers. The success of the project in reducing pollution is reflected in a significant and sustained reduction in OP concentrations in environmental samples. The future of ectoparasitic treatments for sheep, the potential for antidotes to spent sheep dip and legal obligations relating to its safe disposal is also considered.

  13. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  14. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  15. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs.

  16. An evolutionary perspective on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Singleton, D; Matthews, L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss from an evolutionary perspective the interaction between domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and their gastrointestinal nematodes. Although evolution is the central theme of biology, there has been little attempt to consider how evolutionary forces have shaped and continue to shape the relationships between domestic animals and their parasite community. Mathematical modelling of the host-parasite relationship indicated that the system is remarkably robust to perturbations in its parameters. This robustness may be a consequence of the long coevolution of host and parasites. Although nematodes can potentially evolve faster than the host, coevolution is not dominated by the parasite and there are several examples where breeds of cattle or sheep have evolved high levels of resistance to disease. Coevolution is a more equal partnership between host and nematode than is commonly assumed. Coevolution between parasites and the host immune system is often described as an arms race where both host immune response genes and parasite proteins evolve rapidly in response to each other. However, initial results indicate that nematode antigens are not evolving rapidly; the arms race between the immune system and nematodes, if it exists, is happening very slowly. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection states that genes with positive effects on fitness will be fixed by natural selection. Consequently, heritable variation in fitness traits is expected to be low. Contrary to this argument, there is considerable genetic variation in resistance to nematode infection. In particular, the heritabilities of nematode-specific IgA and IgE activity are moderate to high. The reasons for this apparent violation of the fundamental theorem of natural selection are not clear but several possible explanations are explored. Faecal nematode egg counts increase at the beginning of the grazing season - a phenomenon known as the periparturient rise. This

  17. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  18. 4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Intraspecies Prion Transmission Results in Selection of Sheep Scrapie Strains

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Masujin, Kentaro; Schmerr, Mary Jo; Shu, Yujing; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-01-01

    Background Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale) with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed). These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP) genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres) in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie. PMID:21103326

  20. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  1. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  2. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  3. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  4. 75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... to strengthen and enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States; (2) Optimize the use of available human capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure development,...

  5. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  6. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-04-23

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  7. Sheep and goats as indicator animals for the circulation of CCHFV in the environment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Isolde; Mertens, Marc; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Staubach, Christoph; Mertens, Corinna; Brüning, Franziska; Wernike, Kerstin; Hechinger, Silke; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus, which causes a serious illness with case-fatality rates of up to 80% in humans. CCHFV is endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. Next to the countries with endemic areas, the distribution of CCHFV is unknown in Southeastern Europe. As the antibody prevalence in animals is a good indicator for the presence or absence of the virus in a region, seroepidemiological studies can be used for the definition of risk areas for CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to reveal which ruminant species is best suited as indicator for the detection of a CCHFV circulation in an area. Therefore, the prevalence rates in sheep, goats and cattle in different regions of Albania and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia were investigated. As there are no commercial tests available for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in animals, two commercial tests for testing human sera were adapted for the investigation of sera from sheep and goats, and new in-house ELISAs were developed. The investigation of serum samples with these highly sensitive and specific assays (94-100%) resulted in an overall prevalence rate of 23% for Albania and of 49% for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Significant lower seroprevalence rates for CCHFV were found in cattle than in small ruminants in given areas. These results indicate that small ruminants are more suitable indicator animals for CCHFV infections and should therefore be tested preferentially, when risk areas are to be identified.

  8. An advanced sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) cytogenetic map and assignment of 88 new autosomal loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization and R-banding

    PubMed Central

    Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Hayes, H; Schibler, L; Rullo, R; Incarnato, D; Ferretti, L; Cockett, N; Cribiu, E; Williams, J L; Eggen, A; Iannuzzi, L

    2007-01-01

    Presented herein is an updated sheep cytogenetic map that contains 452 loci (291 type I and 161 type II) assigned to specific chromosome bands or regions on standard R-banded ideograms. This map, which significantly extends our knowledge of the physical organization of the ovine genome, includes new assignments for 88 autosomal loci, including 74 type I loci (known genes) and 14 type II loci (SSRs/microsatellite marker/STSs), by FISH-mapping and R-banding. Comparison of the ovine map to the cattle and goat cytogenetic maps showed that common loci were located within homologous chromosomes and chromosome bands, confirming the high level of conservation of autosomes among ruminant species. Eleven loci that were FISH-mapped in sheep (B3GAT2, ASCC3, RARSL, BRD2, POLR1C, PPP2R5D, TNRC5, BAT2, BAT4, CDC5L and OLA-DRA) are unassigned in cattle and goat. Eleven other loci (D3S32, D1S86, BMS2621, SFXN5, D5S3, D5S68, CSKB1, D7S49, D9S15, D9S55 and D29S35) were assigned to specific ovine chromosome (OAR) bands but have only been assigned to chromosomes in cattle and goat. PMID:17433010

  9. Characterization of the complete porcine MSTN gene and expression levels in pig breeds differing in muscularity.

    PubMed

    Stinckens, A; Luyten, T; Bijttebier, J; Van den Maagdenberg, K; Dieltiens, D; Janssens, S; De Smet, S; Georges, M; Buys, N

    2008-12-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member, is an essential factor for the growth and development of muscle mass. The protein functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth and is related to the so-called double-muscling phenotype in cattle, where a series of mutations renders the gene inactive. One particular breed of pigs, the Belgian Piétrain, also shows a heavily muscled phenotype. The similarity of muscular phenotypes between the double-muscled cattle and Piétrain pigs indicated that MSTN may be a candidate gene for muscular hypertrophy in pigs. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the complete MSTN gene from 45 pigs of five different breeds, including the heavily muscled Piétrain breed at one extreme and the Meishan and Wild boar breeds at the other extreme. In total, 7626 bp of the porcine MSTN gene were sequenced, including the 5' and 3' UTR. Fifteen polymorphic loci were found, three of which were located in the promoter region, five in intron 1 and seven in intron 2. Most mutations were found when comparing the obtained MSTN sequence with porcine MSTN sequences already published. However, one polymorphism located at position 447 of the porcine MSTN promoter had a very high allele frequency in the Piétrain pig breed and disrupted a putative myocyte enhancer factor 3 binding site. Real-time PCR using Sybr Green showed that this mutation was associated with expression levels of the MSTN gene in m. longissimus dorsi at an age of 4 weeks.

  10. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  11. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M

    1999-10-01

    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors.

  12. PRNP and SPRN genes polymorphism in atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in Polish cattle.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Artur; Polak, Mirosław Paweł; Larska, Magdalena; Słota, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the coding region of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been associated with the susceptibility and incubation period of prion diseases in humans and sheep. However, polymorphisms in this part of the bovine PRNP gene do not affect the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle. Studies carried out in Germany have shown that insertion/deletion-type polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the bovine prion gene are possible genetic factors modulating BSE susceptibility by changing the level of PRNP expression. No such association was observed for atypical BSE cases; however, due to the rare nature of the disease, these results should be confirmed. Additionally, a single nonsynonymous mutation in PRNP codon 211 (E211K) was described in one H-type BSE case in the USA; however, it was not found in any other cases. Here, we performed genetic characterization of PRNP promoter indel variations and determined the polymorphism of open reading frames (ORFs) of PRNP and bovine prion-like Shadoo (SPRN) genes in six Polish atypical BSE cases and compared these results to the population of clinically healthy Polish Holstein cattle. No potentially pathogenic mutations were found in the PRNP ORF in atypical BSE-affected cattle, but our study showed a high frequency of deletions at the indel loci of PRNP promoter in these animals. Additionally, a rare sequence variation in the SPRN protein-coding sequence was found in one L-type atypical BSE-affected animal.

  13. Co-circulation of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses in cattle in Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Sailleau, Corinne; Zanella, Gina; Breard, Emmanuel; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Vitour, Damien; Adam, Micheline; Lasne, Laurent; Martrenchar, Arnaud; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Costes, Laura; Zientara, Stéphan

    2012-03-23

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in deer have already been isolated in Reunion Island and have caused more or less severe clinical signs in cattle (EHDV) or in sheep (BTV), as observed in 2003. In January 2009, cattle in Reunion Island showed clinical signs suggesting infection by one or the other of these arboviral diseases. A study was set up to determine the etiology of the disease. Analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on blood samples from 116 cattle from different districts of the island detected the presence of the EHDV genome in 106 samples and, in 5 of them, the simultaneous occurrence of BTV and EHDV. One strain of EHDV (7 isolates) and one of BTV were isolated in embryonated eggs and a BHK-21 cell culture. Group and subgroup primer-pairs were designed on the segment 2 sequences available in GenBank to identify and type the EHDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic segment 2 (encoding the VP2 serotype-specific protein) of the isolates confirmed the serotypes of these two orbiviruses as BTV-2 and EHDV-6 and allowed them to be compared with previously isolated strains.

  14. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  15. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants.

  16. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  17. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  18. Efficacy of feral pig removals at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jeffrey, John J.; Ball, Donna; Babich, Lev

    2006-01-01

    We compiled and analyzed data from 1987–2004 on feral pig (Sus scrofa) management and monitoring activities at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai`i. These data included annual surveys of feral pig and cattle (Bos taurus) activity, the number of feral ungulates removed from closed management units, age and reproductive status from necropsies, and vegetation surveys repeated 4 times over a 16 year period. We found an essentially even sex ratio within the feral pig population and within age classes, although males lived to 60 months while females lived to only 48 months. The pregnancy rate was 23.5%, and lactation rate was 8.3%, regardless of season and age, but lactation peaked in April-June. Reproductive rates also increased with age, peaking at 2–4 years in females. We reconstructed the standing population within a closed unit to examine demographic processes. We estimated that annual removal in excess of approximately 41–43% would be necessary to affect a population decline. We examined annual feral pig activity surveys and found a strong and sustained decline in pig sign after 1997 relative to unmanaged areas. We related the standing population to feral pig activity surveys to build a predictive model of feral pig density, and then applied this model to other management units. We evaluated control methods and found snaring to be more efficient than staff or public hunting. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong temporal increase in cover of native ferns, and marginally non-significant decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil.

  19. MicroRNA expression profiling of primary sheep testicular cells in response to bluetongue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Huang, Dexuan; Zhang, Guorui; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and causes a non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease in domestic and wild ruminants, mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Virus infection can trigger the changes of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, which play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence viral replication and pathogenesis. Here, we employed deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially expressed in primary sheep testicular (ST) cells infected with BTV. A total of 25 known miRNAs and 240 novel miRNA candidates that were differentially expressed in BTV-infected and uninfected ST cells were identified, and 251 and 8428 predicted target genes were annotated, respectively. Nine differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Targets prediction and functional analysis of these regulated miRNAs revealed significant enrichment for several signaling pathways including MAPK, PI3K-Akt, endocytosis, Hippo, NF-kB, viral carcinogenesis, FoxO, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. This study provides a valuable basis for further investigation on the roles of miRNAs in BTV replication and pathogenesis.

  20. Genetic variety of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 strains isolated from sheep.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2004-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains, isolated from sheep showing clinical symptoms of border disease, have been evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitution (PNS) method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA. The characteristic two base-pairings common to the BVDV-2 species, a C-G pairing which was common to the V1 locus, and a G*U pairing common to the V2 locus, were observed in all tested strains. Strains BD-78 and C413 were identified by a unique C-G pairing at position 4 from the bottom of the V2 stem region, which is characteristic to BVDV-2b. BVDV-2d characteristic U-A pairing at position 18 of the V1 stem region was observed in five strains, Lees, 167 237, 168 149, 173 157 and 175 375. No strains have been assigned to the genotypes BVDV-2a or BVDV-2c. Furthermore, the investigation at the level of the 5'-UTR excluded the application in sheep of the proposed BVDV-2 genetic virulence markers described in cattle. The two specific positions of uracil and cytosine nucleotides related to low or high virulence where indifferently present in the ovine BVDV-2 strains responsible of border disease.

  1. Congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs after infection of pregnant sheep with Akabane virus.

    PubMed

    Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Snowdon, W A

    1977-01-01

    Akabane virus (a Bunyavirus) has been associated with epizootics of congenital deformities in cattle, sheep, and goats. Experimental studies using mouse-adapted virus inoculated intravenously into pregnant sheep gave an inapparent infection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected on day 5, and peaks in the titer were seen at days 10 and 48. Ewes infected at day 30 to 36 of pregnancy produced five (31% incidence) deformed lambs. Sera from four of these possessed neutralizing antibodies to Akabane virus before ingesting colostrum. Two lambs had arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, kyphosis, scoliosis, and brachygnathia; one had micrencephaly; and the other two had porencephaly. The two lambs with arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly also had extensive lesions in other tissues. In the spinal cord there was a marked decrease in the number of ventral horn neurones and a depletion of myelin. Skeletal muscles showed marked atrophy. The medulla of the thymus possessed large Hassall's corpuscles and a reduced number of thymocytes in the cortex. It would appear that the pathogenic effects of Akabane virus are related to the gestational age (30 to 36 days) at which the fetus is infected. Akabane virus can now be included in the growing list of teratogenic viruses and provides an interesting system for studying such congenital diseases.

  2. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area in Wyoming was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin. Geophysical studies, such as reflection seismic profiling would help define the oil and gas potential in fault-controlled structures, such as those beneath the thrust fault that crops out along the east flank of Sheep Mountain.

  3. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  4. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH.

  5. Protection of Sheep against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Sheep Poxvirus with a Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Reuben K.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; McGuire, Travis C.; Rwambo, Paul M.; DeMartini, James C.; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an epizootic viral disease of sheep that can be transmitted from sheep to humans, particularly by contact with aborted fetuses. A capripoxvirus (CPV) recombinant virus (rKS1/RVFV) was developed, which expressed the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gn and Gc glycoproteins. These expressed glycoproteins had the correct size and reacted with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to native glycoproteins. Mice vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV were protected against RVFV challenge. Sheep vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV twice developed neutralizing antibodies and were significantly protected against RVFV and sheep poxvirus challenge. These findings further document the value of CPV recombinants as ruminant vaccine vectors and support the inclusion of RVFV genes encoding glycoproteins in multivalent recombinant vaccines to be used where RVF occurs. PMID:20876822

  6. Change of ruminal sodium transport in sheep during dietary adaptation.

    PubMed

    Etschmann, Benjamin; Suplie, Annabelle; Martens, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Rumen adaptation plays an important role in the productive cycle of dairy cattle. In this study, the time course of functional rumen epithelium adaptation after a change from hay feeding (ad libitum) to a mixed hay/concentrate diet was monitored by measuring Na+ transport rates in Ussing chamber experiments. A total of 18 sheep were subjected to different periods of mixed hay/concentrate feeding ranging from 0 weeks (control; hay ad libitum) to 12 weeks (800 g hay plus 800 g concentrate per day in two equal portions). For each animal, the net absorption of sodium was measured following the mixed hay/concentrate feeding period. Net Na transport, Jnet, significantly rose from 2.15 +/- 0.43 (control) to 3.73 +/- 1.02 microeq x cm(-2) x h(-1) after one week of mixed hay/ concentrate diet, reached peak levels of 4.55 +/- 0.50 microEq x cm(-2) x h(-1) after four weeks and levelled out at 3.92 +/- 0.36 microeq x cm(-2) x h(-1) after 12 weeks of mixed feeding. Thus, 73% of functional adaptation occurred during the first week after diet change. This is in apparent contrast to findings that morphological adaptation takes approximately six weeks to reach peak levels. Hence, early functional adaptation to a mixed hay/concentrate diet is characterised by enhanced Na absorption rates per epithelial cell. Absorption rates are likely to be further enhanced by proliferative effects on the rumen epithelium (number and size of papillae) when concentrate diets are fed over longer periods of time. Early functional adaptation without surface area enlargement of the rumen epithelium appears to be the first step in coping with altered fermentation rates following diet change.

  7. Mitochondrial analysis sheds light on the origin of hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Capote, J; Traoré, A; Fonseca, N; Pérez, K; Cuervo, M; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2013-06-01

    A total of 180 mtDNA sequences from hair Caribbean (93), West African (73) and Canarian-wooled (14) sheep were analysed to shed light on the origin of hair sheep. A comparison of 360 Iberian sheep sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed to assess a possible European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep. These 180 sequences gave 48 different haplotypes (16 in Caribbean sheep). All Caribbean and Canarian-wooled sequences and 91.8% of the West African samples belonged to haplogroup B. The sheep analysed showed wide haplotypic identity. Caribbean sheep shared roughly two-thirds of their samples with Canarian-wooled and West African samples, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the Caribbean and the Canarian-wooled sheep clustered together. Additional analyses showed that hair and Iberian sheep had wide genetic identity. It was not possible to ascertain a single Canarian, African or European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep using mtDNA markers only. European, African and Caribbean hair sheep maternal genetic backgrounds likely result from related domestication events.

  8. Enhanced immune responses of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine using new oil/gel adjuvant mixtures in pigs and goats.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Eun; Lee, Seo-Yong; Kim, Rae-Hyung; Ko, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Kim, Byoung-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Park, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-09-08

    The immunity and protective capability produced by vaccines can vary remarkably according to the kinds of adjuvants being used. In the case of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines in pigs, only oil-adjuvant vaccines have been used, and these tend to show lower immunity in pigs than in cattle. New adjuvants for these vaccines are therefore needed. We made different experimental FMD vaccines using new adjuvants (ISA 201, Carbigen, Emulsigen-D) and well-known adjuvants (ISA 206, aluminum hydroxide gel) and then conducted tests to compare the enhancement in pig immunity. More effective immune responses and protection against challenge were observed with the new adjuvants Emulsigen-D and ISA 201 compared to existing adjuvants. In the case of dairy goats, a mixture of Emulsigen-D and aluminum hydroxide gel produced rapid neutralizing antibody responses that were similar to results from tests conducted with pigs.

  9. Cattle handling technique can induce fatigued cattle syndrome in cattle not fed a beta adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Frese, D A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Rethorst, D N; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Depenbusch, B E; Corrigan, M E; Thomson, D U

    2016-02-01

    Angus crossbred steers (n = 40; 563 ± 44 kg) were used to examine the effects of handling method and fat thickness on the blood chemistry and physiology of market steers. Steers were blocked by backfat (BF) thickness and were randomly assigned to treatment groups: low-stress handling (LSH) and aggressive handling (AH). Cattle were then ran¬domly assigned to one of 5 blocks containing 4 steers from the LSH and AH treatments. Steers in the LSH treatment were walked and AH cattle were run through a course of 1,540 m. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture before handling (BASE), at 770 m (LAP1), at 1,540 m (LAP2), and at1 h (1H) and 2 h (2H) after finishing the course. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lactate (LAC), creatinine kinase (CK), base excess (BE), blood pH (pH), serum cortisol (CORT) concentrations, and venous carbon dioxide (PvCO2) and oxygen (PvO2) pressures. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and rectal temperature (TEMP) were measured at the same intervals. Cattle in the AH treatment had greater ( < 0.05) LAC than those in LSH at BASE (4.1 vs. 3.0 mmol/L), LAP1 (16.5 vs. 2.3 mmol/L), LAP2 (22.3 vs. 2.4 mmol/L), 1H (7.2 vs. 2.7 mmol/L), and 2H (4.0 vs. 2.5 mmol/L), respectively. Creatinine kinase and RR were not different (P > 0.14). Blood pH in AH cattle was decreased compared with that in LSH cattle ( < 0.05) at LAP1 (7.25 vs. 7.45) and LAP2 (7.19 vs. 7.48) but was not different ( > 0.13) at BASE, 1H, or 2H. Heart rate and TEMP were increased in AH cattle compared to LSH ( > 0.01). Serum cortisol was increased ( < 0.05) in AH compared to that in LSH cattle at LAP1 (87.5 vs. 58.9 nmol/L), LAP2 (144.4 vs. 93.1 nmol/L), and 1H (113.5 vs. 53.1 nmol/L). Although RR was not differ¬ent between LSH and AH, PvCO2 was decreased in AH compared to that in LSH ( < 0.05) at LAP2 (30.6 vs. 39.3 mmHg) and PvO2 was increased at LAP1 (42.7 vs. 33.5 mmHg) and at LAP2 (51.5 vs. 36.6 mmHg). Lactate was increased in AH cattle in the thicker BF

  10. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNFα) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

  11. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins by ruminant livestock can provide benefits to the animals, their producers and the environment. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannin more available to livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho an...

  12. Development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-06-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia.

  13. Moldy Sweetclover Poisoning in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Radostits, O. M.; Searcy, G. P.; Mitchall, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Some selected clinical and laboratory aspects of moldy sweetclover poisoning in cattle are reviewed. The prothrombin time is preferred when the disease is suspected. The bleeding time and whole blood clotting time test are also used. Dicoumarol is not always detectable in the suspected feed which may be due to sampling technique or inaccuracy in the laboratory assay. The most effective treatment is a whole blood transfusion. Vitamin K1 (naturally occurring vitamin K) is an effective antidote but too expensive. Vitamin K3 (synthetic vitamin K) in both the injectable and oral forms are not as effective as K1 but are used extensively for treatment and prevention. Feeding the suspected feed for two weeks followed by a one week withdrawal successively or by dilution with other feeds will help to reduce the incidence of disease if other feeds are not available. Suspected feed should not be fed to cattle for at least three weeks before surgery or parturition. PMID:6159060

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    PubMed

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-06-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  15. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation.

  16. A novel porcine gene, MAPKAPK3, is differentially expressed in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Liu

    2010-10-01

    The mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences of gene expression in the pituitary gland from mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs. One novel gene differentially expressed was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and its cDNA complete sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Nucleotide sequence of the gene is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. The sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 384 amino acids has high homology with the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) of eight species--cattle (96%), horse (96%), rhesus monkey (93%), rabbit (77%), human (98%), chimpanzee (98%), mouse (94%) and rat (91%)--so that it can be defined as swine MAPKAPK3 gene. This gene was finally assigned GENE ID: 100233192. Computer assisted analysis revealed that the genomic DNA of open reading frame of the swine MAPKAPK3 gene consists of ten exons and nine introns. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MAPKAPK3 of cattle. The tissue expression analysis indicated that the MAPKAPK3 mRNA expression levels of large-type Diannan small-ear pigs are ubiquitously increased in various tissues compared to the mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs. Our experiment suggested that the swine MAPKAPK3 gene might play an important role in the growth and development differences between mini-type Diannan small-ear pigs and large-type Diannan small-ear pigs.

  17. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

  18. Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

  19. Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen.

    PubMed

    Pol, A; Demeyer, D I

    1988-03-01

    Sheep fed a hay-concentrate diet were adapted to pectin administration and ruminal infusion of methanol. Both treatments resulted in a strong increase in the rate of methanogenesis from methanol. Quantitative data show that methanol was exclusively converted into methane. Treatments did not influence ruminal volatile fatty acid percentages.

  20. Experimental respiratory decompression sickness in sheep.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Lehner, C E; Beck, K A; Dubielzig, R R; Nordheim, E V; Lanphier, E H

    1988-09-01

    Respiratory decompression sickness (RDCS, "the chokes") is a potentially lethal consequence of ambient pressure reduction. Lack of a clearly suitable animal model has impeded understanding of this condition. RDCS, unaccompanied by central nervous system signs, occurred in 17 of 18 unanesthetized sheep exposed to compressed air at 230 kPa (2.27 ATA) for 22 h, returned to normal pressure for approximately 40 min, and taken to simulated altitude (0.75 ATA, 570 Torr). Respiratory signs, including tachypnea, sporadic apnea, and labored breathing, were accompanied by precordial Doppler ultrasound evidence of marked venous bubble loading. Pulmonary arterial pressures exceeded 30 Torr in five catheterized sheep that died or became moribund. Hypoxemia (arterial Po2 less than 40 Torr), neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed. Peribronchovascular edema was the most prominent necropsy finding. Chest radiography indicated interstitial edema in most affected sheep. High body weight and catheterization predisposed the sheep to severe RDCS. It appears that this protocol reliably provides a useful animal model for studies of RDCS and obstructive pulmonary hypertension, that the precipitating event is massive pulmonary embolization by bubbles, and that venous bubbles, detected by Doppler ultrasound, can signal impending RDCS.

  1. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  2. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  3. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  4. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  5. Absence of antibodies specific to Besnoitia spp. in European sheep and goats from areas in Spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Ara, Victor; Marco, Ignasi; Lavín, Santiago; Carvajal-Valilla, Javier; Morales, Angel; Álvarez-García, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti and B. caprae, which infect bovids (cattle and antelopes) and goats, respectively, are responsible for besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease. Bovine besnoitiosis is considered to be a reemerging disease in Central and Western Europe. In addition, infection by Besnoitia spp. has been reported in reindeer from Sweden and Finland. Recently, the parasite was also detected in roe deer and red deer from Spain, where an interconnection between the domestic and sylvatic cycles of B. besnoiti has been presumed. In contrast, caprine besnoitiosis seems to be enzootic to Kenya and Iran. The presence of Besnoitia spp. in small domestic ruminants has never been explored in Europe, and the role that these species might play in the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis, as intermediate hosts or reservoirs of B. besnoiti, remains unknown. Herein, the first serosurvey conducted in European sheep and goats from areas in Spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic is described. Convenience sampling was conducted of 1943 sheep and 342 goats close to cattle from the Pyrenees and Central Spain that were infected with endemic Besnoitia spp. Serum samples were first analyzed by ELISA and then by confirmatory Western blot. Specific antibodies were not found in any sampled animal. Thus, sheep are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis, at least in the sampled areas. A larger serosurvey is necessary to determine whether goats might be a putative reservoir. To confirm the results of this study, sheep and goats should be further studied in other European countries and regions where their numbers are high and where bovine besnoitiosis is spreading.

  6. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  7. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  8. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle.

  9. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Spilovská, S; Reiterová, K; Kovácová, D; Bobáková, M; Dubinský, P

    2009-10-14

    Neosporosis is an infection of animals caused by an intracellular coccidian parasite, Neospora caninum, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is one of important abortifacient agents of bovine abortions worldwide. The aim of the study was to detect the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in dairy aborting sheep from two eastern Slovak regions and to compare it with the occurrence of other potential abortifacient agents. Sera of 382 sheep, mainly the Improved Valachian and Merino breed, were tested for the presence of anti-Neospora and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA, anti-Leptospira sp. by micro-agglutination-assay and anti-Chlamydophila antibodies using the complement fixation test. The mean seroprevalence of N. caninum was 3.7% and of T. gondii, 24.3%. This phenomenon of higher susceptibility of sheep to T. gondii is in the opposite of N. caninum infection in cattle. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were observed in 2.9% of serum samples with titres from 800 to 1600, whereas IgG antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus were found in 13.6% with titres from 64 to 1024. Half of N. caninum positive sera were simultaneously positive for T. gondii and one sample for C. abortus. From examined abortifacient agents the most important, from the frequency point of view, were toxoplasmosis (24.3%) and chlamydiosis (13.6%). No significant association between the frequencies of the abortions and mean seroprevalence of the abortifacient agents in Kosice region was determined. Likewise, no significant differences between the mean seroprevalence of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis in the two regions were detected. The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants.

  10. [Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002].

    PubMed

    Epe, C; Coati, N; Schnieder, T

    2004-06-01

    The results of coproscopical examinations in horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002 are presented. In 4399 samples from horses 37.4% stages of strongylids, 1.4% anoplocephalids, 1.3% Strongyloides westeri, 0.9% Parascaris equorum, 0.04% Oxyuris equi, 0.04% Eimeria sp. and 0.04% Fasciola hepatica were found. In 998 samples of cattle 22.1% stages of strongylids, 11.2% of Eimeria spp., 3.5% of cryptosporidium, 2.9% of Moniezia spp., 1.3% of Trichuris spp., 0.7% of Dictyocaulus sp., 0.6% of Fasciola hepatica, 0.6% of Strongyloides sp., 0.5% of Nematodirus spp. and 0.4% of Capillaria sp. could be detected. In 524 samples of sheep 60.7% eggs of strongylids, 43.1% oozysts of Eimeria spp., 11.1% stages of Nematodirus spp., 9.5% of Moniezia spp., 7.8% of Trichuris spp., 6.7% of Strongyloides sp., 1.7% of Fasciola hepatica, 1% of Capillaria spp., 0.4% of protostrongylidae, 0.2% of Skrjabinema sp. and 0.2% of Dictyocaulus sp. were found. 33.9% of the 118 samples of goats that were examined were positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp., 30.5% for eggs of strongylids, 6.8% for Nematodirus spp., 4.2% for Trichuris spp., 3.4% for Moniezia spp., 0.8 for protostrongylids and 0.8% for Strongyloides sp. 5.7% of 1427 samples of pigs contained stages of strongylids, 1.5% of Ascaris suum, 0.4% of Isospora, 0.3% of Eimeria spp., 0.3% of Trichuris sp., 0.1% of Giardia sp., 0.1% of cryptosproidium as well as 0.1% of metastrongylids. In 1281 of the samples of dogs 2.3% Giardia sp., 2.3% Isospora sp., 2.2% Toxocara canis, 1.4% ancylostomids, 0.8% taeniids, 0.6% larvae of Crenosoma sp., 0.2% Capillaria sp, 0.2% Trichuris vulpis and 0.2% Hammondia-like oocysts were found. In 441 samples of cats 10.7% stages of Isospora sp., 3.9% eggs of Toxocara cati, 1.6% of ancylostomids, 1.4% of taeniids, 1.1% of Giardia sp., 0.7% of Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 0.7% of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 0.5% of Toxascaris leonina and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. were found

  11. Prion Type-Dependent Deposition of PRNP Allelic Products in Heterozygous Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J. G.; Hunter, N.; van Keulen, L. J. M.; Lantier, F.; van Zijderveld, F. G.; Bossers, A.

    2015-01-01

    PrP variants associated with opposite scrapie susceptibilities (136V-PrP variant, high; 171R-PrP variant, very low) contain in their prion material over 95% of the 136V PrP variant. However, when these sheep are infected with prions from cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]), both PrP variants occur in equal ratios. This shows that the infecting prion type determines the accumulating PrP variant ratio in the heterozygous host. While the host's PrP is considered a determining factor, these results emphasize that prion structure plays a role during host infection and that PrP variant involvement in prions of heterozygous carriers is a critical field for understanding prion formation. PMID:26512080

  12. G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptor Gene in Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolates from Cattle and Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tholoth, M; El-Kenawy, A A

    2016-12-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheep poxvirus (SPV) and goat poxvirus (GPV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of LSDV isolates from cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt during the summer of 2011. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the water buffalo LSDV isolate differed from the cattle isolate at four nucleotide positions, and both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations from the reference strain, Egyptian tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV and GPV strains, a 21 nucleotide insertion and a 12 nucleotide deletion were identified in the GPCR genes of our used isolates and other LSDVs. The amino acid sequences of GPCR genes of our isolates contained the unique signature of LSDV (A11 , T12 , T34 , S99 and P199 ). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the GPCR genes of cattle and water buffalo LSDVs were closest genetically, indicating a potential transmission of cattle LSDV to water buffalo.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes.

  14. Unusual presence of Ornidia robusta (Diptera: Syrphidae) causing pig myiasis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Millán, Cyntia; Olea, María S; Dantur Juri, María J

    2015-12-01

    Myiasis is caused by dipterous larvae from the Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Cuterebridae, and Syrphidae families. In this work, Cochliomyia hominivorax, Chrysomya megacephala, and Ornidia robusta were identified causing vulva, ear, and leg myiasis in pigs in Tucuman province, northwestern Argentina. The report of the presence of C. hominivorax and C. megacephala is very important due to their role as myiasis-causing and disease vectors. The occurrence of Ornidia robusta is remarkable, since it constitutes the first record of myiasis in general and of myiasis in pigs in particular. Lastly, the presence of Sarcophaga spp. is also interesting, since some of them originate myiasis and are therefore of concern for cattle, wild animals, and human populations.

  15. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  16. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  17. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  18. 59 FR- Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket 91-161-2] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... amending the tuberculosis regulations by adding a definition for States whose accredited-free status has been suspended due to detection of tuberculosis in any cattle or bison in those States, and by...

  19. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  20. The Uncoupling Protein 1 Gene (UCP1) Is Disrupted in the Pig Lineage: A Genetic Explanation for Poor Thermoregulation in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Frida; Gustafson, Ulla; Andersson, Leif

    2006-01-01

    Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago. PMID:16933999

  1. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Bowden, Timothy R; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in Africa and Asia. Currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. However, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy skin disease (LSD) the vaccine can cause clinical disease. In order to develop safer vaccines effective against all three diseases, a pathogenic strain of LSDV (Warmbaths [WB], South Africa) was attenuated by removing a putative virulence factor gene (IL-10-like) using gene knockout (KO) technology. This construct (LSDV WB005KO) was then evaluated as a vaccine for sheep and goats against virulent capripoxvirus challenge. Sheep and goats were vaccinated with the construct and the animals were observed for 21days. The vaccine appeared to be safe, and did not cause disease, although it induced minor inflammation at the injection site similar to that caused by other attenuated sheep and goat pox vaccines. In addition, no virus replication was detected in blood, oral or nasal swabs using real-time PCR following vaccination and low levels of neutralising antibodies were detected in both sheep and goats. Leukocytes isolated from vaccinated animals following vaccination elicited capripoxvirus-specific IFN-γ secretion, suggesting that immunity was also T-cell mediated. Following challenge with virulent capripoxvirus, vaccinated sheep and goats were found to be completely protected and exhibited no clinical disease. Furthermore, real-time PCR of blood samples at various time points suggested that viremia was absent in both groups of vaccinated animals, as opposed to capripoxvirus-related clinical disease and viremia observed in the unvaccinated animals. These findings suggest that this

  2. Tonsils of the Soft Palate Do Not Mediate the Response of Pigs to Oral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Boadella, Mariana; Casal, Carmen; Bezos, Javier; Mazariegos, María; Martín, MariPaz; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Villar, Margarita; Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Asensio, Fernando; Sicilia, Javier; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón A.; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes animal tuberculosis (TB) in cattle, humans, and other mammalian species, including pigs. The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the responses of pigs with and without a history of tonsillectomy to oral vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis and challenge with a virulent M. bovis field strain, to compare pig and wild boar responses using the same vaccination model as previously used in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), to evaluate the use of several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and lateral flow tests for in vivo TB diagnosis in pigs, and to verify if these tests are influenced by oral vaccination with inactivated M. bovis. At necropsy, the lesion and culture scores were 20% to 43% higher in the controls than those in the vaccinated pigs. Massive M. bovis growth from thoracic tissue samples was observed in 4 out of 9 controls but in none of the 10 vaccinated pigs. No effect of the presence or absence of tonsils was observed on these scores, suggesting that tonsils are not involved in the protective response to this vaccine in pigs. The serum antibody levels increased significantly only after challenge. At necropsy, the estimated sensitivities of the ELISAs and dual path platform (DPP) assays ranged from 89% to 94%. In the oral mucosa, no differences in gene expression were observed in the control group between the pigs with and without tonsils. In the vaccinated group, the mRNA levels for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7), interferon beta (IFN-β), and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) were higher in pigs with tonsils. Complement component 3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increased with vaccination and decreased after M. bovis challenge. This information is relevant for pig production in regions that are endemic for M. bovis and for TB vaccine research. PMID:24920604

  3. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    PubMed

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  4. Low Prevalence of Salmonella Enterica in Cull Dairy Cattle at Slaughter in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bonardi, Silvia; Bruini, Ilaria; Magnani, Rossella; Cannistrà, Nicolò; Brindani, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate Salmonella carrier status of cull dairy cattle at slaughter, 125 animals were randomly selected during the period February-May 2016. Dairy cows were reared in 89 farms located in two regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions), where bovine milk is primarily used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and Grana Padano cheese production. Samples were collected by swabbing a 400-cm2 area of the brisket hide and by rectoanal mucosal swabs. They were tested following the reference ISO 6579 method and the isolates were serotyped following the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme and genotyped by XbaI PFGE. Salmonella was detected in 1.6% of the brisket hide samples (2/125) (95% CI: 0.4-5.6) and never found in faecal samples (95% CI: 0-3%). The positive cattle were reared in two farms located only in Emilia-Romagna region. The isolates were typed as S. Derby and S. Seftenberg. The comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the bovine strains with all the PFGE patterns of the same serotypes responsible for human salmonellosis cases notified in Emilia-Romagna region in the years 2013-2015 did not find any correspondence. Therefore, the role of cull dairy cattle in transmitting Salmonella to humans seems to be less important than those of pigs and poultry in EU, but more data are needed for completing attribution source studies. PMID:28299287

  5. Eimeriosis in cattle: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Najdrowski, M

    2005-12-01

    This report addresses various aspects of the protozoan parasite Eimeria which contribute to their increasing recognition as important protozoal pathogens in cattle. Among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with. The tenacious oocysts are found ubiquitously in the environment making an infection of calves and young cattle, the most susceptible age group, almost inevitable. Further development, comprising of asexual multiplication, the merogony, and a subsequent sexual stage, the gamogony, takes place within cells of the small and large intestines, after which numerous unsporulated oocysts are formed and shed with the faeces. Of the more than a dozen species, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii only are made responsible for severe clinical disease characterized by haemorrhagic diarrhoea with sometimes fatal outcome. To a lesser extent, Eimeria alabamensis also can cause clinical disease. Because of the damage inflicted on the intestinal tissue, the digestive process and overall homeostasis can become severely affected, even with absence of clinical disease, with adverse effects on animal welfare and performance. The consequent economic losses for the cattle industry are thus substantial. Active (species specific) immunity, both humoral and cellular, develops rapidly after first antigen contact, its intensity being dependent on the number of oocysts ingested. However, no absolute protection is achieved and even older animals can excrete oocysts, contributing to a state of endemic stability. For efficient control, exact diagnosis of the Eimeria species involved and the evaluation of animal management and husbandry practices are of utmost importance. Mixed infections are the rule and only an occurrence of pathogenic species, together with clinical symptoms, justifies the assumption of a coccidiosis. Proper hygiene regime and ensuring unfavourable conditions for oocyst survival in the

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.

  7. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C

    1982-01-01

    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  8. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle.

  9. Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

    2013-01-01

    While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0

  10. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  11. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  12. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  13. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  14. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  15. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  16. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  17. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  18. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  19. Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lin; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, Yun-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Pan-He; Bian, Chang-Ling; Dumler, J. Stephen; Yang, Hong; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Chu, Chen-Yi; Liu, Wei; Richardus, Jan H.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domestic animals in China, we isolated the organism from rodents and sheep in northeastern China. We isolated 3 strains (2 from rodents and 1 from sick sheep) through propagation in BALB/c mice and then cell culture in HL60 cells. The 3 isolates were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy and were characterized by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, partial citrate synthase gene, major surface protein 4 gene, and heat shock protein gene. The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation. PMID:20409364

  20. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  1. Pathology of inherited rickets in Corriedale sheep.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Blair, H T

    2009-01-01

    A skeletal disease with features of rickets and simple autosomal recessive inheritance has been discovered in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The clinical signs resemble rickets in other species and include decreased growth rate, thoracic lordosis and angular limb deformities. Gross lesions include segmental thickening of physes, growth arrest lines, collapse of subchondral bone of the humeral head, thickened cortices and enthesophytes around distal limb joints. Microscopically, there is persistence of hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification, inappropriate and excessive osteoclastic resorption, microfractures and wide, unmineralized osteoid seams lining trabeculae and filling secondary osteons. This study confirms that this skeletal disease of Corriedale sheep is a newly discovered form of inherited rickets and suggests that the genetic defect may be different from inherited forms of rickets described to date in man and animals.

  2. Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting.

  3. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep.

  4. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    bighcrns demonstrate a competitive inferiority when competing with sympatric ungulates for available forage. Interspecific , as well as intraspecific ...Density of Plant Fragments In Bighorn Sheep Fecal Samples Collected on a Monthly Basis for Calendar Year 1978. 76 23. Population Estirqtes for Ural... competition with domestic, as well as wild ungulates; 2) disease intro- duced by domestic livestock; 3) conversion of mountain grasslands into timber- lands

  5. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  6. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats.

  7. Aspects of carnitine ester metabolism in sheep liver

    PubMed Central

    Snoswell, A. M.; Henderson, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    1. Carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) activity in sheep liver mitochondria was 76nmol/min per mg of protein, in contrast with 1.7 for rat liver mitochondria. The activity in bovine liver mitochondria was comparable with that of sheep liver mitochondria. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was the same in both sheep and rat liver mitochondria. 2. The [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in sheep liver ranged from 6:1 for animals fed ad libitum on lucerne to approx. 1:1 for animals grazed on open pastures. This change in ratio appeared to reflect the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid produced in the rumen of the sheep under the two dietary conditions. 3. In sheep starved for 7 days the [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in the liver was 0.46:1. The increase in acetylcarnitine on starvation was not at the expense of free carnitine, as the amounts of free carnitine and total acid-soluble carnitine rose approximately fivefold on starvation. An even more dramatic increase in total acid-soluble carnitine of the liver was seen in an alloxan-diabetic sheep. 4. The [free CoA]/[acetyl-CoA] ratio in the liver ranged from 1:1 in the sheep fed on lucerne to 0.34:1 for animals starved for 7 days. 5. The importance of carnitine acetyltransferase in sheep liver and its role in relieving `acetyl pressure' on the CoA system is discussed. PMID:5485754

  8. Sheep poxvirus identification by PCR in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, O

    1999-01-01

    A simple, rapid and specific diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for sheep poxvirus identification. The primers used were from the sequenced genomes of the capripox viruses KS-1 and InS-1. Six different sheep pox isolates were tested against two orf (parapox) and three animal herpesviruses as controls. Material from uninfected cell cultures was also used as control. The sensitivity of the PCR was approximately equivalent with each of the two primers and for the six sheep pox isolates. All the negative control virus DNAs were negative and differed clearly from those of the sheep pox strains.

  9. Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Gudorf, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Translocation of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is time, labor, and cost intensive and, therefore, high levels of success are desirable. We tested a widely used habitat suitability model against translocation success and then modified it to include additional factors which improved its usefulness in predicting appropriate translocation sites. The modified Smith habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep was 64% accurate in predicting success or failure of 32 translocations of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau desert, and prairie-badlands of six states. We had sheep location data for 13 populations, and the modified habitat model predicted the areas used by bighorn sheep with greater than 905 accuracy in eight populations, greater than 55% accuracy in four populations, and less than 55% accuracy in one population. Translocations were more successful when sheep were placed into discrete habitat patches containing a high proportion of lambing period habitat (>10% of suitable habitat, p = 0.05), where animals had a migratory tendency (p = 0.02), no contact with domestic sheep (p = 0.02), or greater distance to domestic sheep (>23 km, p = 0.02). Rate of population growth was best predicted by area of lambing period habitat, potential area of winter range, and distance to domestic sheep. We retested the model using these refined criteria and the refined model then predicted success or failure of these 32 translocated populations with 82% accuracy.

  10. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-07-19

    To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions.

  11. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii from dairy cattle and ticks, and some characteristics of the isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ho, T; Htwe, K K; Yamasaki, N; Zhang, G Q; Ogawa, M; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Hirai, K

    1995-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii was isolated from raw milk (36/214, 16.8%) and uterus swab samples (13/61, 21.3%) originating from dairy cattle with reproductive disorders, aborted bovine fetus samples (2/4, 50%), mammary gland samples (4/50, 8%) originating from healthy dairy cattle, and tick samples (4/15, 26.7%) originating from 2 pastures. Fifty-nine strains had various degrees of pathogenicity, high (8; 13.6%), moderate (28; 47.5%) and low (23; 39%), for guinea pigs. The results of isolation suggested a high prevalence of Coxiella infection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Japan. Twelve strains (7, 2 and 3 strains from cattle, ticks and humans, respectively) and the reference Nine Mile strain of phases I and II were propagated in both yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs and Buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell cultures. Protein profiles of these strains were similar to those of the reference strain of phase I. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles of 12 strains were similar to those of the reference strain of phase I and different from those of the reference strain of phase II. The LPS profiles of 12 strains suggested that these strains are associated with an acute form of Q fever.

  12. Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses: evaluation of their efficacy as potential marker vaccines in cattle.

    PubMed

    Fowler, V L; Paton, D J; Rieder, E; Barnett, P V

    2008-04-07

    Previous work in pigs, has demonstrated that full protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines, in which the VP1 G-H loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. If proven to be effective in other economically important species such as cattle, such vaccine constructs could be trialed as potential marker vaccines. Here, we determine if G-H loop chimera FMDV vaccines can: (i) protect cattle from virus challenge and (ii) induce an antibody response that would enable the identification of infection, regardless of vaccination status. Inactivated, oil adjuvanated, chimeric vaccine constructs, based on the backbone sequence of the A(12)119 serotype virus, fully protected cattle from challenge 21 days post-vaccination. Differentiation assays developed for use in this study were able to identify sub-clinical infection, which in one vaccinated animal, persisted beyond day 32 post-challenge. This paper emphasises the importance of epitopes outside of the VP1 G-H loop for protective immunity in cattle, and demonstrates that chimeric FMDV vaccines could prove to be useful marker vaccines for the future.

  13. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals.

  14. Overcoming RNA inhibition in the fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay to enhance detection of bovine DNA in cattle feeds.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Mary; Rensen, Gabriel; Smith, Wayne; Yee, Melanie; Wong, Alice; Osburn, Bennie; Cullor, James

    2004-01-01

    The practice of incorporating mammalian protein in ruminant feeds was banned in the United States in 1997 as a measure to avoid transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). A sensitive means of identifying the banned additives in feeds would be by detection of species-specific DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, problems may arise in the PCR due to the presence of inhibitory substances. Using human DNA as an internal PCR control, inhibitory substances were evident in the DNA extraction products of cattle feeds. The results of heating experiments excluded enzymes as a cause of inhibition, and spectrophotometric calculations suggested the possibility of RNA contamination. Co-electrophoresis of untreated and RNAse digested extracts confirmed the presence of RNA in the undigested product. Seven cattle feeds were spiked with predetermined amounts of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM). The DNA extracted products were treated with RNAse and the bovine specific mitochondrial DNA (B-mtDNA) was amplified by PCR. The minimum level of detection of B-mtDNA was influenced by RNAse treatment and feed composition. RNAse treatment decreased false-negative results overall by 75%. False-negative results were decreased 100% in the higher BMBM concentrations and 50% in the lower BMBM concentrations. Also, each cattle feed was spiked to attain a 2% wt/wt concentration with each swine, fish, sheep, or poultry product, or cattle dried blood. Amplification of B-mtDNA occurred only with the cattle dried blood and only in three feeds in which B-mtDNA was detected at the only level tested (2%). A commercial immunochromotographic assay (Neogen) detected the spiked BMBM in only one of the seven feeds and only at the upper concentration (1%).

  15. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants.

  16. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  17. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  18. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Juan-José; Bayón, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermín San

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

  19. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Michael N; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M; Hileman, Stanley M; Connors, John M; Goodman, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain as it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlie annual reproductive transitions. We review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that plays a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. Although a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease.

  20. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination. PMID:15943120