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Sample records for cattle sheep pigs

  1. Absence of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the kidneys of sheep, cattle and pig.

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z W; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1987-01-01

    The kidneys of man, sheep, cattle and pig were all found to contain 1-aspartamido-beta-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase activity. However, among these, only human kidney was found to contain endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. The absence of this enzyme in the kidneys of sheep and cattle explains why the oligosaccharides accumulated in, and excreted by, sheep and cattle afflicted with disorders of glycoprotein catabolism (i.e. alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis) contain two N-acetylglucosamine residues at the reducing terminus instead of one, as is the case for human patients afflicted with similar disorders. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3124807

  2. Biotypes and serotypes of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from cattle, sheep and pig offal and other red meats.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, F. J.; Dawkins, H. C.; Hutchinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    In this study we examined 730 faecal samples of offal (mainly liver), mince-meat and sausage meat collected from abattoirs and retail butchers' shops for campylobacters. Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli were isolated from 30.6, 10.5 and 6% of sheep, cattle and pig offal samples respectively. Specimens collected from abattoirs were, in general, more often contaminated than material obtained from retail butchers' shops. Only 1.4% of minced meats and sausage meats contained campylobacters. Most isolates (89.5%) were C. jejuni biotype 1 (Skirrow & Benjamin, 1980) of serotypes 1 and 2 (Penner & Hennessy, 1980). This study shows that animal offal is frequently contaminated with C. jejuni of biotypes and serotypes commonly isolated from human beings with campylobacter enteritis. PMID:4020105

  3. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014.

  4. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from cattle, sheep and pigs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, R. A.; Corbel, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of 48 cultures identified as Yersinia enterocolitica or Y. enterocolitica-like organisms, including Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia and Y. kristensenii, were examined. Of these, 39 were isolated from faeces of apparently healthy pigs, five from healthy cattle, one from an aborted bovine fetus, one from an aborted lamb and one from a lamb suffering from acute enteritis. Most isolates from healthy animals were of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1 or Y. intermedia and belonged to O serogroups not usually associated with disease in man or animals. The isolates from abortion or enteritis cases were of Y. enterocolitica biotypes 3, 4 and 5 and belonged to the pathogenic serogroups 0:5b and 0:2a, 2b, 3. No organisms of serogroup 0:9 were found. PMID:6863913

  5. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from cattle, sheep and pigs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brewer, R A; Corbel, M J

    1983-06-01

    The properties of 48 cultures identified as Yersinia enterocolitica or Y. enterocolitica-like organisms, including Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia and Y. kristensenii, were examined. Of these, 39 were isolated from faeces of apparently healthy pigs, five from healthy cattle, one from an aborted bovine fetus, one from an aborted lamb and one from a lamb suffering from acute enteritis. Most isolates from healthy animals were of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1 or Y. intermedia and belonged to O serogroups not usually associated with disease in man or animals. The isolates from abortion or enteritis cases were of Y. enterocolitica biotypes 3, 4 and 5 and belonged to the pathogenic serogroups 0:5b and 0:2a, 2b, 3. No organisms of serogroup 0:9 were found.

  6. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26920319

  7. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  8. [Leucine and alanine aminopeptidase activity in the organs of cattle, sheep and swine].

    PubMed

    Goranov, Kh

    1982-01-01

    Studied was the activity of leucine-aminopeptidase and alanine-aminopeptidase in fresh tissue homogenates of liver, spleen, kidney, heart, pancreas, femoral muscle, stomach (rumen), small intestine, and lung taken from 8 cattle, sheep, and pigs. Both enzymes showed ubiquity. Leucine-aminopeptidase exhibited highest activity in the spleen of pigs and the kidney of sheep and cattle. The kidneys of all investigated animal species showed 10 to 15 times higher alanine-aminopeptidase activity than the remaining organs. This pointed to the relative ubiquity of the enzyme with special reference to kidneys.

  9. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  10. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals. PMID:26742788

  11. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  12. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Patrícia; VILARES, Anabela; NETO, Francisco; RODRIGUES, Alcina; MARTINS, Tânia; FERREIRA, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; RODRIGUES, Manuela; CARDOSO, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal. Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analysis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III). Results: Three and 4 strains of SAG2 type II were identified in heart samples of cattle and sheep, respectively. Three SAG2 type II strains were detected in brain, diaphragm and heart of 3 pigs. Three strains detected in heart samples of 3 goats belonged to SAG2 types I or II; with the same result being observed in heart samples from 2 sheep and in 2 brain and 1 heart samples from 3 pigs. Conclusion: SAG2 type II has been shown for the first time to infect cattle in North of Portugal. In addition, SAG2 type II has also been confirmed as the predominant strain in sheep and pigs in the same region. This is the first molecular report of T. gondii in goats from Portugal. PMID:26622302

  13. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    PubMed

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources. PMID:17927711

  14. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters. PMID:21377620

  15. Mapping of 195 genes in cattle and updated comparative map with man, mouse, rat and pig.

    PubMed

    Hayes, H; Elduque, C; Gautier, M; Schibler, L; Cribiu, E; Eggen, A

    2003-01-01

    Our on-going goal is to improve and update the comparative genome organization between cattle and man but also among the most detailed mammalian species genomes i.e. cattle, mouse, rat and pig. In this work, we localized 195 genes in cattle and checked all human/bovine non-concordant localizations found in the literature. Next, we compiled all the genes mapped in cattle, goat, sheep and pig (2,166) for which the human ortholog with its chromosomal position is known, added corresponding data in mouse and rat, and ordered the genes relatively to the human genome sequence. We estimate that our compilation provides bovine mapping information for about 89% of the human autosomes. Thus, a near complete, overall and detailed picture of the number, distribution and extent of bovine conserved syntenies (regardless of gene order) on human R-banded autosomes is proposed as well as a comparison with mouse, rat and pig genomes. PMID:14970673

  16. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  17. FimH adhesin from host unrestricted Salmonella Enteritidis binds to different glycoprotein ligands expressed by enterocytes from sheep, pig and cattle than FimH adhesins from host restricted Salmonella Abortus-ovis, Salmonella Choleraesuis and Salmonella Dublin.

    PubMed

    Grzymajło, Krzysztof; Ugorski, Maciej; Kolenda, Rafał; Kędzierska, Anna; Kuźmińska-Bajor, Marta; Wieliczko, Alina

    2013-10-25

    Adhesion to gut tissues and colonization of the alimentary tract, two important stages in the pathogenesis of Salmonella, are mediated by FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae. It was suggested that minor differences in the structure of FimH are most likely associated with differences in adhesion specificities, and may determine the tropism of various Salmonella serovars to different species and tissues. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the binding properties of FimH proteins from three Salmonella enterica serovars with limited (Choleraesuis, Dublin) or restricted (Abortusovis) host ranges to FimH from broad host range S. Enteritidis and mannose inactive FimH from S. Gallinarum. Although all active variants of FimH protein were able to bind mannose-rich glycoproteins (RNase B, HRP and Man-BSA) with comparable affinity measured by surface plasmon resonance, there were significant differences in the binding profiles of the FimH proteins from host restricted serovars and host unrestricted serovar Enteritidis, to glycoproteins from enterocyte cell lines established in vitro and derived from sheep, pig and cattle. When low-binding FimH adhesin from S. Enteritidis was subjected to Western blot analysis, it bound to surface membrane protein of about 130 kDa, and high-binding FimH adhesins from S. Abortusovis, S. Choleraesuis and S. Dublin bound to surface membrane protein of about 55 kDa present in each cell line. Differential binding of FimH proteins from host-restricted and broad-host-range Salmonella to intestinal receptors was confirmed using mutant FimH adhesins obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the low-binding variant of FimH from S. Choleraesuis with mutation Leu57Pro lost the ability to bind protein band of 55 kDa, but instead interacted with glycoprotein of about 130 kDa. On the other hand, the high-binding variant of FimH adhesin from S. Enteritids with mutation Asn101Ser did not bind to its receptor of 130 kDa, but instead it

  18. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  19. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A. C.; Bellworthy, Sue J.; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  20. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  1. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  2. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  3. Transgenic chicken, mice, cattle, and pig embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer into pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Das, Ziban Chandra; Heo, Young Tae; Joo, Jin Young; Chung, Hak-Jae; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Hoon Taek; Ko, Dae Hwan; Uhm, Sang Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the possibility of producing transgenic cloned embryos by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) of cattle, mice, and chicken donor cells into enucleated pig oocytes. Enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP)-expressing donor cells were used for the nuclear transfer. Results showed that the occurrence of first cleavage did not differ significantly when pig, cattle, mice, or chicken cells were used as donor nuclei (p>0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher in pig (14.9±2.1%; p<0.05) SCNT embryos than in cattle (6.3±2.5%), mice (4.2±1.4%), or chicken (5.1±2.4%) iSCNT embryos. The iSCNT embryos also contained a significantly less number of cells per blastocyst than those of SCNT pig embryos (p<0.05). All (100%) iSCNT embryos expressed the EGFP gene, as evidenced by the green florescence under ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Microinjection of purified mitochondria from cattle somatic cells into pig oocytes did not have any adverse effect on their postfertilization in vitro development and embryo quality (p>0.05). Moreover, NCSU23 medium, which was designed for in vitro culture of pig embryos, was able to support the in vitro development of cattle, mice, and chicken iSCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Taken together, these data suggest that enucleated pig oocytes may be used as a universal cytoplast for production of transgenic cattle, mice, and chicken embryos by iSCNT. Furthermore, xenogenic transfer of mitochondria to the recipient cytoplast may not be the cause for poor embryonic development of cattle-pig iSCNT embryos.

  4. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  5. Pathogen exposure patterns among sympatric populations of bighorn sheep, mule deer and cattle.

    PubMed

    Singer, R S; Jessup, D A; Gardner, I A; Boyce, W M

    1997-04-01

    We sampled sympatric bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, n = 31), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n = 38), and domestic cattle (n = 26) in the San Bernadino Mountains of southern California (USA) for the presence of Psoroptes spp. mites and for serologic evidence of exposure to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Babesia spp. From 1991 through 1994, Psoroptes spp. infestations were found on 12 (44%) of 27 bighorn sheep. No mites were found on mule deer or cattle. The BTV serum antibody prevalence in a cohort of 26 cattle ranged from 17 to 89%. There was no evidence of exposure to BTV in the bighorn sheep or mule deer. The cumulative serum antibody prevalence of Babesia spp. during the study was 35% in 26 bighorn sheep and 85% in 20 mule deer, while antibodies were not detected in a cohort of cattle when they were sampled in May (n = 23) and December (n = 22) of 1992. Based on these results, we concluded that infestation with Psoroptes spp. and exposure to BTV was limited to bighorn sheep and cattle, respectively. In contrast, Babesia spp. infections appeared to be common in both mule deer and bighorn sheep while there was no evidence of exposure in cattle.

  6. Differences in the lymphoproliferative response of cattle and sheep to bovine leucosis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, C K; Rogers, R J; Chung, Y S; McKenzie, A R; Waugh, P D

    1986-04-01

    Lymphoblastic leukaemia, preceded by a significantly increasing percentage of prolymphocytes in peripheral blood smears for from 12 to 68 weeks before death was a feature of sheep which developed lymphosarcoma following inoculation with the Australian strain of bovine leucosis virus (BLV). Lymphocytosis and/or the appearance of immature cells were a reliable predictor of tumour formation in sheep, but not in cattle. There was a terminal lymphoblastic leukaemia in only 43 of 84 cattle with lymphosarcoma. Differences in the morphological appearance and glycogen content of the leukaemic lymphoblasts of sheep and cattle were observed. In spite of these differences the high frequency of lymphocytosis and lymphosarcoma in experimentally infected sheep suggests that they could be a useful model for studying the pathological and immunological responses to BLV infection. PMID:3012856

  7. Biological Parameters of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Fed on Rabbits, Sheep, and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Miling; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Yin, Hong; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of various hosts on feeding performance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, we used 3 mammalian species as hosts, cattle (Qinchuan), sheep (T an), and rabbits (Japanese white rabbit) for infest-ing ticks. Five hundreds of R. microplus larvae were exposed to each animal (3 animals/host species). Tick recoveries were 11.0%, 0.47%, and 5.5% from cattle, sheep, and rabbits, respectively. The averages of tick feeding periods were not significantly different on cattle, sheep, and rabbits, 28.8, 25.3, and 26.7 days, respectively. The average weights of individual engorged female from cattle, sheep, and rabbits were 312.5, 219.1, and 130.2 mg, respectively and those of egg mass weights each to 85.0, 96.6, and 17.8 mg. The highest egg hatching rate was in the ticks from cattle (96.0%), fol-lowed by those from rabbits (83.0%) and sheep (19.2%). These data suggest that rabbits could be as an alternative host to cultivate R. microplus for evaluating vaccines and chemical and biological medicines against the tick in the laboratory, although the biological parameters of ticks were less than those from cattle. PMID:27417084

  8. Pig and Goat Blood as Substitutes for Sheep Blood in Blood-Supplemented Agar Media

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Chandar; Gordon, Rhonda; Shaw, Helene; Fonseca, Kevin; Olsen, Merle

    2000-01-01

    In many developing countries sheep and horse blood, the recommended blood supplements in bacteriological media, are not readily available, whereas pig and goat blood are. Therefore, this study examined the use of pig and goat blood as potential substitutes for sheep blood in blood-supplemented bacteriologic media commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. In general, the growth characteristics and colony morphologies of a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans were similar on media containing pig, goat, and sheep blood, although differences were found. Enterococcus sp. uniformly produced alpha-hemolysis when incubated in CO2, but in anaerobic conditions the hemolysis varied. In contrast, beta-hemolytic streptococci produced identical hemolytic reactions on all three media. Synergistic hemolysis was not observed on pig blood agar in the CAMP test nor on goat blood agar in the reverse CAMP test. The preparation of chocolate agar (heated) with pig blood required heating to a higher temperature than with sheep or goat blood to yield suitable growth of Haemophilus species. In general, we conclude that pig and goat blood are suitable alternatives to sheep blood for use in bacteriological media in settings where sheep and horse blood are not readily available. PMID:10655351

  9. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  10. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this... goats, meat food products in animal casings, and other products as approved by the Administrator,...

  11. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this... goats, meat food products in animal casings, and other products as approved by the Administrator,...

  12. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this... goats, meat food products in animal casings, and other products as approved by the Administrator,...

  13. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this... goats, meat food products in animal casings, and other products as approved by the Administrator,...

  14. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P < 0.01) although this preference appeared earlier in the trial for sheep than for cattle. For the sheep, mean daily intake of water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P < 0.05). Ingestion of water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials

  15. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers.

  16. Comparative study of rumen ciliates in buffalo, cattle and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Imai, S; Yamato, O; el Kabbany, A; Kiroloss, F; Maede, Y

    1996-08-01

    Rumen ciliates species and composition of the sheep, Friesian-cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt were surveyed. As a result, 7 genera with 18 species and 6 formae in sheep, 10 genera with 28 species and 11 formae in cattle and 12 genera with 29 species and 7 formae in water buffaloes were detected. Twenty-two species were common in both cattle and buffaloes, while 12 species in sheep were common with the other ruminants. Entodinium spp., such as E. simplex, E. nanellum and E. exigum, appeared most frequently in every host. In general, Egyptian domestic ruminants had the rumen ciliate composition similar to that of domestic ruminants in temperate zone, though the water buffaloes had several tropical species such as Entodinium longinucleatum forma spinonucleatum. The ciliate density was estimated as 10(5)/ml in every host species.

  17. Effects of predator fecal odors on feed selection by sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Müller-Schwarze, D; Balph, D F

    1990-02-01

    The effectiveness of predator fecal odors in modifying feeding selection by sheep and cattle was investigated in two trials. In trial 1, animals could select from feed bins contaminated with coyote, fox, cougar, or bear fecal odor, and oil of wintergreen, or select the control feed. All odors were rejected (P<0.01) by sheep and cattle, except bear odors by sheep. In trial 2, animals could select feed during 10-min periods in an open 11-m × 16-m arena. Fecal odor did not influence approaches to feed bins, or head entries into bins. Only coyote fecal odor reduced (P<0.05) the time spent feeding in the contaminated bin, and increased (P<0.05) consumption from the control bin by both cattle and sheep. Some animals on some test days refused to feed from either feed bin, although cattle and sheep closely inspected bins. Results suggest that fecal odors may not prevent livestock from entering a treated area but may reduce the time spent grazing in such an area.

  18. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep, cattle, and buffaloes in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Sandhu, K S; Bal, M S; Kumar, H; Verma, S; Dubey, J P

    2008-10-01

    Sera from 186 sheep, 83 cattle, and 103 water buffaloes from Punjab, India, were evaluated for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using a commercial ELISA kit. This study was planned using a 2-stage random sampling procedure and sampling software 'survey toolbox.' In the first step, villages were selected randomly from a sampling frame of all the villages of Punjab, followed by selection of owners and animals in the second step. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7 of 186 sheep, 2 of 83 cattle, and 3 of 103 buffaloes. Results indicate a low prevalence of T. gondii in ruminants tested.

  19. Effect of selenium concentration on feed preferences by cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Davis, T Z; Hall, J O

    2013-12-01

    Selenium-accumulator plants are reputed to be unpalatable to livestock. The objective of this study was to determine if sheep and cattle could discriminate between forages and feeds with different concentrations of Se. In the first study, cattle and sheep preferences for intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens) of varying Se concentrations were assessed. The Se concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 50 mg/kg (DM) in grass, 1.4 to 275 mg/kg in alfalfa, and 4 to 4,455 mg/kg in aster. Selenium concentration had no influence (P > 0.05) on the initial or subsequent preferences of sheep or cattle for grass or alfalfa. Cattle developed an aversion to aster after consuming 95% of the plant material during the first brief exposure and subsequently refused to eat any aster. Sheep consumption of aster was variable, but their preference was not driven by Se concentration. In the next study, cattle and sheep were offered pellets at 1.5% of BW (as fed) that contained increasing concentrations of Se from aster (control and 5, 25, 45, and 110 mg/kg Se). In trial 1, all pellets were offered. In Trials 2 and 3, all pellets were offered with the exception of the 5 mg/kg Se pellet and the 5 and 25 mg/kg Se pellets, respectively. In trial 1, consumption of the control pellet by cattle was greater on all days compared with other Se pellets (P < 0.001). Cattle ate more (P < 0.001) of the 5 mg/kg Se pellet than the higher Se pellets on d 3, 4, and 5. Sheep ate greater amounts of the control and 5 and 110 mg/kg Se pellets compared with the 25 and 45 mg/kg Se pellets (P < 0.0001) on d 1, and sheep consumed primarily the control and 5 mg/kg Se pellets thereafter. In trial 2, cattle and sheep consumed more (P < 0.0001) of the control Se pellet than the 25, 45, and 110 mg/kg Se pellets. In trial 3, cattle consumption of the control and 45 and 110 mg/kg Se pellets differed on d 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), except there was no

  20. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Umeh, Emmanuel Chibuzor; Mustapha, Samat Odunayo; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade) cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184) seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%), 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%), 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%), and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%), while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97) and 8.2% (4/49), respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria. PMID:26925103

  1. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    PubMed

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  2. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams.

  3. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures.

  4. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  5. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in naturally infected adult sheep and cattle in Romania.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Ionita, Mariana; Costin, Irina Ioana; Predoi, Gabriel; Avram, Eugeniu; Rinaldi, Laura; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Genchi, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    An epidemiological and molecular study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from adult sheep and cattle in Romania. Overall, 642 sheep (aged over 3 years) and 1878 cattle (aged over 5 years) from 16 counties were examined for hydatid cysts. Of them, 421 (65.6%) sheep and 754 (40.1%) cattle were found infected by cystic echinococcosis (CE). Germinal layers were collected from 98 individual cysts (one cyst per animal; 31 from sheep and 67 from cattle), DNA was extracted and two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 (CO1) and 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. The assessment of the genetic diversity of the Echinococcus strains showed the presence of the E. granulosus sensu stricto complex and disclosed an apparent dominance of the G1 genotype within the G1–G3 complex. Furthermore, several mitochondrial variants were identified for the G1 and G2 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s. complex. Overall, the findings were of epidemiological relevance and highlighted a high potential risk of zoonotic infection.

  6. Comparison of the serum toxicokinetics of larkspur toxins in cattle, sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a major cause of cattle losses in western North America, whereas sheep are thought to be resistant to larkspur toxicosis. Goats are often used as a small ruminant model to study poisonous plants. In this study, we compared the serum toxicokinetic profile of toxic lark...

  7. The gamma fibrinogen gene (FGG) maps to chromosome 17 in both cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S E; Barendse, W; Hetzel, D J

    1993-01-01

    The gamma fibrinogen gene (FGG) was localised in both cattle and sheep using in situ hybridisation. The probe employed was a 1-kb bovine cDNA fragment. Based on observations of QFQ-banded chromosome preparations, this locus is on bovine chromosome 17q12-->q13 and on the homologous sheep chromosome 17. This localisation is, to our knowledge, the first assignment to chromosome 17 in either the bovine or ovine genome. In addition to localising FGG to this chromosome, the assignment provisionally maps the previously unassigned syntenic group U23, containing (besides FGG) the genes for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), interleukin 2 (IL2), immunoglobulin lambda (IGL), and beta fibrinogen (FGB), to chromosome 17 in cattle and probably to the same chromosome in sheep.

  8. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    PubMed Central

    HOPE, M; JIANG, X; GOUGH, J; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; JONSSON, N; WILLADSEN, P

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5′-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5′-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  9. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pita Gondim, L F; Barbosa, H V; Ribeiro Filho, C H; Saeki, H

    1999-05-01

    Serum samples from 439 goats, 240 sheep, 194 cattle and 104 water buffaloes were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by a latex agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 28.93% of goats, 18.75% of sheep, 1.03% of cattle and 3.85% of water buffaloes, at a dilution of 1:64. The highest titres observed in goats, sheep, cattle and water buffaloes were 1:2048, 1:2048, 1:64 and 1:512, respectively.

  10. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  11. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus.

  12. Development of the large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, in white-tailed deer, cattle, and sheep.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J; Todd, A C

    1976-02-01

    The comparative development of Fascioloides magna in white-tailed deer, cattle and sheep has been studied. Flukes were recovered from 72% of 32 deer administered 40 to 500 metacercariae, from 82% of 11 cattle administered 10 to 500 metacercariae, and from 53% of 15 sheep administered 8 to 200 metacercariae. The percentage recovery of the flukes administered as metacercariae was 4.1% of 6,130 in deer, 5.7% of 2,510 in cattle, and 4.7% of 1,213 in sheep. Flukes were recovered only from livers of infected deer, while in cattle, 1 fluke was also found in the lungs of each of 2 animals. In sheep, all but 10 flukes were recovered from the livers; 6 were found in the lungs and 4 in the abdominal cavities. The black iron porphyrin pigment associated with F. magna infection was found to be most widespread in cattle and sheep, but was also a pathognomonic feature in deer. Growth of the fluke was similar in all 3 host species tested, but eggs were passed only from deer, the normal definitive host. In cattle, the eggs were retained in the liver, and F. magna was lethal to sheep before its own maturity was attained. In cattle and deer, flukes matured approximately 7 months after exposure, but immature migrating flukes were found 12 months after infection and apparently can remain in this retarded state for an undetermined period of time.

  13. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Wragg, Peter; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Hoyles, Lesley

    2012-06-15

    Actinomyces hyovaginalis, an organism initially described from pigs, was recovered from nine sheep and a moufflon. Further strains of A. hyovaginalis were recovered from five samples from pigs over the same period. 16S rRNA sequencing and extensive phenotyping demonstrated high similarity between the ovine and porcine isolates; however differences with respect to erythritol, adonitol and l-arabitol fermentation were detected. Ovine isolates were made from various sample sites including abscesses and highlight the importance of the accurate identification of the various coryneform isolates which affect sheep. A. hyovaginalis can be added to the growing list of coryneforms which can cause disease in sheep including Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Trueperella pyogenes and Arcanobacterium pluranimalium.

  14. A comparative study of sheep and pigs given the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and penitrem A.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D W; Penny, R H; Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-09-01

    The moulds Penicillium simplicissimum and P crustosum and the tremorgenic mycotoxins, verruculogen and penitrem A, isolated from them, were given to sheep and pigs to compare their potencies. Pigs were generally less susceptible and in both species penitrem A was less potent than verruculogen. Five-month-old lambs seemed more susceptible to mycelium containing verruculogen than were 15-month-old sheep given a similar oral dose relative to bodyweight. Repeated daily dosing of lambs and sheep for five days with P simplicissimum failed to enhance the effect, indicating that verruculogen toxicity was not cumulative. Long and short acting barbiturate anaesthesia blocked the effects of lethal doses of tremorgens. Sedation with diazepam diminished, but did not block, mycotoxin-induced tremors suggesting that there was no specific action of this anticonvulsant sedative on tremorgens. PMID:7146626

  15. Biolistic-mediated gene expression in guinea pigs and cattle tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rech, E L; De-Bem, A R; Aragão, F J

    1996-10-01

    Foreign genes were introduced and expressed in vivo in guinea pigs and cattle utilizing a new hand-held device based on high-pressure helium gas to accelerate DNA-coated microparticles. Guinea pigs were used to evaluate the physical parameters to introduce and express the exogenous DNA. The best conditions were applied to conduct bombardments in cattle. The results showed a high frequency of gene expression in all the bombarded cattle. This procedure could be used to study the immune responses in cattle and in a wide variety of animals through genetic immunization. PMID:9181095

  16. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert.

  17. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (0.15 ± 0.08 nmol/min·mg) compared to cattle. In sheep, the relative involvement of both FMO and CYP systems (FMO/CYP) was 36/64. Virtually, only the CYP system appeared to be involved in the production of MNPSO2 in cattle liver. Methimazole significantly reduced (41 to 79%) the rate of MNPSO2 production in sheep liver microsomes whereas it did not inhibit MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive

  18. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (0.15 ± 0.08 nmol/min·mg) compared to cattle. In sheep, the relative involvement of both FMO and CYP systems (FMO/CYP) was 36/64. Virtually, only the CYP system appeared to be involved in the production of MNPSO2 in cattle liver. Methimazole significantly reduced (41 to 79%) the rate of MNPSO2 production in sheep liver microsomes whereas it did not inhibit MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive

  19. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  20. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  1. A gene expression estimator of intramuscular fat percentage for use in both cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in triacyglyceride and fatty acid synthesis and storage in cattle muscle are correlated with intramuscular fat (IMF)%. Are the same genes also correlated with IMF% in sheep muscle, and can the same set of genes be used to estimate IMF% in both species? Results The correlation between gene expression (microarray) and IMF% in the longissimus muscle (LM) of twenty sheep was calculated. An integrated analysis of this dataset with an equivalent cattle correlation dataset and a cattle differential expression dataset was undertaken. A total of 30 genes were identified to be strongly correlated with IMF% in both cattle and sheep. The overlap of genes was highly significant, 8 of the 13 genes in the TAG gene set and 8 of the 13 genes in the FA gene set were in the top 100 and 500 genes respectively most correlated with IMF% in sheep, P-value = 0. Of the 30 genes, CIDEA, THRSP, ACSM1, DGAT2 and FABP4 had the highest average rank in both species. Using the data from two small groups of Brahman cattle (control and Hormone growth promotant-treated [known to decrease IMF% in muscle]) and 22 animals in total, the utility of a direct measure and different estimators of IMF% (ultrasound and gene expression) to differentiate between the two groups were examined. Directly measured IMF% and IMF% estimated from ultrasound scanning could not discriminate between the two groups. However, using gene expression to estimate IMF% discriminated between the two groups. Increasing the number of genes used to estimate IMF% from one to five significantly increased the discrimination power; but increasing the number of genes to 15 resulted in little further improvement. Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of a comparative approach to identify robust estimators of IMF% in the LM in cattle and sheep. We have also demonstrated a number of approaches (potentially applicable to much smaller groups of animals than conventional methods

  2. Kinetics of D-glucose and L-leucine transport into sheep and pig intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wolffram, S; Eggenberger, E; Scharrer, E

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic parameters (Vmax, Kt) of Na+-dependent D-glucose transport into brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from sheep and pig jejunum were determined. Due to the fermentation of ingested carbohydrates in the rumen the small intestine of ruminants (sheep) has to absorb much less glucose than the small intestine of monogastric omnivores (pigs) or herbivores. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of D-glucose transport revealed a ten-fold smaller Vmax value combined with a five times lower Kt value in sheep BBMV compared with pig BBMV. The Vmax value for L-leucine transport did not differ between the two species investigated, whereas the Kt value in the sheep exceeded that in the pig. It is concluded from these results that the mechanism for Na+-dependent D-glucose transport in ruminants is adapted to the small amounts of carbohydrates reaching the small intestine.

  3. The use of epigenetic phenomena for the improvement of sheep and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Michael E.; Whitelaw, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the evidence for inheritance across generations of epigenetic marks and how this phenomenon could be exploited in the cattle and sheep industries. Epigenetic marks are chemical changes in the chromosomes that affect the expression of genes and hence the phenotype of the cell and are passed on during mitosis so that the daughter cells have the same chemical changes or epigenetic marks as the parent cell. Although most epigenetic marks are wiped clean in the process of forming a new zygote, some epigenetic marks (epimutations) may be passed on from parent to offspring. The inheritance of epigenetic marks across generations is difficult to prove as there are usually alternative explanations possible. There are few well documented cases, mainly using inbred strains of mice. The epimutations are unstable and revert to wild type after a few generations. Although, there are no known cases in sheep or cattle, it is likely that inherited epimutations occur in these species but it is unlikely that they explain a large part of the inherited or genetic variation. There is limited evidence in mice and rats that an environmental treatment can cause a change in the epigenetic marks of an animal and that this change can be passed on the next generation. If inherited epimutations occur in sheep and cattle, they will already be utilized to some extent by existing genetic improvement programs. It would be possible to modify the statistical models used in the calculation of estimated breeding values to better recognize the variance controlled by epimutations, but it would probably have, at best, a small effect on the rate on genetic (inherited) gain achieved. Although not a genetic improvement, the inheritance of epigenetic marks caused by the environment experienced by the sire offers a new opportunity in sheep and cattle breeding. However, at present we do not know if this occurs or, if it does, what environmental treatment might have a beneficial effect. PMID

  4. The carrier status of sheep, cattle and African buffalo recovered from heartwater.

    PubMed

    Andrew, H R; Norval, R A

    1989-12-01

    Sheep, cattle and the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were shown to remain carriers of heart-water (caused by Cowdria ruminantium) for long periods after recovery; 223, 246 and 161 days, respectively. Transmission was achieved using adults of the southern African bont tick (Amblyomma hebraeum) that had fed as nymphs on recovered animals. Our findings differ from those of other workers who attempted transmission using nymphs that had fed as larvae on recovered animals or with blood from recovered animals.

  5. Serum antibody isotype responses of Fasciola-infected sheep and cattle to excretory and secretory products of Fasciola species.

    PubMed

    Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Harrison, L J S

    2006-11-01

    This study investigated the immunoglobulin isotype responses of sheep and cattle chronically infected with Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica to adult F. hepatica excretory/secretory products (Fh-ES) or F. gigantica excretory/secretory products (Fg-ES), respectively. An antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA) was used to determine serum antibody (total Ig, IgG(1), IgM, IgG(2) and IgA) responses. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was lower in cattle than in sheep. All F. hepatica and F. gigantica infected sheep and cattle showed an increased total Ig levels from 3 to 4 weeks post-infection (wpi). Among isotypes IgG(1) was most dominant while IgM was the earliest (2 wpi) to be detected in both sheep and cattle infected with both F. hepatica and F. gigantica animals. IgG(2) response was early (2 wpi) in sheep infected by F. hepatica but there was no response in sheep infected with F. gigantica. There was a late and strong IgG(2) response in cattle infected with both flukes. The IgA isotype showed an early and a clear biphasic response in sheep with F. hepatica but was less pronounced in F. gigantica infected sheep. While IgA response to Fh-ES was noticed 5 wpi in F. hepatica infected cattle, it appeared much later (21 wpi) in those infected with F. gigantica. The dominance of IgG(1) isotype in infected sheep and cattle suggest an associated Th2 response. This early response to adult Fasciola spp. ES antigen suggests an early exposure to the antigen presumably through the cross-reacting ES products of juvenile flukes. There is clearly difference in IgG(2) isotype response in cattle (resistant) compared to sheep (susceptible). The late IgG(2) response in cattle may suggest late Th1 involvement in bovine cellular responses to adult Fh-ES/Fg-ES.

  6. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  7. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings.

  8. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. PMID:27514893

  9. Infectivity and cross-immunity studies of Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and cattle: II. In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Leemans, I; Brown, D; Fossum, C; Hooshmand-Rad, P; Kirvar, E; Wilkie, G; Uggla, A

    1999-04-12

    In the studies previously reported, the tick-borne protozoan parasites Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata were shown to differ in their capacity to infect sheep and cattle. In the studies presented here, these findings were further supported. In vitro infectivity of T. lestoquardi and T. annulata sporozoites for peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sheep and cattle were determined by analysis of cell cultures for cell proliferation, the detection of parasites in Giemsa-stained cytospin smears and the establishment of continuously growing schizont-infected cell lines. In the same way, the development of schizont-infected cells into continuously growing cell lines was studied with material isolated ex vivo from the sheep and cattle undergoing primary infections described elsewhere. Comparisons were also made between development of ex vivo cell lines from animals undergoing primary infections with those of the animals undergoing challenge infection with the other parasite species. Theileria species specific primers were used in a PCR to determine the identity of the parasites in the cell lines. These in vitro studies confirmed earlier observations that T. lestoquardi was unable to infect cattle, whereas infection of all sheep with T. annulata was proven. Moreover, earlier indications of the development of partial cross-immunity in sheep of T. annulata to T. lestoquardi and vice versa were strengthened. These findings may thus have consequences for the understanding of the epidemiology of T. lestoquardi infections of sheep. On the other hand. since piroplasms were not demonstrated in sheep infected with T. annulata, such sheep will not be infective to ticks and will consequently be unlikely to play a role in the maintenance and transmission of T. annulata to cattle.

  10. Evolutionary genetics of Pasteurella haemolytica isolates recovered from cattle and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R L; Arkinsaw, S; Selander, R K

    1997-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships among 194 Pasteurella haemolytica isolates, which were recovered predominantly from cattle (39%) and sheep (58%) suffering from pneumonic pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States, were estimated by examination of allelic variation at 18 enzyme-encoding loci detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The isolates formed two major divisions. One included 178 Pasteurella haemolytica sensu stricto strains representing serotypes A1, A2, A5 to A9, A12 to A14, and A16; the other was composed of 16 isolates belonging to the A11 taxon. P. haemolytica isolates were classified into 22 electrophoretic types (ETs) that formed three primary phylogenetic lineages. One lineage was represented by ovine serotype A2 isolates, a second lineage consisted of bovine serotype A2, together with serotype A7 and A13 isolates, and the third lineage included isolates representing all of the other serotypes, as well as a second group of serotype A7 strains. Electrophoretic types were nonrandomly associated with specific capsular serotypes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) types, outer membrane protein (OMP) types, and host species. Bovine isolates were represented by only three serotypes (A1, A2, and A6) in 5 ETs, whereas ovine isolates were represented by all of the serotypes in 19 ETs. The majority (76%) of bovine isolates were of serotypes A1 or A6 and belonged to a single ET that marked a virulent, cattle-specific clonal group. Among the ovine isolates, 40% were of serotype A2 and belonged to two ETs that represented two virulent, sheep-specific clonal groups. Bovine A1 and A6 isolates and bovine A2 isolates were phylogenetically distinct from ovine isolates of the same serotypes, indicating that different subpopulations of these serotypes are associated with disease in cattle and sheep. Consistent differences in the OMP profiles of strains of the bovine and ovine lineages of these three serotypes suggest that certain OMPs are

  11. Oxidative and conjugative metabolism of xenobiotics by livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, G S; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D

    1984-02-01

    Homogenate preparations from fresh livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats were assayed for microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, for mixed-function oxidase activities and for a wide array of conjugative activities using numerous xenobiotic substrates. Results show that hepatic enzymatic capabilities toward xenobiotics do not parallel phylogenetic classifications, thus strengthening the view that most of the comparative data available at present is more descriptive than predictive of relationships among species. Livestock species differed widely from rats in having lower activities of benzo(alpha)pyrene hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase and acetyltransferase toward isoniazid and sulfamethazine and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase toward bilirubin. Acetyltransferase activities toward beta-naphthylamine and 2-aminofluorene were not detected in livers of livestock species studied. Cattle livers were remarkably high in activities of styrene oxide hydrolase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, 2-naphthol sulfotransferase and p-aminobenzoic acid acetyltransferase; but notably low in activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward sulfobromophthalein and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. Swine livers had low activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward four of six substrates and low acetyltransferase activity toward four of five substrates. Sheep livers generally were higher than cattle livers in sulfo- and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase activities and lower in acetyl- and glutathionyl-S-transferase. Findings emphasize the risk of error in extra-polations among species and in extrapolations among substrates.

  12. Intestinal parasite infections in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee; Lee, Young-Ha

    2010-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  13. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  14. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  15. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P

    2008-09-01

    Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents. PMID:18774991

  16. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle.

    PubMed

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P

    2008-09-01

    Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents.

  17. Nutritional requirements of sheep, goats and cattle in warm climates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Salah, N; Sauvant, D; Archimède, H

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The corresponding requirement for 1 g gain was 24.3 kJ ME without any significant effect of species. Relative to LW0.75, there was no difference among genotypes intra-species in terms of ME requirement for maintenance and gain. However, small ruminants of warm and tropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate

  18. Pathogenicity of border disease virus FNK2012-1 strain isolated from a pig in the natural host, sheep.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Mine, Junki; Torii, Shiho; Fujimoto, Yuri; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    A first isolation of border disease virus (BDV) in Japan was from a pig on a farm without keeping any ruminants. Our previous study showed that this BDV, termed the FNK2012-1 strain, replicated inefficiently in swine-derived cells compared with those of ruminant origin. Pigs inoculated with this virus showed neither clinical symptoms nor viremia. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of the FNK2012-1 strain in sheep, its natural host. The inoculated sheep showed clinical symptoms and transient viremia. Seroconversion was observed in the inoculated sheep. These results suggest that the FNK2012-1 strain was introduced from sheep and has not yet adapted to swine. Therefore, surveillance of border disease in Japan is necessary among both the swine and ruminant populations.

  19. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    PubMed

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  20. Comparative tick counts on game, cattle and sheep on a working game ranch in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, F D; Orinda, G O; Ngae, G N; Grootenhuis, J

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the possible influence of host species on the maintenance of ticks in the field by determining the relative contribution of game animals compared to domestic animals. The study was carried out on a game ranch 32 km south-east of Nairobi. Tick counts were carried out on 30 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) aged 1 to 3 years and 20 red Maasai sheep (Ovis aries) aged 6 months to 1 year grazing with game animals in a common area for a period of 2 years and these counts were compared with those on eland and Thomson's gazelle. Half-body counts were carried out on the cattle and sheep once every week. To avoid excessive stress, the animals were dipped in amitraz whenever the half body counts exceeded 50 fully engorged female ticks of any species. Tick counts on two wild animal species (eland (Taurotragus oryx) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii)) were carried out during the weekly culling of the herbivores. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the number ticks per square metre between the wild ungulates and the domestic animals. PMID:17405627

  1. Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

    2013-07-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups

  2. Prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in camel, cattle, goat and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep and goats are harve...

  3. Comparison of direct culture versus PCR for the detection of Brucella in aborted fetuses of cattle and sheep in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Buyukcangaz, E; Sen, A; Carli, K T; Kahya, S

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this study was to detect Brucella in samples from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle in Turkey using PCR and bacteriological analysis, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR. Organ homogenates from 38 aborted fetuses of cattle and 56 aborted fetuses of sheep were tested. All organ homogenates were cultured for bacteriological analysis, and all of the homogenates and the Brucella isolates obtained by culture were examined with a commercial PCR kit. On bacteriological analysis, Brucella species were found in 30 (31.9 per cent) of the 94 organ homogenates, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 22 (39.3 per cent) from sheep. Using PCR, a total of 29 (30.9 per cent) homogenates were positive for Brucella species, eight (21.1 per cent) of which were from cattle and 21 (37.5 per cent) from sheep. Compared with the bacteriological method, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the PCR kit used in this study were 83 per cent and 94 per cent, respectively.

  4. Macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs: use and development of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, Satu; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-05-01

    Macrolides and lincosamides are important antibacterials for the treatment of many common infections in cattle and pigs. Products for in-feed medication with these compounds in combination with other antimicrobials are commonly used in Europe. Most recently approved injectable macrolides have very long elimination half-lives in both pigs and cattle, which allows once-only dosing regimens. Both in-feed medication and use of long-acting injections result in low concentrations of the active substance for prolonged periods, which causes concerns related to development of antimicrobial resistance. Acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides among food animal pathogens, including some zoonotic bacteria, has now emerged. A comparison of studies on the prevalence of resistance is difficult, since for many micro-organisms no agreed standards for susceptibility testing are available. With animal pathogens, the most dramatic increase in resistance has been seen in the genus Brachyspira. Resistance towards macrolides and lincosamides has also been detected in staphylococci isolated from pigs and streptococci from cattle. This article reviews the use of macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs, as well as the development of resistance in target and some zoonotic pathogens. The focus of the review is on European conditions.

  5. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (<1 year old) was significantly lower than that of the adult goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  7. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  8. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Olsen, Anne B; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  9. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  10. European Union's rapid TSE testing in adult cattle and sheep: implementation and results in 2001 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sheila M

    2003-06-01

    Germany only 39 (48). When sample-based surveillance data were scaled up and combined with clinical BSE cases, Great Britain's BSE positives were estimated at around 400 per 1000000 adult cattle in 2002 compared with over 1000 per 1000000 adult cattle in 2000. Age distributions for cattle subject to active BSE surveillance have been underexploited. The major transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which affects sheep and goats is scrapie. Passive surveillance of scrapie is associated with substantial under-reporting. Susceptibility to scrapie depends strongly on sheep genotype; but resistance to scrapie does not necessarily confer resistance of sheep to BSE. Because of uncertainty about the true prevalence of scrapie-infected adult sheep and concern that BSE in sheep may be missed, the European Union pre-empted its planned evaluation of rapid post-mortem TSE tests in sheep by requiring the rapid TSE testing of small ruminants from April 2002 with one of the three cattle-validated tests. Basic requirements for active TSE surveillance in sheep were: random sample of 6000 fallen sheep and of 60000 routinely slaughtered adult native sheep to be tested per member state by end March 2003. Lower surveillance targets were set for countries with under 1000000 adult sheep. Adequately to map scrapie-susceptible genotypes and identify resistant genotypes, a random sample of 500 routinely slaughtered native adult sheep was to be genotyped, together with each TSE rapid test positive adult sheep and two sets of three suitably sampled controls. By the end of August 2002, when 41% of the initial surveillance time had elapsed, only 20% of the European joint target for routinely slaughtered adult sheep had been completed, but that for fallen sheep was exceeded. Except in Ireland, the upper 95% confidence bound on TSE prevalence exceeded 500 per 1000000 routinely slaughtered adult sheep in reporting-compliant countries with more than 1000000 adult sheep. The UK, Greece, Italy and

  11. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia. PMID:27411938

  12. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in tissues of cattle, sheep, and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.H.; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Buhs, R.P.; Green, M.; Sestokas, R.; Vandenheuvel, W.J.; Arison, B.H.; Jacob, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    The metabolic disposition of ivermectin, a new antiparasitic drug, has been studied in cattle, sheep, and also in rats dosed with the drug labeled with tritium in the C-22,23 positions. In the edible tissues of these animals, the unaltered drug was the major tissue residue component and was quantitated by HPLC-reverse isotope dilution assay. The depletion half-lives of the drug ranged between 1 and 6 days, similar to those of the total tissue residue in these species. Most metabolites present in the liver tissues were more polar than the parent drug. Based on spectral (NMR, mass spectrometric) analysis and chromatographic comparison with authentic compounds prepared by in vitro rat or steer microsomal incubations, three of these metabolites have been isolated and identified as the hydroxylation derivatives of ivermectin, i.e. 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1a, its monosaccharide, and 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1b.

  13. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  14. A survey of Western Australian sheep, cattle and kangaroos to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Banazis, Michael Janis; Bestall, Abbey Simone; Reid, Simon Andrew; Fenwick, Stan Gordon

    2010-07-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in two domestic ruminant species (cattle and sheep) and the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia (WA). The IDEXX CHEKiT Q Fever ELISA and CFT were used to test sera from 50 sheep and 329 head of cattle for anti-C. burnetii antibodies and 343 kangaroo sera were tested using an indirect ELISA developed specifically for this study. Faecal or urine samples collected from the same animals were tested with two PCR assays to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Only two of the 379 ruminant sera had detectable levels of anti-C. burnetii antibodies according to the ELISA while the CFT did not detect any positive samples. In contrast 115 of the 343 western grey kangaroo serum samples were positive when tested with the antibody-ELISA. The first qPCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element, identified 41 of 379 ruminant and 42 of 343 kangaroo DNA samples as positive for C. burnetii DNA. The second qPCR, targeting the JB153-3 gene, identified nine C. burnetii DNA-positive ruminant samples and six positive kangaroo samples. Sequence comparisons showed high degrees of identity with C. burnetii. Isolation of C. burnetii from faeces was also attempted but was not successful. From the results presented here it appears that domestic ruminants may not be the most significant reservoir of C. burnetii in WA and that kangaroos may pose a significant threat for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen.

  15. Epidemiological characteristics and clinicopathological features of bluetongue in sheep and cattle, during the 2014 BTV serotype 4 incursion in Greece.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis-Dimitrios; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Kiossis, Evangelos; Tsousis, Georgios; Psychas, Vassilios; Vlemmas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Theologos; Papadopoulos, Orestis; Zientara, Stéphan; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantinos

    2016-03-01

    During 2014, an outbreak of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections attributed to serotype 4 occurred in Greece and spread to south-eastern Europe. In the present article, the clinical and epidemiological data of 15 sheep flocks and 5 dairy cattle herds affected in Greece are described. In sheep, the most frequent clinical signs observed were fever, hyporexia, and edema of the face. A number of clinically affected sheep had chronic laminitis resulting in chronic lameness. Confirmation of suspect clinical cases was performed using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, and serotype 4-specific RT-PCR. The average morbidity of bluetongue in the sheep flocks was estimated to be 15.3 % (95 % C.I. 6.8-23.8 %) and the average mortality and case fatality were 4.5 % (95 % C.I. 1.5-7.6 %) and 32.0 % (95 % C.I. 18.1-42.9 %), respectively. The BTV seroprevalence and the ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections determined in seven of these flocks, were on average 36.5 % (95 % C.I. 15.7-57.3 %) and 24.6 % (95 % C.I. 12.8-36.3 %). BTV ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections was higher in the imported western European sheep breeds examined compared to the local ones. In dairy cattle, the average herd prevalence of viremia was 48.8 % (95 % C.I. 15.3-82.4 %) and none had signs associated with bluetongue. The results of this study indicate that the 2014 Greek BTV-4 has significant impact on the health status and the viability of sheep in affected flocks but does not cause clinical signs in cattle, despite the high prevalence of viremia.

  16. A serologic investigation of blue tongue virus (BTV) in cattle, sheep and gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gür, S

    2008-04-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants disseminated in the tropic and sub-tropic zone of the world. It is also an important problem in the Middle East. Three serotypes (4-9-16) of the virus have been isolated so far in Turkey. Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa (Goitred Gazella) is native species of Anatolia. Due to risk of extinction, captured Gazelles have been taken under protection in a restricted area at Ceylanpinar state farm. In this study, the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) was investigated serologically in 82 Goitred Gazella, 684 sheep and 100 cattle. Seropositivity rates in Gazella, sheep and cattle were detected as 40.2%, 295% and 88%, respectively. PMID:18484124

  17. Migrating mast cells in the gallbladder epithelium of cattle and sheep. A comparative morphologic and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Toledo, O M; Morales, C R; Pereyra, L A; Jordão, T; Montes, G S

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the existence of mast cells in an epithelial location in the gallbladders of both cattle and sheep. The histochemical studies performed on these cells showed that their cytoplasmic granules contain heparin and biogenic amines in both species. Optical- and electron microscopic observations demonstrated that, in both species, mast cells from the connective tissue of the gallbladder diapedese across the basal lamina and migrate through the epithelium all the way to the luminal surface, and that a degranulation process takes place during this migration. The biochemical results showed a correlation between the number of mast cells present in the epithelium and the amount of heparin detected in the different regions of the gallbladders of the species studied. Unusually high contents of heparin were found in both cattle and sheep gallbladders, suggesting that they should be studied as possible commercial sources of this polimer.

  18. Bacteriophage for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry, and pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indica...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narinder Singh; Sunita, Thakhur; Arora, A K; Mudit, Chandra; Kaur, Paviter; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Narinder Singh; Sunita, Thakhur; Arora, A K; Mudit, Chandra; Kaur, Paviter; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains. PMID:26816552

  1. Abortifacient response and plasma vasoconstrictive activity after feeding needles from ponderosa pine trees to cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; Ford, S P; Grings, E E; Kronberg, S L

    1995-07-01

    Consumption of needles from Pinus ponderosa (PN) during late pregnancy causes cattle, but not sheep, to abort. This differential response may be caused by differences in ruminal microflora or postabsorptive metabolism. Pine needles were fed (2 kg.cow-1.d-1 or .4 kg.ewe-1.d-1) mixed with corn silage. In Exp. 1, cows were assigned at 250 d of pregnancy to feed treatments (T): 1) silage, 2) PN+silage, or 3) pretreated with sheep ruminal fluid and fed PN+silage. Interval to parturition was 34.3, 11.3, and 8.3 d for the T1, T2, and T3, respectively (T1 vs T2 + T3, P < .01; T2 vs T3, P > .5). Inoculation with sheep ruminal fluid did not alter activity of the abortifacient agent of PN. In Exp. 2, pregnant and nonpregnant ewes and cows were fed silage or PN mixed with silage, and plasma was analyzed for uterine vasoconstrictive activity in an in vitro placentome perfusion bioassay. Consumption of PN decreased interval to parturition in cattle (P < .01) but not in sheep (P > .5) and increased vasoconstrictive activity (P < .05) in plasma from nonpregnant and pregnant cows and ewes. The PN-fed ewes had a greater incidence of dead lambs at parturition (0/8 vs 5/8 for control vs PN-fed, P < .01). We conclude that pregnancy is not required for increased vasoconstrictive activity induced by pine needles, that sheep and cattle do not differ in ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in PN, and that species differences are subtle and due to postdigestive differences in response to the abortifacient agent.

  2. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information. PMID:27618107

  3. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-09-08

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  4. Serological Evidence of Henipavirus Exposure in Cattle, Goats and Pigs in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sukanta; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Broder, Christopher C.; Islam, Ausraful; Peel, Alison J.; Barr, Jennifer; Daszak, Peter; Wang, Lin-Fa; Luby, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging disease that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory illness in humans. Pigs were identified as an intermediate host for NiV transmission in Malaysia. In Bangladesh, NiV has caused recognized human outbreaks since 2001 and three outbreak investigations identified an epidemiological association between close contact with sick or dead animals and human illness. Methodology We examined cattle and goats reared around Pteropus bat roosts in human NiV outbreak areas. We also tested pig sera collected under another study focused on Japanese encephalitis. Principal Findings We detected antibodies against NiV glycoprotein in 26 (6.5%) cattle, 17 (4.3%) goats and 138 (44.2%) pigs by a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay; however, these antibodies did not neutralize NiV. Cattle and goats with NiVsG antibodies were more likely to have a history of feeding on fruits partially eaten by bats or birds (PR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.6–5.7) and drinking palmyra palm juice (PR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.5–10.2). Conclusions This difference in test results may be due to the exposure of animals to one or more novel viruses with antigenic similarity to NiV. Further research may identify a novel organism of public health importance. PMID:25412358

  5. Ecology of uncultivated Oscillospira species in the rumen of cattle, sheep, and reindeer as assessed by microscopy and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Roderick I; Aminov, Rustam I; Hu, Wenping; Klieve, Athol V; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Sundset, Monica A; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2003-11-01

    The ecology of the uncultured, but large and morphologically conspicuous, rumen bacterium Oscillospira spp. was studied. Oscillospira-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences were detected in North American domestic cattle, sheep from Australia and Japan, and Norwegian reindeer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained allowed definition of three operational taxonomic units within the Oscillospira clade. Consistent with this genetic diversity, we observed atypical smaller morphotypes by using an Oscillospira-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization probe. Despite the visual disappearance of typical large Oscillospira morphotypes, the presence of Oscillospira spp. was still detected by Oscillospira-specific PCR in the rumen of cattle and sheep. These observations suggest the broad presence of Oscillospira species in various rumen ecosystems with the level, and most likely the morphological form, dependent on diet. An ecological analysis based on enumeration of the morphologically conspicuous, large-septate form confirms that the highest counts are associated with the feeding of fresh forage diets to cattle and sheep and in two different subspecies of reindeer investigated.

  6. Sequence characterization of river buffalo Toll-like receptor genes 1-10 reveals distinct relationship with cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123

  7. The effect of pig farming on copper and zinc accumulation in cattle in Galicia (north-western Spain).

    PubMed

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2000-11-01

    Copper and zinc are frequently added at high concentrations to pig diets as growth promoters. Livestock grazing pasture contaminated with pig slurry may, therefore, be at risk from excessive intake of these elements. High liver copper concentrations have been detected in cattle from the agricultural region of Galicia (NW Spain), especially where there is intensive pig farming. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pig farming does affect accumulation of copper and zinc in cattle in Galicia. Hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in calves were elevated in areas with naturally high levels of these elements in the soil. The densities of young pigs (piglets and growing-finishing pigs), but not reproductive sows, also influenced copper accumulation in calves. Liver copper levels in calves were significantly and positively related to the density of young pigs in the region. In areas with the highest pig densities, more than 20% of the cattle analysed had hepatic copper concentrations that exceeded the potentially toxic concentration of 150 mg/kg fresh weight. There was no evidence that zinc accumulation in calves was affected by pig density.

  8. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country.

  9. First molecular evidence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Alberti, Alberto; Abdi, Khaoula; Zhioua, Manel; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2016-07-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are tick-transmitted spirochaetes of veterinary and human importance. Molecular epidemiology data on ruminants are still lacking in most countries of the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the rate of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection in ruminants from Tunisia. A total of 1,021 ruminants (303 goats, 260 sheep, 232 cattle and 226 camels) from different bioclimatic areas in Tunisia were investigated for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in blood by real time PCR. Prevalence rates were 30.4% (92/303) in goats, 6.2% (16/260) in sheep, 1.3% (3/232) in cattle, and 1.8% (4/226) in camels. Only tick species belonging to Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma genera were found on the investigated animals. In small ruminants, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. varied significantly according to localities and farms. Goats located in humid areas were statistically more infected than those located in sub-humid areas. Prevalence rates varied significantly according to age and breed in sheep, and age and tick infestation in goats. This study provides the first insight into the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in ruminants in Tunisia, and demonstrates that host species such as goats and sheep may play an important role in natural Lyme disease cycles in this country. PMID:27660865

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 Strains from Dutch Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Heuvelink, A. E.; van den Biggelaar, F. L. A. M.; de Boer, E.; Herbes, R. G.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Huis In ’t Veld, J. H. J.; Monnens, L. A. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the periods from July to November 1995 and 1996, fecal samples from Dutch cattle and sheep were collected at the main slaughterhouses of The Netherlands, located at different geographic sites. The samples were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup O157. E. coli O157 strains could be isolated from 57 (10.6%) of 540 adult cattle, 2 (0.5%) of 397 veal calves, 2 (3.8%) of 52 ewes, and 2 (4.1%) of 49 lambs. Immunomagnetic separation with O157-specific-antibody-coated beads appeared to be significantly more sensitive than conventional plating for detection of the organism in feces. With the exception of two isolates from adult cattle which appeared to be negative for VT genes, all animal isolates were positive for both VT (VT1 and/or VT2) and E. coli attaching-and-effacing gene sequences, and therefore, they were regarded as potential human pathogens. Although genomic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a wide variety of distinct restriction patterns, comparison of the 63 animal isolates with 33 fecal O157 VTEC strains previously isolated from humans with the diarrhea-associated form of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome by their phage types and VT genotypes showed a marked similarity between animal and human isolates: 30 (90.9%) of the 33 human isolates appeared to be of E. coli O157 strain types also isolated from cattle and sheep. It was concluded that Dutch cattle and sheep are an important reservoir of E. coli O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:9542902

  11. Isolation and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains from Dutch cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, A E; van den Biggelaar, F L; de Boer, E; Herbes, R G; Melchers, W J; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Monnens, L A

    1998-04-01

    In the periods from July to November 1995 and 1996, fecal samples from Dutch cattle and sheep were collected at the main slaughterhouses of The Netherlands, located at different geographic sites. The samples were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup 0157. E. coli O157 strains could be isolated from 57 (10.6%) of 540 adult cattle, 2 (0.5%) of 397 veal calves, 2 (3.8%) of 52 ewes, and 2 (4.1%) of 49 lambs. Immunomagnetic separation with O157-specific-antibody-coated beads appeared to be significantly more sensitive than conventional plating for detection of the organism in feces. With the exception of two isolates from adult cattle which appeared to be negative for VT genes, all animal isolates were positive for both VT (VT1 and/or VT2) and E. coli attaching-and-effacing gene sequences, and therefore, they were regarded as potential human pathogens. Although genomic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a wide variety of distinct restriction patterns, comparison of the 63 animal isolates with 33 fecal O157 VTEC strains previously isolated from humans with the diarrhea-associated form of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome by their phage types and VT genotypes showed a marked similarity between animal and human isolates: 30 (90.9%) of the 33 human isolates appeared to be of E. coli O157 strain types also isolated from cattle and sheep. It was concluded that Dutch cattle and sheep are an important reservoir of E. coli O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:9542902

  12. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  13. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  14. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  15. Sperm sexing in sheep and cattle: the exception and the rule.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S P; Beilby, K H; Underwood, S L; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometric sorting for the preselection of sex has progressed considerably in the 20 years since its inception. This technique has allowed the production of pre-sexed offspring in a multitude of species and become a commercial success in cattle around the world. However, due to the stress inherent to the sex-sorting process, sex-sorted spermatozoa are widely recognized as functionally compromised in terms of their fertilizing lifespan within the female reproductive tract as a result of reduced motility and viability and changed functional state. These characteristics, when compared to non-sorted controls, are manifest in vivo as lower fertility. However, improvements to the technology and a greater understanding of its biological impact have facilitated recent developments in sheep, showing sex-sorting is capable of selecting a functionally superior population in terms of both in vitro and in vivo function. These results are reviewed in the context of recent developments in other species and the reasons for success after artificial insemination with sex-sorted ram spermatozoa are discussed. PMID:18977523

  16. Advanced comparative cytogenetic analysis of X chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, sheep, and human.

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; Rebl, A; Di Berardino, D; Goldammer, T; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2012-05-01

    Based on a recently generated comprehensive gene map for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) with an approximately even locus distribution, we assigned selected bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes corresponding to these OARX loci to Bubalus bubalis (BBU) and Bos taurus (BTA) by comparative fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to improve cytogenetically the X chromosome maps in these species. Twenty-five added loci in BBUX and BTAX, respectively, contribute to a more detailed description of the cytogenetic organization of these chromosomes. Further seven loci were identified in OARX and two DNA probes were assigned to X and Y chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, and sheep, respectively, and thus identified loci in the pseudoautosomal region. The additional assignments double the number of cytogenetic loci in BBUX and increase their number in BTAX and OARX. The larger quantity of cytogenetic anchors allows a more precise morphological comparison of bovid X chromosomes among each other and with the Homo sapiens (HSA) X chromosome. The anchor loci confirm and refine syntenic fragments in HSAX and identify several evolutionary breakpoints between the compared chromosomes. The cytogenetic assignments in BBUX, BTAX, and OARX represent useable anchors for the ongoing genome sequence assembly in Bovidae. PMID:22669522

  17. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Cattle, Sheep, and Free-Range Poultry Faeces

    PubMed Central

    Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A.; Hurtado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution for 72 Campylobacter jejuni strains from livestock. Twenty-three (31.9%) isolates were fully susceptible; all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and all but one to kanamycin. Resistance to quinolones was highest (52.8%), reaching similar values among poultry, dairy cattle, and sheep, but lower in beef cattle. Resistance to tetracyclines (48.6%) was mainly associated to dairy cattle and β-lactams (26.4%) to poultry. Multidrug resistance was mainly detected in dairy cattle (28.6%) and poultry (21.0%), whereas beef cattle had the highest percentage of fully susceptible isolates. Two real-time PCR assays to detect point mutations associated to quinolone (C257T in the gyrA gene) and macrolide (A2075G in the 23S rRNA genes) resistance were developed and validated on these strains. The analysis of a further set of 88 isolates by real-time PCR confirmed the absence of macrolide resistance and demonstrated the reproducibility and processability of the assay. PMID:20224816

  18. Screening of different sample types associated with sheep and cattle for the presence of nematophagous fungi in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kui-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Long-Jie; Chen, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Ming-Wang; Wu, Jia-Yan; Li, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Jing; Wei, Shuan; Chen, Chun-Rong; Ma, Zhong-Ren; Xu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Feng; Hu, Qian-Lin; Fang, Wen-Xiu; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhu, Wen-Long; Li, Dan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Bing; Wang, Fan; Yang, Zai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1502 samples, including feces of sheep (793) and cattle (348), pasture soil (118), dung compost (147) and barn soil (96), were examined between October 2012 and August 2014 to discover potential strains of nematophagous fungi for the biological control of livestock-parasitic nematodes. These samples were collected from 87 sites located in 48 counties of 20 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) of China. Fungi were identified down to a species level. Four hundred and seventy-seven isolates, which were distributed in 8 genera and 28 taxa, were identified as nematophagous fungi. Nematode-trapping fungi included 17 species and one unidentified species of Arthrobotrys, two of Dactylella, Drechslerella dactyloides, and Duddingtonia flagrans. Five identified species and two unidentified species of endoparasitic fungi were isolated. The predominant species from all regions were Arthrobotrys oligospora, followed by Arthrobotrys musiformis, Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) thaumasiun, and Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) microscaphoides. Species with adhesive networks were the most frequently isolated. Among the endoparasitic fungi, Podocrella harposporifera (Harposporium anguillulae) was the most common species, followed by Harposporium lilliputanum and Harposporium arcuatum. Based on Shannon diversity index, the diversity levels of nematophagous fungi were relatively higher in samples associated with cattle, barn soil, and subtropical monsoon climate zone. Three species isolated from this study, namely, Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys salina (Monacrosporium salinum), and Arthrobotrys oligospora var. sarmatica, are newly recorded in China, and 20 species (including one unidentified species) are newly recorded in sheep and cattle barn soils worldwide.

  19. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Damgaard, Dana; Alexander, Trevor W; Dugan, Mike E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2006-03-01

    The persistence of plant-derived recombinant DNA in sheep and pigs fed genetically modified (Roundup Ready) canola was assessed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis of DNA extracted from digesta, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, and visceral organs. Sheep (n = 11) and pigs (n = 36) were fed to slaughter on diets containing 6.5 or 15% Roundup Ready canola. Native plant DNA (high- and low-copy-number gene fragments) and the cp4 epsps transgene that encodes 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase were tracked in ruminal, abomasal, and large intestinal digesta and in tissue from the esophagus, rumen, abomasum, small and large intestine, liver, and kidney of sheep and in cecal content and tissue from the duodenum, cecum, liver, spleen, and kidney of pigs. High-copy chloroplast-specific DNA (a 520-bp fragment) was detected in all digesta samples, the majority (89-100%) of intestinal tissues, and at least one of each visceral organ sample (frequencies of 3-27%) from sheep and swine. Low-copy rubisco fragments (186- and 540-bp sequences from the small subunit) were present at slightly lower, variable frequencies in digesta (18-82%) and intestinal tissues (9-27% of ovine and 17-25% of porcine samples) and infrequently in visceral organs (1 of 88 ovine samples; 3 of 216 porcine samples). Each of the five cp4 epsps transgene fragments (179-527 bp) surveyed was present in at least 27% of ovine large intestinal content samples (maximum = 64%) and at least 33% of porcine cecal content samples (maximum = 75%). In sheep, transgene fragments were more common in intestinal digesta than in ruminal or abomasal content. Transgene fragments were detected in 0 (esophagus) to 3 (large intestine) GI tract tissues from the 11 sheep and in 0-10 of the duodenal and cecal tissues collected from 36 pigs. The feed-ingested recombinant DNA was not detected in visceral tissues (liver, kidney) of lambs or in the spleen from pigs. Of note, however, one liver and one kidney sample from

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  2. The pathophysiological effects of Moraxella bovis toxins on cattle, mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pugh, G W; Hughes, D E; Schulz, V D

    1973-01-01

    In three experiments, cattle, mice and guinea pigs were inoculated with viable cultures of Moraxella bovis or fractions of this organism. Fractions were obtained by disruption of cells with a fractionator at 20,000 pounds per square inch, and separating the cell wall and cell sap fractions by differential centrifugation. Cell sap fractions were further separated by ultra-centrifugation, heating and precipitation with (NH(4))(2) SO(4). Different fractions induced different pathophysiological manifestations. The cell wall fractions caused localized lesions (necrosis) at the site of injection, and emphysema and congestion of the lungs. Cell sap fractions induced a "shock syndrome," as well as hemorrhage and inflammation of the intestines, hemorrhage and congestion of lymph nodes, liver, adrenal and spleen. Cell sap also induced conjunctivitis in mice and guinea pigs, and periocular edema, myosis, ocular pruritus and lacrimation in cattle. The authors suggest that M. bovis probably produces endotoxins and exotoxins as well as possibly a specific oculopathic substance, but more definitive work is needed to confirm this. They caution that consideration of these toxins should be made in any application of M. bovis for vaccines or other immunological studies.

  3. Spontaneous photo-relaxation of urethral smooth muscle from sheep, pig and rat and its relationship with nitrergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Triguero, D; Costa, G; Labadía, A; Jiménez, E; García-Pascual, A

    2000-01-01

    In the present work we have characterized the relaxant response induced by light stimulation (LS) in the lower urinary tract from sheep, pig and rat, establishing its relationship with nitrergic neurotransmission. Urethral, but not detrusor, preparations showed pronounced photo-relaxation (PR) which declined progressively following repetitive LS. Sheep urethral PR was again restored either spontaneously or (to a greater extent) by exogenous nitric oxide (NO) addition and by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic nitrergic nerves. Greater NO generation was detected from sheep urethral than from detrusor homogenates following illumination. Sheep urethral PR was inhibited by oxyhaemoglobin, but not by methaemoglobin, carboxy-PTIO, extracellular superoxide anion generators or superoxide dismutase. Guanylyl cyclase but not adenylyl cyclase activation mediates urethral relaxation to LS. Urethral PR was more resistant to inhibition by L-thiocitrulline than EFS-induced responses, although this agent prevented PR restoration by high-frequency EFS. Urethral PR was TTX insensitive and partially modified in high-K+ solutions. Cold storage for 24 h greatly impaired urethral PR, although it was restored by high-frequency EFS. Repetitive exposure to LS, EFS or exogenous NO induced changes in the shape of the EFS-induced nitrergic relaxation, possibly by pre-synaptic mechanisms. In conclusion, we suggest the presence of an endogenous, photo-labile, nitro-compound store in the urethra, which seems to be replenished by neural nitric oxide synthase activity, indicating a close functional relationship with the nitrergic neurotransmitter. PMID:10713968

  4. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  5. Complement fixation test to assess humoral immunity in cattle and sheep vaccinated with Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F

    1999-11-01

    The live attenuated Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a rifampin-resistant, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-chain-deficient mutant of virulent B. abortus 2308. The reduced O-chain content in RB51 prevents this bacterium from inducing antibodies detectable by the conventional serologic tests for bovine brucellosis diagnosis that mainly identify antibodies to LPS. The absence of available serologic tests for RB51 also complicates the diagnosis of possible RB51 infections in humans exposed to this strain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a complement fixation (CF) test performed with the rough strain B. abortus RB51, previously deprived of anticomplementary activity, in detecting anti-B. abortus RB51 antibodies in cattle and sheep experimentally vaccinated with this strain. The results of this study showed that a CF test with RB51 as the antigen is able to specifically detect antibodies following RB51 vaccination in cattle and sheep. In addition, this method could be a useful tool for detecting B. abortus RB51 infection in humans.

  6. Comparison of cattle and sheep colonic permeabilities to horseradish peroxidase and hamster scrapie prion protein in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKie, A; Zammit, P; Naftalin, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Paracellular permeability to solutes across the descending colon is much higher in cattle than sheep. This is a possible route for transmission of infective materials, such as scrapie prion.
AIMS—To compare the permeabilities of labelled scrapie prion protein and other macromolecules in bovine and ovine descending colons in vitro.
METHODS—Using fresh slaughterhouse material, transepithelial fluxes of macromolecules across colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers were measured by monitoring transport of either enzyme activity or radioactivity.
RESULTS—The comparative bovine to ovine permeability ratio of the probes increased with molecular weight: from 3.1 (0.13) for PEG400 to 10.67 (0.20) (p<0.001) for PEG4000; and from 1.64 (0.17) for microperoxidase to 7.03 (0.20) (p<0.001) for horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The permeability of 125I-labelled inactivated Syrian hamster scrapie prion protein (ShaPrPsc) was 7.02 (0.33)-fold higher in bovine than ovine colon (p<0.0025). In each species, the probe permeabilities decreased according to the formula: P = Po.exp(−K.ra). The "ideal" permeabilities, Po are similar, however, K(ovine) = 2.46 (0.20) cm/h/nm exceeds K(bovine) = 0.85 (0.15) cm/h/nm (p<0.001) indicating that bovine colon has a higher proportion of wide pores than ovine. Image analysis confirmed that HRP permeated through the bovine mucosal layer via a pericryptal paracellular route much more rapidly than in sheep.
CONCLUSIONS—These data may imply that scrapie prion is transmitted in vivo more easily across the low resistance bovine colonic barrier than in other species.


Keywords: cattle; sheep; colon; paracellular permeability; horseradish peroxidase; hamster scrapie prion protein PMID:10562587

  7. Effect of soil properties on arsenic fractionation and bioaccessibility in cattle and sheep dipping vat sites.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; Makris, K C; Parra-Noonan, M T; Datta, R

    2007-02-01

    Historical use of high arsenic (As) concentrations in cattle/sheep dipping vat sites to treat ticks has resulted in severe contamination of soil and groundwater with this Group-A human carcinogen. In the absence of a universally applicable soil As bioaccessibility model, baseline risk assessment studies have traditionally used the extremely conservative estimate of 100% soil As bioaccessibility. Several in-vitro, as well as, in-vivo animal studies suggest that As bioaccessibility in soil can be lower than that in water. Arsenic in soils exists in several geochemical forms with varying degree of dissolution in the human digestive system, and thus, with highly varying As bioaccessibility. Earlier batch incubation studies with As-spiked soils have shown that As bioaccessibility is a function of soil physicochemical properties. We selected 12 dipping vat soils collected from USA and Australia to test the hypothesis that soil properties exert a significant effect on As bioaccessibility in As-contaminated sites. The 12 soils varied widely in terms of soil physico-chemical properties. They were subject to an As sequential fractionation scheme and two in-vitro tests (IVGS and IVGIA) to simulate soil As bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal system. Sequential As fractionation results showed that the majority of the As measured in the dipping vat soils resided either in the Fe/Al hydroxide fraction, or the Ca/Mg fractions, or in the residual fraction. Water-extractable As fraction of the 12 soils was typically <10% of the total, reaching values up to 23%, indicating minimal leaching potential, and hence, lower risk of As-contamination from exposure to groundwater, typically used as drinking water in many parts of the world. Partial individual correlations and subsequent multiple regression analyses suggested that the most significant soil factors influencing As bioaccessibility were total Ca+Mg, total P, clay content and EC. Collectively, these soil properties were

  8. Composite selection signals can localize the trait specific genomic regions in multi-breed populations of cattle and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. Results The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature

  9. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  10. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  11. Butox 7.5 pour on: a deltamethrin treatment of sheep and cattle: pilot study of killing effects on Culicoides species (Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; D'Haese, Jochen; Schumacher, Bärbel

    2008-02-01

    Topical treatment (at the neck and along the vertebral column) with deltamethrin (Butox 7.5 pour on) of cattle (30 ml/400-kg body weight) and sheep (10 ml/60-kg body weight) was done to find out, whether the insecticide may reach in a sufficient dosage the legs, which are known to be the main biting site of Culicoides specimens that are the vectors of the recently introduced Bluetongue virus in central Europe. At days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after treatment, some hair was cut off from the legs--close to the claws. Freshly (the night before) caught Culicoides obsoletus specimens were then exposed for 15, 30, 60, or 120 s to such hair and afterwards transferred to a filter paper within plastic Petri dishes to observe their fate. It turned out that even a short contact of 15 s of the Culicoides specimens with deltamethrin-treated hair of cattle or sheep was sufficient to paralyze and kill Culicoides specimens within a reasonable short time even when the hair were cut off at day 28 after treatment. While the results obtained in cattle and sheep were rather similar for days 7 and 14 after treatment, the speed of the killing effect of treated hair of cattle on Culicoides considerably slowed down beginning from day 21 after treatment. However, all the experiments clearly showed that the insecticide deltamethrin may reach the feet of cattle and may kill Culicoides specimens when the product is poured along the vertebral column. Such a treatment may considerably reduce the risk of transmission of the agents of disease. However, in the case of the thick fleece of sheep, the insecticide must be poured directly into the skin to reach full activity.

  12. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  13. Efficacy of deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against nymphs and adults of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in treated hair of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Klimpel, Sven; Pohle, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Ticks are known to be able to transmit a broad spectrum of agents of diseases in cattle or sheep. Therefore, measurements are needed to keep ticks away from the body of any ruminant belonging to the agricultural life stock. The present study dealt with investigations to measure the efficacy of the insecticide deltamethrin (Butox® 7.5 pour on) against specimens of two important species (Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Four sheep and four young cattle were treated lege arte along the vertebral column with 10 ml Butox® (deltamethrin) per sheep or 30 ml Butox® per cattle. Day 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the treatment, hair was shaved off from the head, ears, the back, belly, and the feet being collected in separate, suitable plastic bags, and transported to the institute, where these hair were brought into close contact with either adult and/or nymph stages of I. ricinus and R. sanguineus. As results, strong, acaricidal effects were seen, which varied according to the parasite species, the origin of the hair (e.g., head, leg, etc.) and according to the period after the treatment. In sheep, the acaricidal effect was noted for the whole period of 28 days along the whole body with respect to adults and nymphs of I. ricinus, while the acaricidal effects of deltamethrin were reduced for R. sanguineus stages beginning at day 21 after treatment. In cattle, the full acaricidal effect was seen for 21 days in I. ricinus stages and for 14 days in R. sanguineus, while the acaricidal efficacy became reduced after these periods of full action-beginning at the hair taken from the legs. Only R. sanguineus adults did not show any reaction on day 28 after treatment. Besides these acaricidal effects, repellent effects were also noted. Full repellency for both species was seen during the first 14 days in sheep and cattle against Ixodes and Rhipicephalus, while the repellency was later reduced, especially in contact with hair from the legs. As conclusion, deltamethrin, besides

  14. Pre-fertilization zona pellucida hardening by different cross-linkers affects IVF in pigs and cattle and improves embryo production in pigs.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Grullon, Luis Alberto; Aviles, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (resistance to proteolysis) has been classically identified as a post-fertilization event that contributes to the block to polyspermy. Di-(N-succinimidyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropionate (DSP), a permeable amine-reactive cross-linker, was recently shown to induce pre-fertilization ZP hardening and to improve porcine IVF productivity. The objectives of this study were to investigate i) how DSP affects pre-fertilization ZP hardening and IVF in cattle, ii) if a non-permeable amine-reactive cross-linker such as bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) affects ZP hardening and IVF in cattle and pigs, and iii) whether DSP or BS3, if improvement in IVF productivity was demonstrated in either species, affects in vitro embryo development. Bovine and porcine in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the cross-linkers (0.06, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) for 30 min. Then they were subjected to ZP digestion or IVF. In cattle, both DSP and BS3 induced ZP hardening and decreased the penetration rate, although monospermy, penetration, or male pronuclear formation was not affected. In pigs, BS3 treatment induced ZP hardening, decreased penetration and male pronuclear formation, and increased monospermy. IVF productivity only improved when porcine oocytes were exposed to DSP. When porcine zygotes derived from this treatment were further cultured in vitro, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates increased. These results support the idea that mechanisms involved in the prevention of polyspermic fertilization in cattle and pigs have different efficiencies, and ZP hardening induced by DSP cross-linker may be useful for improving porcine embryo production.

  15. Effects of high-temperature isochoric pre-treatment on the methane yields of cattle, pig and chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Cattle manure, dewatered pig manure and chicken manure were pre-treated in a high-temperature reactor under isochoric conditions for 15 min at temperatures between 100 and 225 degrees C with 25 degrees C intervals to study the effect on their methane yield. After 27 days of batch incubation, cattle manure showed a significant improvement in its biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 13% at 175 degrees C and 21% at 200 degrees C. Pig manure showed improvements at temperatures of 125 degrees C and above, with a maximum 29% increase in yield at 200 degrees C. The BMP of chicken manure was reduced by 18% at 225 degrees C, but at lower temperatures there were no significant changes. It was found that this method of pre-treatment could be feasible if sufficient surplus energy was available or if the energy used in the pre-treatment could be recovered.

  16. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties.

  17. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.

  19. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz

    2015-10-01

    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems.

  20. Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Fasciola Spp. Isolated from Sheep and Cattle Using PCR-RFLP in Ardabil Province, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    ARYAEIPOUR, Mojgan; ROUHANI, Soheila; BANDEHPOUR, Mojgan; MIRAHMADI, Hadi; KAZEMI, Bahram; ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the genotype of Fasciola spp. in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province, northwestern Iran in different hosts using PCR-RFLP. Methods The parasite hosts included cattle, and sheep. Overall, 70 adult flukes from livers of slaughtered animals were collected from the abattoirs of aforementioned area. The included 35 samples from infected sheep and 35 samples from 35 infected cattle. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1) region from Fasciola species were used to conduct the study. Results The fragment of approximately 700bp in all of the Fasciola samples was amplified. PCR products of ITS 1 were subjected for digestion by restriction enzyme. RsaI restriction enzyme was selected for RFLP method that caused the separation specifically of Fasciola species. Amplicons with the sequences of F. hepatica had a pattern of about 360, 100, and 60 bp band size, whereas F. gigantica worms had a profile of 360, 170, and 60 bp in size, respectively. Results based on PCR-RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of representative ITS 1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. All sheep were infected with F. hepatica but cattle were infected with both species. Conclusion Both species of Fasciola are present in Ardabil. The method described here can be valuable for identification of Fasciola species in endemic parts for fasciolosis, regions with intermediate species and in that overlapping distribution area. PMID:26060698

  1. Genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in camels, cattle and sheep from the south-east of Iran indicates the presence of the G3 genotype.

    PubMed

    Hajialilo, E; Harandi, M F; Sharbatkhori, M; Mirhendi, H; Rostami, S

    2012-09-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, the aetiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), is one of the most important zoonotic helminthes worldwide. Isolates of the parasite show considerable genetic variation in different intermediate hosts. Several genotypes and species are described in different eco-epidemiological settings. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes existing in livestock and humans from the province of Kerman, located in south-eastern Iran, using sequencing data of cox1 and nad1 mitochondrial genes. Fifty-eight E. granulosus isolates, including 35 from sheep, 11 from cattle, 9 from camels and 3 from goats, were collected from slaughterhouses throughout Kerman. One human isolate was obtained from a surgical case of CE. Mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 38 isolates were sequenced. Genotypes G1 (73.7%), G3 (13.2%) and G6 (13.1%) were identified from the isolates. G1 was the most common genotype from sheep (86.7%), cattle (80%), camels (44.4%) and goats (100%). Sheep, cattle and camels were also found to be infected with the G3 genotype (buffalo strain). The human isolate was identified as the G6 genotype. Results showed that the G3 genotype occurred in different animal hosts in addition to G1 and G6 genotypes. PMID:21749740

  2. An exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of UK cattle and sheep farmers.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Claire; Nielsen, Louise; Thomson, Kim; Gunn, George

    2008-11-17

    At present, collective action regarding bio-security among UK cattle and sheep farmers is rare. Despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot and mouth disease (FMD), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. To explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio-security behaviour among cattle and sheep farmers in the United Kingdom (UK). In total, we interviewed 121 farmers in South-West England and Wales. The main analytical tools included a content, cluster and logistic regression analysis. The results of the content analysis illustrated apparent 'dissonance' between bio-security attitudes and behaviour.(1) Despite the heavy toll animal disease has taken on the agricultural economy, most study participants were dismissive of the many measures associated with bio-security. Justification for this lack of interest was largely framed in relation to the collective attribution or blame for the disease threats themselves. Indeed, epidemic diseases were largely related to external actors and agents. Reasons for outbreaks included inadequate border control, in tandem with ineffective policies and regulations. Conversely, endemic livestock disease was viewed as a problem for 'bad' farmers and not an issue for those individuals who managed their stock well. As such, there was little utility in forming groups to address what was largely perceived as an individual problem. Further, we found that attitudes toward bio-security did not appear to be influenced by any particular source of information per se. While strong negative attitudes were found toward specific sources of bio-security information, e.g. government leaflets, these appear to simply reflect widely held beliefs. In relation to actual bio-security behaviours, the logistic

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.

  4. The effects of flumethrin (Bayticol® pour-on) on European ticks exposed to treated hairs of cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schumacher, Bärbel; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Bhushan, Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Tick infestations in cattle and sheep pose serious health problems when agents of diseases are transmitted. In addition, blood feeding of ticks induces enormous economic losses due to reduced weight gain of infested animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to hairs clipped from cattle and sheep treated with flumethrin (Bayticol®) on European ticks. The dose used was 10 ml/100 kg body weight for both animal species. At intervals of 7 days (days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35), hairs were cut off from treated and untreated animals along the backline and from the feet just above the claws. These hairs were mingled with stages of the tick species Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was found that in the cases of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, all specimens died within 5-12 h when coming into contact with cattle hair from the feet or back of animals treated 3 weeks ago and within 6 to 9 h after contact to sheep hair from back or feet. After 4 weeks, the specimens of both tick species that had contact with hair of treated sheep and cattle, independent from the origin backline or feet, were dead after 8 h except for one tick that had contact to hair from feet of cattle. It remained fully motile after a 12-h contact even for the observation time on another 5 days. When having contact to hair of animals treated 5 weeks before, several specimens of Ixodes and Dermacentor survived an exposition of 12 h. There were more survivors in the case of ticks tested on hair of the feet than in the case of contacts with hair of the backline. The exposure of R. sanguineus to hair obtained from animals treated 2 weeks earlier resulted in death in 2-4 h. However, most R. sanguineus ticks when coming in contact with treated hairs (collected from animals treated 3, 4 or 5 weeks earlier) from back or feet survived for atleast 5 days even after exposure for 12 h. These experiments confirmed the positive protection results

  5. Scenario planning: The future of the cattle and sheep industries in Scotland and their resiliency to disease.

    PubMed

    Boden, Lisa A; Auty, Harriet; Bessell, Paul; Duckett, Dominic; Liu, Jiayi; Kyle, Carol; McKee, Annie; Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Reynolds, John; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; McKendrick, Iain J

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a description of foresighting activities undertaken by EPIC, Scotland's Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks, to investigate the future uncertainty of animal health security in the Scottish sheep and cattle sectors. Using scenario planning methodologies, we explored four plausible but provocative long-term futures which identify dynamics underpinning the resilience of these agricultural sectors to animal disease. These scenarios highlight a number of important drivers that influence disease resilience: industry demographics, the role of government support and regulation and the capacity for technological innovation to support the industry to meet local and global market demand. Participants in the scenario planning exercises proposed creative, robust strategies that policy makers could consider implementing now to enhance disease control and industry resilience in multiple, uncertain futures. Using these participant-led strategies as a starting point, we offer ten key questions for policy makers and stakeholders to provoke further discussion about improving resiliency and disease preparedness. We conclude with a brief discussion of the value of scenario planning, not only for the development of futures which will inform disease contingency plans and improve industry resilience, but as a mechanism for dialogue and information sharing between stakeholders and government. PMID:26349432

  6. Comparative analysis of Brucella serotype A and M and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides for serological diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Aparicio, E; Aragón, V; Marín, C; Alonso, B; Font, M; Moreno, E; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1993-01-01

    Hapten polysaccharides of Brucella smooth M and A serotypes were prepared from Brucella sp. and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 by previously described hydrolytic (O chain) or nonhydrolytic (native hapten [NH]) procedures. The purified polysaccharides differed only in the presence (O chain) or absence (NH) of lipopolysaccharide core sugars. The polysaccharides were compared by reverse radial immunodiffusion for the diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle (Brucella abortus biotype 1 [A serotype] and Brucella melitensis biotype 3 [AM serotype]), sheep (B. melitensis biotypes 1 [M serotype] and 3), and goats (B. melitensis biotype 1). The reverse radial immunodiffusion test with the NH from B. melitensis 16 M (serotype M) showed the highest sensitivity (89.6 to 97.3%), regardless of the host species and the serotype of the infecting Brucella sp. Y. enterocolitica O:9 NH (A serotype) was useful for diagnosing disease in cattle infected with B. abortus biotype 1, but not in cattle infected with B. melitensis biotype 3, sheep, or goats. The different results obtained with the serotype M and A polysaccharides and the sera from animals infected with M, A, and AM serotypes of Brucella spp. showed that in naturally infected animals, a large proportion of the antibodies are directed to or react with a previously defined common epitope(s) (J. T. Douglas and D. A. Palmer, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:1353-1356, 1988) different from the A or M epitopes. By using the radial immunodiffusion test with B. melitensis 16M NH, it was possible to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle, sheep, and goats with a sensitivity and specificity similar to that of the complement fixation test. PMID:8308104

  7. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions. PMID:21745408

  8. Cytotoxic and hemolytic action of coal-quartz mixtures. [Guinea pig macrophages, sheep erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Waseem, M.; Bansal, S.K.; Gupta, G.S.D.; Kaw, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    The effect of coal-quartz mixtures that contained graded amounts of coal or quartz was studied using peritoneal macrophage cultures and plasma-free washed sheep erythrocyte suspensions. A stoichiometric relationship was observed between the quartz content of coal-quartz mixture and the amount of lactic dehydrogenase liberated extracellularly and acid dye uptake by macrophage monolayers. Total lactic dehydrogenase of the monolayers plus supernatant remained unaltered following exposure to different dust mixtures. Dusts containing a higher concentration of quartz also produced a greater degree of hemolysis. Coal did not inhibit the quartz-induced macrophage cytotoxicity or erythrocyte hemolysis.

  9. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  10. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  11. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  12. Two Closely Related Novel Picornaviruses in Cattle and Sheep in Hungary from 2008 to 2009, Proposed as Members of a New Genus in the Family Picornaviridae

    PubMed Central

    Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J.; Boros, Ákos

    2012-01-01

    Two novel picornaviruses were serendipitously identified in apparently healthy young domestic animals—cattle (Bos taurus) and, subsequently, sheep (Ovis aries)—in Hungary during 2008 and 2009. Complete genome sequencing and comparative analysis showed that the two viruses are related to each other and have identical genome organizations, VPg + 5′ UTRIRES-II[L/1A-1B-1C-1D-2ANPG↓P/2B-2C/3A-3BVPg-3Cpro-3Dpol] 3′ UTR-poly(A). We suggest that they form two novel viral genotypes/serotypes, bovine hungarovirus 1 (BHuV-1; GenBank accession number JQ941880) and ovine hungarovirus 1 (OHuV-1; GenBank accession number HM153767), which may belong to a potential novel picornavirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genome lengths of BHuV-1 and OHuV-1 are 7,583 and 7,588 nucleotides, each comprising a single open reading frame encoding 2,243 and 2,252 amino acids, respectively. In the 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs), both hungaroviruses are predicted to have a type II internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The nucleotide sequence and the secondary RNA structure of the hungarovirus IRES core domains H-I-J-K-L are highly similar to that of human parechovirus (HPeV) (genus Parechovirus), especially HPeV-3. However, in the polyprotein coding region, the amino acid sequences are more closely related to those of porcine teschoviruses (genus Teschovirus). Hungaroviruses were detected in 15% (4/26) and 25% (4/16) of the fecal samples from cattle and sheep, respectively. This report describes the discovery of two novel picornaviruses in farm animals, cattle and sheep. The mosaic genetic pattern raises the possibility that hungaroviruses, human parechoviruses, and porcine teschoviruses may be linked to each other by modular recombination of functional noncoding RNA elements. PMID:23015712

  13. Assessing the effect of interventions on the risk of cattle and sheep carrying Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the abattoir using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Stacey, K F; Parsons, D J; Christiansen, K H; Burton, C H

    2007-04-16

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 persists in being a threat to food safety. The mechanisms behind the spread of E. coli O157:H7 on the farm are complex and poorly understood. The objective of this study was to apply a Monte Carlo model, constructed to simulate the propagation of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and sheep on the farm, to both test the effect of different interventions on the risk of animals carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir and to develop understanding of the underlying processes, including the identification of areas that could benefit from further research. An overview of the model including key assumptions is given. The output statistics from batches of 100 runs of the model were collected. From the model output, a cumulative frequency distribution of the prevalence and specific shedding level for the groups of cattle or sheep being sent to the abattoir were generated. Stochastic dominance was used to compare the results of the model outputs. Using the shorthand that "risk" means the likelihood of carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir, key conclusions from the study included: mixing sheep and cattle increases the risk in both groups; merging groups of animals of the same species into larger groups increases the risk substantially; increasing stocking density increases the risk independently of group size; decreasing the group size decreases the E. coli O157:H7 prevalence independently of stocking density; a very high level of barn hygiene reduces the risk; a shorter time between spreading farmyard manure and grazing and an increased background level of E. coli O157:H7 in the model increases the risk. The background level could be influenced by the presence of wild animals carrying the organism. The parameters to which the model is most sensitive are those related to transmission from grass and enclosures to animals, pathogen survival on grass, in slurry and in barns and contact between animals.

  14. Risk Factors for Human Salmonellosis Originating from Pigs, Cattle, Broiler Chickens and Egg Laying Hens: A Combined Case-Control and Source Attribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  15. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  16. Risk factors for human salmonellosis originating from pigs, cattle, broiler chickens and egg laying hens: a combined case-control and source attribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Enserink, Remko; Friesema, Ingrid; Heck, Max; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis while others have used Salmonella subtyping to attribute human infections to different food and animal reservoirs. This study combined case-control and source attribution data into a single analysis to explore risk factors at the point of exposure for human salmonellosis originating from four putative food-producing animal reservoirs (pigs, cattle, broilers and layers/eggs) in the Netherlands. We confirmed that most human cases (∼ 90%) were attributable to layers/eggs and pigs. Layers/eggs and broilers were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in adults, in urban areas, and in spring/summer, whereas pigs and cattle were the most likely reservoirs of salmonellosis in children, in rural areas, and in autumn/winter. Several reservoir-specific risk factors were identified. Not using a chopping board for raw meat only and consuming raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for infection with salmonellas originating from pigs, cattle and broilers. Consuming raw/undercooked eggs and by-products were risk factors for layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. Using antibiotics was a risk factor for pig- and cattle-associated salmonellosis and using proton-pump inhibitors for salmonellosis attributable to any reservoir. Pig- and cattle-associated infections were also linked to direct contact with animals and environmental exposure (e.g. playing in sandboxes). Eating fish, meat in pastry, and several non-meat foods (fruit, vegetables and pasteurized dairy products) were protective factors. Consuming pork and occupational exposure to animals and/or raw meats were protective against layer/egg-associated salmonellosis. We concluded that individuals acquiring salmonellosis from different reservoirs have different associated risk factors, suggesting that salmonellas may infect humans through various transmission pathways depending on their original reservoirs. The outcome of classical case

  17. Inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis of synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Wilfried; Stanek, Christian; Wagner, Martin; Hein, Ingeborg

    2007-03-31

    The potential of five different commercial DNA isolation methods to remove real-time PCR inhibitors from the synovial fluid of horses, cattle and pigs was investigated. All kits with the exception of one included a silica column-based purification of the DNA. With the fifth kit, DNA purification is achieved by removing contaminating macromolecules by a desalting process. We used a recently developed method based on comparison of the real-time PCR signal of an artificial target incorporated into each PCR reaction in the presence of the isolated DNA from the sample, and in control samples containing water instead of isolated DNA. This was followed by statistical analysis of the data. Inhibition and subsequent reduction of the endpoint fluorescence in the real-time PCR reaction was encountered in many cases. Less frequently, the target copy number in the samples was underestimated. However, we found no experimental evidence of a negative influence of the reduced endpoint fluorescence signal on the detection limit of the real-time PCR assay. All kits tested were useful for analyzing pelleted synovial fluid from horses, cattle and pigs. When analyzing non-pelleted synovial fluid, three kits - two based on silica columns and one employing a desalting process - yielded inhibitor-free DNA for real-time PCR analysis. PMID:17222992

  18. Effects of Bayofly on specimens of Culicoides species when incubated in hair taken from the feet of previously treated cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schumacher, Bärbel; D'Haese, Jochen; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven

    2008-02-01

    Sheep and cattle were treated with Bayofly pour-on containing 1 g cyfluthrin per 100 ml ready-to-use solution. Seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment, hair was clipped off from the back and feet and mixed for 10-15 s, 30 s, 1 or 2 min with freshly caught Culicoides midges. It was found that the insecticide on hair from the legs--the predominant biting site of midges--had a significant killing effect on Culicoides for 3-4 weeks, even after a short-term contact.

  19. High-resolution comparative chromosome painting in the Arizona collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, Tayassuidae): a comparison with the karyotype of pig and sheep.

    PubMed

    Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel; Kofler, Andrea; Krausman, Paul R; Masabanda, Julio; Wienberg, Johannes; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2006-01-01

    We used chromosome painting with chromosome-specific probes derived from domestic sheep and pig for a high-resolution cytogenetic comparison with the karyotype of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu sonoriensis). A reorganization of the karyotype involving at least 62-66 conserved segments were observed between the sheep and collared peccary. This is an extremely high number compared with other members of the same mammalian order (Cetartiodactyla). The comparison between pig and collared peccary, both belonging to the Suiformes, however, revealed various changes in the gross organization of both karyotypes that may have already occurred in a common ancestor of both species suggesting a monophyletic origin of Suidae/Tayassuidae. The sheep probes, however, also revealed several rearrangements between the two Suidae/Tayassuidae, indicating that these probes represent a useful tool for a more detailed analysis of the evolutionary history of Suiformes. Our sample of the collared peccary from North America (Arizona, USA) showed distinct differences to those already described from South America. The chromosome painting results defined a complex translocation that involves chromosomes including about one-quarter of the entire collared peccary karyotype. This considerable rearrangement indicates subspecies or even species status of both peccary populations, as it should present a significant barrier for their hybridization.

  20. The linkage map of sheep Chromosome 6 compared with orthologous regions in other species.

    PubMed

    Lord, E A; Lumsden, J M; Dodds, K G; Henry, H M; Crawford, A M; Ansari, H A; Pearce, P D; Maher, D W; Stone, R T; Kappes, S M; Beattie, C W; Montgomery, G W

    1996-05-01

    The genetic linkage map of sheep Chromosome (Chr) 6 has been extended to include 35 loci with the addition of 11 RFLP and 12 microsatellite loci. The sex-averaged linkage map now spans 154 cM from phosphodiesterase cyclic GMP beta polypeptide (PDE6B) to OarCP125, an anonymous sheep microsatellite. The male and female map lengths, at 180 cM and 132 cM respectively, did not differ significantly. The physical assignment of PDE6B to Chr 6q33-qter orientates the linkage map on sheep Chr 6 with PDE6B near the telomere and OarCP125 towards the centromere. The order and genetic distances between loci are similar for the sheep Chr 6 and cattle Chr 6 maps, except for the position of the casein genes. The sheep Chr 6 linkage map is also comparable to portions of human Chr 4, mouse Chrs 5 and 3, and pig Chr 8. The synteny between sheep Chr 6 and human Chr 4 has been extended from PDE6B (4p16.3) to epidermal growth factor (EGF, 4q25-q27). However, a region from platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA) to bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3), which spans 19 cM on sheep Chr 6, appears to be inverted with respect to the human and mouse loci. Other differences in the gene order between sheep, pig, and mouse suggest more complex rearrangements.

  1. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

  2. High-Throughput Direct Fecal PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Sheep and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Anna M.; Galea, Francesca; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Saunders, Vanessa F.; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that affects ruminants. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route. A commonly used antemortem diagnostic test for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces is liquid culture; however, a major constraint is the 2- to 3-month incubation period needed for this method. Rapid methods for the detection of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis based on PCR have been reported, but comprehensive validation data are lacking. We describe here a new test, the high-throughput-Johnes (HT-J), to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of liquid radiometric (Bactec) fecal culture using samples from cattle (1,330 samples from 23 herds) and sheep (596 samples from 16 flocks). The multistage protocol involves the recovery of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from a fecal suspension, cell rupture by bead beating, extraction of DNA using magnetic beads, and IS900 quantitative PCR. The limit of detection of the assay was 0.0005 pg, and the limit of quantification was 0.005 pg M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genomic DNA. Only M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was detected from a panel of 51 mycobacterial isolates, including 10 with IS900-like sequences. Of the 549 culture-negative fecal samples from unexposed herds and flocks, 99% were negative in the HT-J test, while 60% of the bovine- and 84% of the ovine-culture-positive samples were positive in the HT-J test. As similar total numbers of samples from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-exposed animals were positive in culture and HT-J tests in both species, and as the results of a McNemar's test were not significant, these methods probably have similar sensitivities, but the true diagnostic sensitivities of these tests are unknown. These validation data meet the consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis and

  3. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against Triclabendazole in cattle in Cajamarca (Peru): a clinical trial and an in vivo efficacy test in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, P; Scarcella, S; Cerna, C; Rosales, C; Cabrera, M; Guzmán, M; Lamenza, P; Solana, H

    2013-07-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is the most prevalent parasitic disease in dairy cattle from the northern region of Cajamarca, Peru. The control of this parasite is based on the use of Triclabendazole (TCBZ), a drug that has been used for more than fifteen years in this area. Recent studies, however, have reported a lack of clinical efficacy after treating dairy cattle. This research was aimed to determine the efficacy of TCBZ in a clinical trial. Eleven dairy cows all positive to F. hepatica identified by presence of eggs in feces, were treated with TCBZ (Fasinex(®) 10%) at 12 mg/kg body weight. Fourteen and thirty days after treatment, the animals were analyzed for F. hepatica eggs in their feces by the fecal egg count reduction test. The results found show an overall efficacy of 31.05% and 13. 63% (14 and 30 days post treatment, respectively). Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy test was conducted in sheep with metacercariae obtained from eggs isolated from a cow clinically resistant to TCBZ. Eleven sheep divided in two groups, a control group with no treatment (n=5) and a treated group (n=6) were all infected with two hundred metacercariae. One hundred and six days after infection all the animals demonstrated F. hepatica eggs in their feces, confirming the presence of adult parasites in their livers. The animals were then treated with TCBZ (Fasinex(®) 10%) at 10mg/kg body weight. Fifteen days later, the animals were sacrificed and the number of F. hepatica in their livers counted. The results of this experiment showed an efficacy of the flukicide of 25.2% confirming the resistance to TCBZ of the F. hepatica isolated from dairy cattle in Cajamarca, Peru.

  4. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

  5. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation. PMID:11012362

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  7. Antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis from diseased farm animals: pigs, cattle and poultry.

    PubMed

    Seputiene, V; Bogdaite, A; Ruzauskas, M; Suziedeliene, E

    2012-01-01

    Eighty enterococcal isolates (E. faecium, n = 38, E. faecalis, n = 42) from diseased farm animals (swine, cattle, poultry) in Lithuania have been studied for the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and for resistance and virulence genetic determinants. 86% of E. faecium and 71% of E. faecalis isolates were multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more unrelated antibiotics). Resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline and erythromycin was found most frequently in both species (61%, 69%) and was linked to aph(3')-IIIa, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, ant(6)-Ia (aminoglycoside resistance), tetM, tetL (tetracycline resistance), ermA, ermB (erythromycin resistance) gene combinations, which were supplemented with chloramphenicol resistance genes catA7, catA8 (E. faecalis) and catA9 (E. faecium). All E. faecalis isolates harboured genes coding for virulence factors agg, esp, fsr gelE alone or in combinations with the high prevalence of esp gene in isolates from cattle (63%) and pigs (79%). The origin-dependent incidence of agg gene variants prgB and asp1 was observed. The results indicate the existence of a large pool of potentially virulent and multidrug resistant E. faecalis in diseased farm animals posing risk to humans.

  8. A Determination and Comparison of Urease Activity in Feces and Fresh Manure from Pig and Cattle in Relation to Ammonia Production and pH Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaorong; Karring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal production is a major environmental problem and has impacts on the animal health and working environment inside production houses. Ammonia is formed in manure by the enzymatic degradation of urinary urea and catalyzed by urease that is present in feces. We have determined and compared the urease activity in feces and manure (a urine and feces mixture) from pigs and cattle at 25°C by using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To obtain accurate estimates of kinetic parameters Vmax and K'm, we used a 5 min reaction time to determine the initial reaction velocities based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. The resulting Vmax value (mmol urea hydrolyzed per kg wet feces per min) was 2.06±0.08 mmol urea/kg/min and 0.80±0.04 mmol urea/kg/min for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. The K'm values were 32.59±5.65 mmol urea/l and 15.43±2.94 mmol urea/l for pig feces and cattle feces, respectively. Thus, our results reveal that both the Vmax and K'm values of the urease activity for pig feces are more than 2-fold higher than those for cattle feces. The difference in urea hydrolysis rates between animal species is even more significant in fresh manure. The initial velocities of TAN formation are 1.53 mM/min and 0.33 mM/min for pig and cattle manure, respectively. Furthermore, our investigation shows that the maximum urease activity for pig feces occurs at approximately pH 7, and in cattle feces it is closer to pH 8, indicating that the predominant fecal ureolytic bacteria species differ between animal species. We believe that our study contributes to a better understanding of the urea hydrolysis process in manure and provides a basis for more accurate and animal-specific prediction models for urea hydrolysis rates and ammonia concentration in manures and thus can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rates from animal production. PMID:25397404

  9. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  10. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  11. Comparative FISH mapping of mucin 1, transmembrane (MUC1) among cattle, river buffalo, sheep and goat chromosomes: comparison between bovine chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Di Meo, G P; Soglia, D; Rullo, R; Maione, S; Incarnato, D; Eggen, A; Sacchi, P; Rasero, R; Iannuzzi, L

    2006-01-01

    Four bovine BAC clones (0494F01, 0069D07, 0060B06, and 0306A12) containing MUC1, as confirmed by mapping MUC1 on a RH3000 radiation hybrid panel, were hybridised on R-banded chromosomes of cattle (BTA), river buffalo (BBU), sheep (OAR) and goat (CHI). MUC1 was FISH-mapped on BTA3q13, BBU6q13, OAR1p13 and CHI3q13 and both chromosomes and chromosome bands were homoeologous confirming the high degree of chromosome homoeologies among bovids and adding more information on the pericentromeric regions of these species' chromosomes. Indeed, MUC1 was more precisely assigned to BTA3 and assigned for the first time to BBU6, OAR1p and CHI3. Moreover, detailed and improved cytogenetic maps of BTA3, CHI3, OAR1p and BBU6 are shown and compared with HSA1. PMID:16276097

  12. Binding of Sperm to the Zona Pellucida Mediated by Sperm Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins is not Species-Specific in Vitro between Pigs and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Yasuomi; Kanai-Kitayama, Saeko; Suzuki, Reiichiro; Sato, Reiko; Toma, Kazunori; Geshi, Masaya; Akagi, Satoshi; Nakano, Minoru; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are candidates for the basis of species-selective interaction of gametes during mammalian fertilization. In this study, we sought to clarify the roles of sugar residues in the species-selective, sperm-oocyte interaction in pigs and cattle. Acrosome-intact porcine and bovine sperm exhibited their strongest binding affinities for β-Gal and α-Man residues, respectively. Porcine-sperm specificity changed from β-Gal to α-Man after the acrosome reaction, while bovine-sperm specificity did not. Binding of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm decreased after trypsinization, indicating that the carbohydrate-binding components are proteins. While immature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm, oocytes matured in vitro bound similar numbers of homologous and heterologous sperm. Lectin staining revealed the aggregation of α-Man residues on the outer surface of the porcine zona during maturation. In both species, zona-free, mature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm. The lectin-staining patterns of the zona pellucida and zona-free oocytes coincided with the carbohydrate-binding specificities of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm, respectively, supporting the involvement of carbohydrates in gamete recognition in pigs and cattle. These results also indicate that sperm-zona pellucida and sperm-oolemma bindings are not strictly species-specific in pigs and cattle, and further suggest that sperm penetration into the zona and/or fusion with oolemma may be species-specific between pigs and cattle.

  13. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  14. Incidence of quinolone resistance in strains of Salmonella isolated from poultry, cattle and pigs in Germany between 1998 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Malorny, B; Schroeter, A; Guerra, B; Helmuth, R

    2003-11-22

    This paper reports the susceptibility to the quinolone nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin of 14,514 strains of Salmonella isolated in Germany from poultry, cattle and pigs between 1998 and 2001. Quinolone-resistant salmonellae were most frequently isolated from poultry, with a prevalence of 10.2 to 16.8 per cent. Poultry-associated serotypes, such as Salmonella Paratyphi B (d-tartrate positive), Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Virchow, had the highest prevalence of quinolone resistance, ranging between 35 and 74 per cent. All the nalidixic acid-resistant strains also had a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of 0.125 to 2 microg/ml. A comparison of the MICS for ciprofloxacin of the strains of these poultry-associated serotypes and Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 isolated in 1998/99 and 2000/01 indicated that there had been a shift towards higher MIC values of up to 2 microg/ml. The quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene and the homologue region of the parC gene of 31 selected strains were sequenced. Several different amino acid changes were observed in gyrA of the quinolone-resistant isolates at positions 83 and 87, but no substitutions were observed in parC.

  15. 'Mysterious' moose disease in Sweden. Similarities to copper deficiency and/or molybdenosis in cattle and sheep. Biochemical background of clinical signs and organ lesions.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    The moose (Alces alces L.) in an acid rain affected region in south-west Sweden has developed a complex disease with numerous clinical signs, most of which are consistent with those of secondary copper (Cu) deficiency and/or molybdenosis in cattle and sheep. The clinical signs of the moose disease reported to date include diarrhoea, anorexia, emaciation, achromotrichia, alopecia, sudden heart failure and osteoporosis. Findings at necropsy included mucosal oedema, atrophied lymphoid tissues of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract, neuropathy, neuronal degeneration and uni- or bilateral corneal opacity. In a study of clinically healthy animals from the affected region in Sweden over a 12-year period (1982-1994), the hepatic Cu concentration decreased by 50% and the liver and kidney cadmium (Cd) concentration decreased by 25-35%, while the molybdenum (Mo) concentration increased by 20-40%. These changes are probably related to an increase in the pH of the soil and water in the moose environment and a consequent change in the uptake of these elements by the plants consumed by the moose. It is noteworthy that the occurrence of the disease in the mid 1980s coincided with increased liming undertaken to counteract the noxious effects of acid rain in this region. Clinical signs and lesions of the moose disease resemble those reported for Cu deficiency and/or molybdenosis in cattle and sheep. To elucidate the complex, multi-faceted clinical signs of the moose disease, the clinical signs and necropsy findings are discussed in relation to the biochemical functions of certain well-known Cu-dependent enzymes, e.g. depigmentation of hair due to depressed tyrosinase activity, osteoporosis by depressed lysyl oxidase activity, sudden heart failure due to decreased activity of lysyl oxidase, cytochrome c oxidase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase; in addition, mucosal lesions and ulcerations due to loss of activity of diamine oxidase as well as of lysyl oxidase and cytochrome c

  16. Responses of the biogas process to pulses of oleate in reactors treating mixtures of cattle and pig manure.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

    2006-09-01

    The effect of oleate on the anaerobic digestion process was investigated. Two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were fed with mixtures of cattle and pig manure with different total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) content. The reactors were subjected to increasing pulses of oleate. Following pulses of 0.5 and 1.0 g oleate/L, the most distinct increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were observed in the reactor with the lowest TS/VS content. This suggests a higher adsorption of oleate on the surfaces of biofibers in the reactor with the highest TS/VS and a less pronounced inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. On the other hand, addition of 2.0 g oleate/L severely inhibited the process in both reactors, and a significant increase in all VFA concentrations combined with an immediate drop in methane production was noticed. However, 20 days after the reactors had been exposed to oleate both reactors showed a lower VFA concentration along with a higher methane production than before the pulses. This indicates that oleate had a stimulating effect on the overall process. The improved acetogenic and methanogenic activity in the reactors was confirmed in batch activity tests. In addition to this, toxicity tests revealed that the oleate pulses induced an increase in the tolerance level of acetotrophic methanogens towards oleate. When evaluating the usability of different process parameters (i.e., VFA and methane production) as indicators of process recovery, following the inhibition by oleate, propionate was found to be most suitable.

  17. Survey on the risk awareness of german pig and cattle farmers in relation to dealing with MRSA and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia Veronika; Tappe, Elisa-Valerie; Schmithausen, Ricarda Maria; Lepkojis, Jan; Röttgen, Katharina; Petersen, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The danger surrounding methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been well known for decades. Although MRSA was initially only associated with hospitals, livestock-associated MRSA is being increasingly connected to the way food-supplying animals are treated. However, little is yet known about farmers’ risk awareness and their knowledge of MRSA. Hence, the goal of this study was to discover farmers’ perceptions of MRSA. Materials and methods Two successive studies were performed. Study I analysed the connection between the attitudes of cattle and pig farmers towards MRSA complications and characteristics such as age and vocational training. Study II dealt with the connection between contact frequency with livestock and the risk of MRSA colonisation. Results For Study I, 101 questionnaires were completed. Analysis showed that the participants’ education level (p=0.042, α=0.05) and the animal species kept on their farm (p=0.045, α=0.05) significantly influenced their perceptions. Screening results from 157 participants within Study II showed that contact frequency and the participants’ particular profession were significantly decisive for MRSA prevalence (contact frequency: p=0.000, professional branch: p=0.000, OR=11.966, α=0.05). Discussion The results show a high degree of risk consciousness and responsibility among farmers. However, it is assumed that most farmers who took part in the studies were interested parties. Thus, the study results are valid only for the chosen livestock holdings. Ultimately, educational work is still needed. Joint projects between economics and science offer a good platform to spark farmers’ interest in the MRSA problem, as well as to inform and enlighten them about dangers and connections. Interdisciplinary research will contribute to a better understanding of drug resistance and to reducing the long-term use of antibiotics. PMID:26847732

  18. A critical analysis of disease-associated DNA polymorphisms in the genes of cattle, goat, sheep, and pig

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Kgwatalala, Patrick; Ibeagha, Aloysius E.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variations through their effects on gene expression and protein function underlie disease susceptibility in farm animal species. The variations are in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletions/insertions of nucleotides or whole genes, gene or whole chromosomal rearrangements, gene duplications, and copy number polymorphisms or variants. They exert varying degrees of effects on gene action, such as substitution of an amino acid for another, shift in reading frame and premature termination of translation, and complete deletion of entire exon(s) or gene(s) in diseased individuals. These factors influence gene function by affecting mRNA splicing pattern or by altering/eliminating protein function. Elucidating the genetic bases of diseases under the control of many genes is very challenging, and it is compounded by several factors, including host × pathogen × environment interactions. In this review, the genetic variations that underlie several diseases of livestock (under monogenic and polygenic control) are analyzed. Also, factors hampering research efforts toward identification of genetic influences on animal disease identification and control are highlighted. A better understanding of the factors analyzed could be better harnessed to effectively identify and control, genetically, livestock diseases. Finally, genetic control of animal diseases can reduce the costs associated with diseases, improve animal welfare, and provide healthy animal products to consumers, and should be given more attention. PMID:18350334

  19. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  20. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-11-20

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  1. A Livestock-Associated, Multidrug-Resistant, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 97 Lineage Spreading in Dairy Cattle and Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Kraushaar, Britta; Ianzano, Angela; Argudín, María Angeles; Di Matteo, Paola; Porrero, María Concepción; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming

  2. In vitro fermentation of cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin using fecal inoculum from cats, dogs, horses, humans, and pigs and ruminal fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Sunvold, G D; Hussein, H S; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Reinhart, G A

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and fermentation times, OM disappearance (29.4%) and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (1.09, .41, .12, and 1.61 mmol/g of OM, respectively) were lowest (P < .05), and lactate production (.23 mmol/g of OM) was greatest (P < .05) for horse fecal microflora compared with samples from the other species. The greatest (P < .05) acetate production resulted when substrates were fermented by cat fecal microflora (2.38 mmol/g of OM). The greatest (P < .05) propionate productions resulted from pig fecal and cattle ruminal microflora (.88 and .83 mmol/g of OM, respectively), and the greatest (P < .05) butyrate productions resulted from human and pig fecal microflora (.39 and .40 mmol/g of OM, respectively). Total SCFA production was greatest (P < .05) for cat fecal microflora (3.38 mmol/g of OM). When data were pooled across the species, substrate OM disappearance and SCFA production ranked from least to greatest in the following order: cellulose < beet pulp < citrus pulp < citrus pectin. The fermentability of different fibrous substrates by fecal or ruminal microflora from various species seems to be dependent not only on the fermentative activity of the microbial population but on other factors as well, perhaps lag time and rate of digesta passage.

  3. Five Ovine Mitochondrial Lineages Identified From Sheep Breeds of the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig. PMID:17194773

  4. POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION SEQUENCE OF GDF8 GENE IN INDIAN SHEEP.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, M; Mishra, S K; Kumar, S N; Mohamed, N F; Kataria, R S; Yadav, D K; Arora, R

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify polymorphism in the coding sequence of GDF8gene across indigenous meat type sheep breeds. A 1647 bp sequence was generated, encompassing 208 bp of the 5'UTR, 1128 bp of coding region (exon1, 2 and 3) as well as 311 bp of 3'UTR. The sheep and goat GDF8 gene sequences were observed to be highly conserved as compared to cattle, buffalo, horse and pig. Several nucleotide variations were observed across coding sequence of GDF8 gene in Indian sheep. Three polymorphic sites were identified in the 5'UTR, one in exon 1 and one in the exon 2 regions. Both SNPs in the exonic region were found to be non-synonymous. The mutations c.539T > G and c.821T > A discovered in this study in the exon 1 and exon 2, respectively, have not been previously reported. The information generated provides preliminary indication of the functional diversity present in Indian sheep at the coding region of GDF8gene. The novel as well as the previously reported SNPs discovered in the Indian sheep warrant further analysis to see whether they affect the phenotype. Future studies will need to establish the affect of reported SNPs in the expression of the GDF8 gene in Indian sheep population. PMID:26845859

  5. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Brucella Spp. Infection in Traditional Cattle, Sheep and Goats Reared in Urban, Periurban and Rural Areas of Niger

    PubMed Central

    Boukary, Abdou Razac; Saegerman, Claude; Abatih, Emmanuel; Fretin, David; Alambédji Bada, Rianatou; De Deken, Reginald; Harouna, Halimatou Adamou; Yenikoye, Alhassane; Thys, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Niamey, Niger, interactions within the interface between animals, humans and the environment induce a potential risk of brucellosis transmission between animals and from animals to humans. Currently, little is known about the transmission of Brucella in this context. Results 5,192 animals from 681 herds were included in the study. Serum samples and hygroma fluids were collected. A household survey enabled to identify the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis. The true adjusted herd-level prevalence of brucellosis ranged between 11.2% and 17.2% and the true adjusted animal-population level prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9–1.8%) based on indirect ELISA test for Brucella antibodies. Animals aged of 1–4 years were found to be more susceptible than animals less than 1 year old (Odds ratio [OR] of 2.7; 95% CI: 1.43–5.28). For cattle, the odds of brucellosis seropositivity were higher in rural compared to the periurban areas (OR of 2.8; 95% CI: 1.48–5.17) whereas for small ruminants the risk of seropositivity appeared to be higher in urban compared to periurban areas (OR of 5.5; 95% CI: 1.48–20.38). At herd level, the risk of transmission was increased by transhumance (OR of 5.4; 95% CI: 2.84–10.41), the occurrence of abortions (OR of 3.0; 95% CI: 1.40–6.41), and for herds having more than 50 animals (OR of 11.0; 95% CI: 3.75–32.46). Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from the hygromas. Conclusion brucellosis in Niger is a serious problem among cattle especially in the rural areas around Niamey and among sheep in the urban areas of Niamey. The seroprevalence varies across strata and animal species with important risk factors including herd size, abortion and transhumance at herd level and age at animal population level. For effective control of brucellosis, an integrated approach seems appropriate involving all stakeholders working in public and animal health. PMID:24358261

  6. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. PMID:25746997

  7. Analysis of conserved microsatellite sequences suggests closer relationship between water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and sheep Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Mattapallil, M J; Ali, S

    1999-06-01

    The distribution and evolutionary pattern of the conserved microsatellite repeat sequences (CA)n, (TGG)6, and (GGAT)4 were studied to determine the divergence time and phylogenetic position of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The mean allelic frequencies of these repeat loci showed a high level of heterozygosity among the euartiodactyls (buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goat). Genetic distances calculated from the allelic frequencies of these microsatellites were used to position Bubalus bubalis in the phylogenetic tree. The tree topology revealed a closer proximity of the Bubalus bubalis to the Ovis aries (sheep) genome than to other domestic species. The estimated time of divergence of the water buffalo genome relative to cattle, goat, sheep, pig, rabbit, and horse was found to be 21, 0.5, 0.7, 94, 20.3, and 408 million years (Myr), respectively. Although water buffaloes share morphological and biochemical similarities with cattle, our study using the microsatellite sequences places the bubaline species in an entirely new phylogenetic position. Our results also suggest that with respect to these repeat loci, the water buffalo genome shares a common ancestry with sheep and goat after the divergence of subfamily Bovinae (Bos taurus) from the family Bovidae.

  8. Early protection in sheep against intratypic heterologous challenge with serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus using high-potency, emergency vaccine.

    PubMed

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Zhidong; Bittner, Hilary; Hole, Kate; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Alexandersen, Soren; Vosloo, Wilna

    2015-01-01

    In 2009-2011, spread of a serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belonging to the South East Asia topotype led to the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in Japan and Korea. The O1 Manisa vaccine (belonging to the Middle East-South Asian topotype) was used at high potency in Korea to limit the expansion of the outbreak. However, no data are available on the spread of this virus or the efficacy of the O1 Manisa vaccine against this virus in sheep. In this study, the early protection afforded with a high potency (>6 PD50) FMD O1 Manisa vaccine against challenge with the O/SKR/2010 virus was tested in sheep. Sheep (n=8) were vaccinated 4 days prior to continuous direct-contact challenge with donor sheep. Donor sheep were infected with FMDV O/SKR/2010 by coronary band inoculation 24h prior to contact with the vaccinated animals, or unvaccinated controls (n=4). Three of the four control sheep became infected, two clinically. All eight O1 Manisa vaccinated sheep were protected from clinical disease. None had detectable antibodies to FMDV non-structural proteins (3ABC), no virus was isolated from nasal swabs, saliva or oro-pharyngeal fluid and none became carriers. Using this model of challenge, sheep were protected against infection as early as 4 days post vaccination.

  9. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  10. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-09-24

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN(-/-)) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN(+/+)) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases.

  11. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN−/−) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN+/+) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases. PMID:26400270

  12. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley, CO AGENCY... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  13. Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., a microaerotolerant anaerobic lactic acid bacterium from the sheep rumen and pig jejunum, and emended descriptions of Olsenella, Olsenella uli and Olsenella profusa.

    PubMed

    Kraatz, Mareike; Wallace, R John; Svensson, Liselott

    2011-04-01

    Strain A2 is an anaerobic, variably Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, small and irregularly rod-shaped bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a sheep that has been described informally as a representative of 'Olsenella (basonym Atopobium) oviles'. Three phenotypically similar bacterial strains (lac15, lac16 and lac31(T)) were isolated in concert with Veillonella magna lac18(T) from the mucosal jejunum of a pig. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) formed a genetically coherent group (100 % interstrain sequence similarity) within the bigeneric Olsenella-Atopobium branch of the family Coriobacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria. This group was most closely related to the type strains of the two recognized Olsenella species, namely Olsenella uli (sequence similarity of 96.85 %) and Olsenella profusa (sequence similarity of 97.20 %). The sequence similarity to the type strain of Atopobium minutum, the type species of the genus Atopobium, was 92.33 %. Unlike those of O. uli and O. profusa, outgrown colonies of strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) were opaque and greyish-white with an umbonate elevation on solid culture media. The four novel strains were characterized as being well-adapted and presumably indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of homoeothermic vertebrates: they were mesophilic, microaerotolerant, neutrophilic and acidotolerant, bile-resistant, mucin-utilizing and markedly peptidolytic lactic acid bacteria. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, cellular fatty acid analysis and other differential phenotypic (physiological and biochemical) tests confirmed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) represent a novel species of the genus Olsenella. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic results, we therefore describe Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., with lac31(T) ( = CCUG 58604(T)  = DSM 22620(T)  = JCM 16156(T)) as the type strain and A2 ( = CCUG 58212

  14. Eradication of Taenia solium cysticercosis: a role for vaccination of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W

    1999-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in Latin America and parts of Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognised as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control of the parasite through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers. This strategy does not control the source of tapeworm infections, cysticercosis in pigs, and parasite transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human tapeworm carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into control areas. Exceptionally effective, practical vaccines have been developed against cysticercosis in sheep and cattle and a recent trial has proved recombinant antigens to be effective against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs. A new strategy for eradication of Taenia solium is proposed, based principally on a combined approach of chemotherapy of human tapeworm carriers and vaccination of all pigs at risk of infection.

  15. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In t...

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of table olive debittering & washing effluent, cattle manure and pig manure in batch and high volume laboratory anaerobic digesters: effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Zarkadas, Ioannis S; Pilidis, George A

    2011-04-01

    The prospective of table olive debittering & washing Effluent (DWE) as feed stock wastewater for anaerobic digestion (AD) systems was investigated in batch and continuous systems together with cattle and pig manures. While DWE considered unsuitable for biological treatment methods due to its unbalanced nature, the co-digestion of the wastewaters resulted in a 50% increase in the methane production/gram volatile solids(added) (CH(4)/gVS(added)), accompanied by 30% phenol reduction and 80% total organic carbon removal (TOC). pH increase during the co-digestion period was not identified as an inhibitory factor and all reactors were able to withstand this operational condition change. Moreover, no volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed, indicating that the reactors were not operating under stress-overloading state. Under thermophilic conditions a 7% increase on the TOC removal efficiency was achieved when compared to the mesophilic systems while, under mesophilic conditions phenolic compounds reduction was 10% higher compared to the thermophilic systems.

  17. Cattle bile but not bear bile or pig bile induces lipid profile changes and fatty liver injury in mice: mediation by cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    Three types of animal bile preparation, bear bile (BB), cattle bile (CB) and pig bile (PB) differ in bile acid composition and are supposed to exert different pharmacotoxicological actions. Dietary supplementation with CB at 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks decreased triacylglycerol (TAG) level but increased total cholesterol (CHO) level in serum, which were associated with fatty liver injury in mice. The increased levels of cholesterol esters (CE) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the serum and liver were observed in the mice fed the CB-supplemented diet. Lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury observed in the mice fed the CB diet were not induced by the supplementation with BB and PB. The supplementation with cholic acid (CA), the most abundant bile acid in CB, could induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which were indistinguishable from those induced by CB supplementation. CB and CA supplementation induced similar changes in the expression levels of mRNAs in the liver. Thus, CB induced lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which can be attributed to the actions of CA contained in CB. The inabilities of BB and PB to induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury are supposed to be due to their limited contents of CA.

  18. ESTviewer: a web interface for visualizing mouse, rat, cattle, pig and chicken conserved ESTs in human genes and human alternatively spliced variants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Chi; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2005-05-15

    ESTviewer is a web application for interactively visualizing human gene structures, with emphasis on mammalian and avian expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that are conserved in the human genome and alternatively spliced (AS) variants. AS variants from the UCSC, Vega and PSEP annotations are presented in this application for comparison. EST data from six species, human, mouse, rat, cattle, pig and chicken, are mapped to the human genome to show cross-species EST conservation in annotated exonic and intronic regions. Cross-species EST conservation is evolutionarily and functionally important because it represents the effects of selection pressure on genic regions and transcriptome over evolutionary time. Emphatically, ESTviewer provides a convenient tool to compare highly conserved non-human ESTs and human AS variants. The application takes human gene accession Ids or coordinates of genomic sequences as inputs and presents annotated gene structures and their AS variants. In addition, the lengths and percentages of human genic regions covered by ESTs are displayed to show the level of EST coverage of different species. The percentages of the UCSC, Vega and PSEP annotated exons covered by ESTs of the six studied species are also displayed in the interface.

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  1. Regulation of Genes Involved in Carnitine Homeostasis by PPARα across Different Species (Rat, Mouse, Pig, Cattle, Chicken, and Human)

    PubMed Central

    Ringseis, Robert; Wen, Gaiping; Eder, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents convincingly demonstrated that PPARα is a key regulator of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis, which serves as a reasonable explanation for the phenomenon that energy deprivation and fibrate treatment, both of which cause activation of hepatic PPARα, causes a strong increase of hepatic carnitine concentration in rats. The present paper aimed to comprehensively analyse available data from genetic and animal studies with mice, rats, pigs, cows, and laying hens and from human studies in order to compare the regulation of genes involved in carnitine homeostasis by PPARα across different species. Overall, our comparative analysis indicates that the role of PPARα as a regulator of carnitine homeostasis is well conserved across different species. However, despite demonstrating a well-conserved role of PPARα as a key regulator of carnitine homeostasis in general, our comprehensive analysis shows that this assumption particularly applies to the regulation by PPARα of carnitine uptake which is obviously highly conserved across species, whereas regulation by PPARα of carnitine biosynthesis appears less well conserved across species. PMID:23150726

  2. Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies. PMID:21966252

  3. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  4. An experimental subunit vaccine based on Bluetongue virus 4 VP2 protein fused to an antigen-presenting cells single chain antibody elicits cellular and humoral immune responses in cattle, guinea pigs and IFNAR(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Legisa, D M; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Gonzalez, F N; Marin-Lopez, A; Ruiz, V; Wigdorovitz, A; Martinez-Escribano, J A; Ortego, J; Dus Santos, M J

    2015-05-21

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of bluetongue disease (BT) in domestic and wild ruminants, is worldwide distributed. A total of 27 serotypes have been described so far, and several outbreaks have been reported. Vaccination is critical for controlling the spread of BTV. In the last years, subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines and reverse genetic-based vaccines have emerged as new alternatives to conventional ones. In this study, we developed an experimental subunit vaccine against BTV4, with the benefit of targeting the recombinant protein to antigen-presenting cells. The VP2 protein from an Argentine BTV4 isolate was expressed alone or fused to the antigen presenting cell homing (APCH) molecule, in the baculovirus insect cell expression system. The immunogenicity of both proteins was evaluated in guinea pigs and cattle. Titers of specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and cattle immunized with VP2 or APCH-VP2 were high and similar to those induced by a conventional inactivated vaccine. The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins was further studied in the IFNAR(-/-) mouse model where the fusion of VP2 to APCH enhanced the cellular immune response and the neutralizing activity induced by VP2.

  5. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the testis in egg-producing adults of several laboratory-maintained isolates of flukes grown to maturity in cattle and sheep and in flukes from naturally infected hosts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H; Moffett, D; McConnell, S; Fairweather, I; Brennan, G P; Trudgett, A; Hoey, E M; Cromie, L; Taylor, S M; Daniel, R

    2008-11-01

    A total of 8 calves approximately 6 months old and 22 lambs of similar age were infected with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica of various laboratory-maintained isolates including: Cullompton (sensitive to triclabendazole) and Sligo, Oberon and Leon (reported as resistant to triclabendazole). Ten to 16 weeks after infection, flukes were harvested from these experimental animals and the histology of the testis tissue was examined in a representative sample of flukes from each population. Adult wild-type flukes were also collected from 5 chronically infected cattle and 7 chronically infected sheep identified at post-mortem inspection. The testis tissue of these flukes was compared with that of the various laboratory-maintained isolates. Whilst the testes of the wild-type, Oberon and Leon flukes displayed all the usual cell types associated with spermatogenesis in Fasciola hepatica (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature sperm), the Cullompton flukes from both cattle and sheep showed arrested spermatogenesis, with no stages later than primary spermatocytes represented in the testis profiles. The presence of numerous eosinophilic apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragments suggested that meiotic division was anomalous and incomplete. In contrast to the wild-type flukes, no mature spermatozoa were present in the testes or amongst the shelled eggs in the uterus. A high proportion of the eggs collected from these flukes hatched to release normal-appearing miracidia after an appropriate incubation period, as indeed was the case with all isolates examined and the wild-type flukes. It is concluded that the eggs of Cullompton flukes are capable of development without fertilization, i.e. are parthenogenetic. The implications of this for rapid evolution of resistant clones following an anthelmintic selection event are discussed. Amongst the Sligo flukes examined, two subtypes were recognised, namely, those flukes with all stages of spermatogenesis and mature

  6. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  7. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections.

  8. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of glucocorticoid residues in edible tissues of swine, cattle, sheep, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-10-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, Lieza; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Romito, Marco; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Clift, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2-98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65-77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91-97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6-95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9-99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9-100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor utilizing maize silage in co-digestion with pig and cattle manure for biomethanation.

    PubMed

    Tomazetto, Geizecler; Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Klocke, Michael

    2014-12-20

    The bacterium Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G (DSM 28672), a mesophilic and obligate anaerobic bacterium belonging to the order Clostridiales was isolated from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. In this study, the whole genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G, a new isolate potentially involved in protein breakdown and acidogenesis during biomass degradation, is reported. The chromosome of this strain is 1.6Mb in size and encodes genes predicted to be involved in the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate specifying the acidogenic metabolism of the isolate.

  11. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    PubMed

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  12. STAGGERS IN SHEEP IN PATAGONIA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F. S.; Arnold, J. F.

    1917-01-01

    After observations and experimental work both in the field and laboratory, the following conclusions seem justified. 1. Staggers is a non-infectious disorder affecting horses, cattle, and sheep. 2. The disease is characterized by weakness, muscular twitching, irregular movements of the head, stiffness of the limbs, and transient motor paralysis, accompanied with spastic spasms on excitement. There is also a derangement of vision and conjunctivitis. 3. The postmortem lesions are not characteristic. 4. We readily produced the disease by feeding susceptible sheep on a coarse tuft grass commonly known as coiron or pampa grass (Poa argentina). 5. The time required to produce definite symptoms by feeding the grass varied. Two animals developed typical staggers after two feedings; in another instance a period of 21 days of feeding was required. The average time for the production of unmistakable symptoms in our experiments was 10 days. 6. Many sheep recover from staggers spontaneously. A complete change of diet will usually effect a cure within 2 weeks. 7. Older .animals that have pastured for long periods on lands where the grass grows become tolerant and are rarely affected with staggers. 8. The grass is toxic to sheep at all seasons of the year. We fed late winter and early spring grass and grass in flower, and produced staggers in every instance. The young green grass is as toxic as any edible portion of the plant. PMID:19868185

  13. The Contribution of the Maternal Immune System to the Establishment of Pregnancy in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Trudee

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells play an integral role in affecting successful reproductive function. Indeed, disturbed or aberrant immune function has been identified as primary mechanisms behind infertility. In contrast to the extensive body of literature that exists for human and mouse, studies detailing the immunological interaction between the embryo and the maternal endometrium are quite few in cattle. Nevertheless, by reviewing the existing studies and extrapolating from sheep, pig, mouse, and human data, we can draw a reasonably comprehensive picture. Key contributions of immune cell populations include granulocyte involvement in follicle differentiation and gamete transfer, monocyte invasion of the peri-ovulatory follicle and their subsequent role in corpus luteum formation and the pivotal roles of maternal macrophage and dendritic cells in key steps of the establishment of pregnancy, particularly, the maternal immune response to the embryo. These contributions are reviewed in detail below and key findings are discussed. PMID:25674085

  14. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  15. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  16. Strain characterization of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development.

    PubMed

    Elissondo, M C; Dopchiz, M C; Zanini, F; Pérez, H; Brasesco, M; Denegri, G

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the strain of protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development. The in vitro development of these samples was compared to samples of sheep origin determined previously by genetic analyses as common sheep strain (G1). There were similarities between sheep and cattle samples not only in the time of microcysts formation, but also in the development process. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. In the sheep samples, microcysts were observed between 19 and 20 days. In the cattle samples, microcysts appeared between 20 and 23 days. The coincidence between the development times and physiological characteristics found in the present study may indicate that the parasites from cattle and sheep were of the same strain.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of sheep and goat meats.

    PubMed

    K Chikuni; T Tabata; M Kosugiyama; M Monma; M Saito

    1994-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied to a qualitative differentiation between sheep, goat and bovine meats. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for the amplification of sheep satellite I DNA sequence. The PCR amplified 374 bp fragments from sheep and goat DNA, but no fragment from bovine, water buffalo, sika deer, pig, horse, rabbit and chicken DNA. Sheep DNA (10 pg) was detected by 4% agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification. Althoug cooking of the sample meats reduced the PCR products, sheep DNA was detected in the meat heated at 120°C. In order to differentiate between sheep and goat meats, nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were determined directly by cycle sequencing. The sequence of PCR products showed 92% of homology between sheep and goat. They were differentiated by ApaI digestion of the PCR products because sheep had one ApaI site and goat had no site in the PCR products.

  18. Immunoglobulin gene diversification in cattle.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Parng, C L; Hansal, S A; Osborne, B A; Goldsby, R A

    1997-01-01

    Research in several species has revealed that different types of mammals have evolved divergent molecular and cellular strategies for generating immunoglobulin diversity. Other chapters in this text have highlighted the specific characteristics unique to chicken, rabbit, mouse, human and sheep B lymphocyte development; namely indicating differences in the mechanisms of diversity and the site of primary B cell development. Studies of the bovine system have indicated that like the sheep system, the ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) is a likely chicken bursal equivalent, and is a site of primary B lymphocyte development. Substantial investigation in sheep has indicated that Ig diversity is created by untemplated somatic mutation and intense selective pressure (Reynaud et al., 1991). The frequency of alteration in the sheep Ig light chain gene locus also is characteristic of the bovine system, however, recent evidence from sequencing of bovine lambda light chain genes indicates that one mechanism that contributes to diversity is gene conversion, utilizing several pseudogenes located in the Ig locus (Parng et al., 1996). The mechanism by which this hyperalteration of Ig genes occurs in both sheep and cattle is poorly understood and is thus the focus of considerable investigation. The study of events in the IPP may also have informative ramifications for secondary diversification of the Ig repertoire by somatic hyperalteration in germinal centers.

  19. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3196974

  20. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The potential size and duration of an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in British sheep.

    PubMed

    Kao, R R; Gravenor, M B; Baylis, M; Bostock, C J; Chihota, C M; Evans, J C; Goldmann, W; Smith, A J A; McLean, A R

    2002-01-11

    Because there is a theoretical possibility that the British national sheep flock is infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), we examined the extent of a putative epidemic. An age cohort analysis based on numbers of infected cattle, dose responses of cattle and sheep to BSE, levels of exposure to infected feed, and number of BSE-susceptible sheep in the United Kingdom showed that at the putative epidemic peak in 1990, the number of cases of BSE-infected sheep would have ranged from fewer than 10 to about 1500. The model predicts that fewer than 20 clinical cases of BSE in sheep would be expected in 2001 if maternal transmission occurred at a rate of 10%. Although there are large uncertainties in the parameter estimates, all indications are that current prevalence is low; however, a simple model of flock-to-flock BSE transmission shows that horizontal transmission, if it has occurred, could eventually cause a large epidemic.

  2. Regional characterization of a hamster-sheep somatic cell hybrid panel.

    PubMed

    Tabet-Aoul, K; Schibler, L; Vaiman, D; Oustry-Vaiman, A; Lantier, I; Saidi-Mehtar, N; Cribiu, E P; Lantier, F

    2000-01-01

    The regional characterization of a previously obtained hamster-sheep hybrid panel is reported. Using data available from ruminant maps (sheep, cattle, and goat), we have selected a set of 300 markers and have analyzed them by PCR in this hybrid panel. Results obtained for 204 markers show the presence of all sheep chromosomes (including gonosomes) in entire or fragmented form. Analysis of syntenies has given 130 types of answer defining segments of variable sizes. This study has led to the regional characterization of this panel and provides comparative data on a set of bovine and caprine markers. With the level of characterization now achieved for this hybrid panel, the regional assignment of new genes or markers to sheep chromosomes can be rapidly obtained. Finally, this panel will help to collect new data for comparative mapping of domestic animals and to highlight the conservation of syntenic groups between closely related species, that is, sheep, cattle, and goat. PMID:10602990

  3. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously

  4. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats.

  5. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  6. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    Waltner-Toews, David; Mondesire, Roy; Menzies, Paula

    1991-01-01

    In a random sample of 103 sheep farms in Ontario, 99% of the farms had some sheep serologically positive for Toxoplasma gondii, based on an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percent of sheep affected within farms ranged from 3.8% to 97.8%, with an average flock prevalence of 57.6%. When farm management variables were considered in a multivariate analysis, significantly lower rates of serologically positive sheep were associated with neutering of female cats and clipping of ewes' perineums before lambing; significantly higher prevalence rates were found on farms where sheep were purchased from other flocks, pigs were raised on the same farm, sheep shared pasture with other animals, flowing water was available at pasture, and pastured replacements had access to housing. As well, in univariate analyses, higher prevalence was positively associated with an increasing number of cat litters born over the previous two years and offering creep feed or forage to lambs, and inversely with the amount of labor expended on sheep rearing. PMID:17423914

  7. Potential environmental consequences of administration of anthelmintics to sheep.

    PubMed

    Beynon, S A

    2012-09-30

    Anthelmintics, veterinary medicines for the control of endoparasites, enter into the environment largely through faeces of the treated animals. Sheep dung is a patchily distributed, ephemeral resource, with a functionally important decomposer community. The nature of this community and the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics in sheep mean that the ecotoxic impacts of these drugs in sheep dung may differ markedly from those in cattle dung, where most research has been focussed. The period of maximum residue excretion is generally more transient in sheep than cattle dung, but low-level excretion may continue for longer, giving the potential for extended sub-lethal effects. Here, the environmental impacts of sheep anthelmintics, as well as alternative endoparasite control methods are reviewed. Impacts are discussed in terms of the potential for residues to enter into the environment, the toxicity and the impact on ecosystem functioning at an appropriate scale. Future research priorities are also discussed; these include the need for studies of the functional contributions of dung-colonising species, as well as the development of higher-tier ecotoxicological methods bridging the gap between laboratory and field experiments. Large-scale and long-term studies, including the development of appropriate models, are necessary to allow the consequences of anthelmintic administration to be assessed, particularly within the remit of sustainable animal production.

  8. Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, K R; Mullens, B A; MacLachlan, N J

    2001-09-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an insect-transmitted virus infection of ruminants that occurs throughout much of the world. Individual gene segments differ between field strains of BTV; thus, we hypothesized that key viral genes undergo genetic drift during alternating passage of BTV in its ruminant and insect hosts. To test this hypothesis, variation in the consensus sequence and quasispecies heterogeneity of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of a plaque-purified strain of BTV serotype 10 was determined during alternating infection of vector Culicoides sonorensis and a sheep and calf. Consensus sequences were determined after reverse transcriptase-nested PCR amplification of viral RNA directly from ruminant blood and homogenized insects, and quasispecies heterogeneity was determined by the sequencing of clones derived from directly amplified viral RNA. Comparison of these sequences to those of the original BTV inoculum used to initiate the cycle of BTV infection demonstrated, for the first time, that individual BTV gene segments evolve independently of one another by genetic drift in a host-specific fashion, generating quasispecies populations in both ruminant and insect hosts. Furthermore, a unique viral variant was randomly ingested by C. sonorensis insects that fed on a sheep with low-titer viremia, thereby fixing a novel genotype by founder effect. Thus, we conclude that genetic drift and founder effect contribute to diversification of individual gene segments of field strains of BTV.

  9. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  10. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  11. Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. Since the emergence of BSE and its pr...

  12. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  13. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  14. Bacterial Content in Samples from Different Sites in the Rumen of Sheep and Cows as Determined in Two Culture Media

    PubMed Central

    Munch-Petersen, E.; Boundy, C. A. P.

    1963-01-01

    Samples of material from the rumen of cattle and of sheep were cultured in both Gall Broth (GB) and Reinforced Clostridium Medium (RCM). Samples were taken, at monthly intervals, from five sites in cattle and two sites in sheep in two series and, at weekly intervals, from two sites in cattle and in sheep in two series. Comparisons were made of the growth of organisms in the media, using the number of fertile tubes per set of six dilutions as a measure of the viable count. RCM gave a greater number of fertile tubes than GB with samples from cattle, but the reverse was the case with samples from sheep. Real differences in the number of fertile tubes from different sites in cattle were found at different times, but there was no consistent pattern. Simultaneous sampling from different sites in the rumen is, therefore, essential to provide an estimate of sampling error within animals. Although no site to site differences were detectable with rumen material from sheep, it is advisable to take more than one sample at a given time to assess sampling error. PMID:13936592

  15. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Di Pietro, Francesco; Frisiello, Michele; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%). The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4%) supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected) sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  16. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  17. Application of Selection Mapping to Identify Genomic Regions Associated with Dairy Production in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan Jose; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; García-Gámez, Elsa; Kijas, James; Wiener, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, especially in Mediterranean areas, the sheep has been traditionally exploited as a dual purpose species, with income from both meat and milk. Modernization of husbandry methods and the establishment of breeding schemes focused on milk production have led to the development of “dairy breeds.” This study investigated selective sweeps specifically related to dairy production in sheep by searching for regions commonly identified in different European dairy breeds. With this aim, genotypes from 44,545 SNP markers covering the sheep autosomes were analysed in both European dairy and non-dairy sheep breeds using two approaches: (i) identification of genomic regions showing extreme genetic differentiation between each dairy breed and a closely related non-dairy breed, and (ii) identification of regions with reduced variation (heterozygosity) in the dairy breeds using two methods. Regions detected in at least two breeds (breed pairs) by the two approaches (genetic differentiation and at least one of the heterozygosity-based analyses) were labeled as core candidate convergence regions and further investigated for candidate genes. Following this approach six regions were detected. For some of them, strong candidate genes have been proposed (e.g. ABCG2, SPP1), whereas some other genes designated as candidates based on their association with sheep and cattle dairy traits (e.g. LALBA, DGAT1A) were not associated with a detectable sweep signal. Few of the identified regions were coincident with QTL previously reported in sheep, although many of them corresponded to orthologous regions in cattle where QTL for dairy traits have been identified. Due to the limited number of QTL studies reported in sheep compared with cattle, the results illustrate the potential value of selection mapping to identify genomic regions associated with dairy traits in sheep. PMID:24788864

  18. Sheep persistently infected with Border disease readily transmit virus to calves seronegative to BVD virus.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Reichle, S F; Reichert, C; Hässig, M; Stalder, H P; Bachofen, C; Peterhans, E

    2014-01-10

    Bovine viral diarrhea- and Border disease viruses of sheep belong to the highly diverse genus pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. Ruminant pestiviruses may infect a wide range of domestic and wild cloven-hooved mammals (artiodactyla). Due to its economic importance, programs to eradicate bovine viral diarrhea are a high priority in the cattle industry. By contrast, Border disease is not a target of eradication, although the Border disease virus is known to be capable of also infecting cattle. In this work, we compared single dose experimental inoculation of calves with Border disease virus with co-mingling of calves with sheep persistently infected with this virus. As indicated by seroconversion, infection was achieved only in one out of seven calves with a dose of Border disease virus that was previously shown to be successful in calves inoculated with BVD virus. By contrast, all calves kept together with persistently infected sheep readily became infected with Border disease virus. The ease of viral transmission from sheep to cattle and the antigenic similarity of bovine and ovine pestiviruses may become a problem for demonstrating freedom of BVD by serology in the cattle population. PMID:24315041

  19. Evidence of Zoonotic Transmission of Helicobacter canis Between Sheep and Human Contacts.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Maha A; Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Seleem, Aya

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter species are newly emerging bacteria with great public implications but till now its epidemiology is not fully understood; so, this study was conducted to investigate the possible role of ruminants in the epidemiology of these pathogens. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from 149 animals (76 sheep, 33 goats, 21 cattle, and 19 buffaloes) and stool specimens from 10 animal caretakers in intimate contact with the examined animals. All samples were examined for the presence of Helicobacter species through detection of Helicobacter genus specific 16S rRNA using PCR. Then, all positive Helicobacter spp. amplicons were sequenced to recognize their species through BLAST analysis at GenBank. The overall prevalence of Helicobacter spp. was 14.8% while the distribution among the different animals was 26.3%, 3%, 4.8%, and 0% in sheep, goats, cattle, and buffaloes respectively. Helicobacter canis was the predominant species and detected only in sheep (21%) and goats (3%). Moreover, Helicobacter winghamensis and Helicobacter canadensis were also detected in sheep but not in other animals, whereas the only positive bovine sample was identified as Helicobacter bovis. On the other hand, 4 out of 10 humans were positive for Helicobacter spp. and all sequences were identified as H. canis. The sequences identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis of H. canis sequences from humans and sheep contacts revealed that one human sequence was identical to that of sheep and making sister group clade, which prove the zoonotic transmission of this pathogen between sheep and human contacts. However, our findings highlight sheep as a potential reservoir for H. canis, further researches are needed to address the potential role of sheep in the food-borne transmission of such emerging pathogen. PMID:27529744

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains isolated from humans, cattle, sheep and food in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Alonso, M Pilar; Dhabi, Ghizlane; Echeita, Aurora; González, Enrique A; Bernárdez, M Isabel; Blanco, Jorge

    2005-08-01

    A total of 722 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates recovered from humans, cattle, ovines and food during the period from 1992 to 1999 in Spain were examined to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles and their association with serotypes, phage types and virulence genes. Fifty-eight (41%) out of 141 STEC O157:H7 strains and 240 (41%) out of 581 non-O157 STEC strains showed resistance to at least one of the 26 antimicrobial agents tested. STEC O157:H7 showed a higher percentage of resistant strains recovered from bovine (53%) and beef meat (57%) than from human (23%) and ovine (20%) sources, whereas the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in non-O157 STEC was found among isolates recovered from beef meat (55%) and human patients (47%). Sulfisoxazole (36%) had the most common antimicrobial resistance, followed by tetracycline (32%), streptomycin (29%), ampicillin (10%), trimethoprim (8%), cotrimoxazole (8%), chloramphenicol (7%), kanamycin (7%), piperacillin (6%), and neomycin (5%). The multiple resistance pattern most often observed was that of streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Ten (7%) STEC O157:H7 and 71 (12%) non-O157 strains were resistant to five or more antimicrobial agents. Most strains showing resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents belonged to serotypes O4:H4 (4 strains), O8:H21 (3 strains), O20:H19 (6 strains), O26:H11 (8 strains eae-beta1), O111:H- (3 strains eae-gamma2), O118:H- (2 strains eae-beta1), O118:H16 (5 strains eae-beta1), O128:H- (2 strains), O145:H8 or O145:H- (2 strains eae-gamma1), O157:H7 (10 strains eae-gamma1), O171:H25 (3 strains), O177:H11 (5 strains eae-beta1), ONT:H- (3 strains/1 eae-beta1) and ONT:H21 (2 strains). Interestingly, most of these serotypes, i.e., those indicated in bold) were found among human STEC strains isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic-syndrome (HUS) reported in previous studies. We also detected, among non-O157 strains, an association between a higher

  1. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  2. Toxicity of the lichen secondary metabolite (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Dailey, R N; Montgomery, D L; Ingram, J T; Siemion, R; Vasquez, M; Raisbeck, M F

    2008-01-01

    Toxicity following ingestion of the vagrant, foliose lichen Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa was identified as the putative etiology in the death of an estimated 400-500 elk on the Red Rim-Daley Wildlife Habitat Management Area in Wyoming during the winter of 2004. A single, unsubstantiated report in 1939 attributed toxicity of X. chlorochroa in cattle and sheep to usnic acid, a common lichen secondary metabolite. To test the hypothesis that usnic acid is the proximate cause of death in animals poisoned by lichen, domestic sheep were dosed PO with (+)-usnic acid. Clinical signs in symptomatic ewes included lethargy, anorexia, and signs indicative of abdominal discomfort. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities were considerably elevated in symptomatic sheep. Similarly, only symptomatic ewes exhibited appreciable postmortem lesions consisting of severe degenerative appendicular skeletal myopathy. The median toxic dose (ED(50)) of (+)-usnic acid in domestic sheep was estimated to be between 485 and 647 mg/kg/day for 7 days.

  3. Normal telomere lengths found in cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Tian, X C; Xu, J; Yang, X

    2000-11-01

    Success of cloning using adult somatic cells has been reported in sheep, mice and cattle. The report that 'Dolly' the sheep, the first clone from an adult mammal, inherited shortened telomeres from her cell donor and that her telomeres were further shortened by the brief culture of donor cells has raised serious scientific and public concerns about the 'genetic age' and potential developmental problems of cloned animals. This observation was challenged by a recent report that showed calves cloned from fetal cells have longer telomeres than their age-matched controls. The question remains whether Dolly's short telomeres were an exception or a general fact, which would differ from the telomeres of fetal-derived clones. PMID:11062462

  4. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  5. Experimental poisoning of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with Indigofera suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Salvador, I S; Medeiros, R M T; Pessoa, C R M; Oliveira, D M; Duarte, A L A; Fighera, R A; Riet-Correa, F

    2011-05-01

    Indigofera suffruticosa causes hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria in cattle. The plant was administered to six groups of two guinea pigs each, at the daily dose of 10 g/kg body weight, for periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days. The guinea pigs progressively developed reduced hematocrits and hemoglobin concentrations, and finally presented anemia, without hemoglobinuria. Urine passed by guinea pigs that had ingested the plant for more than 24 h acquired a turquoise blue pigmentation 8-10 h after urination. It is suggested that the anemia is caused by the aniline contained in I. suffruticosa.

  6. Experimental poisoning of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with Indigofera suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Salvador, I S; Medeiros, R M T; Pessoa, C R M; Oliveira, D M; Duarte, A L A; Fighera, R A; Riet-Correa, F

    2011-05-01

    Indigofera suffruticosa causes hemolytic anemia and hemoglobinuria in cattle. The plant was administered to six groups of two guinea pigs each, at the daily dose of 10 g/kg body weight, for periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days. The guinea pigs progressively developed reduced hematocrits and hemoglobin concentrations, and finally presented anemia, without hemoglobinuria. Urine passed by guinea pigs that had ingested the plant for more than 24 h acquired a turquoise blue pigmentation 8-10 h after urination. It is suggested that the anemia is caused by the aniline contained in I. suffruticosa. PMID:21396390

  7. Immunologic studies in Holstein-Friesian cattle: an immunocompetence profile.

    PubMed

    Kateley, J R; Bazzell, S J

    1978-10-01

    An immunocompetence profile has been developed for Holstein-Friesian cattle. In vitro and in vivo immunoassays were used to determine (1) the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) subpopulations bearing surface-membrane receptors for sheep erythrocytes, complement, or surface immunoglobulin; (2) the PBL blastogenic response to leukoagglutinin, concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen, (3) the serum immunoglobulin concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA, (4) the humoral antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and (5) the in vitro blastogenic response and in vivo delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction to purified protein derivative in cattle immunized with BCG. PMID:362996

  8. Bovine tuberculosis in domestic pigs: Genotyping and distribution of isolates in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, S; Martínez Vivot, M; Pérez, A M; Cataldi, A A; Zumárraga, M J

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium bovis and affects primarily cattle, among many other mammal species. In this study, 250 isolates of M. bovis collected from pigs slaughtered in Argentina were typed by spoligotyping. Over half of the isolates (66%) grouped into two spoligotypes. Moreover, SB0140 was the most frequent spoligotype detected in the three performed samplings. In addition, 195 isolates were typed through variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) by selecting 7 loci (MIRU 16–26– 31 and ETR A–B–C–D). The relationship among the patterns was performed using a goeBURST algorithm and the main clonal complexes grouped 110 isolates (56%). Although pigs shared genotypes with cattle (n = 21), some patterns were detected only in pigs (n=14). These findings suggest the pig as a source ofM. bovis infection to cattle.

  9. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  10. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  11. Species-specific PCR for the identification of Cooperia curticei (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Amarante, M R V; Bassetto, C C; Neves, J H; Amarante, A F T

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural ruminants usually harbour mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. A specific diagnosis is important because distinct species can differ significantly in their fecundity and pathogenicity. Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants in subtropical/tropical environments. In Brazil, C. punctata is more adapted to cattle than sheep. Additionally, C. spatulata appears to be more adapted to cattle, whereas C. curticei is more adapted to sheep. However, infection of sheep with C. punctata is common when cattle and sheep share the same pasture. Although morphological analyses have been widely used to identify nematodes, molecular methods can overcome technical limitations and help improve species-specific diagnoses. Genetic markers in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been used successfully to detect helminths. In the present study, the ITS-1 region was analysed and used to design a species-specific oligonucleotide primer pair to identify C. curticei. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was sequenced and showed 97% similarity to C. oncophora partial ITS-1 clones and 99% similarity to the C. curticei sequence JF680982. The specificity of this primer pair was corroborated by the analysis of 17 species of helminths, including C. curticei, C. punctata and C. spatulata. Species-specific diagnosis, which has implications for rapid and reliable identification, can support studies on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematodes in a particular geographical location.

  12. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  13. Cloning cattle.

    PubMed

    Oback, B; Wells, D N

    2003-01-01

    Over the past six years, hundreds of apparently normal calves have been cloned worldwide from bovine somatic donor cells. However, these surviving animals represent less than 5% of all cloned embryos transferred into recipient cows. Most of the remaining 95% die at various stages of development from a predictable pattern of placental and fetal abnormalities, collectively referred to as the "cloning-syndrome." The low efficiency seriously limits commercial applicability and ethical acceptance of somatic cloning and enforces the development of improved cloning methods. In this paper, we describe our current standard operating procedure (SOP) for cattle cloning using zona-free nuclear transfer. Following this SOP, the output of viable and healthy calves at weaning is about 9% of embryos transferred. Better standardization of cloning protocols across and within research groups is needed to separate technical from biological factors underlying low cloning efficiency.

  14. Feeding preferences of experienced and naïve goats and sheep for the toxic plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grazing goats and cattle may learn to ingest with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preferences of experienced and non-experienced (naïve) goats and sheep for I. carnea. The study used 3 groups of 5 goats (Group 1, experi...

  15. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  16. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned cattle produced by fetal and adult cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, R; Schinogl, P; Zakhartchenko, V; Achmann, R; Schernthaner, W; Stojkovic, M; Wolf, E; Müller, M; Brem, G

    2000-07-01

    Mammals have been cloned from adult donor cells. Here we report the first cases of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy in adult mammalian clones generated from fetal and adult donor cells. The heteroplasmic clones included a healthy cattle equivalent of the sheep Dolly, for which a lack of heteroplasmy was reported.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned cattle produced by fetal and adult cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, R; Schinogl, P; Zakhartchenko, V; Achmann, R; Schernthaner, W; Stojkovic, M; Wolf, E; Müller, M; Brem, G

    2000-07-01

    Mammals have been cloned from adult donor cells. Here we report the first cases of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy in adult mammalian clones generated from fetal and adult donor cells. The heteroplasmic clones included a healthy cattle equivalent of the sheep Dolly, for which a lack of heteroplasmy was reported. PMID:10888867

  18. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  19. [Seroprevalence of antibodies to ruminant pestiviruses in sheep and goats in Tyrol (Austria)].

    PubMed

    Schiefer, P; Krametter-Frötscher, R; Schleiner, A; Loitsch, A; Golja, F; Möstl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2006-02-01

    In this study 2058 blood samples from sheep of 150 flocks from the province of Tyrol were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation tests for antibodies to ruminant pestiviruses. In the ELISA, positive results were obtained with 34.9% of individual sheep sera and in 89.3% of the sheep flocks. The prevalence in sheep and sheep flocks varied according to areas. Seroprevalence of pestiviruses was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in small ruminants pastured during summertime on the Alps. Comparative neutralisation studies were carried out on all positive blood samples with BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BDV. 443 seropositive sheep samples exhibited clearly the highest titre against one of the pestivirus strains tested. 413 revealed the highest titres (2 or more fold) to BVDV-1, 6 to BVDV-2 and 24 to BDV. In some areas a very high rate of pestivirus seroprevalence could be found. This fact could be harmful to the BVDV-Elimination and Controlling Program in cattle in Austria.

  20. [Animal welfare aspects in raising sheep].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2004-03-01

    Basing on experience in sheep herd health service light is thrown on sheep keeping in Germany concerning protection of sheep against cruelty. Despite there is at the moment no legislative regulation especially on keeping sheep, there exist a number of local and european recommendations. Cruelty and undesirable or avoidable disorders and loads occur in small sheep flocks often due to unawareness of the owner who keeps his sheep as a hobby. In large herds the increasing flock size and the more and more extensive husbandry clash increasingly with the requirements of the sheep.

  1. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  2. Brucellosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Animals that are most commonly infected include sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, among others. Transmission How ... Veterinarians Host Animals for Brucella Species Vaccination of Cattle Exposure to RB51: Laboratory Setting Exposure to RB51: ...

  3. Synthesis and secretion of the mouse whey acidic protein in transgenic sheep.

    PubMed

    Wall, R J; Rexroad, C E; Powell, A; Shamay, A; McKnight, R; Hennighausen, L

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis of foreign proteins can be targeted to the mammary gland of transgenic animals, thus permitting commercial purification of otherwise unavailable proteins from milk. Genetic regulatory elements from the mouse whey acidic protein (WAP) gene have been used successfully to direct expression of transgenes to the mammary gland of mice, goats and pigs. To extend the practical usefulness of WAP promoter-driven fusion genes and further characterize WAP expression in heterologous species, we introduced a 6.8 kb DNA fragment containing the genomic form of the mouse WAP gene into sheep zygotes. Two lines of transgenic sheep were produced. The transgene was expressed in mammary tissue of both lines and intact WAP was secreted into milk at concentrations estimated to range from 100 to 500 mg/litre. Ectopic WAP gene expression was found in salivary gland, spleen, liver, lung, heart muscle, kidney and bone marrow of one founder ewe. WAP RNA was not detected in skeletal muscle and intestine. These data suggest that unlike pigs, sheep may possess nuclear factors in a variety of tissues that interact with WAP regulatory sequences. Though the data presented are based on only two lines, these findings suggest WAP regulatory sequences may not be suitable as control elements for transgenes in sheep bioreactors. PMID:8589741

  4. Prevalence of and associated risk factors for shedding Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts within feral pig populations in California.

    PubMed Central

    Atwill, E R; Sweitzer, R A; Pereira, M G; Gardner, I A; Van Vuren, D; Boyce, W M

    1997-01-01

    Populations of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) may serve as an environmental reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts for source water. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of and associated demographic and environmental risk factors for the shedding of C. parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. Feral pigs were either live-trapped or dispatched from 10 populations located along the coastal mountains of western California, and fecal samples were obtained for immunofluorescence detection of C. parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. We found that 12 (5.4%) and 17 (7.6%) of 221 feral pigs were shedding C. parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts, respectively. The pig's sex and body condition and the presence of cattle were not associated with the probability of the shedding of C. parvum oocysts. However, younger pigs (< or = 8 months) and pigs from high-density populations (> 2.0 feral pigs/km2) were significantly more likely to shed oocysts compared to older pigs (> 8 months) and pigs from low-density populations (< or = 1.9 feral pigs/km2). In contrast, none of these demographic and environmental variables were associated with the probability of the shedding of Giardia sp. cysts among feral pigs. These results suggest that given the propensity for feral pigs to focus their activity in riparian areas, feral pigs may serve as a source of protozoal contamination for surface water. PMID:9327560

  5. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans.

  6. The sequences of the coenzyme-binding peptide in the cytoplasmic and the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases from sheep liver.

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Cavieres, M; Milstein, C P

    1975-01-01

    The sequences of the coenzyme-binding peptide of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases from sheep liver were determined. The holoenzymes were treated with NaBH4 and digested with chymotrypsin; peptides containing bound pyridoxal phosphate were then isolated. One phosphopyridoxyl peptide was obtained from sheep liver cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Its sequence was Ser-Ne-(phosphopyridoxyl)-Lys-Asn-Phe. This sequence is identical with that reported for the homologous peptide from pig heart cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Two phosphopyridoxyl peptides with different RF values were isolated from the sheep liver mitochondrial isoenzyme. They had the same N-terminal amino acid and similar amino acid composition. The mitochondrial phosphopyridoxyl peptide of highest yield and purity had the sequence Ala-Ne-(phosphopyridoxyl)-Lys-Asx-Met-Gly-Leu-Tyr. The sequence of the first four amino acids is identical with that already reported for the phosphopyridoxyl tetrapeptide from the pig heart mitochondrial isoenzyme. The heptapeptide found for the sheep liver mitochondrial isoenzyme closely resembles the corresponding sequence taken from the primary structure of the pig heart cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. PMID:1180894

  7. Distribution of Cryptosporidium species in Tibetan sheep and yaks in Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Cai, Jinzhong; Cai, Min; Wu, Wenxian; Li, Chunhua; Lei, Mengtong; Xu, Hailing; Feng, Lijun; Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-01-15

    Few data are available on the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in Tibetan sheep and yaks, which are free-range animals living in a cold, low oxygen, and high ultraviolet radiation habitat. In this study, 904 fecal specimens were collected from 350 Tibetan sheep and 554 yaks in six counties. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected and differentiated by PCR and sequence analyses. Altogether, 43 (12.3%) Tibetan sheep and 158 (28.5%) yaks were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. In Tibetan sheep, Cryptosporidium xiaoi (39/43, 90.7%) was the dominant species, with the remaining cases (4/43, 9.3%) by Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. All C. ubiquitum specimens belonged to the subtype family XIIa. In contrast, Cryptosporidium andersoni (72/158, 45.6%), Cryptosporidium bovis (47/158, 29.7%), Cryptosporidium ryanae cattle type (35/158, 22.2%), C. ryanae buffalo type (2/158, 1.3%), and Cryptosporidium suis-like (2/158, 1.3%) were identified in yaks. Contradictory to previous observations, C. andersoni was one of the dominant Cryptosporidium species in yaks in this study. Despite sharing habitats, Tibetan sheep and yaks are evidently infected with different Cryptosporidium species.

  8. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-04-16

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. PMID:8622932

  9. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  10. TALE nickase-mediated SP110 knockin endows cattle with increased resistance to tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibo; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mingqi; Lv, Jiaxing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-31

    Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome modification has been applied successfully to create transgenic animals in various species, such as mouse, pig, and even monkey. However, transgenic cattle with gene knockin have yet to be created using TALENs. Here, we report site-specific knockin of the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nickase-mediated SP110 nuclear body protein gene (SP110) via homologous recombination to produce tuberculosis-resistant cattle. In vitro and in vivo challenge and transmission experiments proved that the transgenic cattle are able to control the growth and multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis, turn on the apoptotic pathway of cell death instead of necrosis after infection, and efficiently resist the low dose of M. bovis transmitted from tuberculous cattle in nature. In this study, we developed TALE nickases to modify the genome of Holstein-Friesian cattle, thereby engineering a heritable genome modification that facilitates resistance to tuberculosis.

  11. TALE nickase-mediated SP110 knockin endows cattle with increased resistance to tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibo; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mingqi; Lv, Jiaxing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome modification has been applied successfully to create transgenic animals in various species, such as mouse, pig, and even monkey. However, transgenic cattle with gene knockin have yet to be created using TALENs. Here, we report site-specific knockin of the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nickase-mediated SP110 nuclear body protein gene (SP110) via homologous recombination to produce tuberculosis-resistant cattle. In vitro and in vivo challenge and transmission experiments proved that the transgenic cattle are able to control the growth and multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis, turn on the apoptotic pathway of cell death instead of necrosis after infection, and efficiently resist the low dose of M. bovis transmitted from tuberculous cattle in nature. In this study, we developed TALE nickases to modify the genome of Holstein–Friesian cattle, thereby engineering a heritable genome modification that facilitates resistance to tuberculosis. PMID:25733846

  12. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  13. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  14. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  15. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  16. Comparative Susceptibility of Sheep of Different Origins, Breeds and PRNP Genotypes to Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; Goldmann, Wilfred; Foster, James; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sheep are natural hosts of the prion disease, scrapie. They are also susceptible to experimental challenge with various scrapie strains and with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which affects cattle and has been accidentally transmitted to a range of other species, including man. Incidence and incubation period of clinical disease in sheep following inoculation is controlled by the PRNP gene, which has different alleles defined on the basis of polymorphisms, particularly at codons 136, 154 and 171, although other codons are associated with survival time, and the exact responses of the sheep may be influenced by other breed-related differences. Here we report the results of a long term single study of experimental scrapie and BSE susceptibility of sheep of Cheviot, Poll Dorset and Suffolk breeds, originating from New Zealand and of a wide range of susceptible and resistant PRNP genotypes. Responses were compared with those of sheep from a closed Cheviot flock of UK origin (Roslin Cheviot flock). The unusually long observation period (6-8 years for most, but up to 12 years for others) allows us to draw robust conclusions about rates of survival of animals previously regarded as resistant to infection, particularly PRNP heterozygotes, and is the most comprehensive such study reported to date. BSE inoculation by an intracerebral route produced disease in all genotype groups with differing incubation periods, although M112T and L141F polymorphisms seemed to give some protection. Scrapie isolate SSBP/1, which has the shortest incubation period in sheep with at least one VRQ PRNP allele, also produced disease following sub-cutaneous inoculation in ARQ/ARQ animals of New Zealand origin, but ARQ/ARQ sheep from the Roslin flock survived the challenge. Our results demonstrate that the links between PRNP genotype and clinical prion disease in sheep are much less secure than previously thought, and may break down when, for example, a different breed of sheep is moved

  17. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  18. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  19. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  20. Leucopenia in Trypanosoma vivax infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Igbokwe, I O; Anosa, V O

    1989-01-01

    Experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection of sheep produced a moderate leucopenia associated with a lymphopenia and eosinopenia. The total white blood cell counts of adult mice were not significantly depressed when inoculated with plasma from T. vivax-infected sheep. These observations suggested that the plasma of the infected sheep did not have a factor which could depress leucopoiesis in vivo.

  1. Immune Responses of Sheep to Quadrivalent Double Emulsion Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines: Rate of Development of Immunity and Variations among Other Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prasanna K.; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Ramakrishna, Chitimalla; Hugar, Basavesh; Misra, Laxmi D.; Prabhudas, Krishnamsetty; Natarajan, C.

    2002-01-01

    Despite representing the majority of the world's foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-susceptible livestock, sheep and goats have generally been neglected with regard to their epidemiological role in the spread of FMD. In the present investigations, FMD virus quadrivalent double emulsion (Montanide ISA 206) vaccines were tested in sheep. The oil adjuvant elicited a better immune response at any time than did aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine, and the response developed quicker. The animals maintained their neutralizing antibody titers at >3 log10 for the duration of the trial (90 days). Sheep were found to be late responders to serotypes A, C, and Asia-1; a clear upward shift in titer was observed at 60 days postvaccination. However, development of the immune response to serotype O in sheep was superior to that in cattle and goats. PMID:12409434

  2. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  3. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  4. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep.

  5. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  6. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  7. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  8. Efficient production and cellular characterization of sheep androgenetic embryos.

    PubMed

    Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Iuso, Domenico; Toschi, Paola; di Egidio, Fiorella; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Loi, Pasqualino; Ptak, Grazyna

    2011-12-01

    The production of androgenetic embryos in large animals is a complex procedure. Androgenetic embryos have been produced so far only in cattle and sheep using pronuclear transfer (PT) between zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) of previously enucleated oocytes. PT is required due to the poor developmental potential of androgenotes derived from IVF of enucleated oocytes. Here we compare the developemt to blastocyst of androgenetic embryos produced by the standard pronuclear transfer and by fertilization of oocytes enucleated in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium, without pronuclear transfer. The enucleation in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium abolished almost completely the manipulation-induced activation, significantly improving the development to blastocyst of the androgenetic embryos (IVF followed by PT; 18.6%: IVF only; 17.7%, respectively). Karyotype analysis of IVF revealed a similar proportion of diploid embryos in androgenetic and control blastocysts (35% and 36%, respectively), although mixoploid blastocysts were frequently observed in both groups (64%). Androgenotes had lower total cell numbers than control and parthenogenetic embryos, but more cells in ICM cells comparing to parthenogenotes (30.42 vs. 17.15%). Higher expression of the pluripotency-associated gene NANOG, and trophoblastic-specific gene CDX2, were also observed in androgenotes compared to parthenogenotes and controls. The global methytion profile of androgenetic embryos was comparable to controls, but was lower than parthenogenetic embryos. The cell composition and methylation pattern we have detected in monoparental sheep monoparental embryos are unprecedented, and differ considerably from the standard reference mouse embryos. Altogether, these finding indicate significant differences across species in the molecular mechanisms regulating early development of monoparental embryos, and highlights the need to study postimplantation development of androgenetic embryos in sheep.

  9. Efficient Production and Cellular Characterization of Sheep Androgenetic Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Iuso, Domenico; Toschi, Paola; di Egidio, Fiorella; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Ptak, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production of androgenetic embryos in large animals is a complex procedure. Androgenetic embryos have been produced so far only in cattle and sheep using pronuclear transfer (PT) between zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) of previously enucleated oocytes. PT is required due to the poor developmental potential of androgenotes derived from IVF of enucleated oocytes. Here we compare the developemt to blastocyst of androgenetic embryos produced by the standard pronuclear transfer and by fertilization of oocytes enucleated in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium, without pronuclear transfer. The enucleation in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium abolished almost completely the manipulation-induced activation, significantly improving the development to blastocyst of the androgenetic embryos (IVF followed by PT; 18.6%: IVF only; 17.7%, respectively). Karyotype analysis of IVF revealed a similar proportion of diploid embryos in androgenetic and control blastocysts (35% and 36%, respectively), although mixoploid blastocysts were frequently observed in both groups (64%). Androgenotes had lower total cell numbers than control and parthenogenetic embryos, but more cells in ICM cells comparing to parthenogenotes (30.42 vs. 17.15%). Higher expression of the pluripotency-associated gene NANOG, and trophoblastic-specific gene CDX2, were also observed in androgenotes compared to parthenogenotes and controls. The global methytion profile of androgenetic embryos was comparable to controls, but was lower than parthenogenetic embryos. The cell composition and methylation pattern we have detected in monoparental sheep monoparental embryos are unprecedented, and differ considerably from the standard reference mouse embryos. Altogether, these finding indicate significant differences across species in the molecular mechanisms regulating early development of monoparental embryos, and highlights the need to study postimplantation development of androgenetic embryos in sheep. PMID:22043807

  10. Intensive sheep and beef production from pasture--a New Zealand perspective of concerns, opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Morris, S T; Kenyon, P R

    2014-11-01

    This paper details current production trends for sheep and beef cattle production in New Zealand and gives some insight into the opportunities for improvement based on New Zealand research at Massey University. Further it outlines some of the challenges the industries face in the near future. The New Zealand climate favours pasture growth and this is the key to sheep and beef cattle production with over 95% of the diet being grazed pasture or crop. Exports are the focus of the industry with 95% of sheep meat and wool, and 80% of beef exported. There have been considerable gains in production over the last 20 years but there still remains a huge opportunity for further intensification through breeding sheep at an earlier age, increasing the weight of lambs weaned per ewe per year and improving beef production systems. These improvements need to occur within a framework of minimal environmental footprint and produce products that are in demand in the high end international markets. PMID:24998778

  11. PCR detection of ovine herpesvirus-2 DNA in Indonesian ruminants--normal sheep and clinical cases of malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Wiyono, A; Baxter, S I; Saepulloh, M; Damayanti, R; Daniels, P; Reid, H W

    1994-09-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal viral disease of cattle and other large ruminants, has a worldwide distribution. There are two forms of the disease, one of which, is caused by Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1) and is derived from wildebeest. The other form is associated with domestic sheep and is caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2). The disease in Indonesia is sheep-associated with the preferred livestock of this area, Balinese cattle (Bos javanicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), both highly susceptible to SA-MCF. The incidence in these species is thought to be high but the prevalence and economic losses attributable to SA-MCF have been difficult to assess. a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, based on a cloned OHV-2 gene sequence, was successfully applied to the detection of OHV-2 DNA in normal sheep and animals affected with SA-MCF. OHV-2 DNA was detected in eleven confirmed cases of SA-MCF and in the peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) fraction of six latently infected sheep. These findings have confirmed that the PCR can be of value in establishing a diagnosis of MCF and that the aetiological agent of MCF in Indonesia is OHV-2. The amplification of DNA from the PBL of goats suggests that they are infected with a similar or identical herpesvirus.

  12. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  13. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden) from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4), Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3), Providencia rettgeri (n = 2), Serratia marcescens (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in the

  15. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  16. Prenatal development of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Nourinezhad, Jamal; Gilanpour, Hassan; Radmehr, Bijan

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at clarifying the detailed morphological and topographical changes of the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk of sheep during fetal development. Bilateral micro-dissection of the thoracic sympathetic trunk was performed on 40 sheep fetuses aged 6-20 weeks (18 males and 22 females) under a stereomicroscope. The cervicothoracic ganglion (CTG) was observed on 75/80 sides (93.7%) and was composed of the caudal cervical and the first thoracic ganglia on 45/80 sides (56.2%), and of the caudal cervical and the first two thoracic ganglia on 30/80 sides (37.5%). The presence of the two last (12th-13th) thoracic ganglia was not constant. The influence of the sex, the side of the body, and the ages of the fetus on the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk in sheep were identified. In spite of the differences in the morphology and topography of the thoracic sympathetic trunk between early and late fetal developments, the morphology and topography of the older fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk tended to be similar to that of the adult sheep. To comprehend the comparative morphology of the fetal thoracic sympathetic trunk more completely, our results were compared with previous studies. Consequently, differences and similarities in the composition and position of the CTG, presence of single caudal cervical ganglion without fusion to the thoracic ganglia, and absence of the thoracic ganglia, and presence of splitting of the interganglionic branch were found among sheep, pig, and human fetuses. Therefore, sheep might be the appropriate animal model to be applied in human sympathetic nervous system. PMID:23639816

  17. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  18. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallographic studies of galectin-11 from domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Dhanasekaran; Littler, Dene; Shahine, Adam; Troy, Sally; Johnson, Matthew; Rossjohn, Jamie; Piedrafita, David; Beddoe, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins that translate glycan recognition into cellular effects. Galectin-11 is a unique member of the galectin family that is only expressed in ruminants such as sheep, goat and cattle and that plays a critical role in several important biological processes, such as reproduction and parasite-mediated innate immune responses. Currently, these two areas are of major importance for the sustainability of ruminant livestock production. Despite the emerging biological significance of galectin-11, no structural information is available. It is expected that structural studies will unravel the functional mechanisms of galectin-11 activity. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ruminant-specific galectin-11 from domestic sheep and the collection of X-ray data to 2.0 Å resolution are reported.

  19. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  20. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  1. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium.

  2. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25508945

  3. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25486814

  4. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  5. Similar Patterns of Infection with Bovine Foamy Virus in Experimentally Inoculated Calves and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are the least known retroviruses commonly found in primates, cats, horses, and cattle. Although FVs are considered apathogenic, simian and feline FVs have been shown to be associated with some transient health abnormalities in animal models. Currently, data regarding the course of infection with bovine FV (BFV) are not available. In this study, we conducted experimental infections of natural (cattle) and heterologous (sheep) hosts with the BFV100 isolate and monitored infection patterns in both hosts during the early phase postinoculation as well as after long-term infection. Four calves and six sheep inoculated with BFV100 showed no signs of pathology but developed persistent infection, as confirmed by virus rescue, consistent detection of BFV-specific antibodies, and presence of viral DNA. In both hosts, antibodies against BFV Gag and Bet appeared early after infection and persisted at high and stable levels while seroreactivity toward Env was consistently detectable only in BFV-infected sheep. Interestingly, the BFV proviral DNA load was highest in lung, spleen, and liver and moderate in leukocytes, while salivary glands contained either low or undetectable DNA loads in calves or sheep, respectively. Additionally, comparison of partial BFV sequences from inoculum and infected animals demonstrated very limited changes after long-term infection in the heterologous host, clearly less than those found in BFV field isolates. The persistence of BFV infection in both hosts suggests full replication competence of the BFV100 isolate with no requirement of genetic adaptation for productive replication in the authentic and even in a heterologous host. PMID:23325680

  6. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  7. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  8. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue-Hui; Gao, Hui-Jiang; He, Jian-Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-02-01

    The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of the Chinese mainland. Six microsatellites were genotyped for 611 individuals from 14 populations. The mean number of alleles (±SD) ranged from 7.00 ± 3.69 in Gangba sheep to 10.50 ± 4.23 in Tibetan sheep. The observed heterozygote frequency (±SD) within a population ranged from 0.58 ± 0.03 in Gangba sheep to 0.71 ± 0.03 in Zazakh sheep and Minxian black fur sheep. In addition, there was a low pairwise difference among the Minxian black fur sheep, Mongolian sheep, Gansu alpine merino, and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. Bayesian analysis with the program STRUCTURE showed support for 3 clusters, revealing a vague genetic clustering pattern with geographic location. The results of the current study inferred high genetic diversity within these native sheep in the Chinese mainland. PMID:26865968

  9. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue-Hui; Gao, Hui-Jiang; He, Jian-Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-02-01

    The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of the Chinese mainland. Six microsatellites were genotyped for 611 individuals from 14 populations. The mean number of alleles (±SD) ranged from 7.00 ± 3.69 in Gangba sheep to 10.50 ± 4.23 in Tibetan sheep. The observed heterozygote frequency (±SD) within a population ranged from 0.58 ± 0.03 in Gangba sheep to 0.71 ± 0.03 in Zazakh sheep and Minxian black fur sheep. In addition, there was a low pairwise difference among the Minxian black fur sheep, Mongolian sheep, Gansu alpine merino, and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. Bayesian analysis with the program STRUCTURE showed support for 3 clusters, revealing a vague genetic clustering pattern with geographic location. The results of the current study inferred high genetic diversity within these native sheep in the Chinese mainland.

  10. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-07-13

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice.

  11. Acquired transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion to wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE that is transmissible to cattle and several lines of prion protein (PrP) transgenic mice, but not to wild-type mice. In this study, we examined the transmissibility of sheep-passaged L-BSE prions to wild-type mice. Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) was detected in the brain and/or lymphoid tissues during the lifespan of mice that were asymptomatic subclinical carriers, indicating that wild-type mice were susceptible to sheep-passaged L-BSE. The morphological characteristics of the PrP(Sc) of sheep-passaged L-BSE included florid plaques that were distributed mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of subsequent passaged mice. The PrP(Sc) glycoform profiles of wild-type mice infected with sheep-passaged L-BSE were similar to those of the original isolate. The data indicate that sheep-passaged L-BSE has an altered host range and acquired transmissibility to wild-type mice. PMID:26169916

  12. Development of sheep kidney cells with increased resistance to different subgenotypes of BVDV-1 by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Ma, Qiman; Wang, Jiangde; Wang, Dawei; Zhao, Xinxia; Cao, Yang; Li, Qifeng; Hu, Shengwei; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-06-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be a ubiquitous viral pathogen to the cattle and sheep industry. This pathogen is responsible for severe economic losses. We previously showed that plasmid-mediated dual short hairpin RNA (shRNA) efficiently inhibit BVDV replication in bovine kidney epithelial (MDBK) cells. In this study, we delivered the dual shRNA system to sheep fibroblasts and generated transgenic cell colonies. These transgenic fibroblasts were further used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three lambs were born at full term, but perished soon after birth. Integration of shRNA into the genome of cloned sheep was confirmed by PCR and expression of shRNA in transgenic sheep was confirmed by real-time PCR. Kidney epithelial cells were isolated from transgenic sheep and challenged with multiple BVDV subgenotypes (BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b and BVDV-1c). The dual shRNA expressed in transgenic kidney epithelial cells significantly inhibited BVDV replication in a cross-resistance manner. Our results showed that transgenic RNAi might be a useful tool for preparation of transgenic animals with increased resistance to BVDV.

  13. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  14. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Corr, S A; Gutierrez, C G; Fisher, P A; Lee, J-H; Rathbone, A J; Choi, I; Campbell, K H S; Gardner, D S

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals.

  15. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K D; Corr, S A; Gutierrez, C G; Fisher, P A; Lee, J-H; Rathbone, A J; Choi, I; Campbell, K H S; Gardner, D S

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7-9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  16. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD.

  17. Sex-sorting sperm by flow cytometry in pigs: issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Vazquez, J L; Martínez, E A

    2009-01-01

    Several hundred thousand offspring of preselected sex of various species have been born since sperm sexing technology based on flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm and DNA was first demonstrated in 1989. The advantages derived from application of sexing technology to commercial dairy cattle production have been demonstrated worldwide. Utilizing sex-sorting technology for pig production systems offers many similar advantages. However, several factors currently limit implementation of sexing technology in pigs. Anatomical and physiological features inherent to the female pig, together with the relatively low sperm output of a flow sorter, are the main limitations to widespread use of this technology in pig production systems. This review analyzes the factors that limit the efficiency of sperm sorting technology for commercial swine production. In addition, this review discusses recent innovations in technical instrumentation and applied reproductive techniques that may help to overcome some of these limitations. PMID:18977521

  18. Vaccinia Virus Recombinants: Expression of VSV Genes and Protective Immunization of Mice and Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackett, M.; Yilma, T.; Rose, J. K.; Moss, B.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. When DNA copies of messenger RNA's for the G or N proteins of VSV were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized VSV polypeptides. After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV. In cattle, the degree of protection against intradermalingually injected VSV was correlated with the level of neutralizing antibody produced following vaccination.

  19. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  20. Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps☆

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Öncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2008-01-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic

  1. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  2. Suppression of sheep and goat lymphocyte proliferation by sheep, goat, and sheep x goat hybrid trophoblast tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; White, K L; Horohov, D W

    1991-11-01

    Immunosuppressive activity of conditioned medium from cultured ovine, caprine, and hybrid trophoblast tissue was examined. Conceptuses were obtained from naturally mated donor ewes and does at d 20 of gestation and trophoblast tissue was cultured for 24 h in medium supplemented with 15% calf serum and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. Conditioned medium was added to pokeweed mitogen-stimulated sheep and goat lymphocyte cultures. Quantification of [3H]thymidine uptake by cells was used to measure lymphocyte proliferation. Ovine, caprine, and hybrid conditioned medium effectively suppressed sheep and goat lymphocyte proliferation (P less than .01). There were no differences (P greater than .05) between the immunosuppressive activity of the three tissue types on either sheep or goat lymphocytes. For all treatment groups, sheep lymphocytes were suppressed more than goat lymphocytes (P less than .05). These results indicate that, at d 20 of gestation, sheep x goat hybrid trophoblast tissue is capable of suppressing pokeweed mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:1752830

  3. RFamide-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in the porcine hypothalamus indicates thepresence of a gonadotropin-inhibitory system in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was identified as an RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) in avian species. Mammalian orthologs (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) have been reported in the human, rodents, and recently in sheep, but the role of RFRPs in the domestic pig is not established. We hypothesize that a Gn...

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184115

  7. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  8. Methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Johnson, D E

    1995-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.

  9. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1981-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics of oxfendazole and its sulfone metabolite were determined in 6 sheep. Oxfendazole achieved mean peak plasma concentrations of 0.76 micrograms/ml at 30 hours after oral administration of oxfendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight), and concentrations were detectable for up to 7 days after administration. Mean peak abomasal concentrations of 3.55 micrograms/ml occurred 20 hours after administration and were detectable up to 9 days after administration. Concentrations of sulfone in plasma and abomasal fluid were generally lower than were those of oxfendazole.

  11. [Occurrence of quinolone and sulfonamide antibiotics in swine and cattle manures from large-scale feeding operations of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of four quinolones and four sulfonamides in swine and cattle feces sampled from twenty large-scale feeding operations in different areas of Guangdong province were detected using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quinolone and sulfonamide compounds were observed in all pig dung samples. Their total concentrations ranged from 24.5 microg/kg to 1516.2 microg/kg (F. W.) with an average of 581.0 microg/kg and ranged from 1925.9-13399.5 microg/kg with an average of 4403.9 microg/kg respectively. The dominant compounds in pig feces were ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin for quinolones and sulfamerazine and sulfamethoxazole for sulfonamides. Quinolone compounds which dominated with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also observed in all cattle dung samples, its total concentrations ranged from 73.2 microg/kg to 1328.0 microg/kg which averaged 572.9 microg/kg. While the positive rates of sulfonamide compounds detected in cattle dung samples were above 90%, predominated by sulfamethoxazole and sulfamerazine. Concentration and distribution of both quinolone and sulfonamide compounds in swine and cattle dungs of different feeding operations varied greatly. Relatively high concentrations of the two kinds of antibiotics were found in both swine and cattle dungs from Guangzhou area, while sulfameter and sulfamethazine in cattle dungs from Foshan and Shenzhen areas were below the limit of detection. PMID:21717768

  12. Evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of and risk factors for Bluetongue serotype 1 epidemics in sheep Extremadura (Spain), 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Linaza, Ana V; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Moreno, José Carlos; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet. This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from 2007 to 2011 and to identify the risk factors that contributed to the seasonal occurrence of BTV-1 in this region. The results showed that risk factors contributing to BTV-1 occurrence in sheep changed between 2007 and 2011. Initially, when the population was still immunologically naïve, the main risk factors for BTV-1 occurrence were extensive management practices, large sheep farms and Culicoides abundance on farms. However, after the implementation of vaccination, other factors became more relevant for BTV-1 occurrence, mostly related to BTV reservoirs, such as the proximity of cattle farms or the introduction of cattle into farms. The Talaverana sheep breed also seemed to be associated with a significantly higher risk of BTV-1 occurrence, although it may be due to confounding factors, such as the geographical concentration of where this breed is kept and/or management practises used for this breed. The results of this study suggest that preventive and control strategies, including vaccination and active surveillance strategies, should be primarily focused on cattle farms kept in close vicinity to sheep flocks as well as in high-risk sheep farms (i.e. farms with a large farm size keeping both cattle and sheep and with a high number of animal introductions). Methods and results presented here may be used to guide decisions for the

  13. A live vaccine from Brucella abortus strain 82 for control of cattle brucellosis in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Arkady V; Salmakov, Konstantin M; Olsen, Steven C; Plumb, Glenn E

    2011-06-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis due to Brucella abortus in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially non-existent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950s, 2-3 million cattle were being vaccinated annually with the strain 19 vaccine, but because this vaccine induced strong, long-term titers on agglutination tests that interfered with identification of cattle infected with field strains of B. abortus, its use in cattle was discontinued in 1970. Soviet scientists then began a comprehensive program of research to identify vaccines with high immunogenicity, weak responses on agglutination tests and low pathogenicity in humans, as a foundation for widespread control of cattle brucellosis. While several new vaccines that induced weak or no responses on serologic agglutination tests were identified by experiments in guinea pigs and cattle, a large body of experimental and field studies suggested that the smooth-rough strain SR82 vaccine combined the desired weak agglutination test responses with comparatively higher efficacy against brucellosis. In 1974, prior to widespread use of strain SR82 vaccine, over 5300 cattle farms across the Russian Federation were known to be infected with B. abortus. By January 2008, only 68 cattle farms in 18 regions were known to be infected with B. abortus, and strain SR82 continues to be the most widely and successfully used vaccine in many regions of the Russian Federation.

  14. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  15. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  16. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  17. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  18. Chromosomal distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus proviral sequences in the sheep genome.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jonathan; Lyon, Monique; Bishop, Jeanette; Vaiman, Anne; Cribiu, Edmond; Mornex, Jean-François; Brown, Susan; Knudson, Dennis; DeMartini, James; Leroux, Caroline

    2003-09-01

    A family of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRV) closely related to Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is ubiquitous in domestic and wild sheep and goats. Southern blot hybridization studies indicate that there is little active replication or movement of the enJSRV proviruses in these species. Two approaches were used to investigate the distribution of proviral loci in the sheep genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to metaphase chromosome spreads using viral DNA probes was used to detect loci on chromosomes. Hybridization signals were reproducibly detected on seven sheep chromosomes and eight goat chromosomes in seven cell lines. In addition, a panel of 30 sheep-hamster hybrid cell lines, each of which carries one or more sheep chromosomes and which collectively contain the whole sheep genome, was examined for enJSRV sequences. DNA from each of the lines was used as a template for PCR with JSRV gag-specific primers. A PCR product was amplified from 27 of the hybrid lines, indicating that JSRV gag sequences are found on at least 15 of the 28 sheep chromosomes, including those identified by FISH. Thus, enJSRV proviruses are essentially randomly distributed among the chromosomes of sheep and goats. FISH and/or Southern blot hybridization on DNA from several of the sheep-hamster hybrid cell lines suggests that loci containing multiple copies of enJSRV are present on chromosomes 6 and 9. The origin and functional significance of these arrays is not known. PMID:12915578

  19. Sheep as an important source of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre

    2014-08-27

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a globally important foodborne pathogen and has been mainly associated with cattle as the reservoir. However, accumulating data shows the importance of sheep as an E. coli O157:H7 vehicle. The presence of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in recto-anal mucosal swap and carcass sponge samples of 100 sheep brought to the slaughterhouse in Kirikkale were analyzed over a year. Molecular characteristics (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3, espA, eae-α1, eae-α2, eae-β, eae-β1, eae-β2, eae-γ1, eae-γ2/θ, stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f, stx2g, blaampC, tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), sul1, sul2, floR, cmlA, strA, strB and aadA) of 79 isolates were determined and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 different antibiotics were investigated. E. coli O157/O157:H7 was found in 18% of sheep included in the study and was more prevalent in yearlings than lambs and mature sheep, and male than female sheep, though none of the categories (season, sex or age range) had significant effect on prevalence. Furthermore, Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 was determined in 2% and 8% of sheep feces and carcasses, respectively. Additionally, lpfA1-3 and eae-γ1 were detected in all isolates. None of the isolates showed resistance against investigated antibiotics, even though 4 sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157 isolates were positive for tet(A), sul1 and aadA. This is the first study in Turkey that reveals the potential public health risk due to the contamination of sheep carcasses with potentially highly pathogenic STEC O157:H7 strains.

  20. Prevalence and molecular typing of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in England and Wales and examination of potential on-farm transmission routes.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Cheney, T; Giles, M

    2014-08-29

    An average of 70 samples were collected from 80 dairy farms in England and Wales, from cattle, co-grazed sheep, wildlife and farm wastes, to investigate prevalence, potential sources and transmission routes of Cryptosporidium. At least one positive sample was detected on 74 of the farms (92.5%) by IFAT microscopy. The prevalence in cattle was 10.2% (95% CI 9.4-11.1%), with greater prevalences detected in calf samples, especially from those under 1 month (45.1%). Young calves were also more likely to be shedding Cryptosporidium parvum and larger concentrations of oocysts, whereas older calves and adult cattle were more likely to be shedding Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium andersoni, respectively. The C. parvum subtypes detected were predominantly from types commonly identified in UK cattle (67% were either IIaA15G2R1 or IIaA17G1R1). A novel subtype, IIaA17G1R2, was identified from one cattle sample. The prevalence in co-grazed sheep was low (4%). Birds and rodents may represent significant reservoirs of Cryptosporidium due to high prevalence, large oocyst concentrations, and the detection of a C. parvum subtype known to be present in human populations, identified in samples from these wildlife. Cryptosporidium were detected in dirty water and manure, and also from pasture samples where slurry had been spread. On 64% of the farms, identical Cryptosporidium species were detected (mainly C. parvum or C. bovis) from different cattle groups on the farms, although no direct or indirect contact between the groups were recorded, apart from sharing staff. The same Cryptosporidium species were found in cattle, farm wastes and bird samples on the same farms, but rarely, or not at all, present in sheep or rodent samples. The matching of species/subtypes was also related to the proximity of the different sample sources which may indicate a potential transmission route.

  1. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. PMID:27478131

  2. Delivery of Echinococcus granulosus antigen EG95 to mice and sheep using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S; Fleming, S B; Ueda, N; Heath, D D; Hibma, M H; Mercer, A A

    2012-06-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease and affects sheep, cattle, dogs and humans worldwide. It has a two-stage life cycle existing as worms in the gut of infected dogs (definitive host) and as cysts in herbivores and humans (intermediate host). The disease is debilitating and can be life threatening where the cysts interfere with organ function. Interruption of the hydatid life cycle in the intermediate host by vaccination may be a way to control the disease, and a protective oncosphere antigen EG95 has been shown to protect animals against challenge with E. granulosus eggs. We explored the use of recombinant vaccinia virus as a delivery vehicle for EG95. Mice and sheep were immunized with the recombinant vector, and the result monitored at the circulating antibody level. In addition, sera from immunized mice were assayed for the ability to kill E. granulosus oncospheres in vitro. Mice immunized once intranasally developed effective oncosphere-killing antibody by day 42 post-infection. Antibody responses and oncosphere killing were correlated and were significantly enhanced by boosting mice with either EG95 protein or recombinant vector. Sheep antibody responses to the recombinant vector or to EG95 protein mirrored those in mice.

  3. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China.

  4. Nonsurgical embryo recovery and transfer in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C

    2016-07-01

    The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.

  5. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  6. Short communication: Effects of feeding level on energy concentration in grass silage-based diets offered to dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Yan, T; Ferris, C P; Agnew, R E; Gordon, F J

    2004-05-01

    Twelve grass silages were offered to sheep as a sole diet at maintenance and to lactating dairy cows ad libitum as mixed silage and concentrates diets (n = 13 diets). Fecal and urinary energy outputs were measured for silages and mixed diets. Digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations for mixed diets with sheep at maintenance were estimated based on the silage dry matter (DM) proportion obtained in the cattle trials, the silage energy utilization values (methane energy-predicted) determined using sheep, and tabulated concentrate values. A comparison of dietary mean data (n = 13) indicated that concentrations of ME (P < 0.01) and DE (P < 0.001) in mixed diets were significantly lower for cows at production feeding level than for sheep at maintenance. The reductions were proportionately 0.015 and 0.020 with each unit increase in feeding level above maintenance, respectively. These ME and DE data were also used to evaluate the feeding level correction factors previously proposed by Van Es (1975) (ME, 0.018) and Yan et al. (2002) (ME, 0.016; DE, 0.025) using the mean square prediction error technique. The ME correction factor proposed by Yan et al. (2002) had a greater prediction accuracy than that proposed by Van Es (1975) for the prediction of ME concentration in mixed diets offered to dairy cattle at production feeding level.

  7. [Reproduction of beef cattle].

    PubMed

    de Kruif, A; Mijten, P; Van den Branden, J; Opsomer, G

    1992-03-01

    The literature on the reproduction of beef cattle is reviewed in the present paper. To begin with the differences between dairy and beef cattle are elucidated. Secondly, the most important reproductive problems of beef cows are discussed. Items discussed include: the arrival of puberty, the interval between parturition and the first service and infertility. In Belgium, where nearly all beef cows belong to the double muscled White and Blue breed and have to be delivered by caesarean sections, many fertility problems are due to adhesions between the uterus and the surrounding tissues. Besides the quality of the semen of many of the bulls used is rather poor. This is probably caused by the extreme selection for beef production. Finally, the criteria which should be used to determine the reproductive efficiency of beef cows are discussed. Such as the percentage of pregnant cows, the proportion of live and weaned calves and the calving interval. PMID:1542865

  8. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  9. Cloning of the Xuhuai goat PPARγ gene and the preparation of transgenic sheep.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yurong; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Yani; Zhu, Caiye; Gao, Bo; Yin, Yanhui; Li, Wei; Shi, Qingqing; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xu, Qi; Song, Jiuzhou; Li, Bichun

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to clone the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene of the Xuhuai goat and to make transgenic sheep using intratesticular injection, so as to improve the meat quality and flavor by increasing the intramuscular fat content. The coding sequence of the goat PPARγ gene was 1,428 bp, encoding 475 amino acids. Its similarity with other species was 81 (chicken), 89 (mouse), 92 (pig), 98 (cow), and 99% (sheep). The similarity of the corresponding amino acid sequences was 92.9, 97.3, 98.3, 99.6, and 99.8%, respectively. The signal peptide region of the PPARγ protein was not found in this study, demonstrating that the protein is not secreted. RT-PCR and western blot revealed that PPARγ was expressed in vitro, and the protein was localized in the cytoplasm. The PPARγ gene was expressed in F1 transgenic sheep at both the mRNA and the protein levels; the positive ratio was 13.7%.

  10. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  11. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  12. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of fenbendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Marriner, S E; Bogan, J A

    1981-07-01

    Concentrations of fenbendazole and its sulfoxide, oxfendazole, and sulfone metabolites were determined in 6 sheep after oral administration of fenbendazole (10 mg/kd of body weight). Mean peak concentrations in plasma of fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and sulfone of 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17 micrograms/ml occurred 24, 30, and 36 hours after administration, respectively. Mean peak concentrations in abomasal fluid were 1.82, 0.66, and 0.07 micrograms/ml occurring at 30, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Fenbendazole and oxfendhzole were detectable in plasma and abomasal fluids for 5 days after administration. Much of the anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole may be due to the oxfendazole metabolite. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole were less and persisted for a shorter period after intra-abomasal administration than after oral administration.

  14. Diagnosis and economic consequences of triclabendazole resistance in Fasciola hepatica in a sheep flock in south-east Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sargison, N D; Scott, P R

    2011-02-12

    Over the past decade, definite changes have been recorded in the regional prevalence, seasonality and severity of fasciolosis in the UK, related to increased rainfall, or localised flooding, prompting debate about the deleterious effects of climate change. As a consequence, effective management of fasciolosis has become problematic in areas where fluke traditionally exists, leading to serious loss of production in sheep and cattle. Meanwhile, in eastern districts, there have been unexpected outbreaks of disease, resulting in production losses and concerns about welfare. This case report describes the economic consequences of fasciolosis in a commercial sheep flock in south-east Scotland. The diagnosis and consequences of triclabendazole resistance are discussed, in the context of developing economically sustainable control strategies. PMID:21493511

  15. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  16. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Herva, María Eugenia; Andréoletti, Olivier; Padilla, Danielle; Lacroux, Caroline; Cassard, Hervé; Lantier, Isabelle; Castilla, Joaquin; Torres, Juan Maria

    2009-08-01

    How susceptible pigs are to infection with sheep prions is unknown. We show, through transmission experiments in transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein (PrP), that the susceptibility of this mouse model to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be enhanced after its passage in ARQ sheep, indicating that the pathogenicity of the BSE agent is modified after passage in sheep. Transgenic mice expressing porcine PrP were, nevertheless, completely resistant to infection with a broad panel of classical scrapie isolates from different sheep PrP genotypes and with different biochemical characteristics. The atypical (Nor98 like) isolate (SC-PS152) was the only scrapie isolate capable of transmission in these mice, although with a marked transmission barrier. Unexpectedly, the atypical scrapie agent appeared to undergo a strain phenotype shift upon transmission to porcine-PrP transgenic mice and acquired new strain properties, suggesting that atypical scrapie agent may exhibit different phenotypes depending on the host cellular PrP or other genetic factors.

  17. [Occurrence of nematodiasis among sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Zurliĭski, P

    1977-01-01

    The spread was studied of sheep and goat nematodirosis in the conditions prevailing in the district of Varna for the 1973-1975 period. Füleborn's method was employed with a total of 24,909 coprosamples taken from the animals as follows: sheep--12,690, weaned lambs--7370, lambs--3355, kids--782, and goats--712. Partial helminthologic postmortem examinations were carried out by the digestive method of 104 sheep, 33 goats, 142 weaned lambs, 96 lambs, and 35 kids. The percent of infected animals was determined on the basis of the coprostudies as follows; lambs--20.9 (per cent), kids--26.6, weaned lambs--54.9, sheep--22.6, goats--24.8. The necroscopic investigations revealed 32.3, 40, 64.8, 32.5, 39.4 per cent, respectively. The average parasite burden in number of helminths was 313 (lambs), 85 (kids), 1517 (weaned lambs), 586 (sheep), and goats--290. Greatest number of Nematodirus parasites was found in weaned lambs--16,000, followed by sheep--2260, lambs--1840, goats--800, and kids--240. As many as 100 per cent Nematodirus carriers were found on a sheep farm in the district. It was also found that the north plains of the district are less infected as against the south parts embracing the northern slopes of the Balkan mountain, and along the course of the Kamchia river. It was found that sheep on the private farm-holdings were more strongly infected than those on the cooperative farms. On the other hand, it was established that on farms where lambs and weaned lambs graze together with the adults the former prove more strongly infected than those that are on isolated grasslands.

  18. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  19. Comprehensive Insights in the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Genome Using New WGS Data of Sheep Strain JIII-386 from Germany

    PubMed Central

    Möbius, Petra; Hölzer, Martin; Felder, Marius; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Groth, Marco; Köhler, Heike; Reichwald, Kathrin; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium (M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)—the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease—affects cattle, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. To decipher phenotypic differences among sheep and cattle strains (belonging to MAP-S [Type-I/III], respectively, MAP-C [Type-II]), comparative genome analysis needs data from diverse isolates originating from different geographic regions of the world. This study presents the so far best assembled genome of a MAP-S-strain: Sheep isolate JIII-386 from Germany. One newly sequenced cattle isolate (JII-1961, Germany), four published MAP strains of MAP-C and MAP-S from the United States and Australia, and M. a. subsp. hominissuis (MAH) strain 104 were used for assembly improvement and comparisons. All genomes were annotated by BacProt and results compared with NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) annotation. Corresponding protein-coding sequences (CDSs) were detected, but also CDSs that were exclusively determined by either NCBI or BacProt. A new Shine–Dalgarno sequence motif (5′-AGCTGG-3′) was extracted. Novel CDSs including PE-PGRS family protein genes and about 80 noncoding RNAs exhibiting high sequence conservation are presented. Previously found genetic differences between MAP-types are partially revised. Four of ten assumed MAP-S-specific large sequence polymorphism regions (LSPSs) are still present in MAP-C strains; new LSPSs were identified. Independently of the regional origin of the strains, the number of individual CDSs and single nucleotide variants confirms the strong similarity of MAP-C strains and shows higher diversity among MAP-S strains. This study gives ambiguous results regarding the hypothesis that MAP-S is the evolutionary intermediate between MAH and MAP-C, but it clearly shows a higher similarity of MAP to MAH than to Mycobacterium intracellulare. PMID:26384038

  20. Noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Elmetwally, M; Rohn, K; Meinecke-Tillmann, S

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to cattle or horses, uterine blood flow in small ruminants has been investigated predominantly after surgical intervention and chronic instrumentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical applicability of noninvasive color Doppler sonography to characterize blood flow in the maternal uterine artery of sheep, n = 11 (18 pregnancies) and goats, n = 11 (20 pregnancies). The following parameters were measured transrectally or transabdominally: blood flow volume, time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), Time-averaged mean velocity, impedance of blood flow (AB or systolic/diastolic [S/D] velocity ratio), peak velocity of blood flow and blood flow acceleration. Examinations started 2 weeks after breeding and continued at 2-week intervals until parturition. Outcomes for sheep and goats were similar and will be discussed together. Based on noninvasive color Doppler sonography, blood flow volume increased (approximately 60-fold, P < 0.0001) until the end of pregnancy, with a rapid increase early in gestation, and a slow increase after week 18. Time-averaged maximum velocity in the uterine artery increased (approximately 4-fold; P < 0.0001) throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats. Furthermore, for uterine artery blood flow, there was an effect of stage of pregnancy on PI and RI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), both indices decreased until the end of gestation. Time-averaged mean velocity decreased from week 18 to 20 in both species. The blood flow acceleration increased (P < 0.0001) until week 16 and week 14 in sheep and goats, respectively, and then decreased until parturition. Similar to PI and RI, vascular impedance of the uterine decreased (P < 0.0001) throughout pregnancy. This is apparently the first study using noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout physiological pregnancy in small ruminants. Clearly, this technology facilitates repeated

  1. Chromosome fragility in two sheep flocks exposed to dioxins during pasturage.

    PubMed

    Iannuzzi, L; Perucatti, A; Di Meo, G P; Polimeno, F; Ciotola, F; Incarnato, D; Peretti, V; Caputi-Jambrenghi, A; Pecoraro, A; Manniti, F; D'Alessandro, A; Vonghia, G

    2004-09-01

    In the last 3 years several farms raising cattle, river buffalo and sheep have been unable to sell dairy milk due to the presence of high levels of dioxins. Furthermore, several cases of abortion (around 25% of total births) and abnormal foetuses (2.5% of total births) were recorded in two flocks of sheep raised in the province of Naples where a higher level of dioxins (5.27 pg/g fat, as human WHO TCDD equivalent) have been found in the milk mass than that permitted (3.0 pg/g fat, as human WHO TCDD equivalent). Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 24 sheep (all females), randomly sampled from the two different flocks, one abnormal foetus and 11 female sheep (control) raised approximately 80 km from the area where the two exposed flocks were raised. Frequencies of aneuploid cells, gaps, chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, fragments and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) were determined. While no differences were observed between the number of aneuploid cells (15% of total cell population) of both exposed animals and controls, significant (P < 0.001) increases in the frequencies of other chromosome abnormalities (mean chromosome abnormality/cell = 0.76 +/- 1.1) and SCEs (mean SCE/cell = 9.4 +/- 3.7) were found in the exposed animals, compared with the control (mean chromosome abnormality/cell = 0.18 +/- 0.4; mean SCE/cell = 7.1 +/- 3.0). Significantly higher values of SCEs (mean SCE/cell = 10.9 +/- 4.4) were also found in the abnormal foetus compared with the control. Chemical analyses on soil, grass and water at two sites where the two flocks were pastured established that doses of dioxins (17 different types) were below the legally permitted limits.

  2. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible.

  3. The first identification of a blood-sucking abomasal nematode Ashworthius sidemi in cattle (Bos taurus) using simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Bień, Justyna; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Kornacka, Aleksandra; Krzysiak, Michał; Cencek, Tomasz; Cabaj, Władysław

    2015-06-30

    A simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to identify Ashworthius sidemi, a blood-sucking gastrointestinal nematode that commonly infects bison, red and roe deer, and moose in Poland. The present study uses this technique to confirm the possibility of transmission of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep, grazing on the same natural pastures. A 406 bp fragment of genomic A. sidemi DNA was actually detected in DNA isolated from larval cultures derived from feces from cattle. A. sidemi DNA has been detected in cattle which represent a new host for this parasite. This is the first evidence of A. sidemi in cattle. The results reveal that a PCR test based on DNA from L3 larvae can be used for in vivo detection of A. sidemi invasions in breeding animals. In conclusion, the transfer of A. sidemi infection from wildlife to the farm animals sharing the same pastures appears possible. PMID:25981105

  4. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  5. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  6. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  7. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  8. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  9. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  10. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  11. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

  12. Factors affecting the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning has remained low, and applications have been limited. In this review, we discuss some of the factors that affect the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in cattle.

  13. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    PubMed

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  14. Clinical protection, sub-clinical infection and persistence following vaccination with extinction payloads of O1 Manisa Foot-and-Mouth Disease monovalent vaccine and challenge in goats and comparison with sheep.

    PubMed

    Madhanmohan, M; Nagendrakumar, S B; Kumar, R; Anilkumar, J; Manikumar, K; Yuvaraj, S; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-10-01

    Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). Small ruminants are vaccinated with one-half or one-third of cattle dose of oil-based or aqueous vaccines respectively. The extinction antigen payload in vaccine for protection in small ruminants is poorly studied. FMD seronegative Nellore sheep (n=30) and Osmanabadi goats (n=30) were vaccinated with different payloads of O(1) Manisa vaccine (0.45-5 μg). Vaccinated and sero-negative unvaccinated sheep (n=6) and goats (n=6) were challenged intradermally into the coronary band with O(1) Manisa virus. The sheep and goats were monitored for signs of FMD and samples were collected for measuring viraemia and virus associated with nasal swabs and probang samples. Clotted blood was collected for serology. Vaccines containing antigen payload up to 0.94 μg protected sheep and goats against challenge. Sheep and goats vaccinated with 0.45 μg antigen payload were poorly protected against challenge. An antigen payload of 0.94 μg was sufficient to offer complete protection and also absence of carrier status. Sheep and goats with no vaccination or with poor sero conversion to vaccination showed sub-clinical infection and became carriers. The results of the study suggest that vaccination offers protection from clinical disease even at a low payload of 0.94 μg and hence one-half of cattle dose of the oil-based vaccine formulations is sufficient to induce protective immune response in sheep and goats. Since no live virus could be isolated after 5 days post challenge from the nasal swab or probang samples even though viral RNA was detected, the risk of these animals transmitting disease was probably very low.

  15. Abundance, distribution, and removals of feral pigs at Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steve; Kendall, Steve J.; Judge, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit (HFU) of Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex (BINWRC) has intensively monitored non-native ungulate presence and distribution during surveys of all managed areas since 1988. In this report we: 1) provide results from recent ungulate surveys and the number of removals at HFU to determine the distribution, abundance, and efficacy of removals of feral pigs, the dominant ungulate, from 2010 to 2015; 2) present results of surveys of the presence and distribution of several ungulate species at the Kona Forest Unit (KFU) of BINWRC from November of 2012 to April of 2015; 3) present results of surveys of weed presence and cover at both refuge units; and 4) present comparative analyses of forest canopy cover at KFU from visual estimates and geospatial imagery. Removals of feral pigs at HFU appear to have significantly decreased pig abundance over the study period from 2010–2015. A grand total of 1,660 feral pigs were removed from managed areas of HFU from 2010 until September of 2015. Management units 2 and 4 contained the majority of pigs at HFU. Recent surveys recorded high densities of pigs in the unenclosed, unmanaged area of Lower Maulua, reaching 14.9 ± (3.2) pigs/km2 in March of 2015. The total amount of ungulate sign ranged from 22.2 to 54.3 percent of plots surveyed at KFU from November of 2012 to April of 2015. The ability to differentiate sign of ungulate species remains problematic at KFU; although there appears to have been a significant decline in feral cattle sign at KFU, this result is likely to be unreliable because cattle and pig sign were not differentiated consistently during later surveys. Spatial distributions in weed cover are distinctive; however, some weed species may not be reliably represented due to observers’ inconsistencies in recording data and abilities to recognize less common weeds.

  16. Determination of pig sex in meat and meat products using multiplex real time-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abdulmawjood, A; Krischek, C; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2012-07-01

    For specific production lines, European retail companies demand exclusively female pork meat. To control the quality of their suppliers the identification and a quantitative detection of the animal sex origin of the meat is therefore of importance for meat processors. To enable a fast and reliable detection of male pig meat, a real time-PCR-system was designed in the present study. This was based on the genes AMEL-X and AMEL-Y. The real time-PCR assay allowed the detection of male pig meat at a concentration of 1% yielding a detection probability of 100% while the detection probability investigating meat samples containing 0.1% male pig meat was 44.4%. The analytic sensitivity of this system was assessed to be <5 pg DNA per PCR reaction. The assessment of the accuracy of the real time-PCR assay to correctly identify sex individuals was investigated with 62 pigs including males (n=29) and females (n=33) belonging to different breeds/lines. With the newly designed test all analysed animals were correctly sexed. No amplification was obtained with cow, goat, sheep, turkey and chicken genomic DNA. The presented assay can be used for sex diagnosis, for the detection of male pig meat and for meat quality control. PMID:22386444

  17. Characterisation of a type 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolated from cattle in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wakeley, P R; Turner, J L E; Ibata, G; King, D P; Sandvik, T; Howard, P; Drew, T W

    2004-08-19

    Two genotypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are recognised. Type 2 was first recognised when virulent strains caused significant losses among cattle in North America. Subsequently, BVDV type 2 has been found in many other countries, but recent studies have shown that only type 1 BVDV is circulating in the UK herds (sheep and cattle) with type 1a predominating. During routine genotyping of UK BVDV isolates, a type 2 isolate was identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-untranslated region of the viral genome showed it to be a BVDV type 2a, most similar to a low virulent US strain of BVDV type 2. Antigenic typing with a panel of monoclonal antibodies verified this classification. This is the first confirmed isolation of BVDV type 2 found circulating in the UK.

  18. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  20. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  1. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries.

  2. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries. PMID:26096044

  3. Ultrastructural study of a tetratrichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Windell L; Lupisan, Albert Joseph B; Baking, John Michael P

    2008-11-01

    Trichomonads found in pigs include the commensal Tritrichomonas suis (more well known because of its synonymy to Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad parasite of cattle and other animals) and Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which appear similar to Tritrichomonas suis under the light microscope. A trichomonad isolated from pig fecal samples was subjected to scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural study. The organism's ultrastructure revealed features commonly found in trichomonads; however, features such as the number and length of flagella, type of undulating membrane, general body form, and shape and location of organelles such as the nucleus, Golgi complex, and hydrogenosomes indicated that the isolated trichomonad is not Tritrichomonas suis nor Tritrichomonas foetus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) corroborated these results. Moreover, the ultrastructure was similar to the ultrastructure of previously described tetratrichomonads. It is especially suggested that the isolate is T. buttreyi. These findings could be of significance in the differentiation among different porcine trichomonads in diagnostic procedures. In addition, this is the first known detailed ultrastructural study of T. buttreyi isolated from pigs; thus, this can serve as an aid for future comparison between porcine and bovine T. buttreyi.

  4. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422121

  5. A review on prolificacy genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, R; Zamani, P; Mirhoseini, S Z; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Nadri, S

    2016-10-01

    Ovulation rate and litter size are important reproduction traits in sheep and are of high economic value. Reproduction traits typically have low to medium heritabilities and do not exhibit a noticeable response to phenotypic selection. Therefore, inclusion of genetic information of the genes associated with reproductive ability could efficiently enhance the selection response. The most important major genes affecting prolificacy and their genetic diversities in different sheep breeds were reviewed. Different causative mutations with major effects on reproductive traits including ovulation rate and litter size have been found in various sheep breeds around the world. A general overview of the studies on main prolificacy genes showed that some alleles may express different phenotypic effects in different breeds, and thus, further studies on epistatic effects are necessary for more understanding of genetic control of reproductivity in sheep. Regarding the polygenic control of fertility traits, application of new high-throughput technologies to find new variants is essential for future studies. Moreover, genomewide association studies and genomic best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values are likely to be effective tools for genetic improvement of sheep reproductive performance traits.

  6. Endocrine and metabolic regulation of muscle growth and body composition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F

    2010-11-01

    Muscle metabolism (in interaction with other organs and tissues, including adipose tissue) plays an important role in the control of growth and body composition. Muscle ontogenesis has been described in different genotypes of cattle for myofibres, connective tissue and intramuscular depots. The ontogenesis or the action of putatively important factors controlling muscle development (IGF-II expression, IGF receptors, growth hormone (GH) receptor, myostatin, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, insulin and thyroid hormones) has also been studied on bovine foetal muscle samples and satellite cells. The glucose/insulin axis has been specifically studied in both the bovine adipose tissue and heart. Clearly, cattle, like sheep, are mature species at birth based on their muscle characteristics compared to other mammalian or farm animal species. The different myoblast generations have been well characterised in cattle, including the second generation which is liable to be affected by foetal undernutrition at least in sheep. Interesting genotypes, for example, double-muscled genotype, have been characterised by an altered metabolic and endocrine status associated with a reduced fat mass, specific muscle traits and different foetal characteristics. Finally, the recent development of genomics in cattle has allowed the identification of novel genes controlling muscle development during foetal and postnatal life. Generally, a high muscle growth potential is associated with a reduced fat mass and a switch of muscle fibres towards the glycolytic type. The possibility and the practical consequences of manipulating muscle growth and, hence, body composition by nutritional and hormonal factors are discussed for bovines based on our current biological knowledge.

  7. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance.

  8. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  9. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  10. 4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Molecular detection and characterization of Theileria infection in cattle and yaks from Tibet Plateau Region, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gege; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Theileriosis continues to threaten the livestock industry worldwide, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys for this disease have not been conducted in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. In this study, we screened 154 cattle blood samples from the Tibet Plateau Region (Lhasa, Lhoka, and Tianzhu), China, for detection of Theileria pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. The results revealed that the prevalence was 6.9 % (2/29) for Theileria orientalis and 27.6 % (8/29) for Theileria sinensis in Lhasa, 0 % (0/30) for T. orientalis and 26.7 % (8/30) for T. sinensis in Lhoka, and 0 % (0/95) for T. orientalis and 30.5 % (29/95) for T. sinensis in Tianzhu. Interestingly, Theileria luwenshuni, which was a previously reported pathogenic Theileria sp. in sheep and goats, was detected in blood samples from cattle and yaks for the first time, with a prevalence of 10 % (3/30) in Lhoka and 1.1 % (1/95) in Tianzhu. No other Theileria sp. was detected in these samples. T. sinensis and T. orientalis infections were detected in cattle and yaks, and T. luwenshuni was discovered for the first time in cattle and yaks in the Tibet Plateau Region, China. PMID:27000088

  12. A survey on Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle of Tabriz city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent protozoan parasites in the striated muscles of livestock slaughtered for food such as cattle, sheep and goat. Meat that is heavily infected may be condemned as unfit for human consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle in Tabriz, northwest of Iran. The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infection was investigated in 670 cattle, slaughtered from April 2013 to October 2013 in the Tabriz abattoir, Iran using naked eye examination for macroscopic Sarcocysts, and peptic digestion, muscle squash, squeezing methods for microscopic types. Muscles from oesophagus, tongue, heart, diaphragm and cervical and abdominal of 670 slaughtered cattle were examined for Sarcocystis spp. cysts. The prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis spp. cysts in cattle was detected in 100 % and there was detected in macroscopic cyst 8.2 % in examined cattle. There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different organs (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different ages (P > 0.05). The prevalence of macroscopic infection in the oesophagus was higher than that of the other organs (P < 0.05). The infection rate was independent of sex (8.25 % in males and 8.13 % in females, P > 0.05). This suggests that meat should be cooked sufficiently, since a macroscopic inspection may not provide true results. Also, it has of great importance the farmers to be trained not to feed their dogs and cats with uncooked meat, and the abattoir remnants to be burned, in order to be effectively broken of infection cycle between the intermediate and the definitive hosts in Tabriz city, northwest of Iran. PMID:27605760

  13. Unexpected occurrence of Haemonchus placei in cattle in southern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Cotter, Jenny; Lyon, Jill; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Besier, Brown

    2014-01-01

    Haemonchus placei is an abomasal parasite of cattle, primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In Australia, this nematode can be extremely pathogenic in summer rainfall areas, particularly in the hot, sub-tropical Kimberley region, in the far north of the state of Western Australia (WA). Although cattle are occasionally transferred to southern parts of WA, it was believed that H. placei did not occur in southern regions of WA, as it is less cold-adapted than Haemonchus contortus, and the free-living stages would not develop during the cold winter and dry summer periods. Here, we show that, although H. contortus is found in cattle in the temperate southern region of WA, it appears that H. placei also occurs in southern WA. While investigating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of cattle in WA, the existence of H. placei was suspected on a range of participating farms, following the morphological examination of third-stage larvae cultured from faeces, and of adult worms recovered from sheep experimentally infected with these larvae. Genomic DNAs from individual worms as well as eggs from pooled faecal samples from seven farms in southern WA were subjected to PCR-based mutation scanning and sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results showed that both H. contortus and H. placei were harboured by cattle. This first record of H. placei in cattle in southern WA raises questions as to the prevalence and distribution of this parasite in other temperate and cool climatic regions of Australia. Although clinical disease due to H. placei has not yet been seen in southern WA, global, climatic trends might suggest an increased importance of this parasite in the longer term.

  14. Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

  15. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    PubMed

    Stahel, Anina B J; Baggenstos, Rhea; Engels, Monika; Friess, Martina; Ackermann, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2). On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  16. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Experimental reproduction of severe bluetongue in sheep.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, N J; Crafford, J E; Vernau, W; Gardner, I A; Goddard, A; Guthrie, A J; Venter, E H

    2008-05-01

    Sheep inoculated with a virulent South African strain of bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4 developed severe clinical signs and lesions characteristic of fulminant BT, including coronitis, hemorrhage and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and forestomaches, hemorrhage in the wall of the pulmonary artery, and focally extensive necrosis of skeletal muscle, especially of the neck. At necropsy, up to 14 days after infection, the infected sheep exhibited striking pulmonary edema, edema of the subcutaneous tissues and fascial planes of the head and neck, and pleural and pericardial effusion of varying severity. A reliable model for experimental reproduction of fulminant BT in sheep will facilitate future studies to better characterize the pathogenesis of this disease, particularly as it regards the mechanisms responsible for the increased vascular permeability that characterizes BT and related orbiviral diseases such as African horse sickness. PMID:18487487

  18. Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hofacre, Andrew; Fan, Hung

    2010-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env) protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or oncogenesis has been studied in a variety of cell systems and in animal models. Moreover, JSRV studies have provided insights into retroviral genomic RNA export/expression mechanisms. JSRV encodes a trans-acting factor (Rej) within the env gene necessary for the synthesis of Gag protein from unspliced viral RNA. This review summarizes research pertaining to JSRV-induced pathogenesis, Env transformation, and other aspects of JSRV biology. PMID:21994634

  19. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides of different epitopic structures in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Marín, C; Aragón, V; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-11-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939-1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen.

  20. Failure of sheep-goat hybrid conceptuses to develop to term in sheep-goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Sasser, G R

    1993-09-01

    Six hybrid pregnancies were established: three in sheep-goat chimaeras, one in a sheep-(sheep-goat)hybrid chimaera and two in does. Pregnancies were monitored weekly by ultrasonography and peripheral concentrations of pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) were measured. Placental development as detected by ultrasonography appeared to be slower in hybrid-in-goat pregnancies than in hybrid-in-chimaera pregnancies, although this difference was not reflected in PSPB concentrations. Time of fetal death could not be predicted from PSPB concentrations. Chimaeras appeared to carry hybrid pregnancies longer than ewes and does usually carry hybrid pregnancies, but none was carried to term. PMID:7506792

  1. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants.

  2. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

  3. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  4. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  5. Interspecific chimaerism between sheep and goat.

    PubMed

    Fehilly, C B; Willadsen, S M; Tucker, E M

    In rodents, chimaeric blastocysts produced by combining embryonic cells of two different species have been used in investigations of cell lineage and interaction during development (Mus musculus-Rattus norvegicus, M. musculus-Clethrionomys glareolus, M. musculus-Mus caroli). However, interspecific chimaerism also offers new approaches to the study of reproductive incompatibilities between species and may even allow such incompatibilities to be neutralized, thus improving the chances of successful hybridization and interspecific embryo transplantation. We report here the production of sheep-goat chimaeras by embryo manipulation and the use of interspecific chimaerism to allow successful interspecific embryo transplantation in sheep and goats. PMID:6694751

  6. Enzootic calcinosis caused by Nierembergia rivularis in sheep.

    PubMed

    García y Santos, Carmen; Pereira, Rodrigo; Etcheberry, Gabriel; Goyen, Juan M; Pérez, William; Capelli, Alejandra; Alonso, Eduardo; Ruiz-Díaz, Alejandro; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-03-01

    Enzootic calcinosis was diagnosed in sheep in Uruguay in pastures containing the plant Nierembergia rivularis. In a flock of 200 sheep, 20 were affected and 12 died. Clinical signs were anorexia, weight loss followed by cachexia, stiffness, and kyphosis. At necropsy and histologic examination, mineral deposits were observed on the medial layer of the arteries, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Similar lesions were also observed in 3 sheep forced to graze in an area containing the plant, while no lesions were observed in a control sheep that grazed in an area free of N. rivularis. It is concluded that N. rivularis is a calcinogenic plant for sheep. PMID:22379059

  7. Sheep and goats as indicator animals for the circulation of CCHFV in the environment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Isolde; Mertens, Marc; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Staubach, Christoph; Mertens, Corinna; Brüning, Franziska; Wernike, Kerstin; Hechinger, Silke; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus, which causes a serious illness with case-fatality rates of up to 80% in humans. CCHFV is endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. Next to the countries with endemic areas, the distribution of CCHFV is unknown in Southeastern Europe. As the antibody prevalence in animals is a good indicator for the presence or absence of the virus in a region, seroepidemiological studies can be used for the definition of risk areas for CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to reveal which ruminant species is best suited as indicator for the detection of a CCHFV circulation in an area. Therefore, the prevalence rates in sheep, goats and cattle in different regions of Albania and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia were investigated. As there are no commercial tests available for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in animals, two commercial tests for testing human sera were adapted for the investigation of sera from sheep and goats, and new in-house ELISAs were developed. The investigation of serum samples with these highly sensitive and specific assays (94-100%) resulted in an overall prevalence rate of 23% for Albania and of 49% for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Significant lower seroprevalence rates for CCHFV were found in cattle than in small ruminants in given areas. These results indicate that small ruminants are more suitable indicator animals for CCHFV infections and should therefore be tested preferentially, when risk areas are to be identified. PMID:26704262

  8. Sheep and goats as indicator animals for the circulation of CCHFV in the environment.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Isolde; Mertens, Marc; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Staubach, Christoph; Mertens, Corinna; Brüning, Franziska; Wernike, Kerstin; Hechinger, Silke; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus, which causes a serious illness with case-fatality rates of up to 80% in humans. CCHFV is endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. Next to the countries with endemic areas, the distribution of CCHFV is unknown in Southeastern Europe. As the antibody prevalence in animals is a good indicator for the presence or absence of the virus in a region, seroepidemiological studies can be used for the definition of risk areas for CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to reveal which ruminant species is best suited as indicator for the detection of a CCHFV circulation in an area. Therefore, the prevalence rates in sheep, goats and cattle in different regions of Albania and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia were investigated. As there are no commercial tests available for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in animals, two commercial tests for testing human sera were adapted for the investigation of sera from sheep and goats, and new in-house ELISAs were developed. The investigation of serum samples with these highly sensitive and specific assays (94-100%) resulted in an overall prevalence rate of 23% for Albania and of 49% for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Significant lower seroprevalence rates for CCHFV were found in cattle than in small ruminants in given areas. These results indicate that small ruminants are more suitable indicator animals for CCHFV infections and should therefore be tested preferentially, when risk areas are to be identified.

  9. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  10. Single Base-Resolution Methylome of the Dizygotic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Su, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Sheep is an important livestock in the world for meat, dairy and wool production. The third version of sheep reference genome has been recently assembled, but sheep DNA methylome has not been profiled yet. In this study, we report the comprehensive sheep methylome with 94.38% cytosine coverage at single base resolution by sequencing DNA samples from Longissimus dorsi of dizygotic Sunit sheep, which were bred in different habitats. We also compared methylomes between the twin sheep. DNA methylation status at genome-scale differentially methylated regions (DMRs), functional genomic regions and 248 DMR-containing genes were identified between the twin sheep. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG annotations of these genes were performed to discover computationally predicted function. Lipid metabolism, sexual maturity and tumor-associated categories were observed to significantly enrich DMR-containing genes. These findings could be used to illustrate the relationship between phenotypic variations and gene methylation patterns. PMID:26536671

  11. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

  12. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  13. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  14. Effect of Artocarpus integer lectin on functional activity of guinea-pig complement.

    PubMed

    Hashim, O H; Gendeh, G S; Cheong, C N; Jaafar, M I

    1994-03-01

    The effect of Artocarpus integer lectin (lectin C) on the functional activity of guinea-pig complement was investigated. Purified and crude extract of lectin C from six cultivars of Artocarpus integer seeds were found to consume complement and thus decreased the complement-induced haemolytic activity of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The change in the complement-mediated haemolytic activity was significantly decreased when incubation of the lectins was performed in the presence of melibiose. The reversal effect of the carbohydrate, which is a potent inhibitor of the lectin's binding to O-linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein, demonstrate involvement of the lectins interaction with O-glycans of glycoproteins in the consumption of guinea-pig complement.

  15. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species. PMID:27351807

  16. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    PubMed

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-06-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  18. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation.

  19. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  20. Antibody seroprevalences against Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) virus in sheep and goats in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Osman, Nussieba A; Ali, A S; A/Rahman, Mahasin E; Fadol, M A

    2009-10-01

    Counter immnuo-electrophoresis (CIEP) and Competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) tests were employed for seroprevalence of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) infection in Sudan. The result of both tests showed high prevalence of PPRV antibodies in sheep and goats sera collected from six different regions of Sudan. Of the 519 serum samples examined for the presence of PPRV antibodies 307(59.15%) were positive by CIEP while 263(50.67%) were positive by C-ELISA. CIEP technique was shown to be more sensitive than C-ELISA technique for detection of PPRV antibodies (Kappa statistics 0.259). C-ELISA allowed rapid, simple, specific, sensitive and differential sero-diagnosis of PPRV and RPV in sheep, goats and cattle. CIEP is, unlike competitive ELISA, is group-specific test and can not differentiate between PPR and RP infections. Despite its low specificity CIEP can be a useful indicative screening test for PPRV antibodies in flocks that neither been vaccinated nor otherwise exposed to PPR or RP virus. Results obtained suggest that CIEP, like the HI test, could be a useful screening test where it is not possible to use C-ELISA.

  1. Studies on the livestock of southern Darfur, Sudan. III. Production traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R T

    1976-05-01

    The results of an intensive 15 months' study of 10 flocks of indigenous sheep are recorded. Lambing rates approach 1.5 lambs per ewe per year, but a death rate of 23 per cent and an offtake of 27 per cent, means that flock numbers are probably slightly declining. Twins account for 14 per cent of all births but the death rate of twin lambs is almost twice that of single lambs up to 6 months of age. Increased productivity is therefore more likely to be achieved by improving the survival and growth rates of single lambs than by selection for twinning. The weighted average rate of lightweight gain for all surviving lambs is 82 g per day up to 1 year of age, and is better than that recorded for any other indigenous African sheep. Meat production per kg of breeding female, at 0.253 kg up to 6 months of age of the young, is almost six times the production of cattle under the same management and environmental conditions, but is inferior to that of goats.

  2. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    PubMed

    Kijas, James W; Lenstra, Johannes A; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  4. A genome-screen experiment to detect quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to facial eczema disease in sheep.

    PubMed

    Phua, S H; Dodds, K G; Morris, C A; Henry, H M; Beattie, A E; Garmonsway, H G; Towers, N R; Crawford, A M

    2009-02-01

    Facial eczema (FE) is a secondary photosensitization disease arising from liver cirrhosis caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin. The disease affects sheep, cattle, deer and goats, and costs the New Zealand sheep industry alone an estimated NZ$63M annually. A long-term sustainable solution to this century-old FE problem is to breed for disease-resistant animals by marker-assisted selection. As a step towards finding a diagnostic DNA test for FE sensitivity, we have conducted a genome-scan experiment to screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting this trait in Romney sheep. Four F(1) sires, obtained from reciprocal matings of FE resistant and susceptible selection-line animals, were used to generate four outcross families. The resulting half-sib progeny were artificially challenged with sporidesmin to phenotype their FE traits measured in terms of their serum levels of liver-specific enzymes, namely gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In a primary screen using selective genotyping on extreme progeny of each family, a total of 244 DNA markers uniformly distributed over all 26 ovine autosomes (with an autosomal genome coverage of 79-91%) were tested for linkage to the FE traits. Data were analysed using Haley-Knott regression. The primary screen detected one significant and one suggestive QTL on chromosomes 3 and 8 respectively. Both the significant and suggestive QTL were followed up in a secondary screen where all progeny were genotyped and analysed; the QTL on chromosome 3 was significant in this analysis.

  5. Study on Characteristics of Chemokine CXCL10 Gene Cloned from cDNA Expression Library of Ujumqin Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P. F.; Li, X. C.; Lei, N.; Lan, X. Y.; Zhao, Q. J.; Guan, W. J.; Ma, Y. H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokines were a major regulator of body's inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, the cDNA fragment of chemokine CXC ligand 10 (CXCL10) was cloned from the Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue cDNA expression library; the CXCL10 gene had 103 amino acids and a molecular weight of 11.47 kDa, and it shared a high homology among cattle, sheep, and goat, while a low homology compared with mouse. The CXCL10 protein had 4 conservative cysteine residues, located in 28, 30, 55, and 72 sites. The expression pattern and intracellular distribution of recombinant CXCL10 proteins in Ujumqin sheep fibroblast cells showed that there were green fluorescence signals both in cytoplasm and nucleolus after 24 h of transfection, the number of positive cells was increased with time, the peak level of fluorescence signal was reached after 48 h of transfection and the transfection efficiency was 33.3%; there was a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity after 72 h of transfection. Expression of recombinant CXCL10 gene in Escherichia coli had a time- and temperature-dependency on the amount of protein expression, and a small quantity of inducer was needed. PMID:24187661

  6. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans. PMID:18234031

  7. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans.

  8. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  9. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  10. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  11. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH. PMID:19616401

  12. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  13. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  14. Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Fisher, A D

    2007-03-01

    Mulesing is traditionally performed on approximately 80% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia. Mulesing produces a stress response that persists for 24 to 48 hours. Behavioural changes indicative of pain and discomfort resolve within 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Reductions in weight gain may persist for 14 days. The acute stress response to mulesing has been shown to be similar to that produced by shearing, castration and mild flystrike, but mulesing has a longer duration of response (24 to 48 hours) than shearing (1 hour) or knife castration (8 to 24 hours), whereas flystrike response persists for the duration of infection. Theoretically, if mulesing were not used, with Merino sheep of existing genetics, increased chemical use and flock inspections could keep flystrike rates to approximately equivalent to present levels in some production systems. Increased handling events for chemical preventative application would represent a mild stressor for sheep, but cumulatively not more than that of mulesing. If producers were able and prepared to sufficiently increase resources into alternative anti-flystrike methods, then the welfare of Merino sheep would probably be equivalent or better to that of today. If constraints such as property size or finances dictate a sub-optimal level of flystrike prevention and treatment, then animal welfare will unquestionably be worse. The result of that equation would depend on individual flock managers, the physical characteristics of their production system, the profitability of their business, and seasonal variations in flystrike risk. It is likely that there would be some occasions when flystrike would increase. This highlights the need for alternative strategies, such as genetic selection, to reduce the susceptibility of Australian Merino sheep to flystrike. PMID:17359305

  15. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

  16. Efficacy of feral pig removals at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jeffrey, John J.; Ball, Donna; Babich, Lev

    2006-01-01

    We compiled and analyzed data from 1987–2004 on feral pig (Sus scrofa) management and monitoring activities at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of Hawai`i. These data included annual surveys of feral pig and cattle (Bos taurus) activity, the number of feral ungulates removed from closed management units, age and reproductive status from necropsies, and vegetation surveys repeated 4 times over a 16 year period. We found an essentially even sex ratio within the feral pig population and within age classes, although males lived to 60 months while females lived to only 48 months. The pregnancy rate was 23.5%, and lactation rate was 8.3%, regardless of season and age, but lactation peaked in April-June. Reproductive rates also increased with age, peaking at 2–4 years in females. We reconstructed the standing population within a closed unit to examine demographic processes. We estimated that annual removal in excess of approximately 41–43% would be necessary to affect a population decline. We examined annual feral pig activity surveys and found a strong and sustained decline in pig sign after 1997 relative to unmanaged areas. We related the standing population to feral pig activity surveys to build a predictive model of feral pig density, and then applied this model to other management units. We evaluated control methods and found snaring to be more efficient than staff or public hunting. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong temporal increase in cover of native ferns, and marginally non-significant decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil.

  17. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  18. Effects of vaccination against bluetongue on milk production and quality in cattle vaccinated with live-attenuated monovalent type 2 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Conte, A; Panichi, G; Calistri, P; Dessì, M; Foddis, F; Schintu, A; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    The first epidemic of bluetongue (BT) to affect the three regions of Sardinia, Sicily and Calabria (Italy) in 2000 induced high economic losses caused by the disease itself and by the cessation of ruminant movements both within, and out of, the infected areas. In order to reduce virus circulation, and to create a resistant livestock population, the Italian Ministry of Health ruled, in May 2001, that all sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo, in infected and in neighbouring regions, be vaccinated. The live-attenuated BTV-2 monovalent vaccine produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products in South Africa was to be used. Accordingly, in 2002, 98.6% of the sheep and goats, and 88.1% of the cattle, on Sardinia were vaccinated. Included was the vaccination of >70% of the cattle in the province of Oristano where >18,000 dairy cows in >220 herds are concentrated in the municipality of Arborea (Oristano) and which account for 65-70% of the milk produced in Sardinia. Using data collected at the centralised dairy co-operative since 1999 the quantity and quality of milk produced before vaccination against bluetongue was compared to that produced after vaccination. The following variables were analysed: average milk production/cow/month, monthly average fat content (%), monthly average protein content (%), average monthly somatic cell count and average monthly platelet count. The findings indicate that vaccination against BTV-2 in Sardinian dairy cattle did not impact negatively upon milk quantity nor milk quality.

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  20. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  4. Exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone does not elicit a salt appetite in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jankevicius, M L; Widowski, T M

    2003-02-01

    In rodents, rabbits, and sheep, exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leads to a marked increase in sodium appetite. It has been suggested that if pigs show a similar response to stress, an appetite for salt could increase their attraction to blood and contribute to the development of tail biting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ACTH on salt appetite in growing pigs. Individually housed Yorkshire pigs (45 kg) were divided into three groups of four. Group 1 had free access to water, 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.5 M KCl solutions; Group 2 to water, 0.5, and 0.25 M NaCl solutions; Group 3 to water, 0.25, and 0.125 M NaCl solutions. Intramuscular injection of long-acting synthetic ACTH (50 IU twice daily for 5 days) did not elicit increases in intakes of any of the available salt solutions compared to pretreatment intakes. However, there was a 1.6-fold increase in both water and feed intake during ACTH treatment. ACTH treatment also stimulated significant increases in salivary cortisol concentrations. Although increases in salivary cortisol concentrations and in water and feed intake indicate that there were physiological responses to the treatment, exogenous ACTH given for 5 days did not elicit a sodium appetite in growing pigs. These findings do not support the notion that a stress-induced salt appetite serves as an underlying mechanism for tail biting. PMID:12576126

  5. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes. PMID:26765790

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes.

  8. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  9. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  10. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  11. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality.

  12. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  13. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  14. Prion Type-Dependent Deposition of PRNP Allelic Products in Heterozygous Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J. G.; Hunter, N.; van Keulen, L. J. M.; Lantier, F.; van Zijderveld, F. G.; Bossers, A.

    2015-01-01

    PrP variants associated with opposite scrapie susceptibilities (136V-PrP variant, high; 171R-PrP variant, very low) contain in their prion material over 95% of the 136V PrP variant. However, when these sheep are infected with prions from cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]), both PrP variants occur in equal ratios. This shows that the infecting prion type determines the accumulating PrP variant ratio in the heterozygous host. While the host's PrP is considered a determining factor, these results emphasize that prion structure plays a role during host infection and that PrP variant involvement in prions of heterozygous carriers is a critical field for understanding prion formation. PMID:26512080

  15. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle. PMID:26996785

  16. Genome adaptations of a tripartite motif protein for retroviral defense in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) genes encode proteins composed of RING, B-box, and coiled coil motif domains. Primate TRIM5' has been shown to be a primary determinant of retroviral host cell range restriction in primates. TRIM5 restriction was originally thought to be a primate-specific defense mechanism...

  17. Protection of Cattle against Foot-and-Mouth Disease by a Synthetic Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarchi, Richard; Brooke, Gerald; Gale, Charles; Cracknell, Victor; Doel, Timothy; Mowat, Noel

    1986-05-01

    A chemically synthesized peptide consisting essentially of two separate regions (residues 141 to 158 and 200 to 213) of a virus coat protein (VP1) from the 01 Kaufbeuren strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus was prepared free of any carrier protein. It elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected cattle against intradermolingual challenge by inoculation with infectious virus. Comparative evaluation of this peptide with a single-site peptide (residues 141 to 158) in guinea pigs suggests the importance of the VP1 carboxyl terminal residues in enhancing the protective response.

  18. Guinea pig models of asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    Described in this unit are methods for establishing guinea pig models of asthma. Sufficient detail is provided to enable investigators to study bronchoconstriction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. PMID:25446291

  19. Clinical pharmacology of analgesic drugs in cattle.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matthew L; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-03-01

    Providing pain relief in cattle is challenging. In the absence of labeled drugs, the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act regulates the extralabel drug use of analgesics in cattle within the United States. Given the variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pain-relieving drugs, evidence needs to drive the development of analgesic protocols for cattle during pain-related events. This article reviews the commonly used analgesics investigated in cattle including local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, α2-agonists, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, and gabapentin. These compounds are examined with respect to evidence of analgesia in cattle during pain states. PMID:25578387

  20. Mediation of cytotoxic functions by classes and subclasses of sheep antibody reactive with cell surface immunoglobulin idiotypic and constant region determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, F K; Elliott, E V

    1978-01-01

    Sheep antibodies, reactive with either the idiotypic or constant region antigenic determinants of the immunoglobulin light chain on guinea-pig L2C leukaemic cells, were separated into IgM and into the two subclasses of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2. Antibody of both IgG subclasses inhibited the migration of L2C cells along plastic surfaces; IgM was only weakly inhibitory. Antibody of class IgM and of subclass IgG1 mediated complement cytotoxicity against the L2C cells whereas only that of subclass IgG2 mediated K-cell cytotoxicity; the effector arms were rabbit complement and sheep peripheral leucocytes, respectively. PMID:75184

  1. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library.

    PubMed

    Tabet-Aoul, K; Oustry-Vaiman, A; Vaiman, D; Saïdi-Mehtar, N; Cribiu, E P; Lantier, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57). This study allowed us, (i), to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii), to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii), to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine X linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map. PMID:14736389

  2. The bioavailability of medetomidine in eight sheep following oesophageal administration.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Murdoch, Fraser R; Maker, Garth L; Whittem, Ted

    2015-12-01

    There is sound evidence that medetomidine is an effective analgesic for acute pain in sheep. In this study, 15 μg kg(-1) of medetomidine was administered intravenously, and into the oesophagus, in a cross-over study, using eight sheep. Following intravenous administration, medetomidine could be detected in the plasma of these sheep for 120-180 min but following oesophageal administration, medetomidine could not be detected in the plasma of any sheep at any of 17 time points over four days. It is suspected that this is due to high first pass metabolism in the liver. Consequently, we conclude that future studies investigating the use of analgesics in orally-administered osmotic pumps in sheep should consider higher doses of medetomidine (e.g. >100 μg kg(-1)), further investigations into the barriers of medetomidine bioavailability from the sheep gut, liver-bypass drug delivery systems, or other α2-adrenergic agonists (e.g. clonidine or xylazine).

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.

  4. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology.

  5. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  6. Experimental studies of chronic pneumonia of sheep.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, J S; Jones, G E; Rae, A G

    1979-01-01

    Strains of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep affected with chronic pneumonia were inoculated by endobronchial route to conventionally-reared and SPF (Specific Pathogen-Free) lambs. Changes resembling those of the naturally-occurring disease were produced in most lambs given the organisms in combination and in some given M. ovipneumoniae alone. Similar but less extensive changes were seen in SPF lambs and fewer animals were affected. Different strains of M. ovipneumoniae did not affect the extent of changes produced in SPF lambs. M. ovipneumoniae became established in the lungs of both types of sheep; P. haemolytica did so less readily. It was concluded that chronic pneumonia may be reproduced in conventional animals by combined inoculation of M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica. Age and status of immunity to mycoplasmas may account for the different responses of conventional and SPF lambs.

  7. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5-7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success.

  8. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  9. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  10. [Characteristics of esophageal antiperistaltic activity in sheep].

    PubMed

    Peralta, F E; Boivin, R; Bost, J

    1985-01-01

    Oesophageal motility was investigated in standing conscious sheep. A manometric method was used in four animals; two sheep, fitted with permanent electrodes at four levels, were used for oesophageal electromyography. The occurrence of retrograde peristalsis (mean speed 71,5 cm.s-1) at the beginning of every rumination cycle is reasserted. The characteristics of this activity are pointed out, with reference to normal peristalsis during the deglutition of saliva. Different types of stimulation have been compared. Retrograde peristalsis (mean speed 66 cm.s-1) can be triggered readily in non-ruminating animals by the association of two stimulations. One being oesophageal distension and the other injection of a solution prepared with some physical or chemical components of the rumen liquid. No specialized sensitive area could be demonstrated. However, facilitation is evident during reticular contractions. Retrograde waves of contraction always start from the terminal part of the thoracic oesophagus, whatever the level of stimulation.

  11. Maedi-visna in Canadian sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, T W; Greig, A S; Corner, A H

    1979-01-01

    Lesions of maedi-visna were seen in sheep from the institutional research flock of the Animal Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada in Ottawa. Viral particles demonstrated by electron microscopy in tissue culture cells and serological results confirm the diagnosis of maedi-visna. The extent of the problem in this flock will be described in a future paper. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:226248

  12. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  13. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  14. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  15. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  16. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  17. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  18. Intestinal surgery of adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Ewoldt, Jennifer M Ivany

    2005-03-01

    Surgical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle occur occasionally, and veterinarians are challenged to determine an accurate diagnosis and treatment for these conditions. Although surgical diseases most commonly occur in the forestomachs (dislocated abomasum, reticuloperitonitis) and the colons (cecal dilation), this article focuses n lesions in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).

  19. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  20. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  1. Pythiosis of the digestive tract in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Clarice R M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Pimentel, Luciano A; Garino, Felício; Dantas, Antônio F M; Kommers, Glaucia D; Tabosa, Ivon M; Reis-Júnior, Janildo L

    2012-11-01

    Cutaneous and rhinofacial infections by Pythium insidiosum have previously been reported in sheep in Brazil. In the current study, a new form of pythiosis involving the alimentary tract of 2 nursing lambs from 2 different farms in the semiarid region of Brazil is described. The first lamb showed food regurgitation, lethargy, and anorexia, and died 5 days after the presentation of clinical signs. The second lamb had no history of gastrointestinal disease before death. Necropsy findings were similar in both lambs. The mucosa of the esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum showed ulcerated areas covered by yellowish caseous granular exudate. The lesions were transmural and extended to the serosal surfaces, and adhesions were observed between the serosa of the forestomachs and abomasum to the liver and diaphragm. Histologic lesions consisted of pyogranulomatous necrotizing transmural esophagitis, rumenitis, reticulitis, omasitis, and abomasitis with vascular thrombosis and intralesional hyphae. Pythium insidiosum was confirmed as the etiology by immunohistochemistry and culture. The presence of sheep in the vicinity of water ponds during the hot, dry season when forage is not available in the pastures seems to be the main predisposing factor for the occurrence of pythiosis in sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. PMID:23051827

  2. Pharmacokinetic study of ascorbic acid in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Black, W D; Hidiroglou, M

    1996-01-01

    Four groups of sheep (5/group) were used in the experiment. Group 1 sheep were given 1 g of ascorbic acid (AA) intravenously (i.v.), group 2 were given 3 g i.v., group 3 were given 1 g intramuscularly (i.m.) and group 4 received 3 g i.m. Blood was collected for 7 h after i.v. administration and for 48 h following i.m. administration. Plasma was analyzed for AA using HPLC techniques. After i.v. administration the rate of elimination was greater at the high dose than the low (0.8560 vs 0.5231 h-1) but the area under the curve (AUC) parameter was proportional to the dosage (127.9 vs 39.7 mcg*h/mL). After i.m. administration AUC parameters were higher than following the i.v. injections. When the times that AA levels were > or = 5 mcg/mL after i.m. injection were compared there was no significant difference between the 1 and 3 g dosages. Times that levels were > or = 10 mcg/mL were significantly longer for the 3 g dose. Using the AUC (area under the curve) parameter as an index of drug exposure, supplementation of adult sheep with AA by the i.m. route should have a greater effect on the animal than i.v. administration. PMID:8809386

  3. Genetic resistance to infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S C

    2015-12-14

    This paper considers genetic resistance to infectious disease in sheep, with appropriate comparison with goats, and explores how such variation may be used to assist in disease control. Many studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which host animals differ genetically in their resistance to infection or in the disease side-effects of infection, using either recorded animal pedigrees or information from genetic markers to quantify the genetic variation. Across all livestock species, whenever studies are sufficiently well powered, then genetic variation in disease resistance is usually seen and such evidence is presented here for three infections or diseases of importance to sheep, namely mastitis, foot rot and scrapie. A further class of diseases of importance in most small ruminant production systems, gastrointestinal nematode infections, is outside the scope of this review. Existence of genetic variation implies the opportunity, at least in principle, to select animals for increased resistance, with such selection ideally used as part of an integrated control strategy. For each of the diseases under consideration, evidence for genetic variation is presented, the role of selection as an aid to disease control is outlined and possible side effects of selection in terms of effects in performance, effects on resistance to other diseases and potential parasite/pathogen coevolution risks are considered. In all cases, the conclusion is drawn that selection should work and it should be beneficial, with the main challenge being to define cost effective selection protocols that are attractive to sheep farmers.

  4. Phosphatic fertiliser poisoning of sheep: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, P J; McCausland, I P; Coup, M R

    1982-11-01

    The toxicity of serpentine phosphate and superphosphate for non-pregnant dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes was investigated by oral dosing. An attempt was made to reproduce a natural episode of poisoning by exposing pregnant and lactating ewes to topdressed pasture. A total dose in the range of 1200 to 1800 g of serpentine phosphate was required to kill two ewes and it was concluded that natural episodes of poisoning with this material are unlikely. The toxic process was similar to that caused by superphosphate. The LD50 of superphosphate was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 6 g/kg and a dose in the range of 200 to 300 g was sufficient to kill most sheep. The apparently greater susceptibility of pregnant and lactating sheep to poisoning suggested by the study of natural outbreaks was not demonstrated in these experiments, but the numbers of experimental animals may have been too small to detect differing susceptibility. The clinical disease resembled that seen in natural episodes; anorexia, diarrhoea, progressive depression and death in a period of 5 to 8 days after the start of dosing. Sublethal doses produced a transient diarrhoea and, in two sheep, a severe wool-break. The principal biochemical changes were hyperphosphataemia and evidence of renal failure (oliguria, uraemia, azotaemia). Gross lesions were not consistently present but included abomasal ulceration and renal cortical swelling and pallor. The histopathological evidence of renal tubular obstruction by flocculant eosinophilic casts was characteristic. PMID:16030836

  5. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-07-19

    To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions.

  6. A lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an IL-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Nfon, Charles; Bowden, Timothy R; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A; Kara, Pravesh; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B; Babiuk, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in Africa and Asia. Currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. One of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), KS-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. However, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy skin disease (LSD) the vaccine can cause clinical disease. In order to develop safer vaccines effective against all three diseases, a pathogenic strain of LSDV (Warmbaths [WB], South Africa) was attenuated by removing a putative virulence factor gene (IL-10-like) using gene knockout (KO) technology. This construct (LSDV WB005KO) was then evaluated as a vaccine for sheep and goats against virulent capripoxvirus challenge. Sheep and goats were vaccinated with the construct and the animals were observed for 21days. The vaccine appeared to be safe, and did not cause disease, although it induced minor inflammation at the injection site similar to that caused by other attenuated sheep and goat pox vaccines. In addition, no virus replication was detected in blood, oral or nasal swabs using real-time PCR following vaccination and low levels of neutralising antibodies were detected in both sheep and goats. Leukocytes isolated from vaccinated animals following vaccination elicited capripoxvirus-specific IFN-γ secretion, suggesting that immunity was also T-cell mediated. Following challenge with virulent capripoxvirus, vaccinated sheep and goats were found to be completely protected and exhibited no clinical disease. Furthermore, real-time PCR of blood samples at various time points suggested that viremia was absent in both groups of vaccinated animals, as opposed to capripoxvirus-related clinical disease and viremia observed in the unvaccinated animals. These findings suggest that this

  7. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  8. Between- and within-breed variations of spine characteristics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, C L; Lambe, N R; Maltin, C A; Knott, S; Bunger, L

    2013-02-01

    Implementing the use of spine traits in a commercial breeding program has been seen to improve meat production from the carcass of larger-bodied pigs. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of variation in spine characteristics within and between breeds of sheep and to investigate the association with body length and tissues traits to deliberate if a similar approach could be applicable in the sheep sector. Spine traits (vertebrae number, VN; spine region length, SPL; individual vertebra length, VL) of the thoracic (THOR) lumbar (LUM) and thoracolumbar (T+L) spine regions were measured using x-ray computed tomography (CT) on 254 Texel (TEX), 1100 Scottish Blackface (SBF), 326 Texel cross Mule (TEX × MULE), and 178 Poll Dorset cross Mule (PD × MULE) lambs. Simple descriptive statistics inform that variation in thoracolumbar VN exists within all breeds and crosses; TEX animals showed the largest range of variation in thoracolumbar VN (17 to 21) and the TEX × MULE the smallest (18 to 20). Significant differences were not observed between sexes, but did occur between breeds (P < 0.05), which is indicative of a genetic basis for these traits. Least-squares means identified that TEX had the least thoracolumbar VN (19.24) and SBF possessed the most (19.63); similarly the lowest measures for SPL and VL for each spine region were observed in TEX, but the greatest values for these traits were expressed predominantly in the crosses (TEX × MULE and PD × MULE). Correlation coefficients (r) within each breed or cross support the interpretation of additional vertebrae contributing to a longer length of the spine region in which they occur (P < 0.001; e.g., for PD × MULE lambs), r between traits VNTHOR and SPLTHOR (r = 0.59), VNLUM and SPLLUM (r = 0.94) and VNT+L and SPLT+L (r = 0.65) all reach moderate to very high values. In all breeds and crosses, this relationship is particularly strong for the lumbar region. The few significant (P < 0.05) correlations observed

  9. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  10. Effect of sheep and human follicular fluid on the maturation of sheep oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, F J; Holm, P; Irvine, B; Seamark, R F

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effect of sheep and human follicular fluid on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep follicular oocytes. Oocyte cumulus complexes recovered post mortem were matured for 24 to 26 h at 38.6 degrees C, 5% CO(2) in air, in TCM-199 bicarbonate medium supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) and, where stated, with maturation hormones, including FSH (5.0 microg/ml), LH (5.0 microg/ml) and estradiol (1 microg/ml), or with sheep follicular fluid recovered from large (>5 mm) or small (2 to 5 mm) ovarian follicles post mortem, or with human periovular follicular fluid obtained during routine IVF procedures. The matured oocytes were then denuded, and their maturation stage and developmental capacity were assessed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and culture (IVC). It was found that inclusion of sheep or human follicular fluid or hormone supplements in the IVM media more than doubled the number of oocytes completing maturation (FCS alone 33%, compared with 76.2% for maturation hormones, 84.2% for fluid from large and 69.6% for fluid from small sheep follicles and 82.6% for human follicular fluid), and significantly increased fertilization rates (FCS alone 51.6%, compared with 71.9% for maturation hormones, 78.4% for fluid from the large and 75.7% for fluid from small sheep follicles and 73.1% for human follicular fluid) without discernible adverse effects on the development of the cleaving embryos to the morula or blastocyst stage in culture. Omission of FCS and supplements from the IVM medium resulted in a marked reduction (56%) in the number of oocytes maturing. This reduction could be offset to a large part, but not completely, by inclusion of human follicular fluid or human follicular fluid plus LH (5 microg/ml) in the medium. The results of this study show that addition of sheep or human follicular fluid to maturation medium can enhance rather than inhibit the maturation and fertilizability of sheep follicular oocytes in vitro. PMID:16727451

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Dutch dairy cattle herds based on bulk tank milk testing.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; Schotten, N; Schimmer, B; Hautvast, J L A; van Schaik, G; van Duijnhoven, Y T H P

    2014-11-01

    Despite cattle herds can harbor Coxiella burnetii, risk factors for C. burnetii presence in dairy cattle herds are largely unknown. Therefore, C. burnetii herd prevalence and risk factors for bulk tank milk (BTM) positivity were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was filled out by the farmer and BTM from 301 farms was tested by ELISA for presence of C. burnetii antibodies and PCR for presence of C. burnetii DNA. Risk factors were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Antibodies to C. burnetii were detected in 81.6% (CI: 77.2-85.9) and C. burnetii DNA in 18.8% (CI: 14.4-23.1) of the BTM samples. Herd size (OR=1.1 per 10 cows), cleaning the bedding of the cubicles at most every other day (OR=2.8) and purchase of cattle from at least two addresses (OR=3.1) showed a significant and positive association with ELISA positivity and use of an automatic milking system a negative association (OR=0.3). Risk factors for PCR positivity were purchase of cattle from at least two delivery addresses (OR=3.2), presence of cows with ticks (OR=2.0), use of an automatic milking system (OR=0.2) and presence of goats or sheep on the farm (OR=0.4). Biosecurity and general hygiene seem associated with introduction and spread of C. burnetii in dairy herds. PMID:25239684

  12. Tonsils of the Soft Palate Do Not Mediate the Response of Pigs to Oral Vaccination with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Romero, Beatriz; Boadella, Mariana; Casal, Carmen; Bezos, Javier; Mazariegos, María; Martín, MariPaz; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Villar, Margarita; Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Asensio, Fernando; Sicilia, Javier; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón A.; de la Fuente, José

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes animal tuberculosis (TB) in cattle, humans, and other mammalian species, including pigs. The goal of this study was to experimentally assess the responses of pigs with and without a history of tonsillectomy to oral vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis and challenge with a virulent M. bovis field strain, to compare pig and wild boar responses using the same vaccination model as previously used in the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), to evaluate the use of several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and lateral flow tests for in vivo TB diagnosis in pigs, and to verify if these tests are influenced by oral vaccination with inactivated M. bovis. At necropsy, the lesion and culture scores were 20% to 43% higher in the controls than those in the vaccinated pigs. Massive M. bovis growth from thoracic tissue samples was observed in 4 out of 9 controls but in none of the 10 vaccinated pigs. No effect of the presence or absence of tonsils was observed on these scores, suggesting that tonsils are not involved in the protective response to this vaccine in pigs. The serum antibody levels increased significantly only after challenge. At necropsy, the estimated sensitivities of the ELISAs and dual path platform (DPP) assays ranged from 89% to 94%. In the oral mucosa, no differences in gene expression were observed in the control group between the pigs with and without tonsils. In the vaccinated group, the mRNA levels for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7), interferon beta (IFN-β), and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) were higher in pigs with tonsils. Complement component 3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increased with vaccination and decreased after M. bovis challenge. This information is relevant for pig production in regions that are endemic for M. bovis and for TB vaccine research. PMID:24920604

  13. Replication and Transmission of the Novel Bovine Influenza D Virus in a Guinea Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Chithra; Thomas, Milton; Sheng, Zizhang; Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Knudsen, David E. B.; Pillatzki, Angela; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel influenza virus that infects cattle and swine. The goal of this study was to investigate the replication and transmission of bovine FLUDV in guinea pigs. Following direct intranasal inoculation of animals, the virus was detected in nasal washes of infected animals during the first 7 days postinfection. High viral titers were obtained from nasal turbinates and lung tissues of directly inoculated animals. Further, bovine FLUDV was able to transmit from the infected guinea pigs to sentinel animals by means of contact and not by aerosol dissemination under the experimental conditions tested in this study. Despite exhibiting no clinical signs, infected guinea pigs developed seroconversion and the viral antigen was detected in lungs of animals by immunohistochemistry. The observation that bovine FLUDV replicated in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs was similar to observations described previously in studies of gnotobiotic calves and pigs experimentally infected with bovine FLUDV but different from those described previously in experimental infections in ferrets and swine with a swine FLUDV, which supported virus replication only in the upper respiratory tract and not in the lower respiratory tract, including lung. Our study established that guinea pigs could be used as an animal model for studying this newly emerging influenza virus. IMPORTANCE Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel emerging pathogen with bovine as its primary host. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus are not yet known. FLUDV also spreads to swine, and the presence of FLUDV-specific antibodies in humans could indicate that there is a potential for zoonosis. Our results showed that bovine FLUDV replicated in the nasal turbinate and lungs of guinea pigs at high titers and was also able to transmit from an infected animal to sentinel animals by contact. The fact that bovine FLUDV replicated productively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts

  14. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  15. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants. PMID:18272296

  16. Validation of an Anaplasma marginale cELISA for use in the diagnosis of A. ovis infections in domestic sheep and Anaplasma spp. in wild ungulates.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Goff, Will L; Lysyk, Timothy J; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2008-07-27

    A commercially available (cELISA) kit for diagnosing Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle was validated for diagnosing A ovis infection in sheep using the bovine serum controls as supplied by the manufacturer (BcELISA) and sheep serum controls from pathogen-free sheep (OcELISA). True positives were identified using two previously established assays, a nested PCR (nPCR) test and an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). The BcELISA was also applied to sera from various species of wild ruminants, comparing the results with the IFA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the predicted threshold inhibition for the BcELISA was 19.2. The sensitivity for the BcELISA was 98.2% and the specificity was 96.3%. The predicted threshold inhibition decreased to 14.3 for the OcELISA; the sensitivity was 96.5% and the specificity was 98.1%. There was >/=90% concordance between IFA and nPCR, as well as between the BcELISA at 19% inhibition cutoff and either IFA or PCR. Concordance between the cELISA and IFA using sera from elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, pronghorn antelope, and black-tailed deer ranged from 64% to 100%. This commercially available cELISA test kit can be used very effectively to test domestic sheep for infection with A. ovis using the kit-supplied controls (i.e. the BcELISA) and a 19% inhibition cutoff; the kit may also be useful for detecting intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma infections in wild ruminants.

  17. [Molecular cloning and characteristics of cDNA encoding pig beta6 subunit for FMDV receptor].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan-Dian; Du, Jun-Zheng; Chang, Hui-Yun; Cong, Guo-Zheng; Shao, Jun-Jun; Shan, Yi Hua; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Xie, Qing-Ge

    2007-09-01

    In order to study the roles of integrin beta6 in Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus infection, pig integrin beta6 was firstly molecularly cloned from RNA of the tongue and lung of recovered pig infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV), and was compared with the beta6 gene of other animals available in GenBank at nucleotide and amino acid leves. GeneBank association number of the beta6 gene is EF432729. Pig integrin beta6 gene (2367bp) encodes a polypeptide of 788 amino acids consisting of 9 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, 3 Glycosaminoglycan attachment sites, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 10 Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 EGF-like domains and 2 cysteine-rich regions. Pig integrin beta6 subunit has a 26-residue putative signal peptide, a 681-residue ectodomain, a 29-residue transmembrane domain, and a 52-residue cytoplasmic domain. 11 mutant nucleotides were found in beta6 gene coding region and 9 amino acids were changed. The nucleotide sequence similarity of integrin beta6 gene between rheses monkey, mouse, Norway rat, dog, guinea pig, human, bovine, sheep is 79.5%, 84.9%, 85.4%, 85.2%, 88.7%, 90.1%, 91.9% and 91.9%, and the amino acid sequence similarity is 93.5%, 88.2%, 88.5%, 88.3%, 91.0%, 92.8%, 93.3% and 93.4% respectively. This study will lay a foundation for understanding the interactions of FMDV with receptors. PMID:18064756

  18. Inter- and intraspecific placentae in sheep, goats and sheep-goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Edmondson, A J

    1992-04-01

    These studies compared inter- and intraspecific placentae during implantation and at full-term in sheep, goats and interspecific sheep-goat chimaeras. Histological sections prepared from intra- and interspecific day-26, 32 and 36 placentae in ewes and does indicated an altered ability of the trophoblast to invade the maternal caruncle in interspecific pregnancies. Two sheep-in-goat pregnancies were less, and two goat-in-sheep pregnancies were more, invasive than homologous pregnancies. Caprine pregnancies in chimaeras generally terminated before timed samples could be obtained, but biopsy samples collected at laparotomy between days 42 and 48 demonstrated both normal and abnormal placentation in chimaeras after breedings to rams. In six of 11 full-term fetal placentae from ovine pregnancies in chimaeras, there was abnormal retention of maternal caruncular tissue to the extent that macroscopic lesions were visible on the surface of the fetal cotyledons. Histological observations indicated that proliferation of maternal septa and hyalinization of maternal vessels had occurred at the expense of the fetal villi. Overall, the results suggested that the physiological events that regulate implantation are different in the two species, despite anatomical similarities between the ovine and caprine placenta. The caprine conceptus is likely to be rejected in the ovine or chimaeric uterus because of its over-invasiveness in the early stages of implantation, whereas the ovine conceptus can survive in the potentially chimaeric uterus. PMID:1602061

  19. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  20. Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...