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Sample records for cauca valley colombia

  1. First record of Diatraea tabernella in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea tabernella (Dyar) is first recorded in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia. Even though information on its status has been unknown for almost a century in Colombia, its recent register creates concern about its potential economic importance in virtue of its abundance and distribution in the ...

  2. The Role of Non-Formal Education in Rural Development: A 10-year Case Study of the Cauca River Valley, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alvardo Pedrosa

    1980-01-01

    Details several agricultural and health development programs initiated during the past decade in the Cauca Valley in Colombia. Introduced through nonformal educational strategies making use of media, these programs have had mixed results. (LLS)

  3. The Role of Non-Formal Education in Rural Development: A 10-year Case Study of the Cauca River Valley, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alvardo Pedrosa

    1980-01-01

    Details several agricultural and health development programs initiated during the past decade in the Cauca Valley in Colombia. Introduced through nonformal educational strategies making use of media, these programs have had mixed results. (LLS)

  4. Host preference of the arbovirus vector Culex erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) at Sonso Lake, Cauca Valley Department, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, I H; Tello, S A; Neira, L A; Castillo, L F; Ocampo, C B; Wesson, D M

    2012-09-01

    Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab) is a competent vector of Eastern equine encephalitis virus and subtype IC Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and both St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus have been isolated from field-collected specimens. Previous bloodmeal analysis studies have shown this species to be a generalist, feeding on a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. This behavior can bridge arboviral transmission across different vertebrate groups. Our study examined the host preference of Cx. erraticus at Sonso Lake in Colombia. From July to August 2008, blood-engorged mosquitoes were collected from resting boxes, while vertebrate abundance was determined to calculate host preference. Based on mitochondrial DNA analysis of bloodmeals, birds were the predominant hosts (57.6%), followed by mammals (30.8%), and reptiles (6.7%); 9.5% of the bloodmeals were mixed. The most commonly fed upon species were: limpkin, black-crowned night-heron, striated heron, human, and capybara. Forage ratios showed the least bittern, limpkin, Cocoi heron, striated heron, capybara, and black-crowned night heron were preferred hosts across all vertebrates. Of the available avifauna, the least bittern, limpkin, striated heron, Cocoi heron, and black-crowned night heron were preferred, whereas the bare faced ibis, great egret, snowy egret, and cattle egret were under-used. This study shows that while Cx. erraticus is an opportunistic feeder, using diverse vertebrate hosts in the environment, certain avian species are targeted preferentially for bloodmeals.

  5. Structural imprints at the front of the Chocó-Panamá indenter: Field data from the North Cauca Valley Basin, Central Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, F.; Sartori, M.; Neuwerth, R.; Gorin, G.

    2008-11-01

    The northern Andes are a complex area where tectonics is dominated by the interaction between three major plates and accessory blocks, in particular, the Chocó-Panamá and Northern Andes Blocks. The studied Cauca Valley Basin is located at the front of the Chocó-Panamá Indenter, where the major Romeral Fault System, active since the Cretaceous, changes its kinematics from right-lateral in the south to left-lateral in the north. Structural studies were performed at various scales: DEM observations in the Central Cordillera between 4 and 5.7°N, aerial photograph analyses, and field work in the folded Oligo-Miocene rocks of the Serranía de Santa Barbara and in the flat-lying, Pleistocene Quindío-Risaralda volcaniclastic sediments interfingering with the lacustrine to fluviatile sediments of the Zarzal Formation. The data acquired allowed the detection of structures with a similar orientation at every scale and in all lithologies. These families of structures are arranged similarly to Riedel shears in a right-lateral shear zone and are superimposed on the Cretaceous Romeral suture. They appear in the Central Cordillera north of 4.5°N, and define a broad zone where 060-oriented right-lateral distributed shear strain affects the continental crust. The Romeral Fault System stays active and strain partitioning occurs among both systems. The southern limit of the distributed shear strain affecting the Central Cordillera corresponds to the E-W trending Garrapatas-Ibagué shear zone, constituted by several right-stepping, en-échelon, right-lateral, active faults and some lineaments. North of this shear zone, the Romeral Fault System strike changes from NNE to N. Paleostress calculations gave a WNW-ESE trending, maximum horizontal stress, and 69% of compressive tensors. The orientation of σ1 is consistent with the orientation of the right-lateral distributed shear strain and the compressive state characterizing the Romeral Fault System in the area: it bisects the

  6. Determination of focal mechanism solutions for the Cauca nest, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, J. B.; Diaz, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Colombia is located on the South American plate, with the Nazca plate to the West and the Caribbean plate to the North - North-West. Colombia has three main earthquake nests showing high seismic activity which has been identified as the Bucaramanga nest, Cauca nest, and Murindo nest. The Bucaramanga and Cauca nests show concentrations of intermediate-depth ( 70-170 km) earthquake sources. These two nests are oriented approximately North-South and dip toward the East. They are offset by approximately 250 km in the East-West direction, which has been attributed to a slab tear in the subducting Nazca plate. The slab tear is also supported by the presence two domains of different volcanic activities and seismic velocities. Many studies have been devoted to the Bucaramanga nest due to its high seismic activity and high magnitude events in comparison to the other nests. However, there is no clear consensus about the tectonic interpretation for the concentration of these events. We calculate focal mechanisms from the Cauca nest, which hasn't been studied in detail, using data from the Red Sismológica Nacional of Colombia (RSNC). We selected a set of well-recorded events and interpret their focal mechanism solutions regarding the slab tear hypothesis. This study contributes to a better understanding of the geodynamic context in Colombia.

  7. Characterization of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes Beneath Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Prieto, G.

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of earthquakes deeper than ~50 km depth is unexpected because of the high pressures and temperatures. Different mechanisms, such as dehydration embrittlement, runaway shear instabilities, and phase transformations, have been invoked to explain their occurrence. We investigate a concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath Cauca, Colombia (~4° N). From 50-250 km depth, this region averages ~50 earthquakes per year with magnitude M≥2. The largest earthquakes include a pair of magnitude M>6 earthquakes in 1997. Their fault planes, which were identified by analyzing the directivity of the ruptures, are fairly steep and strike approximately perpendicular to the trench. This orientation contrasts with the predominant subhorizontal trench-parallel faults seen in other subduction zones. To further investigate fault structures and the distribution of seismicity beneath Cauca, we relocate earthquakes using double-difference methods with both catalog picks and relative arrival times measured from waveform similarity. We use seismic data from the Colombian seismic network from 1993 to the present. Based on catalog P and S wave picks, our preliminary results show that the earthquakes, whose depths generally increase to the east, appear to define the position of the Nazca subducting slab. In addition, there are several fingers of seismicity extending up from the general plane of slab seismicity. Refined earthquake locations will allow us to place additional constraints on the mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquakes and, in particular, to investigate the role of pre-existing or reactivated structures in their generation.

  8. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  9. The diatraea complex (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Colombia’s Cauca River Valley: identity, distribution, and parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugarcane stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and D. indigenella Dyar & Heinrich are common pests of sugarcane crops in Colombia’s Cauca river valley (CRV). In 2012, however, D. tabernella Dyar was recorded for the first time in northern CRV and just one year later D. busckella Dyar & H...

  10. Rural telemedicine infrastructure and services in the Department of Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez, Andrés; Dulcey, María F; Seoane, Joaquín; Shoemaker, Richard G; Villarroel, Valentín; López, Diego M; Simó, Javier

    2005-08-01

    The development of telemedicine programs for the public health network of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, (Department is the major political and territorial division of the country. The Department of Cauca is located on the Pacific coast in the southwest of the country.) would make it possible to satisfy many identified needs such as medical coordination, continuing education, epidemiologic surveillance, patient referral and counterreferral, and an end to the feeling of isolation among professionals who work in rural health centers. Nevertheless, geographic, economic, and social difficulties, and the lack of a telecommunication infrastructure in areas with these characteristics present a challenge of such magnitude that the majority of existing telemedicine projects in Colombia have been centered in urban or other areas which present fewer difficulties. In the municipality of Silvia, the University of Cauca has established a prototype network using the "Hispano-American Health Link" (EHAS in Spanish) program technologies, which uses very high frequency (VHF) and wireless fidelity, (WiFi, a set of standards for wireless local area networks) radio systems for the deployment of low-cost voice and data networks. Over this network information access and exchange services have been developed, in order to meet the needs identified above. The objectives were to obtain information about the development of the project's activities and their possible impact. Project telecommunication network and information services are described, and the results and conclusions of the first evaluation are presented.

  11. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  12. Seven new species of Loneura Navás (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2017-02-06

    Seven species of Loneura from natural areas of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are described and illustrated. The female of L. andina is described for the first time. Two additional species, known only from the National Natural Park Gorgona (Cauca), are also recorded in Valle del Cauca. The new species are assigned to the infrageneric groups known in the genus. An identification key to males of Loneura is included.

  13. Trinity Gas to explore for gas in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Trinity Gas Corp. officials signed an agreement on May 20, 1997, with the Cauca Valley Corp. (CVC) allowing Trinity to use CVC data to explore for natural gas in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. CVC, Colombia`s Valle del Cauca water resources and environmental division, is evaluating Colombia`s underground water reserves to protect, control and preserve fresh water aquifers, some of which contain natural gas pockets that cause blowouts in farmers` water wells. Preparations now are underway for drilling Trinity`s first well at the Palmira 1 site on the San Jose Hacienda, the largest privately owned sugar cane plantation in the valley. Trinity also entered into an agreement with the Cauca Valley Natural Gas and Electricity Project to furnish natural gas, generated electricity and energy fuel for the industrial district in the region. According to this contract, many valley residents will have electric service for the first time.

  14. Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-11-28

    The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.

  15. Spectroscopic study of inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeug, Manuela; Rodríguez Vargas, Andrés Ignacio; Nasdala, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Mineral inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia, were investigated non-destructively using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, with special focus lying on phases containing radioactive elements. Besides abundant rutile, the minerals zircon, apatite, feldspar, and an epidote-group species, most probably allanite-(Ce), were found. The latter is detected easily from its characteristic Nd3+ emission pattern, which may prove useful in future provenance studies. Zircon inclusions range from well crystalline to moderately radiation damaged [FWHM (full width at half band maximum) of the ν 3(SiO4) Raman band 1.8-10.9 cm-1]. Both the zircon inclusions and their neighbouring host corundum are affected by compressive stress, which is assigned to (1) heterogeneous volume expansion of the host-inclusion couple upon pressure release during the uplift following primary growth and (2) volume expansion of the zircon inclusion due to the accumulation of self-irradiation damage. Internal stress of zircon inclusions averages 1.1 GPa. Heat treatment of corundum leads to structural reconstitution of zircon (narrowed zircon Raman bands with FWHMs in the range 1.8-2.7 cm-1) and accompanying stress release in the adjacent corundum (indicated by downshifts of the R 1 emission of Cr3+). The observation of broadened Raman band of zircon inclusions therefore allows one to exclude high-temperature enhancement of the host corundum.

  16. Spectroscopic study of inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeug, Manuela; Rodríguez Vargas, Andrés Ignacio; Nasdala, Lutz

    2016-10-01

    Mineral inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia, were investigated non-destructively using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, with special focus lying on phases containing radioactive elements. Besides abundant rutile, the minerals zircon, apatite, feldspar, and an epidote-group species, most probably allanite-(Ce), were found. The latter is detected easily from its characteristic Nd3+ emission pattern, which may prove useful in future provenance studies. Zircon inclusions range from well crystalline to moderately radiation damaged [FWHM (full width at half band maximum) of the ν 3(SiO4) Raman band 1.8-10.9 cm-1]. Both the zircon inclusions and their neighbouring host corundum are affected by compressive stress, which is assigned to (1) heterogeneous volume expansion of the host-inclusion couple upon pressure release during the uplift following primary growth and (2) volume expansion of the zircon inclusion due to the accumulation of self-irradiation damage. Internal stress of zircon inclusions averages 1.1 GPa. Heat treatment of corundum leads to structural reconstitution of zircon (narrowed zircon Raman bands with FWHMs in the range 1.8-2.7 cm-1) and accompanying stress release in the adjacent corundum (indicated by downshifts of the R 1 emission of Cr3+). The observation of broadened Raman band of zircon inclusions therefore allows one to exclude high-temperature enhancement of the host corundum.

  17. The Cause of the Cauca, Colombia, Cluster of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes From Earthquake Relocation and Focal Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Chang, Y.; Prieto, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subducting slabs, a high seismicity rate in a concentrated volume (an earthquake cluster) is often associated with geometric complexities such as slab detachment, tearing, or contortions. The intermediate-depth Cauca, Colombia, cluster (3.5°N-5.5°N), in contrast, appears to be located in a slab without such complexities. However, previous constraints on the slab geometry are based on global data. We use regional data to investigate the cause of the Cauca cluster by estimating its geometry from earthquake relocations and stress regime from focal mechanism calculations and stress inversions. The Cauca segment of the Nazca Plate is characterized by relatively sparse seismicity away from the cluster and a narrow volcanic arc. To the northeast of the Cauca cluster, six active volcanoes are concentrated within an 80-km along-trench distance and are isolated 180 km from the rest of the northern Andes volcanic arc. The Colombian National Seismic Network, from Jan 2010 to Mar 2014, reports 433 earthquakes in the cluster at depths of 50-200 km with local magnitudes ranging from 2.0-4.7. Earthquake relocations show a continuous 20-km-thick seismic zone dipping at 33°-43°, with the angle increasing to the south. In addition, earthquakes locate in two columns that extend normal to the slab and into the mantle wedge. The focal mechanisms show various types, including down-dip extension, strike slip, and trench-parallel compression, but are consistent with a predominantly down-dip extensional stress field. The maximum and intermediate stress axes are interchangeable because of their similar magnitudes. The down-dip extensional stress regime may expel dehydrated fluid from the slab into the mantle wedge. As the fluid moves through the mantle wedge, it may generate hydrofractures and the observed mantle-wedge earthquakes. The fluid in the mantle wedge may be transported along the trench, from the steeper southern section to the more shallowly-dipping northern section, and

  18. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  19. Hydraulic characterization of the heterogeneity of the "Valle del Cauca" Aquifer (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donado, L. D.; Gomez-Español, A.

    2012-04-01

    This research consists of a regional study in which is analyzed and defined in detail the response of a large alluvial aquifer to external imposed stresses of varying magnitude at multiple points within its area. On the other hand, this work evaluates and establishes the spatial correlation structure of the transmissivity and specific capacity values and provides a spatial stochastic prediction model. The later acceptably synthesizes the field properties of each of these parameters. The prediction model was developed from the cross correlation between 852 series values of specific capacity and 316 from transmissivity. This model lead us to demonstrate from the geological perspective that exits a relation among geomorphology and recharge areas so that, higher transmissivity values are presented in the lowlands of the valley through which rivers flow localized in recharge areas generated by geological folds. Since 1950, began an intensive development of this aquifer (Colombia). Despite the country has a positive water balance (IDEAM, 2003), this aquifer is the most productive one in Colombia, has an extension of 3,300 km2. Approximately 1,500 wells supply about 92,540 L/s used for agricultural and industrial purposes. This research uses about 1,000 pumping tests carried out since 1970 by the regional environmental agency (CVC). We interpreted those pumping tests using the diagnostic plot method (Rennard, 2008) to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific capacity. The model figures out a significant geological heterogeneity in the apparently homogeneous alluvial aquifer that leads us to use several interpretation methods for different boundary and well conditions. This brings into question the validity of the regional scale research using a single method of interpretation. Similarly, the results permit us to review the current conceptual model of a three layers aquifer (unconfined - aquitard - confined aquifers) with a defined thickness to a heterogeneous model

  20. A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2012-01-01

    Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.

  1. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) forcing on the late Holocene Cauca paleolake dynamics, northern Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, J. I.; Obrochta, S.; Yokoyama, Y.; Battarbee, R. W.

    2015-07-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), is a major driving climate mechanism, in the eastern Caribbean Sea and the South Atlantic Ocean in relation to the dynamics of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) for the late Holocene. Here we document the AMO signal in the San Nicolás-1 core of the Cauca paleolake (Santa Fé-Sopetrán Basin) in the northern Andes. Wavelet spectrum analysis of the gray scale of the San Nicolás-1 core provides evidence for a 70 yr AMO periodicity for the 3750 to 350 yr BP time interval, whose pattern is analogous to the one documented for the Cariaco Basin. This supports a possible correlation between enhanced precipitation and ENSO variability with a positive AMO phase during the 2000 to 1500 yr BP interval, and its forcing role on the Cauca ria lake deposits, which led to increased precipitation and to the transition from a igapo (black water) to a varzea (white water) environment ca. 3000 yr BP.

  2. Aerobic capacity and future cardiovascular risk in Indian community from a low-income area in Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Piñeros-Álvarez, Carlos Andrés; Giraldo, Lorena Isabel; Izquierdo, Mikel; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2017-03-07

    Several studies indicates that children's aerobic capacity levels are predictors of the future risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk in Indian-Nasa community from a low-income area in Cauca, Colombia. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of morphological component (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat percent [BF%]), and the cardiorespiratory component (course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption by indirect VO2max) from 576 participants (319 boys and 257 girls) aged 10 to 17.9 years, using the standardized FUPRECOL test battery. We showed that the boys performed better than the girls in cardiorespiratory fitness. The proportion of subjects with an aerobic capacity indicative of future cardiovascular risk was 7.3%. By sex, 3.8% of boys and 11.7% of girls (X(2) p = 0.001) displayed an unhealthy aerobic capacity in this study. The findings of this study that provide the first data on aerobic capacity health for Colombian Nasa Indian children and adolescents aged 10-17.9 years. Although the known loss of aerobic capacity is a serious consequence of the future risk of non-communicable diseases, the deterioration of physical fitness deserves increased attention among indigenous population.

  3. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  4. Genetic population analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three states (Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) from Southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Julieta Avila, Sandra; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal (DYS19, DYS389 I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic systems were typed in three South West Colombian populations: Valle (short term for Valle del Cauca), Cauca and Nariño. DYS385a/b showed the highest gene diversity in the three populations. A total of 287 different Y-chromosome haplotypes were observed in the 308 males analyzed, and the haplotype diversity among populations was 0.9977. The most frequent haplotype was observed only three times and only nineteen others were observed two times. The highest gene diversity was found in Valle and the lowest in Cauca. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that variation is mainly within populations (99.1%) in agreement with previous results in European populations. In conclusion, these populations could be pooled together in order to create one "Colombian-Mestizo" database for forensic use.

  5. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  6. [Risk Factors Associated With School Bullying in Local Authority Schools in Four Municipalities of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    Hernández Carrillo, Mauricio; Gutiérrez Martínez, María Isabel

    2013-09-01

    To determine the association between family and social relationships and School Bullying (SB) among peers in public education institutions in four municipalities of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, during 2009. A case-control study matched by sex and educational institution was carried out. The study population came from a secondary database provided by the Departof Health Secretaryhealth, which consisted of data gathered in a survey of schoolchildren enrolled in grades 6 to 11. The CISNEROS scale and the Family APGAR test were applied to measure outcome and exposure variables. A conditional logistic regression model was obtained to explain SB. It was found that schoolchildren living with a family where verbal and physical violence prevails, as well as in a hostile neighborhood, are more vulnerable to SB. The probability of being an SB victim is explained by: family dysfunction (OR=2.67; 95%CI, 1.05-6.82), verbal aggression at home (OR=2.81; 95%CI, 1.45-5.46), physical punishing parents (OR=2.53; 95%CI, 1.12-5.75), and neighbors who are physically aggressive to each other (OR=1.87; 95% CI, 1.00-3.56). The study confirmed that reported by Lopez, who suggested that victimization and school rejection in adolescence is related to factors outside the classroom, such as the quality of communication between parents and children. As regards family influence in the SB, Bowes indicates that a positive family atmosphere is significantly associated with the resilience of school victimization. Furthermore, being physically punished by parents generates low self-esteem in the schoolchild that leads to lack of self-protective attitudes to the attacks that occur within the school. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Informal "seed" systems and the management of gene flow in traditional agroecosystems: the case of cassava in Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Dyer, George A; González, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava--the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop--describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava

  8. Predictive Value of Molecular Drug Resistance Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García, Pamela K.; Nieto, Luisa Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Previous evaluations of the molecular GenoType tests have promoted their use to detect resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs in different geographical regions. However, there are known geographic variations in the mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and especially in South America, there is a paucity of information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations associated with resistance to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. We therefore evaluated the performance of the GenoType kits in this region by testing 228 M. tuberculosis isolates in Colombia, including 134 resistant and 94 pansusceptible strains. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GenoType MTBDRplus test ranged from 92 to 96% and 97 to 100%, respectively; the agreement index was optimal (Cohen's kappa, >0.8). The sensitivity of the GenoType MTBDRsl test ranged from 84 to 100% and the specificity from 88 to 100%. The most common mutations were katG S315T1, rpoB S531L, embB M306V, gyrA D94G, and rrs A1401G. Our results reflect the utility of the GenoType tests in Colombia; however, as some discordance still exists between the conventional and molecular approaches in resistance testing, we adhere to the recommendation that the GenoType tests serve as early guides for therapy, followed by phenotypic drug susceptibility testing for all cases. PMID:23658272

  9. Upper Magdalena Valley basin in Colombia has new play potential

    SciTech Connect

    Maslanyj, M.P. ); Pena, L.E. )

    1994-05-30

    During third quarter 1993 Ecopetrol set in action a strategy to increase exploration investment in Colombia resulting in the first licensing round by competitive tender, which opened for 90 days on April 18, 1994. The Upper Magdalena Valley basin (UMVB), one of three areas set aside for licensing, lies at the head of the Magdalena River between 2--5[degree] N. Lat. The acreage offered consists of 4,900 sq km, some 23% of the total basin area. Historical attention has focused on the Cretaceous Caballos and Monserrate sandstones, but new play potential exists for reservoirs in laterally equivalent facies and at other stratigraphic levels. The paper discusses previous exploration activities, regional geology, geologic structures, petroleum source rocks, the principal reservoirs, sealing mechanisms, geologic traps, play types, trap charge and integrity, and technical merit of the Upper Magdalena Valley basin.

  10. Study of air pollution in the Aburra Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bedoya, J.; Bedoya, E.

    1980-01-01

    A study of air pollution in the Aburra Valley, Colombia, showed that in 1978, the total vehicular (automobiles, buses, and trucks) fuel consumption, including gasoline, fuel oil, kerosine and aviation gasoline, was 136 million gal, which, based on EPA emission factors, produced 755 metric tons of particulate matter and 245 metric tons of sulfur dioxide. In the city of Medellin, during 1976-1979, sulfur dioxide concentrations averaged 40 jg/cu m annually at two sampling stations representing the worst cases, a value below the Colombian standard of 70 jg/cu m. The annual average for the city showed an increase of 22 jg/cu m in 1977 to 30 jg/cu m in 1979. In March 1978, the Olaya Herrera Airport in Aburra Valley was closed a number of hours due to lack of visibility caused by fumes; on 3/17/78, it was closed ten hours. The economic and demographic aspects of the Aburra Valley, industrial sources of pollution in the Valley and Colombian air pollution regulations are discussed.

  11. Early and Middle Holocene evidence for plant use and cultivation in the Middle Cauca River Basin, Cordillera Central (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, Francisco J.; Loaiza, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of research done in the Colombian Andean region known as Middle Cauca River Basin, an important location for the study of the origins of plant use and the dispersal of domesticates throughout the Americas due to its geographical position in northwest South America. We discuss human-environment interactions during Pleistocene/Holocene transition to middle Holocene (ca 10,000-4000 BP), specifically human-plant interaction and environmental factors that led to the adoption of horticultural practices. Three lines of evidence are analyzed: archaeological stratigraphy, lithic technology, and microbotanical remains. Our results suggest that early Holocene environmental stability allowed Middle Cauca settlers to use the diverse local resources for several millennia, altering the local vegetation, and leading to the development of horticultural practices that included the use of both local and foreign plants. These results inform the ongoing debate about the antiquity and nature of plant domestication and dispersals in the Americas.

  12. Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Epipsocidae), from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and description of the female E.chiquibulensis García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; González Obando, Ranulfo; García Aldrete, Alfonso Neri

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Edmockfordia García Aldrete, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, and the female of Edmockfordiachiquibulensis García Aldrete, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Edmockfordia is included; the genus was previously known only from Belize. The genus is re-diagnosed to include female characters. The distribution of the genus is considerably widened, from Belize to northeastern South America.

  13. Hydrogeological Characterization of the Middle Magdalena Valley - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Maria Cristina; Riva, Monica; Donado, Leonardo David; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    We provide a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the complex aquifer system of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia. The latter is comprised by 3 sub-basins within which 7 blocks have been identified for active exploration and potential production of oil and gas. As such, there is a critical need to establish modern water resources management practices in the area to accommodate the variety of social, environmental and industrial needs. We do so by starting from a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the system and focus on: (a) a detailed hydrogeological reconnaissance of the area leading to the definition of the main hydrogeological units; (b) the collection, organization and analysis of daily climatic data from 39 stations available in the region; and (c) the assessment of the groundwater flow circulation through the formulation of a conceptual and a mathematical model of the subsurface system. Groundwater flow is simulated in the SAM 1.1 aquifer located in the Middle Magdalena Valley with the objective of showing and evaluating alternative conceptual hydrogeological modeling alternatives. We focus here on modeling results at system equilibrium (i.e., under steady-state conditions) and assess the value of available information in the context of the candidate modeling strategies we consider. Results of our modeling effort are conducive to the characterization of the distributed hydrogeological budget and the assessment of critical areas as a function of the conceptualization of the system functioning and data avilability.

  14. Constraints on the physical mechanism of intermediate-depth earthquake rupture in the Cauca Cluster, Colombia, through a source parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chango, Robert

    Earthquakes are the result of the sudden release of elastic energy by brittle failure. Such frictional processes are controlled by temperature and pressure. Temperature and pressure within the Earth increase with depth, which should make the rock flow. Even in subduction zones, where temperatures are lower than expected, the high confining pressure should prevent ordinary brittle failure. Therefore earthquakes deeper than 60 km are not expected. In fact, 25% of worldwide seismicity occurs deeper than 60 km. Deep seismicity usually occurs within the subducting slab in subduction zones. In this study, we estimate the source parameters of intermediate-depth earthquakes (60-300 km) in the Cauca cluster ( 4° N, 76.5° W) in Colombia to understand the physical mechanism responsible for these earthquakes. A cluster is a volume of high seismic activity surrounded by a zone of low activity rates. Source parameters are quantitative estimations of the size, strength and dynamics of the earthquakes. The source parameters can be estimated from the energy spectra of earthquakes by fitting a theoretical model. To obtain the spectra we use a multitaper technique. Because the spectra is the convolution of source, receiver and attenuation, we isolate the source and receiver by iteratively stacking the spectra. The stacking is a reasonable approach since the Colombian seismic network has a dense distribution of stations recording right above the cluster. We fit our observed spectra with the theoretical Brune model to obtain corner frequencies. P-wave corner frequencies range from 5.9 to 9.1 Hz for events with ML between 2.6-4.7. S-wave corner frequencies range from 5.2 to 9.1 Hz for events with ML between 2.5-4.5. Earthquakes with larger ML seem to follow the Brune model trend for large stress drops. Even though we have inconclusive results, our small corner frequencies and high stress drops for larger magnitudes would support thermal shear instability as the physical mechanism

  15. Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eider; García, Lorena; Hernández, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). Results: The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. Conclusions: The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out. PMID:24970955

  16. Informal “Seed” Systems and the Management of Gene Flow in Traditional Agroecosystems: The Case of Cassava in Cauca, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, George A.; González, Carolina; Lopera, Diana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to manage gene flow within traditional agroecosystems and their repercussions requires understanding the biology of crops, including farming practices' role in crop ecology. That these practices' effects on crop population genetics have not been quantified bespeaks lack of an appropriate analytical framework. We use a model that construes seed-management practices as part of a crop's demography to describe the dynamics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Cauca, Colombia. We quantify several management practices for cassava—the first estimates of their kind for a vegetatively-propagated crop—describe their demographic repercussions, and compare them to those of maize, a sexually-reproduced grain crop. We discuss the implications for gene flow, the conservation of cassava diversity, and the biosafety of vegetatively-propagated crops in centers of diversity. Cassava populations are surprisingly open and dynamic: farmers exchange germplasm across localities, particularly improved varieties, and distribute it among neighbors at extremely high rates vis-à-vis maize. This implies that a large portion of cassava populations consists of non-local germplasm, often grown in mixed stands with local varieties. Gene flow from this germplasm into local seed banks and gene pools via pollen has been documented, but its extent remains uncertain. In sum, cassava's biology and vegetative propagation might facilitate pre-release confinement of genetically-modified varieties, as expected, but simultaneously contribute to their diffusion across traditional agroecosystems if released. Genetically-modified cassava is unlikely to displace landraces or compromise their diversity; but rapid diffusion of improved germplasm and subsequent incorporation into cassava landraces, seed banks or wild populations could obstruct the tracking and eradication of deleterious transgenes. Attempts to regulate traditional farming practices to reduce the risks could compromise cassava

  17. Frequency and variability of dental morphology in deciduous and permanent dentition of a Nasa indigenous group in the municipality of Morales, Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Eider; García, Lorena; Hernández, Michelle; Palacio, Lesly; Ruiz, Diana; Velandia, Nataly; Villavicencio, Judy; Moreno, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency, variability, sexual dimorphism and bilateral symmetry of fourteen dental crown traits in the deciduous and permanent dentition of 60 dental models (35 women and 25 men) obtained from a native, indigenous group of Nasa school children of the Musse Ukue group in the municipality of Morales, Department of Cauca, Colombia. This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes dental morphology by means of the systems for temporary dentition from Dahlberg (winging), and ASUDAS (crowding, reduction of hypocone, metaconule and cusp 6), Hanihara (central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and cusp 7), Sciulli (double bit, layered fold protostylid, cusp pattern and cusp number) and Grine (Carabelli trait); and in permanent dentition from ASUDAS (Winging, crowding, central and lateral incisors in shovel-shape and double shovel-shape, Carabelli trait, hypocone reduction, metaconule, cusp pattern, cusp number, layered fold protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7). The most frequent dental crown features were the shovel-shaped form, grooved and fossa forms of the Carabelli trait, metaconule, cusp pattern Y6, layered fold, protostylid (point P) and cusp 6. Sexual dimorphism was not observed and there was bilateral symmetry in the expression of these features. The sample studied presented a great affinity with ethnic groups belonging to the Mongoloid Dental Complex due to the frequency (expression) and variability (gradation) of the tooth crown traits, upper incisors, the Carabelli trait, the protostylid, cusp 6 and cusp 7. The influence of the Caucasoide Dental Complex associated with ethno-historical processes cannot be ruled out.

  18. [Frequency of Helicobacter pylori nitroreductase RdxA mutations for metronidazole activation in a population in the Cauca Department, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Claudia Patricia; Quiroga, Andrés Javier; Sierra, Carlos H; Trespalacios, Alba Alicia

    2017-06-01

    Resistance to metronidazole is a key factor associated with Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Even though resistance is mostly associated with RdxA nitroreductase mutations, studies of this H. pylori protein in Popayán (Colombia) are still incipient. To evaluate the frequency of mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase in a population of patients with H. pylori-positive gastrointestinal disease. We amplified the DNA of 170 gastric biopsies by PCR to detect mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase. An analysis of DNA sequences translated into amino acid sequences was done and then compared to the reference strain 26695. The frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in this study population was 78%. Its most frequent distribution was found in positions D59N (153 samples), R131K (101 samples), R90K (97 samples), A118T (42 samples), I160F (32 samples) and H97T (26 samples), and meaningful stop codons Q50*, D59*; E75*, C159* and I160* in five, one, three, ten and six samples, respectively. The most common virulence genotype was vacAs1/m1 cagA negative (48.6 %). The high frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in H. pylori isolates in Popayán (Colombia) indicates that empirical therapy with metronidazole may not be a valid option for the eradication of H. pylori in patients of the studied population.

  19. Combined use of local and global hydrometeorological data with regional and global hydrological models in the Magdalena - Cauca river basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Erasmo; Sanchez, Ines; Duque, Nicolas; Lopez, Patricia; Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Arboleda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The Magdalena Cauca Macrobasin (MCMB) in Colombia, with an area of about 257,000 km2, is the largest and most important water resources system in the country. With almost 80% of the Colombian population (46 million people) settled in the basin, it is the main source of water for demands including human consumption, agriculture, hydropower generation, industrial activities and ecosystems. Despite its importance, the basin has witnessed enormous changes in land-cover and extensive deforestation during the last three decades. To make things more complicated, the MCMB currently lacks a set of tools to support planning and decision making processes at scale of the whole watershed. Considering this, the MCMB has been selected as one of the six different regional case studies in the eartH2Observe research project, in which hydrological and meteorological reanalysis products are being validated for the period 1980-2012. The combined use of the hydrological and meteorological reanalysis data, with local hydrometeorological data (precipitation, temperature and streamflow) provided by the National Hydrometeorological Agency (IDEAM), has given us the opportunity to implement and test three hydrological models (VIC, WFLOW and a Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework) at the basin scale. Additionally, results from the global models in the eartH2Observe hydrological reanalysis have been used to evaluate their performance against the observed streamflow data. This paper discusses the comparison between streamflow observations and simulations from the global hydrological models forced with the WFDEI data, and regional models forced with a combination of observed and meteorological reanalysis data, in the whole domain of the MCMB. For the three regional models analysed results show good performances for some sub-basins and poor performances for others. This can be due to the smoothing of the precipitation fields, interpolated from point daily rainfall data, the effect of

  20. First planktonic foraminifera from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, J.; Vergara, L.; Stock, H. W.

    1992-10-01

    Albian planktonic foraminifera have been found in the Caballos and "Villeta" formations at two localities in the Upper Magdalena Valley. This is the first documented record of Early Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera in Colombia. Hedbergellids and heterohelicids predominate; keeled forms are absent. The sedimentologic features and the associated microfauna indicate the onset of restricted environments from the middle Albian on.

  1. Reservoir performance of Late Eocene incised valley fills, Cusiana Field, Llanos Foothills, Eastern Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A. ); Edward, W. ); App, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Cusiana Field is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The principal reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises >50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 150,00bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is 8% which reflects abundant quartz cement ([approximately]14%) and significant compaction during deep burial ([approximately]20,000feet). Single valleys are up to 70 feet thick and exhibit a distinctive bipartite fill that reflects changing energy conditions during filling. Bases of valleys have the coarsest grain size and have sedimentological and trace fossil evidence for deposition in highly stressed, brackish water environments. The upper parts of the valleys are typically finer grained and were deposited in more saline settings. Despite the low porosity of the Mirador valleys, drill stem tests and production log data show that they have phenomenal performance characteristics. Rates of [ge]10,000bopd are achieved from single valleys. Bases of the valley fills are the key contributors to flow. Integration of detailed core and pore system analysis with the reservoir performance data shows that the permeability fabric of the Mirador can be explained by original depositional architecture and simple loss of primary porosity. Comparison of Cusiana with other quartz-rich sandstones from around the world suggests that it's low porosity/high performance is predictable.

  2. Reservoir performance of Late Eocene incised valley fills, Cusiana Field, Llanos Foothills, Eastern Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A.; Edward, W.; App, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Cusiana Field is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The principal reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises >50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 150,00bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is 8% which reflects abundant quartz cement ({approximately}14%) and significant compaction during deep burial ({approximately}20,000feet). Single valleys are up to 70 feet thick and exhibit a distinctive bipartite fill that reflects changing energy conditions during filling. Bases of valleys have the coarsest grain size and have sedimentological and trace fossil evidence for deposition in highly stressed, brackish water environments. The upper parts of the valleys are typically finer grained and were deposited in more saline settings. Despite the low porosity of the Mirador valleys, drill stem tests and production log data show that they have phenomenal performance characteristics. Rates of {ge}10,000bopd are achieved from single valleys. Bases of the valley fills are the key contributors to flow. Integration of detailed core and pore system analysis with the reservoir performance data shows that the permeability fabric of the Mirador can be explained by original depositional architecture and simple loss of primary porosity. Comparison of Cusiana with other quartz-rich sandstones from around the world suggests that it`s low porosity/high performance is predictable.

  3. Integrated exploration workflow in the south Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Charry, German Rodriguez; Morales, Marcela Mayorga; Mondragon, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The HC exploration is presently active in the southern part of the Middle Magdalena Valley but only moderate size discoveries have been made up to date. The majority of these discoveries are at shallow depth in the Tertiary section. The structures located in the Valley are faulted anticlines charged by lateral migration from the Cretaceous source rocks that are assumed to be present and mature eastward below the main thrusts and the Guaduas Syncline. Upper Cretaceous reservoirs have also been positively tested. To reduce the risks linked to the exploration of deeper structures below the western thrusts of the Eastern Cordillera, an integrated study was carried out. It includes the acquisition of new seismic data, the integration of all surface and subsurface data within a 3D-geomodel, a quality control of the structural model by restoration and a modeling of the petroleum system (presence and maturity of the Cretaceous source rocks, potential migration pathways). The various steps of this workflow will be presented as well as the main conclusions in term of source rock, deformation phases and timing of the thrust emplacement versus oil maturation and migration. Our data suggest (or confirm) The good potential of the Umir Fm as a source rock. The early (Paleogene) deformation of the Bituima Trigo fault area. The maturity gap within the Cretaceous source rock between the hangingwall and footwall of the Bituima fault that proves an initial offset of Cretaceous burial in the range of 4.5 km between the Upper Cretaceous series westward and the Lower Cretaceous ones eastward of this fault zone. The post Miocene weak reactivation as dextral strike slip of Cretaceous faults such as the San Juan de Rio Seco fault that corresponds to change in the Cretaceous thickness and therefore in the depth of the thrust decollement.

  4. Petroleum systems of the Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, C.; Cordoba, F.; Luna, O.; Sarmiento, L.F.; Rangel, A.

    1996-08-01

    The petroleum systems of the Middle Magdalena Valley include 29 oil fields and numerous oil seeps with recoverable reserves of 3 billion barrels of oil. Based on API gravity, sulfur content, pristane/phytane index, carbon isotopic ratios of the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, and biomarkers, at least two oil families occur within this province. Each oil family covers a different area. Based on stratigraphic occurrence, one oil family originated from the Tablazo Formation of Aptian age while the other oil family originated from the La Luna Formation of Cenomanian to Santonian age. Both of these rock units have high organic carbon contents and hydrogen indices indicative of petroleum source rocks. The primary reservoir rocks are the Tertiary sandstones of the La Paz, Esmeraldas, Mugrosa, and Colorado Formations. The La Cira Shale, a regional seal rock, is the uppermost part the Colorado Formation. Secondary reservoirs are limestones of the Tablazo, Rosablanca, and La Luna formations, and sandstones of the Lisama and Umir Formations. An Eocene unconformity separates the primary reservoir rocks above from the secondary reservoir rocks and active source rocks below. This unconformity places the primary reservoir rocks in angular discordance with the underlying active source rock intervals, forming the main plumbing system for migrating petroleum. Traps are related to pre-Andean and Andean folding and faulting. Overburden rocks are Cretaceous marine, Paleocene transitional, and Eocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks. Thermal data and modeling indicates that the thermal history of the source rock intervals was sufficient to generate hydrocarbons during late Tertiary time.

  5. [Qualitative analysis of water quality deterioration and infection by Helicobacter pylori in a community with high risk of stomach cancer (Cauca, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Claudia Patricia; Benavides, John Alexander; Sierra, Carlos Hernán

    2015-12-01

    This study looks at aspects of the environmental health of the rural population in Timbío (Cauca, Columbia) in relation to the deterioration of water quality. The information was obtained through participatory research methods exploring the management and use of water, the sources of pollution and the perception of water quality and its relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. The results are part of the qualitative analysis of a first research phase characterizing water and sanitation problems and their relation to emerging infectious diseases as well as possible solutions, which was carried out between November 2013 and August 2014. The results of this research are discussed from an ecosystemic approach to human health, recognizing the complexity of environmental conflicts related to water resources and their impacts on the health of populations. Through the methodology used, it is possible to detect and visualize the most urgent problems as well as frequent causes of contamination of water resources so as to propose solutions within a joint agenda of multiple social actors.

  6. Natural enzootic vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Cristina; Boshell, Jorge; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Gonzalez, Marta; Ahumada, Marta L; Kang, Wenli; Weaver, Scott C

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the transmission cycle of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strains believed to represent an epizootic progenitor, we identified natural vectors in a sylvatic focus in the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia. Hamster-baited traps were placed into an active forest focus, and mosquitoes collected from each trap in which a hamster became infected were sorted by species and assayed for virus. In 18 cases, a single, initial, high-titered mosquito pool representing the vector species was identified. These vectors included Culex (Melanoconion) vomerifer (11 transmission events), Cx. (Mel.) pedroi (5 transmissions) and Cx. (Mel.) adamesi (2 transmissions). These results extend the number of proven enzootic VEEV vectors to 7, all of which are members of the Spissipes section of the subgenus Melanoconion. Our findings contrast with previous studies, which have indicated that a single species usually serves as the principal enzootic VEEV vector at a given location.

  7. Water quality analysis in rivers with non-parametric probability distributions and fuzzy inference systems: application to the Cauca River, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Osorio, Carolina; Piamba, Christian; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2013-02-01

    The integration of water quality monitoring variables is essential in environmental decision making. Nowadays, advanced techniques to manage subjectivity, imprecision, uncertainty, vagueness, and variability are required in such complex evaluation process. We here propose a probabilistic fuzzy hybrid model to assess river water quality. Fuzzy logic reasoning has been used to compute a water quality integrative index. By applying a Monte Carlo technique, based on non-parametric probability distributions, the randomness of model inputs was estimated. Annual histograms of nine water quality variables were built with monitoring data systematically collected in the Colombian Cauca River, and probability density estimations using the kernel smoothing method were applied to fit data. Several years were assessed, and river sectors upstream and downstream the city of Santiago de Cali, a big city with basic wastewater treatment and high industrial activity, were analyzed. The probabilistic fuzzy water quality index was able to explain the reduction in water quality, as the river receives a larger number of agriculture, domestic, and industrial effluents. The results of the hybrid model were compared to traditional water quality indexes. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it considers flexible boundaries between the linguistic qualifiers used to define the water status, being the belongingness of water quality to the diverse output fuzzy sets or classes provided with percentiles and histograms, which allows classify better the real water condition. The results of this study show that fuzzy inference systems integrated to stochastic non-parametric techniques may be used as complementary tools in water quality indexing methodologies.

  8. Upper crustal control of deformation and hydrocarbon traps along Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The compressive tectonic history of the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV) is dominated by three Tertiary cratonward-verging deformation phases: (1) an early to middle Eocene uplift of the Central Cordillera, (2) a late Oligocene climax to this uplift and emplacement of crustal-rooted thrusts along the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, and (3) the Miocene-Pliocene development of the Eastern Cordillera. Uniquely, each of these distinct deformation episodes displays similar structural trends despite exhibiting varying convergences and emplacement along strike. Previously, interpretations of this region focused on a single, possibly transpressional, Andean-age deformation. Based on this reexamination, two distinct climatic events are seen in the Central and Eastern Cordillera structures, which are similar because Eocene-Pliocene compressive deformation was controlled by an older regional upper crustal fabric. These multiple episodes match deformation phases seen elsewhere in the northern Andes and thus may lend evidence for a regional tectonic relationship to the Andean deformed belts. These deformational phases and their associated depositional packages indicate that the UMV has undergone as least two periods of oil generation and migration. This history is similar to that of the structures seen in the Middle Magdalena Valley and draws an additional parallel in the pre-Andean structural development of this area of Colombia.

  9. Genetic demography of Antioquia (Colombia) and the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Ophoff, Roel; Service, Susan; Hartiala, Jaana; Molina, Julio; Leon, Pedro; Ospina, Jorge; Bedoya, Gabriel; Freimer, Nelson; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2003-05-01

    We report a comparative genetic characterization of two population isolates with parallel demographic histories: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia (in northwest Colombia). The analysis of mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal polymorphisms shows that Antioquia and the CVCR are genetically very similar, indicating that closely related parental populations founded these two isolates. In both populations, the male ancestry is predominantly European, whereas the female ancestry is mostly Amerind. In agreement with their isolation, the Amerindian mtDNA diversity of Antioquia and the CVCR is typical of ethnically-defined native populations and is markedly lower than in other Latin American populations. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at 18 marker pairs in Antioquia and the CVCR shows that markers in LD in both populations are located at short genetic distances (

  10. Personal Docente del Nivel Primario. Series Estadisticas Basicas, Nivel Educativo: Cauca (Teaching Personnel in Primary Schools. Basic Statistics Series, Level of Education: Cauca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This document provides statistical data on the distribution and education of teaching personnel working in the elementary schools of Cauca, Colombia, between 1958 and 1967. The statistics cover the number of men and women, public and private schools, urban and rural location, and the amount of education of the teachers. For overall statistics in…

  11. Depositional environment of the Caballos Formation, San Francisco Field, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, J.S.

    1990-05-01

    Early Cretaceous Caballos sandstones in the San Francisco field, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, contain approximately 500 million bbl of oil in place. Most of the oil is in the upper Caballos. The upper and lower Caballos average 85 and 45 ft of sandstone, respectively. The Caballos is at depths of 2,080 to 3,680 ft. Distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir facies in the Caballos Formation is controlled by depositional environment and diagenesis. Understanding the facies distribution is crucial to the implementation of the proposed waterflood and for predicting reservoir distribution in wildcat areas. The Caballos Formation was deposited during a world wide transgression and rests nonconformably on Jurassic volcanics. The lower Caballos is composed of braided stream deposits with individual reservoir sandstones up to 20 ft thick. The lower Caballos sediment was derived from quartzarenites of the Guayana shield and from local erosion of the basement. The middle Caballos consists of shale and sandy shale deposited in restricted to open-marine and bay environments. The upper Caballos was deposited in a fluviodeltaic environment, and individual sandstone units, which are separated by shale, have a lobate, elongate, or ovate shape. Sediments were derived from the Guayana shield and reworked lower Caballos sandstones. The lower Caballos litharenite sandstones have a mean grain size of 0.63 mm (coarse grained); individual bed sets fine upward. Clean sandstones have porosities from 15 to 20% and permeabilities from 10 to 1,000 md. The upper Caballos quartzarenites have a mean grain size of 0.62 mm (coarse grained). Individual bed sets of the delta bars coarsen upward; individual bed sets in the distributary channels fine upward. Clean sandstones have porosities from 12 to 26% and permeabilities from 70 to 6,000 md.

  12. Stratigraphic implications of geochemistry of oils from Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A.

    1983-03-01

    Seventeen oils from the Middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia were studied for the purpose of acquiring an improved view of the number and nature of hydrocarbon sources in the region. Examination of the chemistry of the oils and comparison of these data to oils from other basins lead to the conclusion that the Magdalena oils were derived from a single source or series of closely related sources. The sources for the oils are believed to be stratigraphic units deposited in marine environments. This conclusion is based mainly upon the isoprenoid, normal paraffin, and polycyclic alkane composition of the oils. A marine source virtually eliminates the possibility of the source occurring within the Tertiary section. Study of lithologic descriptions of the Cretaceous sediments stratigraphically underlying the Tertiary allows the nomination of several units that may have been the source for the oils: the La Luna, Simiti, and Paja formations. Each of these formations was deposited under anoxic marine conditions, and some of them contain enough organic debris to be described as carbonaceous. Differences in the bulk compositions of the oils are interpreted to be related to secondary alteration processes. The Middle Magdalena oils are derived from a single source or a series of closely related sources that are probably Cretaceous in age. Some of the oils have experienced secondary alteration that is believed to account for the range of bulk compositions observed in the region. The complicated source-reservoir relationships suggested by knowledge of the oil chemistry are undoubtedly contributory to protracted exploration history of the Magdalena.

  13. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  14. Colombia.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    This report of background notes for Colombia concentrates on political history, but also summarizes geography, people, economy, defense and foreign relations. Colombia, linking Panama to the northwest tip of South America, has 26.5 million people, growing at 1.3% per year, expected to be the third most populous nationon the continent soon. Infant mortality rate is 65/1000 and life expectancy is 62 years. Literacy is reported at 80% although less than 40% of children complete 2.5 years of school. Geographically, Colombia has flat coastal areas, several mountain ranges, highlands and hot eastern plains. 70% of the population live in cities. There are 2 major political parties, in existence since the early 19th century. Recently there have been violent inter-party differences, punctuated by even more contentious guerrilla attacks. Colombia possesses resources of oil, gas coal, nickel, gold, emeralds, platinum, iron. Agricultural products are dominated by coffee, but also include a wide variety of tropical and temperate grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products, timber and flowers.

  15. 3D multicomponent seismic characterization of a clastic reservoir in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez-Espejo, Antonio Jose

    The main goal of this research is to characterize the combined structural-stratigraphic trap of the Tenerife Field in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin (MMVB), Colombia. For the first time in Colombia the structural and quantitative interpretation of modern three-dimensional multicomponent (3D-3C) seismic imaging enables a geometric description, a kinematic interpretation of the structural styles, and the facies distribution of the reservoir. A seismic petrophysics work-flow to better achieve the seismic well-tie. Edited and check-shot calibrated P-wave sonic logs were obtained and coefficients of the Gardner and Castagna equations were calibrated to match the density and shear-wave velocity depth trends for the basin. Seismic modeling was performed to evaluate the PP and PS seismic response of the reservoir interval (Mugrosa Formation). The structural interpretation methodology involves a 3D fault-correlation and horizon picking for both PP- and PS-PSTM data volumes. Geometric attributes such as coherence and curvature were used to enhance the structural discontinuities. The main unconformity of the Middle Eocene (MEU) was interpreted, and an attribute-assisted interpretation of the reservoir was conducted in detail. While P-wave data provided most of the structural interpretation, converted-wave data provide a better understanding of the faults. Traditionally, compressive thrust-propagation folds and tectonic inversion have been considered as the main mechanisms controlling the deformation in the MMVB. However, the new interpretation shown in this work provides a different structural concept that involves two major structural styles: 1. Under the MEU the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformation, dominated by east-verging thrust and partially inverted Mesozoic normal faults, is preserved. Associated folds exhibit a north-south strike, and their structural development is controlled by a long-lived structural element that dominates the area (the Infantas

  16. Sphenodiscus pleurisepta (Conrad, 1857) from the Maastrichtian La Tabla Formation in the Upper Magdalena Valley, Tolima, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patarroyo, Pedro; Bengtson, Peter; Guerrero, Javier

    2010-11-01

    The La Tabla Formation is an important petroleum reservoir in the Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia. It was deposited in regressive and lowstand systems tracts and comprises a succession of lower shoreface to coastal plain deposits. A section in the Talora Creek, near the village of Piedras, Department of Tolima, exposes 90 m of a progradational to aggradational succession composed of very fine sandstones to medium-grained pebble conglomerates, with abundant planktic and benthic foraminifers as well as bivalves and ammonites. A few well-preserved phragmocones of the ammonite Sphenodiscus pleurisepta ( Conrad, 1857), collected from a level 63 m above the base of the formation, are here described and the chronostratigraphic position of the species discussed. In the Western Interior Basin of North America, S. pleurisepta ranges from the upper lower Maastrichtian Baculites clinolobatus Zone through the upper Maastrichtian Jeletzkytes nebrascensis Zone. The present findings support previous datings of the La Tabla Formation as Maastrichtian on the basis of foraminifers.

  17. Diagenetic exaggeration of primary textural variations in Incised Valley Fills, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, E.; Pulham, A.

    1996-12-31

    Incised Valley Fills in the late Eocene Mirador Formation of the Cusiana Field are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones that vary in grain size from fine sandstones to sandy conglomerates. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is {approx}8% which reflects significant compaction during deep burial ({approximately}20,000feet) and abundant quartz cement ({approximately}14%) precipitated over a wide temperature range (85-140{degrees}C). Surprisingly, the present permeability structure of the valley fill sandstones still reflects grain size variations. Indeed, the effect of the large amounts of quartz cement has been to exaggerate the primary textural variation in permeability. Very coarse, well sorted sandstones at the valley bases possess two orders of magnitude higher permeability than fine-grained equivalents of the same porosity. This permeability contrast is more than original depositional textures in sandstones would predict and is consistent with predictions from simple sphere pack models which show that at low porosity (<12%), the contrast in permeability due to grain size is greatly enhanced. As a result the reservoir characterization has been based on the primary sedimentary fabric, not on diagenesis. Production logging results show that the coarse grained bases of the valley fills are indeed the major contributors to flow. Thus the impact of diagenesis on the flow structure of these valley fills has been to selectively reduce the permeability of finer-grained sandstones, while maintaining high permeability in the coarsest grained bases of the valley fills.

  18. Diagenetic exaggeration of primary textural variations in Incised Valley Fills, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, E. ); Pulham, A. )

    1996-01-01

    Incised Valley Fills in the late Eocene Mirador Formation of the Cusiana Field are dominated by quartz arenite sandstones that vary in grain size from fine sandstones to sandy conglomerates. The average porosity of the valley sandstones is [approx]8% which reflects significant compaction during deep burial ([approximately]20,000feet) and abundant quartz cement ([approximately]14%) precipitated over a wide temperature range (85-140[degrees]C). Surprisingly, the present permeability structure of the valley fill sandstones still reflects grain size variations. Indeed, the effect of the large amounts of quartz cement has been to exaggerate the primary textural variation in permeability. Very coarse, well sorted sandstones at the valley bases possess two orders of magnitude higher permeability than fine-grained equivalents of the same porosity. This permeability contrast is more than original depositional textures in sandstones would predict and is consistent with predictions from simple sphere pack models which show that at low porosity (<12%), the contrast in permeability due to grain size is greatly enhanced. As a result the reservoir characterization has been based on the primary sedimentary fabric, not on diagenesis. Production logging results show that the coarse grained bases of the valley fills are indeed the major contributors to flow. Thus the impact of diagenesis on the flow structure of these valley fills has been to selectively reduce the permeability of finer-grained sandstones, while maintaining high permeability in the coarsest grained bases of the valley fills.

  19. An inundation study of the Lower Magdalena-Cauca River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanes, E.; Gomez, H.; Soeters, R.

    1975-01-01

    Annual floodings affect about 35,000 sq km of the Lower Magdalena-Cauca River Basin in the northern part of Colombia. Efforts made to determine the effects of inundation extension and complex factors involved in the flooding problem are reported. An integrated survey was made of the entire river basin with the object of land reclamation in the lower part and determining the effects of inundation extension and other complex factors on flooding. Modern remote sensing techniques were for the study.

  20. Real-time health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Peter; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Marulanda Arbelaez, Johannio; Caicedo, Juan

    2001-08-01

    Colombia's topography, climatic conditions, intense seismic activity and acute social problems place high demands on the nations deteriorating civil infrastructure. Resources that are available for maintenance of the road and railway networks are often misdirected and actual inspection methods are limited to a visual examination. New techniques for inspection and evaluation of safety and serviceability of civil infrastructure, especially bridges, must be developed. Two cases of civil structures with health monitoring systems in Colombia are presented in this paper. Construction of the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct was completed in 1997 with a total cost of 58 million dollars, including 1.5 million dollars in health monitoring instrumentation provided and installed by foreign companies. This health monitoring system is not yet fully operational due to the lack of training of national personnel in system operation and extremely limited technical documentation. In contrast to the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct monitoring system, the authors have proposed a relatively low cost health monitoring system via telemetry. This system has been implemented for real-time monitoring of accelerations of El Hormiguero Bridge spanning the Cauca River using the Colombian Southwest Earthquake Observatory telemetry systems. This two span metallic bridge, located along a critical road between the cities of Puerto Tejada and Cali in the Cauca Valley, was constructed approximately 50 years ago. Experiences with this system demonstrate how effective low cost systems can be used to remotely monitor the structural integrity of deteriorating structures that are continuously subject to high loading conditions.

  1. Coupled surface and subsurface flow modeling of natural hillslopes in the Aburrá Valley (Medellín, Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessent, Daniela; Barco, Janet; Temgoua, André Guy Tranquille; Echeverrri-Ramirez, Oscar

    2017-03-01

    Numerical results are presented of surface-subsurface water modeling of a natural hillslope located in the Aburrá Valley, in the city of Medellín (Antioquia, Colombia). The integrated finite-element hydrogeological simulator HydroGeoSphere is used to conduct transient variably saturated simulations. The objective is to analyze pore-water pressure and saturation variation at shallow depths, as well as volumes of water infiltrated in the porous medium. These aspects are important in the region of study, which is highly affected by soil movements, especially during the high-rain seasons that occur twice a year. The modeling exercise considers rainfall events that occurred between October and December 2014 and a hillslope that is currently monitored because of soil instability problems. Simulation results show that rainfall temporal variability, mesh resolution, coupling length, and the conceptual model chosen to represent the heterogeneous soil, have a noticeable influence on results, particularly for high rainfall intensities. Results also indicate that surface-subsurface coupled modeling is required to avoid unrealistic increase in hydraulic heads when high rainfall intensities cause top-down saturation of soil. This work is a first effort towards fostering hydrogeological modeling expertise that may support the development of monitoring systems and early landslide warning in a country where the rainy season is often the cause of hydrogeological tragedies associated with landslides, mud flow or debris flow.

  2. Relationship between VOC and NOx emissions and chemical production of tropospheric ozone in the Aburrá Valley (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Toro, María Victoria; Cremades, Lázaro V; Calbó, Josep

    2006-10-01

    Relationship between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions and the chemical production of tropospheric ozone is studied through mathematical simulation. The study is applied to the Aburrá Valley, in the Colombian Andes, which is a practically unknown area from the point of view of ozone formation. The model used for this application is the European modelling of atmospheric constituents (EUMAC) zooming model (EZM) which consists of a mesoscale prognostic model (MEMO, mesoscale meteorological model) and a chemical reaction model (MUSE, multiscale for the atmospheric dispersion of reactive species), coupled to the chemical mechanism EMEP (European monitoring and evaluation program). The analysis is performed for a real episode that was characterized by high ozone production and that happened during the 23rd and 24th December, 1999 in Medellín (Colombia). From this real scenario, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out in order to assess the influence of VOC and NOx amounts on ozone production and to extract some conclusions for future ozone abatement policies in Andean regions. As far as ozone air quality is concerned, it is shown that in order to keep current levels the emphasis must be put to avoid increasing NOx emissions, or alternatively, to augment VOC emissions in order to have a high VOC/NOx ratio.

  3. Coupled surface and subsurface flow modeling of natural hillslopes in the Aburrá Valley (Medellín, Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessent, Daniela; Barco, Janet; Temgoua, André Guy Tranquille; Echeverrri-Ramirez, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Numerical results are presented of surface-subsurface water modeling of a natural hillslope located in the Aburrá Valley, in the city of Medellín (Antioquia, Colombia). The integrated finite-element hydrogeological simulator HydroGeoSphere is used to conduct transient variably saturated simulations. The objective is to analyze pore-water pressure and saturation variation at shallow depths, as well as volumes of water infiltrated in the porous medium. These aspects are important in the region of study, which is highly affected by soil movements, especially during the high-rain seasons that occur twice a year. The modeling exercise considers rainfall events that occurred between October and December 2014 and a hillslope that is currently monitored because of soil instability problems. Simulation results show that rainfall temporal variability, mesh resolution, coupling length, and the conceptual model chosen to represent the heterogeneous soil, have a noticeable influence on results, particularly for high rainfall intensities. Results also indicate that surface-subsurface coupled modeling is required to avoid unrealistic increase in hydraulic heads when high rainfall intensities cause top-down saturation of soil. This work is a first effort towards fostering hydrogeological modeling expertise that may support the development of monitoring systems and early landslide warning in a country where the rainy season is often the cause of hydrogeological tragedies associated with landslides, mud flow or debris flow.

  4. [First report of Triatoma nigromaculata (Stål, 1859) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) for Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Luis Reinel; Galvão, Cleber; Pinto, Néstor A; Granados, Humberto

    2005-09-01

    The presence of Triatoma nigromaculata was recorded for the first time in Colombia in the rural village La Playa in the province of Cauca. A single female was captured from an outdoor area near a household. The presence of Trypanosoma parasites in the specimen was not established due to the poor condition of the specimen. The epidemiological importance of this finding is discussed with respect to the potential for transmission of Chagas disease in the province of Cauca and, more broadly, in Colombia.

  5. Catalogue of Diptera of Colombia: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Marta; Nihei, Silvio S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De

    2016-06-14

    Colombia has an imposing natural wealth due to its topography has many unique characteristics as a consequence of having Caribbean and Pacific shores, as well as sharing part of the Amazon basin and northern Andes mountains. Thus, many natural and biological features are due to the convergence of three biogeographical regions: Pacific, Andes and Amazonia. The Andean uplift created a complex mosaic of mountains and isolated valleys, including eleven biogeographical provinces (Morrone 2006). The Andes dominate the Colombian topography and cross the country south to north. There are three mountain ranges (Western, Central, and Eastern) with a maximum elevation of 5,775 m, and an average elevation of 2,000 m. The Magdalena and Cauca River valleys separate these ranges, that along with the Putumayo and Caquetá Rivers, the Catatumbo watershed, the Darién, Pique Hill, the Orinoquia Region (with its savannas), the Amazon region (with tropical rainforests), and some lower mountain ranges (Macarena and Chiribiquete), have generated the conditions for very high levels of endemism. This variety of conditions has resulted in an extremely diverse plant and animal biota, and in which 48% of the nation remains unexplored.

  6. Basin development and tectonic history of the Llanos Basin, Eastern Cordillera, and Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.A.; Addison, F.T.; Alvarez, R.

    1995-10-01

    The Middle Magdalena Valley, Eastern Cordillera, and Llanos basin constituted a major regional sedimentary basin from the Triassic to the middle Miocene. Basin development began during the Triassic to the earliest Cretaceous with a synrift megasequence related to the separation of North and South America in the proto-Caribbean. The synrift megasequence began with deposition in a continental environment that became paralic and shallow marine in the Early Cretaceous. Basin development continued into the Cretaceous in a back-arc setting east of the Andean subduction zone. The back-arc megasequence was dominated by shallow-marine sedimentation and produced an excellent regional source rock during the Turonian-Coniacian. Marine deposition was abruptly terminated during the early Maastrichtian due to the final accretion of the Western Cordillera.

  7. An Insight into Environment and Provenance from Geochemistry of the Early Cretaceous Sedimentary Rocks, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, J.; Roy, P. D.; Lozano-SantaCruz, R.; Lopez-Balbiaux, N.; De La Parra, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Basin of the Upper Magdalena Valley is one of the most important petroleum producing basins of Colombia and the sandstones (upper member) of the early Cretaceous Caballos Formation represents one of the well-known reservoirs of this basin. In this study, we used abundances of organic carbon, carbonate and sulfur, and concentrations of major and trace elements in all three members of the Caballos Formation in order to identify the possible provenance and infer paleo-productivity and paleo-environment during the middle Aptian-middle Albian. The sedimentary rocks (i.e., sandstone, siltstone and shale) comprises mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite, siderite and pyrite. Calcite and dolomite are present in some samples but in scarce amounts. Both the ternary diagrams (A-CN-K and A-C-N) suggest that clastic fractions of the sedimentary rocks were sourced from a source enriched in Ca-bearing plagioclase (anorthite), similar to the andesitic-basaltic lavas of the Jurassic Saldaña Formation. However, the upper and lower members were more and homogenously altered compared to the heterogeneously altered middle member. Calculated indices of alteration (CIA and PIA) indicate extreme alterations for the lower and upper members and moderate to extreme alteration for the middle member. Different degrees of alteration of the sedimentary rocks follows the atmospheric CO2 concentrations inferred for the Aptian-Albian interval. Mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a depositional environment with pH varying between 7 and 9. Higher alteration caused mobility of Si with respect to Al and hence we observed incongruences between lithological and geochemical classifications. Different abundances of siderite and pyrite along with higher organic carbon and redox-sensible trace elements suggest in general anoxic environments of deposition. However, sedimentary rocks of the middle and upper member were deposited in a relatively more anoxic environment compared to sedimentary rocks of

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Southwestern Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Luisa Maria; Rozo, Juan C.; Forero, Liliana; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Using spoligotyping, we identified 13 genotypes and 17 orphan types among 160 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The Beijing genotype represented 15.6% of the isolates and was correlated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, female sex of the patients, and residence in Buenaventura and may represent a new public health threat. PMID:21762581

  9. A new red-eyed treefrog of Agalychnis (Anura: Hylidae: Phyllomedusinae) from middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia with comments on its phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Duarte-Cubides, Felipe; Rueda-Almonacid, José Vicente; Daza, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of the charismatic red-eyed treefrogs (genus Agalychnis) from middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia (05°50'8.04"N, 74°50'16.55"W, 380 m a.s.l.). The new species is readily distinguished from all species members of the group by having orange flanks with small white warts. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of 16S rRNA gene recovered the new species as a member of the Agalychnis callidryas group. The presence of a red hue in the iris and a golden reticulated palpebral membrane, putative synapomorphies of the clade, support this hypothesis. Our analysis suggests that Agalychnis terranova sp. nov is closely related to A. callidryas from Central America and is proposed as its sister species with an uncorrected genetic distance of 5.69% between these taxa. The phylogenetic position and the geographic distribution of the new taxon add new lights to the presence of a biogeographic disjunction between Middle America lowlands, the Pacific region and Magdalena River valley of Colombia.

  10. Depositional and provenance record of the Paleogene transition from foreland to hinterland basin evolution during Andean orogenesis, northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Christopher J.; Horton, Brian K.; Caballero, Victor; Mora, Andrés; Parra, Mauricio; Sierra, Jair

    2011-10-01

    The Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera of the northern Andes form the topographic flanks of the north-trending Magdalena Valley Basin. Constraining the growth of these ranges and intervening basin has implications for Andean shortening and the transformation from a foreland to hinterland basin configuration. We present sedimentological, paleocurrent, and sandstone petrographic results from Cenozoic type localities to provide insights into the tectonic history of the northern Middle Magdalena Valley Basin of Colombia. In the Nuevo Mundo Syncline, the mid-Paleocene transition from marine to nonmarine deposystems of the Lisama Formation corresponds with a paleocurrent shift from northward to eastward transport. These changes match detrital geochronological evidence for a contemporaneous shift from cratonic (Amazonian) to orogenic (Andean) provenance, suggesting initial shortening-related uplift of the Central Cordillera and foreland basin generation in the Magdalena Valley by mid-Paleocene time. Subsequent establishment of a meandering fluvial system is recorded in lower-middle Eocene strata of the lower La Paz Formation. Eastward paleocurrents in mid-Paleocene through uppermost Eocene fluvial deposits indicate a continuous influence of western sediment source areas. However, at the upper middle Eocene (˜40 Ma) boundary between the lower and upper La Paz Formation, sandstone compositions show a drastic decrease in lithic content, particularly lithic volcanic fragments. This change is accompanied by a facies shift from mixed channel and overbank facies to thick, amalgamated braided fluvial deposits of possible fluvial megafans, reflecting changes in both the composition and proximity of western sediment sources. We attribute these modifications to the growing influence of exhumed La Cira-Infantas paleohighs in the axial Magdalena Valley, features presently buried beneath upper Eocene-Quaternary basin fill along the western flank of the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. In

  11. New species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arango, Stephania Sandoval; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García

    2016-08-05

    Three new species of Graphocaecilius Enderlein are here described and illustrated; the species were found in the Colombian departments of Valle del Cauca and Risaralda, raising to five the number of species of this genus in Colombia, making it the most species rich country for Graphocaecilius in South America. A key to the species in the genus is included.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  13. Modeling Soil Sodicity Problems under Dryland and Irrigated Conditions: Case Studies in Argentina and Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2014-05-01

    Salt-affected soils, both saline and sodic, my develop both under dryland and irrigated conditions, affecting negatively the physical and chemical soil properties, the crop production and the animal and human health.Among the development processes of salt-affected soils, the processes of sodification have been generally received less attention and is less understood than the development of saline soils. Although in both of them, hydrological processes are involved in their development, in the case of sodic soils we have to consider some additional chemical and physicochemical reactions, making more difficult their modeling and prediction. In this contribution we present two case studies: one related to the development of sodic soils in the lowlands of the Argentina Pampas, under dryland conditions and sub-humid temperate climate, with pastures for cattle production; the other deals with the development of sodic soils in the Colombia Cauca Valley, under irrigated conditions and tropical sub-humid climate, in lands used for sugarcane cropping dedicated to sugar and ethanol production. In both cases the development of sodicity in the surface soil is mainly related to the effects of the composition and level of groundwater, affected in the case of Argentina Pampas by the off-site changes in dryland use and management in the upper zones and by the drainage conditions in the lowlands, and in the case of the Cauca Valley, by the on-site irrigation and drainage management in lands with sugarcane. There is shown how the model SALSODIMAR, developed by the main author, based on the balance of water and soluble componentes of both the irrigation water and groundwater under different water and land management conditions, may be adapted for the diagnosis and prediction of both problems, and for the selection of alternatives for their management and amelioration.

  14. Organic facies variations, source rock potential, and sea level changes in Cretaceous black shales of the Quebrada Ocal, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, U.; Stein, R.

    1997-04-01

    A 290-m-thick middle Cretaceous black shale sequence in the upper Magdalena Valley, a present-day intramontane basin located between the Central and Eastern cordilleras of Colombia, was investigated with organic-geochemical and microscopic analyses. As a result of the investigation, we were able to (1) differentiate four organic facies types, (2) estimate their source rock potential, and (3) integrated these facies into a sequence stratigraphic framework. The four organic facies types were type C, BC, B, and D. Type C contains a district terrigenous organic matter component in lowstand or highstand deposits. Organic facies type BC is characterized by an increase and a better preservation of marine organic matter. BC belongs to the lower part of the transgressive systems tract. Sediments of organic facies type B have the highest amount of marine organic matter due to excellent preservation under anoxic conditions. The absence of bioturbation and the enrichment of trace metals are further implications for deposition under anoxic conditions. Facies type B is found in the upper part of the transgressive systems tract and contains the best petroleum source rock potential. Facies B occurrence coincides with sea level highstand and correlates especially with a maximum flooding in northern South America during the Turonian. Organic facies type D is also related to highstand deposits, but shows a high rate of reworking and degradation of organic matter.

  15. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D.; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNA sequencing (RNASeq)-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups). Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri. PMID:26379633

  16. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bailey, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNA sequencing (RNASeq)-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups). Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  18. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  19. Stratigraphy, foraminiferal assemblages and paleoenvironments in the Late Cretaceous of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia (part I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Luis S.

    1997-03-01

    The present work focuses on the Cretaceous record (Middle Albian-Maastrichtian) of the Upper Magdalena Valley (UMV), with a scope that covers facies and biofacies. The nomenclatural scheme previously stated for the Girardot-Guataqui area is here extended and proposed for all the basin, the following fomational units being characterized in detail. The Hondita Formation (Middle Albian-late Turonian), placed on top of the Caballos Formation, is separated from the Lomagorda Formation (late Turonian-early Santonian) by a chert interval within a succession of predominantly dark shales deposited in outer shelf environments. The Olini Group (early Santonian-late Campanian) presents two conspicuous chert units (Lidita Inferior and Superior) overlain by the Nivel de Lutitas y Arenas (early Maastrichtian). The sandstones of La Tabla and finally the mudstones of the Seca Formation (Maastrichtian) represent diverse littoral environments of the end of the Cretaceous. In the UMV, the Cretaceous system attains approximately 1350 m of thickness. Within the paleogeographic scenario, the drowning of the basin and of the adjacent Central Cordillera during most of the Late Cretaceous enabled upwelling currents and the development of widespread pelagic sediments. These sediments graded to shallower water deposits towards the south of the basin. In the Upper Cretaceous, four sequences of second order can be identified. The longer cycle begins at the base of the Hondita Formation and exhibits the maximum flooding in the Cenomanian condensed section of this unit. Following this cycle, three successive sudden sea level drops mark the boundaries of complete sequences, each comprising well developed lowstand, transgressive and highstand system tracts. After the last cycle was completed, the basin was uplifted and rocks of the Seca Formation were cannibalized by fluvial processes during the Tertiary. An angular unconformity that truncates this unit represents the uppermost sequence boundary of

  20. A new species of Cornutalis Sakakibara (Membracidae: Smiliinae: Acutalini) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Flórez-V, Camilo

    2017-05-30

    The genus Cornutalis Sakakibara currently includes two valid species, Cornutalis cauca Sakakibara, 1997 (from Colombia) and C. valida Sakakibara, 1997 (from Ecuador). Herein, a new species, Cornutalis andinum sp. n., is described from the highlands in Colombia; additionally, a host plant is recorded for the first time for the genus. Also, a distribution map, a key to the species, and observations on the location and preservation state of type-specimens are included.

  1. SimBasin: serious gaming for integrated decision-making in the Magdalena-Cauca basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Joanne; Angarita, Hector; Corzo, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    The Magdalena-Cauca macrobasin covers 24% of the land area of Colombia, and provides more than half of the country's economic potential. The basin is also home a large proportion of Colombia's biodiversity. These conflicting demands have led to problems in the basin, including a dramatic fall in fish populations, additional flooding (such as the severe nationwide floods caused by the La Niña phenomenon in 2011), and habitat loss. It is generally believed that the solution to these conflicts is to manage the basin in a more integrated way, and bridge the gaps between decision-makers in different sectors and scientists. To this end, inter-ministerial agreements are being formulated and a decision support system is being developed by The Nature Conservancy Colombia. To engage stakeholders in this process SimBasin, a "serious game", has been developed. It is intended to act as a catalyst for bringing stakeholders together, an illustration of the uncertainties, relationships and feedbacks in the basin, and an accessible introduction to modelling and decision support for non-experts. During the game, groups of participants are led through a 30 year future development of the basin, during which they take decisions about the development of the basin and see the impacts on four different sectors: agriculture, hydropower, flood risk, and environment. These impacts are displayed through seven indicators, which players should try to maintain above critical thresholds. To communicate the effects of uncertainty and climate variability, players see the actual value of the indicator and also a band of possible values, so they can see if their decisions have actually reduced risk or if they just "got lucky". The game works as a layer on top of a WEAP water resources model of the basin, adapted from a basin-wide model already created, so the fictional game basin is conceptually similar to the Magdalena-Cauca basin. The game is freely available online, and new applications are being

  2. New species of Loneuroides García Aldrete (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae) from Colombia, and description of the male L. venezolanus García Aldrete.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Obando, Ranulfo González; Gironza, Nancy Carrejo

    2016-03-20

    Six species of Colombian Loneuroides García Aldrete are here described and illustrated; also, the male of L. venezolanus García Aldrete is described, on basis of specimens from Valle del Cauca, Colombia. An updated diagnosis of the genus is presented; two species groups, based on the structure of the hypandrium, are recognized in the genus.

  3. [A nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteritidis outbreak in Popayán, Cauca, 2011].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Díaz, Paula Lucía; Rodríguez, Edna Catering; Montaño, Lucy Angeline; Gartner, Doris Mabel; Vernaza, María Elisa; Eljach, Victoria; Realpe, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is recognized worldwide as one of the main agents of human gastrointestinal infection. Several reports indicate the presence of isolates with decreased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin that can lead to a delayed response or the development of resistance during treatment. To describe and characterize isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis associated to an outbreak of food-borne diseases in Popayán, Cauca. Ten Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from nine patients and one food sample (chicken sandwich) were analyzed by biochemical tests, serotyping and antimicrobial sensitivity. The minimum inhibitory concentration to ciprofloxacin was determined by E-test and the genetic profile of the isolates was tested by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI and Blnl enzymes. Salmonella Enteritidis was identified in all isolates. They were resistant to nalidixic acid and had a decreased sensitivity to ciprofloxaxin between 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml; all isolates were sensitive to all the other antimicrobials we tested. Ten isolates were grouped by PFGE with the XbaI enzyme in the COIN11.JEG.X01.0038 pattern, and seven isolates were confirmed with the BlnI enzyme using the COIN11.JEG.A26.0009 pattern. We report for the first time an outbreak of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis in Colombia and confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic analysis the association between the isolates from patients and the chicken sandwich as the source of infection.

  4. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  5. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  6. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Angélica; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; Morales-Plaza, Cristhian David; Alzate, Alberto; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-01-01

    Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute) during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases) of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API) correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001); for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia. PMID:26814645

  7. Silenced Fighters: Identity, Language and Thought of the Nasa People in Bilingual Contexts of Colombia (Voces silenciadas: identidad, lengua y pensamiento de la comunidad nasa en contextos bilingües colombianos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid; Gómez Lobatón, July Carolina

    2010-01-01

    This article is the result of a theoretical investigation and a reflection guided by a revision of literature and a set of interviews conducted of two members of the Nasa community: Adonias and Sindy Perdomo, father and daughter who belong to a Nasa sub-community located in Tierradentro, Cauca, southwestern Colombia. The article addresses three…

  8. A landslide susceptibility assessment in urban areas based on existing data: an example from the Iguaná Valley, Medellín City, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, J.; Rios Escobar, V.

    2010-10-01

    Fast urbanization and the morphological conditions of the Iguaná River Basin, Medellín, Colombia have forced many people to settle on landslide prone slopes as evidenced by extensive landslide induced damage. In this study we used existing disaster databases (inventories) in order to examine the spatial and temporal variability of landsliding within this watershed. The spatial variability of landsliding was examined using "expert-based" and "weighted" landslide susceptibility models. The constructed landslide susceptibility maps demonstrate consistent results irrespective of the underlying method. These show that at least 55.9% of the watershed is highly or very highly susceptible to landsliding. In addition, the temporal distribution of landsliding was analyzed and compared with climatic data. Results show that the area has a distinct bimodal rainfall distribution, and it is clear that landsliding is particularly frequent during the later rainy season between October and November. Moreover, landslides are more common during La Niña years. It is recommended that the existing landslide inventories are improved so as to be of greater use in the future land use planning of the watershed. The construction of landslide susceptibility maps based on existing data represents a significant step towards landslide mitigation in the area. Using susceptibility and hazard assessment during the developmental process should lessen the need for disaster response at a later stage.

  9. Integrated provenance analysis of a convergent retroarc foreland system: U-Pb ages, heavy minerals, Nd isotopes, and sandstone compositions of the Middle Magdalena Valley basin, northern Andes, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Horton, Brian K.; Saylor, Joel E.; Mora, Andrés; Mange, Maria; Garzione, Carmala N.; Basu, Asish; Moreno, Christopher J.; Caballero, Victor; Parra, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Sediment provenance analysis remains a powerful method for testing hypotheses on the temporal and spatial evolution of uplifted source regions, but issues such as recycling, nonunique sources, and pre- and post-depositional modifications may complicate interpretation of results from individual provenance techniques. Convergent retroarc systems commonly contain sediment sources that are sufficiently diverse (continental magmatic arc, fold-thrust belt, and stable craton) to enable explicit provenance assessments. In this paper, we combine detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral identification, Nd isotopic analyses, conventional sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements to reconstruct the clastic provenance history of a long-lived sedimentary basin now exposed in an intermontane zone of the northern Andean hinterland of Colombia. The Middle Magdalena Valley basin, situated between the Central Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera, contains a 5-10 km-thick succession of Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary fill. The integrated techniques show a pronounced change in provenance during the Paleocene transition from the lower to upper Lisama Formation. We interpret this as a shift from an eastern cratonic source to a western Andean source composed of magmatic-arc rocks uplifted during initial shortening of the Central Cordillera. The appearance of detrital chloritoid and a shift to more negative ɛ Nd(t=0) values in middle Eocene strata of the middle La Paz Formation are attributed to shortening-related exhumation of a continental basement block (La Cira-Infantas paleohigh), now buried, along the axis of the Magdalena Valley. The diverse provenance proxies also show distinct changes during middle to late Eocene deposition of the Esmeraldas Formation that likely reflect initial rock uplift and exhumation of the fold-thrust belt defining the Eastern Cordillera. Upsection, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblages for Oligocene and younger clastic

  10. Diarrheal diseases of infancy in Cali, Colombia: study design and summary report on isolated disease agents.

    PubMed

    Newell, K W; Dover, A S; Clemmer, D I; D'Alessandro, A; Duenas, A; Gracián, M; LeBlanc, D R

    1976-01-01

    For public health reasons, it is important that the etiologic agents of early childhood diarrhea be isolated and identified, and that their routes of transmission be defined. This is especially true in tropical and subtropical developing countries, where childhood patterns of exposure to diarrheal disease agents usually differ from those in developed countries, and where diarrheal illness is a frequent harbinger of death among children under five years of age. This artical describes a study designed to identify diarrheal disease agents and transmission patterns in Cali, a large city of western Colombia's fertile Cauca River Valley. The study area, composed of five working-class districts with a total population of some 40,000, appeared to provide an environment fairly similar to those of many other "average" working-class communities in Latin America. Beginning in July 1962, a cohort of 296 children being born in these districts was studied, the period of investigation starting with the date of birth and continuing until each child's second birthday or its premature withdrawal from the study. Weekly home visits were made to establish defecation patterns, feeding practices, and anthropometry. The resulting data were then analyzed in terms of defecation frequencies, occurrence of liquid stools, and the presence of blood, mucus, or pus in the stools. Differences were noted in male and female defecation patterns and in the defecation frequencies of different age groups. Stool specimens for bacteriologic, virologic, and parasitologic examination were collected monthly on a regular basis and weekly when diarrhea occurred. Numerically, viruses were isolated and identified more often than other agents. The most commonly isolated parasite species and viral and bacterial serotypes were G. lamblia (from 222 subjects), echovirus 11 (from 166 subjects), and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 026:B6 (from 138 subjects). Compared with the findings of several studies in other

  11. Further contribution to the knowledge of Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957, a poorly known ballophilid centipede from Colombia, with description of Ityphilus bonatoi, a new diminutive geophilomorph species from Brazil (Myriapoda: Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha, Ballophilidae), a poorly known centipede from Cauca Valley, Colombia, is herein redescribed and illustrated after the male holotype, revealing the condition of the forcipular tarsungulum (which is completely smooth), also giving new data on many other morphological features of specific value until now unknown. A new diminutive species named Ityphilus bonatoi sp. nov. is herein proposed after the holotype female from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The new species is characterized by having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum serrate; among the other Neotropical members of the genus having the same trait, it only shares with I. donatellae Pereira, 2012 (from Central Amazon) a very small body size and a low number of leg-bearing segments. The new species represents the first record of the genus Ityphilus from the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and the southernmost representative of the genus in the Continent. A key for identification of the Neotropical species currently included in Ityphilus is also given.

  12. Slab Geometry and Stress State of the Southwestern Colombia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ying

    A high rate of intermediate-depth earthquakes is concentrates in the Cauca cluster (3.5°N-5.5°N) and isolated from nearby seismicity in the southwestern Colombia subduction zone. Previously-studied nests of intermediate-depth earthquakes show that a high seismicity rate is often associated with a slab tear, detachment, or contortion. The cause of the less-studied Cauca cluster is unknown. To investigate the cause, we image the slab geometry using precise relative locations of intermediate-depth earthquakes. We use the earthquake catalog produced and seismic waveforms recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from January 2010 to March 2014. We calculate the focal mechanisms to examine whether the earthquakes reactivate pre-existing faults or form new fractures. The focal mechanisms are inverted for the intraslab stress field to check the stress guide hypothesis and to evaluate the stress orientations with regard to the change in the slab geometry. The earthquake relocations indicate that the Cauca segment has a continuous 20 km thick seismic zone and increases in dip angle from north to south. Two 40-km-tall fingers of earthquakes extend out of the slab and into the mantle wedge. Different from the previously-studied nests, the Cauca cluster does not correspond to slab contortions or tearing. The cluster may be associated with a high amount of dehydrated fluid. The determined focal mechanisms of 69 earthquakes have various types and variably-oriented nodal planes, corresponding to the reactivation of pre-existing faults and the formation of new fractures. The results of stress inversion show that the extensional axis in the northern Cauca segment is in the plane of the slab and 25° from the downdip direction, and the southern part has along-strike extension. The compression is subnormal to the plane of the slab. The stress field supports the stress guide hypothesis and shows a consistent rotation with increase in slab dip angle.

  13. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  14. Structure and age of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin basement, northern Colombia: New reflection-seismic and U-Pb-Hf insights into the termination of the central andes against the Caribbean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Bohórquez, J. Alejandro; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Oncken, Onno; de Freitas, Mario; Vélez, Vickye; Mesa, Andrés; Serna, Lina

    2017-03-01

    Detailed interpretations of reflection seismic data and new U-Pb and Hf isotope geochemistry in zircon, reveal that the basement of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin is the northward continuation of the basement terranes of the northern Central Cordillera, and thus that the Lower Magdalena experienced a similar pre-Cenozoic tectonic history as the latter. New U-Pb and Hf analyses of zircon from borehole basement samples retrieved in the basin show that the southeastern region consists of Permo-Triassic (232-300Ma) metasediments, which were intruded by Late Cretaceous (75-89 Ma) granitoids. In the northern Central Cordillera, west of the Palestina Fault System, similar Permo-Triassic terranes are also intruded by Late Cretaceous felsic plutons and display ESE-WNW-trending structures. Therefore, our new data and analyses prove not only the extension of the Permo-Triassic Tahamí-Panzenú terrane into the western Lower Magdalena, but also the along-strike continuity of the Upper Cretaceous magmatic arc of the northern Central Cordillera, which includes the Antioquia Batholith and related plutons. Hf isotopic analyses from the Upper Cretaceous Bonga pluton suggest that it intruded new crust with oceanic affinity, which we interpret as the northern continuation of a Lower Cretaceous oceanic terrane (Quebradagrande?) into the westernmost Lower Magdalena. Volcanic andesitic basement predominates in the northwestern Lower Magdalena while Cretaceous low-grade metamorphic rocks that correlate with similar terranes in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Guajira are dominant in the northeast, suggesting that the Tahamí-Panzenú terrane does not extend into the northern Lower Magdalena. Although the northeastern region of the Lower Magdalena has a similar NE-SW fabric as the San Lucas Ridge of the northeastern Central Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, lithologic and geochronologic data suggest that the San Lucas terrane terminates to the north against the

  15. Larval habitat characteristics of the main malaria vectors in the most endemic regions of Colombia: potential implications for larval control.

    PubMed

    Conde, Marcela; Pareja, Paula X; Orjuela, Lorena I; Ahumada, Martha L; Durán, Sebastian; Jara, Jennifer A; Cañon, Braian A; Pérez, Pilar; Beier, John C; Herrera, Socrates; Quiñones, Martha L

    2015-12-01

    Malaria incidence has recently decreased globally and, as malaria elimination is envisioned as a possibility by the health authorities, guidance is needed to strengthen malaria control strategies. Larval source treatment, which could complement routine vector control strategies, requires knowledge regarding the Anopheles larval habitats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three of the most malaria-endemic regions in Colombia. A total of 1116 potential larval habitats in 70 villages were sampled in three states located in western Colombia: Cordoba, Valle del Cauca and Nariño. Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species. A total of 1683 larvae were identified belonging to seven species: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, and Anopheles triannulatus. The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca. Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño. Cordoba displayed the greatest Anopheles species diversity with a total of six species (Shannon diversity index H': 1.063). Although Valle del Cauca had four species, one more than Nariño, the diversity was lower because only one species predominated, An. nuneztovari s.l. The larval habitats with the highest Shannon diversity index were lagoons (H': 1.079) and fishponds (H': 1.009) in Cordoba, excavation sites in Nariño (H': 0.620) and puddles in Valle del Cauca (H': 0.764). This study provides important information regarding the larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in the most malaria-endemic regions of Colombia, which will be useful in guiding larval control operations.

  16. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Christian; Hoyos Villada, Fanny; Morales Vargas, Amalia; Rivera, Baudelino; Da Silva, Mayesse; Moreno Padilla, Pedro; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from the La Vega micro watershed in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small basin of the Aguaclara watershed network receiving different types of conservation measures. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predictions were used with one of these based on infiltration-excess and the other on saturation-excess runoff. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations between scales. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the La Vega micro watershed showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on saturation-excess, semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used infiltration excess model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  17. Sediment and solute transport in a mountainous watershed in Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, C. D.; Castro, A.; Morales, A.; Hoyos, F.; Moreno, P.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    A main goal of this study was to improve prediction of sediment and solute transport using soil surface and soil nutrient changes, based on field measurements, within small watersheds receiving conservation measures. Sediment samples and solute concentrations were measured from two streams in the southwestern region of the Colombian Andes. Two modeling approaches for stream discharge and sediment transport predicted were used with one of these being used for nutrient transport prediction. These streams are a part of a recent initiative from a water fund established by Asobolo, Asocaña, and Cenicaña in collaboration with the Natural Capital Project to improve conservation efforts and monitor their effects. On-site soil depth changes, groundwater depth measurements, and soil nutrient concentrations were also monitored to provide more information about changes within this mountainous watershed during one part of the yearly rainy season. This information is being coupled closely with the outlet sediment concentration and solute concentration patterns to discern correlations. Lateral transects in the upper, middle, and lower part of the hillsides in the Aguaclara watershed of the Rio Bolo watershed network showed differences in soil nutrient status and soil surface depth changes. The model based on semi-distributed hydrology was able to reproduce discharge and sediment transport rates as well as the initially used model indicating available options for comparison of conservation changes in the future.

  18. [Seed germination of four tree species from the tropical dry forest of Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Vargas Figueroa, Jhon Alexander; Duque Palacio, Olga Lucía; Torres González, Alba Marina

    2015-03-01

    The ecological restoration strategies for highly threatened ecosystems such as the tropical dry forest, depend on the knowledge of limiting factors of biological processes for the different species. Some of these include aspects such as germination and seed longevity of typical species present in those forests. In this study, we evaluated the effect of light and temperature on seed germination of two Fabaceae (Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana) and two Bignoniaceae (Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea) species having potential use in restoration, and we analyzed the seed storage behavior of these species for a three months period. To study the light effect, four levels of light quality on seeds were used (photoperiod of 12 hours of white light, darkness and light enriched in red and far-red, both for an hour each day), and we combined them with three levels of alternated temperatures (20/25, 20/30 and 25/30*C-16/8h). For the storage behavior, two levels of seed moisture content particular for each species were used (low: 3.5-6.1% and high: 8.3-13.8%), with three storage temperatures (20, 5 and -20 degrees C) and two storage times (one and three months). The criterion for germination was radicle emergence which was measured in four replicates per treatment, and was expressed as percentage of germination (PG). There were significant differences in germination of Samanea saman and Jacaranda caucana among light and temperature treatments, with the lowest value in darkness treatments, whereas germination of Pithecellobium dulce and Tabebuia rosea did not differ between treatments (PG>90%). The most suitable temperature regime to promote germination in all species was 25/30 degrees C. These four species showed an orthodox seed storage behavior. We concluded that seeds of R dulce, J. caucana and T. rosea did not have an apparent influence of all light conditions tested in their germination response, which might confer advantages in colonization and establishment processes, while S. saman did not germinate well in darkness. We suggest the use of seeds of P dulce, J. caucana and T rosea in ecological restoration processes, due to their tolerance and germination under a wide range of temperature and light conditions. Futhermore, seeds of S. saman might be used in open areas such as forest gaps.

  19. [Bibliometric analysis of publications on infectious diseases in Colombia, 2000-2009].

    PubMed

    Ríos, Rodrigo; Mattar, Salim; González, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Analysing scientific production in the area of infectious diseases in Colombia, 2000-2009. A literature search was made in category A journals in Colciencias' Publindex. The journals were: Biomédica, Revista de Salud Pública (Universidad Nacional), Colombia Médica, Ciencias Pecuarias, Latreia, MVZ Córdoba, Revista de Medicina (Universidad Nacional) and Infectio. 2,963 publications were found; 2,744 (92.6 %) were national publications and 219 (7.4 %) were foreign submissions, of which 863 (29.1 %) were on infectious diseases, 817 (94.7 %) having been submitted nationally and 46 (5.3 %) submitted by foreigners. National publications on infectious diseases were distributed as follows: 268 on parasitology (32.8 %), bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance accounted for 267 (32.7 %), virology 210 (25.7 %), mycology 46 (5.6 %) and other items related to infectious diseases accounted for 26 (3.2 %). The regional distribution of publications was: Cundinamarca 239 (29.3 %), Antioquia 211 (25.8 %), Valle del Cauca 60 (7.3 %), Caribbean coast 52 (6.4 %), the Santanders 38 (4.6 %), the coffee-growing area 31 (3.8 %) and southern Colombia 13 (1.6 %). This is the first study which has analysed publications on infectious diseases in Colombia. There was regional imbalance concerning bibliometric indicators in Colombia; public universities accounted for 90 % of research being carried out in the area of infectious diseases in Colombia.

  20. A new trans-Andean Stick Catfish of the genus Farlowella Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with the first record of the genus for the río Magdalena Basin in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Mojica, José Iván

    2014-02-17

    A new species of Farlowella is described from El Carmen de Chucurí in the Departamento de Santander, western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, río Magdalena Basin, Colombia. Farlowella yarigui n. sp. differs from its congeners in lateral body plate morphology, abdominal cover, cephalic hypertrophied odontodes, and details of coloration. This is the first verifiable record of the genus in the Magdalena drainage. Aspects of natural history and implications of this finding are provided concerning the state of knowledge of the fishes of the río Magdalena Basin. Previous records of Farlowella gracilis in the río Cauca basin are examined and herein considered erroneous, rendering the new species the only representative of the genus in the Magdalena-Cauca system. A key to species of Farlowella from Colombia is provided.

  1. UTERINE RUPTURE AND CESAREAN SURGERY IN THREE RIO CAUCA CAECILIANS (TYPHLONECTES NATANS).

    PubMed

    Barbon, Alberto Rodriguez; Goetz, Matt; Lopez, Javier; Routh, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    A uterine rupture of unknown etiology during gestation causing the death in a Rio Cauca caecilian ( Typhlonectes natans ) and successful anesthesia using tricaine methanesulfonate and cesarean section in three occasions in two other specimens because of suspected dystocia are described. One of the surgeries was performed at an early stage of embryo development, thereby preventing the survival of the neonates.

  2. Phylogeny of dengue virus type 3 circulating in Colombia between 2001 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julián; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel Rafael; Jimenez, Raquel Elvira Ocazionez

    2009-10-01

    Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) re-appeared in Colombia in 2001 after 23 years of apparent absence, in the state of Santander in the North-eastern region near to Venezuelan border. In 2002, the virus was isolated in the state of Valle del Cauca in the South-east region near to Ecuadorian/Peruvian border, and in the state of Antioquia in the North-east region near to Panama border. To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of DENV-3 in Colombia, we sequenced the complete E gene of 21 isolates sampled in the period 2001-2007. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Colombian strains seem to have been introduced from Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, but not from Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay or Central America countries. This study also confirms previous report showing that Colombian isolates is closely related to DENV-3 genotype III.

  3. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  4. Valley fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... southwestern United States, and in Central and South America. You get it by breathing in the fungus ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  5. Colombia uses water to wake an old, tired giant

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, F.

    1985-01-01

    Ecopetrol is about to begin a $375-million secondary recovery project to bring an additional 70 million barrels of oil out of Casabe field in the Middel Magdalena Valley of Colombia. The 16-year project will begin with 243,600 bwpd injected into 500 wells.

  6. Overview of exploration potential of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno, R.; Kanes, W.H.

    1989-03-01

    The sedimentary basins of Colombia, including the Llanos, Putumayo, Upper Magdalena, Middle Magdalena, Lower Magdalena-Sinu, Cauca-Patia, Cesar-Rancheria, Guajira, and Chaco-Pacifico basins, are placed in a comprehensive geologic framework. All basins are related to the tectonic evolution of northwestern South America. Basin stratigraphic packages are defined for each sequence, and this sequence stratigraphy is related to the following events: (1) pre-Cretaceous tectonic fabric, (2) docking of the Amaime and Cordillera Occidental terranes, (3) eastward movement of the Caribbean plate, (4) accretion of the Baudo terrane and the welding of Central America, and (5) Miocene-Holocene plate collision. Brief overview of basin exploration histories suggest that early established tectonic trends tend to undergo repeated deformation and are an important factor in the accumulation of major hydrocarbon reserves. This is particularly true where basement inversion or broad regional cross structures are present. Also, the amount of wrench faulting and its effect on migration paths and trap formation is still incompletely understood but undoubtedly has a strong influence in the formation of large fields. As more regional studies are made and detailed studies are synthesized in light of regional structural and stratigraphic patterns, significant additional hydrocarbon discoveries should be forthcoming.

  7. Presence of PAHs in water and sediments of the Colombian Cauca River during heavy rain episodes, and implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sarria-Villa, Rodrigo; Ocampo-Duque, William; Páez, Martha; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia little attention has been paid to river pollution with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Low environmental control and legislation in such emerging region could significantly contribute to high PAHs releases. In this study, we report the presence of PAHs in water and sediments of the Cauca River (Colombia). Three sampling campaigns were carried out between May 2010 and June 2011, and the samples were collected at eight relevant sites. The sampling time included measuring before, during, and after a season of heavy rains, which were influenced by the global coupled ocean-atmospheric phenomenon, which affected tropical countries with huge flooding, commonly called "La Niña", and/or "El Niño" Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The highest mean ∑PAH concentrations were 4476.5 ng/l and 1582.7 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. The PAHs most detected were Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, and Pyrene in sediments; and Fluorene, Acenaphtylene, and Anthracene in water. After the season of rains statistically significant higher PAH concentrations were detected. The results of the study were compared to other rivers worldwide at both environmental compartments, and did not show concentrations of special concern. In some sites, concentrations detected of PAHs were higher than screening benchmarks for ecological protection. Estimation of human health risks was carried out, and the results suggested some likely carcinogenic effects due to PAHs especially in children exposed during current recreational swimming and adults working in low technology sand extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Martian Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a martian valley, perhaps long, long ago carved by a liquid such as water, in northern Terra Cimmeria. The channel that might have once run down through the valley is no longer visible; the floor is covered with large, light-toned, windblown ripples.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 227.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    statistically exploring the demographic and environmental factors of fire risk, such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and NDVI .4.) A dynamic fire risk evaluation able to generate a dynamic map of ignition risk based on statistical analysis factors. This study aims to research integrating MODIS, Landsat and ASTER data along with in-situ data on environmental parameters from the Corporation of the Cauca Valley River (CVC) along with other data on social, economical and cultural variables obtained by researchers of the Wild Fire Observatory (OCIF) from the "Universidad Autónoma de Occidente" in order to create an ignition cause model, dynamic fire risk evaluation system and compile any and all geospatial data generated for the region. In this way the research will help predict and forecast fire vulnerabilities in the region. The team undertook this project through SERVIR with the guidance of the scientist, Victor Hugo Ramos, who was the leader and principal investigator on the SIGMA-I.

  10. [Characterization of the genetic diversity of the fish Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae) in central Colombia with RAPD markers].

    PubMed

    Pineda Santis, Hermes; Arboleda Chacón, Lucy; Echeverry Echavarria, Amparo; Urcuqui Inchima, Silvio; Pareja Molina, Diego; Olivera Angel, Martha; Builes Gómez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge on the genetic diversity of wild fish species is essential for conservation and appropriate management of individuals in repopulation programs. In Colombia, Brycon henni has been reported in the Magdalena and Cauca river basins, but the population and range have diminished as a consequence of anthropic activities. In this study, the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to estimate the actual genetic structure in this species. For the purpose, six sample sites located in the department of Antioquia (Central Chain Mountains of Colombia) were used. Thirty five primers (87.5%), out of forty used, yielded 1 466 reliable and consistent fragments; 417 were considered as unique fragments able to discriminate among the Magdalena (Humarada-1 and Humarada-2) and Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracfi) river basins samples, suggesting that each is a discrete unit. This diversity suggests that anthropic effects of over fishing, dam building, deforestation and water pollution, have contributed to the isolation of these fish groups on the high mountains. Brycon moorei and Colossoma macropomum, as an interspecific control groups, were placed out of the B. henni general group, confirming their taxonomic classification through morphologic data. The RAPD technique was useful to know the genetic diversity and to discriminate among B. henni populations from different geographic origins, as a basis for an appropriate plan of repopulation, conservation and wildlife management.

  11. Two new species of Centris (Aphemisia) Ayala, 2002 from Colombia with a synopsis of the subgenus for the country (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2016-03-21

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Aphemisia Ayala in Colombia is presented. A total of six species were recognized: C. lilacina Cockerell, C. mocsaryi Friese, C. plumipes Smith and C. quadrimaculata Packard, including C. celadonia n. sp. and C. vallecaucensis n. sp., two new species described from the Departments of Huila and Valle del Cauca, respectively. Diagnoses, descriptions, information on geographical distribution and an identification key to all species are provided. The previously unknown male of C. plumipes is described for the first time.

  12. Two new species of Piaroa (Arachnida: Schizomida, Hubbardiidae) from Colombia, with comments on the genus taxonomy and the flagellar setae pattern of Hubbardiinae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, Jairo A; Delgado-Santa, Leonardo; De Armas, Luis F

    2014-08-14

    Two new species of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008, P. escalerete sp. nov. and P. bacata sp. nov. are described from Valle del Cauca, and Cundinamarca departments, Colombia, respectively. The female flagellum is fully illustrated for a Piaroa species for the first time; the generic diagnosis is also emended and the relationships of the new species with those previously described are discussed. New characters for Piaroa species, a new nomenclature for the chitinized arch and a reinterpretation of the Hubbardiinae flagellar setae pattern are proposed. A distribution map of the known species of Piaroa is provided. 

  13. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L; Peterson, A Townsend; Correa, Margarita M

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá -Bajo Cauca-Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized for

  14. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-09

    proyectos/justicia_y_paz.htm] on August 30, 2006; “Presidencia de la República de Colombia, “Listado de Privados de Libertad de las AUC Remitidos a...operate in Colombia and Peru, and the Triborder Area of Argentina , Brazil and Paraguay is thought to be a regional hub for Hizbollah and Hamas

  15. Education in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    As one of the more traditional Latin American societies, Colombia's educational policies have been affected by long-standing cultural beliefs including class values and social stratification. This paper examines the educational history of Colombia, provides a thorough background on its educational achievements and difficulties, and discusses…

  16. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  17. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  18. Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Millan-Sanchez, S. L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Lefebvre, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and recent information on the status and distribution of West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia was reviewed. Opportunistic and systematic interviews were also conducted. Historical information suggested that the distribution of manatees had been reduced in the Caribbean basin. Manatees can be found in the Atrato, Sinu??, San Jorge, Cauca, Cesar and Magdalena rivers and the Cie??naga Grande de Santa Marta marsh in the Caribbean basin, and in the Meta River in the Orinoco basin. The Magdalena riparian system provides the largest area of suitable habitat, which also has the highest frequency of captures. Most animals (81.20%) were killed for sale or to share meat in a subsistence base. Hunting is apparently increasing but capture with nets still represents the species' major direct threat. Habitat destruction occurs in all areas. International and national laws protect the species, however, funding is inadequate for effective enforcement of present laws. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  20. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-04-01

    We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period.

  1. Saline Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11164

  2. Saline Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2

    These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  4. Internal displacement in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for “victims of armed conflict,” with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia’s unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement. PMID:28228997

  5. Valley precession and valley polarization in graphene with inter-valley coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the valley precession and valley polarization in graphene under inter-valley coupling. Our results show that the inter-valley coupling can induce valley polarization in graphene and also precess valleys in real space in a manner similar to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction rotating spins. Moreover, using strain modulation, we can achieve high valley polarization with large valley-polarized currents. These findings provide a new way to create and manipulate valley polarization in graphene.

  6. [Foods native to indigenous and afro-descendents in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rivas Abadía, Ximena; Carolina Pazos, Sonia; Castillo Castillo, Silvana Katerin; Pachón, Helena

    2010-09-01

    For social programs in Colombia, like those administered by the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), it's important to know what native foods minority groups consume. This research obtained information on native foods consumed by indigenous and afro-descendents living in 10 Colombian departments: Cauca, Nariño, Amazonas, Chocó, Guainia, Vichada, Magdalena, Guajira, Cesar y Vaupés. A questionnaire was applied to key informants (individually or in groups), addressing the following topics: personal information on the informant, name and type of food, if consumed by indigenous and/or afro-Colombians, climate where produced, time of year when harvested, if consumed raw or cooked, preparations, properties ascribed to the food, and current production, use and availability. Key informants included participants in ICBF's programs, indigenous authorities, teachers, traditional healers, and others, under the supervision of professionals from ICBF's mobile unit in each department. Bibliography (n = 123 documents) was compiled and reviewed. In the departments selected, 13 municipalities were visited, 139 individuals were interviewed and at least 92 new foods (i.e., not currently included in the Colombian Food Composition Table) were identified. Among the 92, the scientific name was obtained for 62 foods. Of these, 2 were classified as other, 18 as meats, 3 as insects, and 39 as plants. Among the plants, informants mentioned fruit (n=29), leaves (n=4), seed (n=3) and roots (n=3). Indigenous and afro-descendent communities in Colombia report consuming dozens of foods that are not currently in the Colombian Food Composition Table.

  7. Terrorism in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Paredes Zapata, Gabriel Darío

    2003-01-01

    Colombia is a poor country that has been plagued by ongoing violence for more than 120 years. During the 1940s, subversive terrorist groups emerged in rural areas of the country when criminal groups came under the influence of Communism, and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN) or National Liberation Army and Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionares de Colombia (FARC) or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia). Paramilitary terrorist groups emerged in response to subversive groups and were later transformed into contemporary groups, such as the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) or United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. Terrorism has placed an enormous burden on modern Colombia. From 1995 to 2002, 9,435 people were killed by terrorism-related events, of which 5,864 were killed by subversive terrorist activities and 3,571 were killed by paramilitary terrorist activities. In 2002, at least nineteen attacks produced 10 or more casualties, of which 18 were bombings. In 2002, terrorists killed at least 12 mayors, 71 legislators, and internally displaced 300,000 persons from their homes. Since terrorist groups in Colombia are typically supported by drug manufacturing and trafficking, it has been difficult at times to distinguish violence due to terrorism from violence due to illicit drug trafficking. Terrorism has also had a major adverse effect on the economy, with restricted travel, loss of economic resources, and lack of economic investment. In addition to political, military, and commercial targets, terrorists have specifically targeted healthcare infrastructure and personnel. At the national and local levels, much emergency planning and preparedness has taken place for terrorism-related events. The Centro Regulador de Urgencias (CRU) or Emergency Regulation Center in Bogota plays a major role in coordinating local prehospital and hospital emergency response in the capital city and the national level where

  8. Sacramento Valley, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley (40.5N, 121.5W) of California is the northern extension of the Central Valley, main agriculture region of the state. Hundreds of truck farms, vineyards and orchards can be seen throughout the length and breadth of the valley which was reclaimed from the desert by means of intensive and extensive irrigation projects.

  9. Yaws in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Uribe, W R

    1985-01-01

    By the beginning of this century, yaws was a well-known endemic disease in Colombia. Colombian authorities estimated that by early 1930 there were 70,000 active cases of yaws, most of which were located in the Pacific coastal regions. With the advent of penicillin therapy, Colombia organized an anti-yaws campaign, which began in 1950. The campaign relied on the use of penicillin and house-to-house case finding. From 1950 to 1953 more than 111,000 persons with active cases of yaws and 125,000 of their contacts were treated with penicillin. The reported incidence of yaws declined dramatically, and by 1973 only 573 cases were reported in the endemic areas. By 1983 this number had fallen to 31. Because of the persistence of small foci of yaws activity, the anti-yaws campaign has been reorganized to provide a firm basis for the final eradication of the disease in Colombia.

  10. Hydrocarbon habitats of the Middle and Upper Magdalena Valleys, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Schamel, S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Magdalena River flows northward across the Colombian Andes, traversing a series of en echelon, sediment-filled structural depressions. Until the late Miocene, these basins were parts of much more extensive basins: an extensional back-arc basin during the Triassic-Jurassic; a pericratonic trough during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary; the inner margin of a broad east-facing foreland trough during the middle Tertiary; and, more recently, an array of intermontane of successor basins. Exploration activity since 1918 has resulted in the discovery of more than 2.6 billion bbl of oil and 2.7 tcf gas - more than one-half of the total oil and about one-third of the total gas reserves of the country. The abundant hydrocarbon resources of the Magdalena basins are based on the presence of a thick organic-rich limestone and shale succession (La Luna or Villeta) deposited in an extensive periocratonic trough along the northwestern margin of the Guyana shield during the Cretaceous. In the south, nearer the paleogeographic margin of the trough, shallow marine sands (Caballos and Monserrate) bounding the Cretaceous marine megacycle are the prime reservoirs. To the north, nearer the axis of the trough, Cretaceous sand reservoirs are absent and production is almost exclusively from middle Tertiary molasse deposits. A wide variety of structural and stratigraphic traps developed during or prior to peak of maturation of the Cretaceous source beds. Recent discoveries of giant oil accumulations, such as the San Francisco field, were made in large hanging-wall anticlines previously considered breached and unproductive. From the standpoint of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, the Magdalena basins are not yet mature. The potential for additional major discoveries is excellent and with improved production techniques, current estimates of remaining ultimately recoverable reserves will be revised upward.

  11. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera-G., Mario A.

    2017-07-01

    More than two centuries ago, José Celestino Mutis and Francisco José de Caldas initiated the Colombian Astronomical Expedition. Today, Colombia has a community of over 50 scientists, linked to six institutions nationwide, and more than 250 students and researchers (PhDs and Postdocs), having high-impact astronomical research around the world.

  12. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-12

    glyphosate , does not pose unreasonable health or safety risks to humans or the environment. In consultation for the certification, the U.S. Environmental...Protection Agency confirmed that application rates of the aerial spray program in Colombia are within the parameters listed on U.S. glyphosate labels

  13. English in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanilla, Victor

    English language education in Colombia has been improved because the teachers have organized professional associations and have received assistance and support from the Colombian and United States governments to improve teaching methods, teacher preparation, and teaching materials. With the help of the University of California at Los Angeles, the…

  14. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá –Bajo Cauca–Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized

  15. Sacramento Valley, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-04-179 (22 June 1973) --- The Sacramento Valley (40.5N, 121.5W) of California is the northern extension of the Central Valley, main agriculture region of the state. Hundreds of truck farms, vineyards and orchards can be seen throughout the length and breadth of the valley which was reclaimed from the desert by means of intensive and extensive irrigation projects. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Late Tertiary northwestward-vergent thrusting in Valle del Cauca, Colombian Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, C.A.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr.; Cordoba, F.

    1989-03-01

    The Valle del Cauca is a topographic basin situated between the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Occidental in the Colombian Andes. The basement is Mesozoic mafic igneous rock of the Volcanic and Amaime Formations and clastic sediments and chert of the Espinal and Cisneros Formations. The basement was intruded by middle Cretaceous granodiorites (including the Batolito de Buga) and was deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The Mesozoic rocks originated in an oceanic setting and were accreted to northwestern South America during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary. Unconformably overlying the Mesozoic basement are the Eocene and Oligocene Vijes (marine limestone) and Guachinte and Cinta de Piedra (fluvial and deltaic sandstone and mudstone). In the Cordillera Central, the Cinta de Piedra is unconformably overlain by fanglomerate of the Miocene La Paila Formation. These clastics coarsen and thicken eastward. Geologic mapping and structural analyses show that the Mesozoic basement and its Tertiary cover are faulted and folded. Folds are asymmetric and overturned westward. Faults dip at shallow to moderate angles to the east and carry older sedimentary or basement rocks westward over younger rocks.

  17. Long Valley Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    The ~300-year-old lava on Paoha Island in Mono Lake was produced by the most recent eruption in the Long Valley Caldera area in east-central California. The Long Valley Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic eruption 760,000 years ago. The region is monitored by the Long Valley Observatory (LVO), one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about the Long Valley Caldera region and LVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/lvo.

  18. Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quiñones, M L; Vélez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L

    2001-05-01

    We present evidence that the El Niño phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Niño events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Niño's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs.

  19. Coupling between annual and ENSO timescales in the malaria-climate association in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, G; Rojas, W; Quiñones, M L; Vélez, I D; Mantilla, R I; Ruiz, D; Zuluaga, J S; Rua, G L

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence that the El Niño phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature and precipitation. We used simultaneous analyses of both variables at both timescales, as well as correlation and power spectral analyses of detailed spatial (municipal) and temporal (monthly) records. During "normal years," endemic malaria in rural Colombia exhibits a clear-cut "normal" annual cycle, which is tightly associated with prevalent climatic conditions, mainly mean temperature, precipitation, dew point, and river discharges. During historical El Niño events (interannual time scale), the timing of malaria outbreaks does not change from the annual cycle, but the number of cases intensifies. Such anomalies are associated with a consistent pattern of hydrological and climatic anomalies: increase in mean temperature, decrease in precipitation, increase in dew point, and decrease in river discharges, all of which favor malaria transmission. Such coupling explains why the effect appears stronger and more persistent during the second half of El Niño's year (0), and during the first half of the year (+1). We illustrate this finding with data for diverse localities in Buenaventura (on the Pacific coast) and Caucasia (along the Cauca river floodplain), but conclusions have been found valid for multiple localities throughout endemic regions of Colombia. The identified coupling between annual and interannual timescales in the climate-malaria system shed new light toward understanding the exact linkages between environmental, entomological, and epidemiological factors conductive to malaria outbreaks, and also imposes the coupling of those timescales in public health intervention programs. PMID:11401760

  20. Colombia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Colombia is South America's largest coal producer, and the region's third-largest oil producer after Venezuela and Brazil. In 2015, Colombia was the world's fifth-largest coal exporter. The country is also a significant oil exporter, ranking as the fifth-largest crude oil exporter to the United States in 2015. A series of regulatory reforms enacted in 2003 makes the oil and natural gas sector more attractive to foreign investors led to an increase in Colombian oil and natural gas production. The Colombian government implemented a partial privatization of state oil company Ecopetrol (formerly known as Empresa Colombiana de Petróleos S.A.) in an attempt to revive its upstream oil industry.

  1. Takayasu arteritis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cañas, C A; Jimenez, C A; Ramirez, L A; Uribe, O; Tobón, I; Torrenegra, A; Cortina, A; Muñoz, M; Gutierrez, O; Restrepo, J F; Peña, M; Iglesias, A

    1998-10-01

    Takayasu arteritis has been recognized in Colombia just recently, and so far we do not have any report concerning its presentation here. In this first report, some issues related to the presentation of the disease are indicated and compared with those found in the medical literature. No differences were found in age and sex. Most of the cases were diagnosed during an inactive phase of the disease with advanced manifestations due to vascular lesion which suggests the existence of some genetic factor influencing such a presentation, or may be the consequence of a delay in diagnosing the disease during initial and active stages due to not suspecting it. Comparing the vessels which are affected among other races and countries, we can find both differences and similarities. With the purpose of discovering the demographic, clinical, angiographic and laboratorial characteristics of Takayasu arteritis in Colombia, the present study was carried out by studying 35 clinical cases in different medical centers of the country.

  2. AIDS in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  3. Counterterrorism Policy in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    93 Fundación Seguridad y Democracia has recently published a number of statistics on violence in Colombia.94 Between 2001 and 2006 the homicide rate...Últimos Tres Períodos Presidenciales 1994-2006," Fundación Seguridad y Democracia http://www.seguridadydemocracia.org, (accessed March 21, 2007). 95...David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964. Fundación Seguridad y Democracia . "La Seguridad en los

  4. Colombia on the Brink

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    during which nearly 200,000 people were killed by indiscriminate violence, is known as La Violencia .10 In 1957, following the second coup of the...brought to a close the La Violencia .11 However, it did nothing to alter the underlying conditions that had given rise to the La Violencia in the first...Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), was formed from the peasant leaders who had emerged from the Liberal uprising during the La Violencia .13 Since

  5. Persistent Engagement in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    David P. Oakley Countering the al-Shabaab Insurgency in Somalia: Lessons for U.S. Special Operations Forces, February 2014, Graham Turbiville, Josh...November 2013 Piracy: The Best Business Model Available, November 2013, John Alexander The Terrorist Trafficking Nexus: Scourge of the World or So...Colombia funds paid for 18 Bell UH-1N Twin Hueys that had previously belonged to the Canadian armed forces. Built in the 1970s, these Hueys were not

  6. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-19

    Bogotá: Mayor Luis Eduardo Garzon will Complicate Uribe’s Agenda,” Newsweek International, January 26, 2004; Andrew Selsky, “Leftist’s Win in Bogotá...In total, 25 candidates were killed and 160 withdrew their names from the balloting.16 In the elections, Luis Eduardo Garzon, known as Lucho, from...Brief,” July 2004. 54 Ibid. 55 U.S. Department of State Report to Congress, Colombia: Cano Limon Pipeline, January 2003. rightist paramilitaries, has

  7. Colombia: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    Summary President Juan Manuel Santos took office in August 2010 in Colombia after winning 69% of the vote in a runoff election held in June 2010. Santos...continuing into the election of President Juan Manuel Santos and his first months in office. The report then provides background on the long- standing... Manuel Santos extended a state of emergency originally declared in early December 2010 to cope with severe flooding that killed more than 300

  8. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  9. Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-02

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys west of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. They are so named because of their extremely low humidity and lack of snow and ice cover. This image was acquired December 8, 2002 by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  10. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  11. Down in the Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Linda Graef

    1999-01-01

    Describes the partnerships formed by West Valley Mission Community College District (California) with its surrounding Silicon Valley business community in an effort to benefit workforce development. Asserts that community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide a lifelong education that will yield a skilled workforce to meet the needs of…

  12. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  13. [First evidence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) infection in Mus musculus rodents captured in the urban area of the municipality of Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castellar, Anais; Guevara, Marco; Rodas, Juan D; Londoño, Andrés F; Arroyave, Esteban; Díaz, Francisco J; Levis, Silvana; Blanco, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    The lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is an Old World arenavirus that infects Mus musculus, and can cause congenital hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis and multisystemic failure in transplant human recipients. Although the disease has not been clinically diagnosed in Colombia yet, there have been reports of infection with the Pichindé virus in rodents from Cauca and Valle del Cauca departments, and with the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba department. To identify the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from Mus musculus captured in the municipality of Sincelejo. We evaluated 80 samples of plasma by ELISA using antigen from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Additionally, a nested RT-PCR was performed to seropositive and seronegative samples for the S-segment. We found a 10% seroprevalence (8/80) and the viral genome was detected in 16 brain samples; the alignment (BLAST) and the phylogenetic analysis (MrBayes, version 3.2.2) confirmed the presence of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. The results indicated that human infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in humans could occur in the urban area of Sincelejo, although no cases have been reported so far.

  14. Theoretical Variation of Solar Radiation in a Tropical Mountain Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flórez Botero, L. Z.; Ochoa, A.; Jiménez, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation over the earth's surface varies in response to global factors such as the atmosphere and the relative movement of Earth around the sun, and local factors related to the earth's surface features and topography. The aim of this study is to know the effect of local factors in spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in a tropical mountain valley in Colombia. We estimated the potential solar radiation on simplified schemes of valleys by the means of theoretical exercises with different slopes and aspects for further analysis. Despite the closeness of the studied area to the line of Ecuador where the annual variation of radiation is almost zero we detected some differences. Changes were found in solar radiation on different valley schemes in terms of hours of sunshine and total energy that reaches the surface depending on the slope, the orientation of the slopes and the diurnal variation of the solar altitude angle. Results suggest that different aspects lead changes in the annual insolation up to 4 MJ / m2 on June and a lag of about two hours in the diurnal cycle of insolation in the southeast (135°) and northwest (315°) facing peaks with the highest radiation around 8 hours after sunrise. The annual variation cycle, related to the slope, does not show major changes, but the diurnal cycle of the cells with the major slope has the lower insolation with a maximum of about one hour before the other cells. Finally, a better understanding of the real dynamics of sunshine in the Valley of Aburrá - Colombia is possible knowing the variation of the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle of insolation in a synthetic valley reliant on the different aspects and slopes allows. This represents an opportunity to improve urban planning and rural productive activities that depends directly on the availability of energy.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  16. Education for a New Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Richard R.

    This study, one of a series of publications on education in other countries, describes all major levels and types of education in Colombia against a background of the relevant economic, cultural, and social features of that country. The first two chapters depict features of Colombia essential to understanding the context within which its…

  17. First record of the genus Tagalis Stål, 1860 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Saicinae) from Colombia with the description of two new species .

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Forero, Dimitri

    2014-07-21

    Tagalis Stål is recorded for the first time from Colombia and two species are described as new: Tagalis dichroa sp. nov., from Acandí (Chocó), and Tagalis albispina sp. nov., from Gorgona Island (Cauca). Based on the structure of the male genitalia of the known species, we here propose at least four species groups within Tagalis: 1) T. evavilmae, 2) T. femorata, 3) T. baenai, T. grossii, and T. marquesi, and 4) T. dichroa sp. nov., T. inornata, and T. seminigra. Tagalis albispina sp. nov. known only from the female holotype, cannot be placed into this scheme. Digital micrographs of the habitus and genitalia of the new species are provided. An updated key to the species of Tagalis is presented to facilitate the identification of the new species.

  18. Old Martian Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-578, 18 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an ancient, unnamed, martian valley in the Xanthe Terra region, located near 3.3oS, 54.9oW. This valley might have been a conduit for flowing water, but there is no way to be certain because it is so old that none of its original features have been preserved. Bright, windblown ripples are now found on the valley floor. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York, is to be solidified (vitrified) in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. This waste material resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972. Project costs are shared by the US Department of Energy (90 percent) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (10 percent). The site on which the Project is located is owned by New York State. This report is an overview of West Valley's plans and accomplishments.

  20. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Aggregate Resources Studies, Dry Lake Valley, Muleshoe Valley, Delamar Valley, Pahroc Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    Cretaceous to Pliocene in age and consist predominantly of welded and nonwelded pyro- w clastics (air falls, ash flows, ignimbrites ) of rhyolitic and...Vu Ignimbrite Valley 53 DLCDP-A53 Delamar Vu Rhyolite Valley 54 DLCDP-A54 Delamar Vu Andesite Valley 55 DLCDP-A55 Delamar Vu Rhyolitic Tuff Valley 56

  1. Child health in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  2. Purge at West Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  3. Mzab Valley, Algeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    Located 600 km south of Algiers, Algeria in the heart of the Sahara Desert, the five ksour fortified villages of the MZab Valley form an extraordinarily homogenous ensemble in this image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  4. Death Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-29

    Death Valley, Calif., has the lowest point in North America, Badwater at 85.5 meters 282 feet below sea level. It is also the driest and hottest location in North America. This image is from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  5. California: Diamond Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... water storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against ... to stand out prominently by taking advantage of the strong change in brightness between the two view angles and the contrasting angular ...

  6. NV PFA - Steptoe Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Faulds

    2015-10-29

    All datasets and products specific to the Steptoe Valley model area. Includes a packed ArcMap project (.mpk), individually zipped shapefiles, and a file geodatabase for the northern Steptoe Valley area; a GeoSoft Oasis montaj project containing GM-SYS 2D gravity profiles along the trace of our seismic reflection lines; a 3D model in EarthVision; spreadsheet of links to published maps; and spreadsheets of well data.

  7. Green Valley Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.

    2014-12-01

    The "green valley" is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech), in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u-r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, "main" sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominanlty disk) morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the "green valley" using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all) of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012), Salim et al. (2012) and Martin et al. (2007), as well as other results.

  8. Grizzly Valley fault system, Sierra Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Ryan; Stephenson, William; Odum, Jack; Briggs, Rich; Crone, Anthony; Angster, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault system (GVFS) strikes northwestward across Sierra Valley, California and is part of a network of active, dextral strike-slip faults in the northern Walker Lane (Figure 1). To investigate Quaternary motion across the GVFS, we analyzed high-resolution (0.25 m) airborne LiDAR data (Figure 2) in combination with six, high-resolution, P-wave, seismic-reflection profiles [Gold and others, 2012]. The 0.5- to 2.0-km-long seismic-reflection profiles were sited orthogonal to suspected tectonic lineaments identified from previous mapping and our analysis of airborne LiDAR data. To image the upper 400–700 m of subsurface stratigraphy of Sierra Valley (Figure 3), we used a 230-kg accelerated weight drop source. Geophone spacing ranged from 2 to 5 m and shots were co-located with the geophones. The profiles reveal a highly reflective, deformed basal marker that we interpret to be the top of Tertiary volcanic rocks, overlain by a 120- to 300-m-thick suite of subhorizontal reflectors we interpret as Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine deposits. Three profiles image the principle active trace of the GVFS, which is a steeply dipping fault zone that offsets the volcanic rocks and the basin fill (Figures 4 & 5).

  9. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Peña, W. E.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy in Colombia has been done since the beginning of the nineteen century when in 1803 was built one of the oldest or maybe the older astronomical Observatory of America. This is a very beautiful, historical and ancient building. A small dome with a small telescope is also inside the university campus . The Observatory leads since then the development of astronomy in Colombia as a professional science. At the present time a Master Program and a Specialization Program are successfully carried out with a good number of smart young students. The Observatory has a staff of eleven professors all with a master degree in sciences; two of them are PhD and in a couple of years five staff members will be PhD in Physics. With some international collaboration they will shoulder in few years a doctoral astronomical program. There are several research lines mainly in the fields of Astrometry, Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, Cosmology, Astrostatistic and Astrobiology. Three research groups have got recognition from the governmental institution that supports the research in sciences COLCIENCIAS. Several papers have been published in national and international journals. Besides the professional line in astronomy, the Observatory sponsors several non professional Colombian astronomical groups that work enthusiastically in the field of astronomy.

  10. Colombia`s new light, sweet Cusiana crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-12-11

    If plans continue as scheduled, production of Colombia`s Cusiana crude will reach nearly 200,000 b/d by year-end 1995, and 500,000 b/d by year-end 1997, following expansion of Colombia`s Central Pipeline System (OGJ, Nov. 20, P. 27). Cusiana was discovered in 1991. The field covers an area roughly 16 miles x 4 miles in the foothills of the Eastern Andes. Combined with a neighboring field, reserves of the 36{degree} API, 0.25 wt% sulfur crude are estimated to be 2 billion bbl. Cusiana`s refining characteristics include: low concentrations of sulfur, nitrogen, and metals; low acidity; and low residual yields. The crude also has excellent characteristics for producing feeds for reforming, fluid catalytic cracking, and coking, say the partners. Table 1 shows Cusiana`s true boiling point data. Table 2 lists properties of relatively narrow heavy distillate fractions.

  11. Catalogue of Tephritidae of Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present Catalogue includes 93 species and 23 genera of Tephritidae that have been recorded in Colombia. Four subfamilies (Blepharoneurinae, Dacinae, Trypetinae and Tephritinae), and eight tribes (Acrotaeniini, Carpomyini, Dacini, Eutretini, Myopitini, Noeetini, Tephritini, and Toxotrypanini) are...

  12. Epidemiology of rosacea in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Lili J; Motta, Adriana; Pabón, Juan G; Barona, Maria I; Meléndez, Esperanza; Orozco, Beatriz; Rojas, Ricardo F

    2017-05-01

    Prevalence of rosacea has been estimated around the world in the range of 0-22%. In Colombia, the prevalence of rosacea remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rosacea and the frequencies of its subtypes in Colombia. This cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in six outpatient dermatology clinics across Colombia. A total of 33 dermatologists conducted a comprehensive medical history and physical examination for all rosacea patients seen at their offices over the course of 2 months. All patients who accepted to participate were encouraged to answer a survey about the history of their illness. Of 10,204 outpatients evaluated for rosacea between July and August 2014, 291 rosacea patients were included in this study. The prevalence of rosacea subtypes in this cohort was: 45.3% erythematotelangiectatic (ETR) (n = 132), 48.7% papulopustular (PPR) (n = 142), 4.8% phymatous (n = 14), and 1% ocular (n = 3). Overall, the prevalence in Colombia was 2.85%. Our data represent an important first step to understanding the current state of rosacea in Colombia. The prevalence of rosacea in Colombia is the highest in Latin America among a few reports published, which might be explained by geographic features. However, contrary to our expectations, the prevalence is lower than that in some European countries. We postulate that this finding may be due to methodological differences. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Resistance of Plamodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in Zaragoza (Antioquia, Colombia), 1998.

    PubMed

    Blair-Trujillo, Silvia; Lacharme-Lora, Leidy; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2002-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to chloroquine (CHL), amodiaquine (AMO) and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) was assessed in vivo and in vitro in a representative sample from the population of Zaragoza in El Bajo Cauca region (Antioquia-Colombia). There were 94 patients with P. falciparum evaluated. For the in vivo test the patients were followed by clinical examination and microscopy, during 7 days. The in vitro test was performed following the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The in vivo prevalence of resistance to CHL was 67%, to AMO 3% and to SDX/PYR 9%. The in vitro test showed sensitivity to all antimalarials evaluated. Concordance for CHL between the in vivo and in vitro tests was 33%. For AMO and SDX/PYR, the concordance was 100%. We conclude that a high percentage of patients are resistant to CHL (in vivo). A high rate of intestinal parasitism might explain in part, the differences observed between the in vivo and the in vitro results. Therefore, new policies and treatment regimens should be proposed for the treatment of the infection in the region. Nationwide studies assessing the degree of resistance are needed.

  14. [Epidemiological study of organophosphate and carbamate pesticide exposure in 7 separated zones in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Omayda; Silva, Elizabeth; Morales, Ligia; Ortiz, Jaime

    2005-06-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in workers potentially exposed to pesticides that are frequently used in agriculture in 7 provinces in Colombia between 1998 and 2001. During this period, local health centers in the Departments (provinces) of Boyacá, Caldas, Huila, Meta, Norte de Santander, Santander and Valle del Cauca monitored a total of 25,242 workers for acetylcholinesterase activity. The Limperos and Ranta method, modified by Edson, was used to detect levels of pesticide exposure. The worker sample consisted of 78.9% men and 21.1% women. Thirty-nine percent of the workers were between 26 and 40 years of age, and 66% had social security. The most common work activities were use of spray applicators (39.1%) and harvesters (24.9%). Of the 25,356 tests for acetylcholinesterase activity, 7.6% showed abnormal activity levels. In the zones investigated, organophosphosphates were the most commonly used pesticides (42.4%), followed by carbamates (17.8%), organochlorines (8.4%) and chlorinates (6.6%). The diversity of pesticides in use underlines the need to increase the variety of biomarkers for monitoring exposed workers.

  15. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  16. Three new species of the genus Ripipteryx from Colombia (Orthoptera, Ripipterygidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baena-Bejarano, Nathalie; Heads, Sam W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Ripipteryx Newman (Orthoptera: Tridactyloidea: Ripipterygidae) are described from Colombia; namely Ripipteryx diegoi sp. n. (Forceps Group) and Ripipteryx guacharoensis sp. n. (Marginipennis Group) from Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guacharos in Huila, and Ripipteryx gorgonaensis sp. n. (Crassicornis Group) from Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona in Cauca. Ripipteryx diegoi sp. n. is characterized by the antennae black with white spots on flagellomeres 3–7, male subgenital plate with median ridge forming a bilobed setose process, epiproct produced laterally near its base and phallic complex with virga thickened distally and not reaching beyond the membrane. Ripipteryx guacharoensis sp. n. is characterized by the antennae thick with white spots present dorsally on flagellomeres 1–4 and 8, epiproct narrow and triangular, uncus reduced and lacking a distal hook, phallic complex with a concave ventral plate and a dorsal elevation in the middle extended to the virga, and the virga itself with two small projections basally. Ripipteryx gorgonaensis sp. n. is characterized by the epiproct with a lateral notch, antennae with a white dorsal spot on flagellomere 1 and flagellomeres 4–7 entirely white. The antennal color pattern of Ripipteryx gorgonaensis sp. n. strongly resembles that of Ripipteryx atra but differs from the latter in the absence of any significant morphological modification of the flagellomeres. PMID:26019667

  17. A mediated modelling approach to promote collaborative learning in Andean rural micro-catchments in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    In rural catchments of developing countries water-related diseases, due to land use patterns (agriculture and livestock), microbial pollution, inadequate sanitation systems, access to water of poor quality, and lack of institutional support are common problems which disproportionally affect poor and vulnerable people. This research aims at developing a system dynamic model to improve the understanding of the macro and micro factors that influence human health and environmental health in rural micro-catchments in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In this catchment livelihoods for most people depend on agriculture, particularly coffee. The research uses a mediated modeling approach, in which different stakeholders in modeling sessions, develop a STELLA model that allows them to identify relations between the economic, social and environmental factors and driving forces over the performance of their system. Stakeholders jointly develop the model structure in sessions facilitated by the researcher and the data required is gathered using secondary information from the different relevant institutions and primary information from field surveys that cover socioeconomic and environmental aspects that has not been previously collected by any institution or organization (i.e. household survey, stream water survey, and drinking water survey). Representation and understanding of their system will allow the stakeholders to test the effect of different management strategies in the micro-catchment and their associated socioeconomic, environmental and human health outcomes.

  18. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.

  19. Three new species of the genus Ripipteryx from Colombia (Orthoptera, Ripipterygidae).

    PubMed

    Baena-Bejarano, Nathalie; Heads, Sam W

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Ripipteryx Newman (Orthoptera: Tridactyloidea: Ripipterygidae) are described from Colombia; namely Ripipteryxdiegoi sp. n. (Forceps Group) and Ripipteryxguacharoensis sp. n. (Marginipennis Group) from Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guacharos in Huila, and Ripipteryxgorgonaensis sp. n. (Crassicornis Group) from Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona in Cauca. Ripipteryxdiegoi sp. n. is characterized by the antennae black with white spots on flagellomeres 3-7, male subgenital plate with median ridge forming a bilobed setose process, epiproct produced laterally near its base and phallic complex with virga thickened distally and not reaching beyond the membrane. Ripipteryxguacharoensis sp. n. is characterized by the antennae thick with white spots present dorsally on flagellomeres 1-4 and 8, epiproct narrow and triangular, uncus reduced and lacking a distal hook, phallic complex with a concave ventral plate and a dorsal elevation in the middle extended to the virga, and the virga itself with two small projections basally. Ripipteryxgorgonaensis sp. n. is characterized by the epiproct with a lateral notch, antennae with a white dorsal spot on flagellomere 1 and flagellomeres 4-7 entirely white. The antennal color pattern of Ripipteryxgorgonaensis sp. n. strongly resembles that of Ripipteryxatra but differs from the latter in the absence of any significant morphological modification of the flagellomeres.

  20. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Valley near Olympus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-539, 9 November 2003

    A suite of channels and valleys are carved into the plains southeast of the martian volcano, Olympus Mons. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 16.5oN, 124.8oW. Whether the valley was cut by water is unknown. Today it is dry, has dust-covered wind ripples on the floor of the innermost channel, and small craters have formed here and there on the valley terrain. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  2. Fretted Terrain Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shallow tributary valleys in the Ismenius Lacus fretted terrain region of northern Arabia Terra. These valleys exhibit a variety of typical fretted terrain valley wall and floor textures, including a lineated, pitted material somewhat reminiscent of the surface of a brain. Origins for these features are still being debated within the Mars science community; there are no clear analogs to these landforms on Earth. This image is located near 39.9oN, 332.1oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291

  4. Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers 93 miles west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image.

  5. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  6. Sequencing: Targeting Insurgents and Drugs in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    examines the overall effectiveness of two distinctly different strategies for dealing with the dual threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President...Drug Trade, Coca, Counter-narcotics, FARC, FARC-EP, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Government of Colombia, Insurgency, Terrorism , Plan...threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President Pastrana’s “drugs first” strategy and President Uribe’s unified campaign against both guerrillas

  7. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  8. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  9. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  10. DESOLATION VALLEY WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodge, F.C.W.; Fillo, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    The Desolation Valley Wilderness covers an area of 101 sq mi in El Dorado County, California, near the southwestern shore of Lake Tahoe. A mineral survey disclosed the presence of a small mineralized area with demonstrated gold resources. Exploratory drilling is necessary before the resource potential of gold-bearing rocks can be assessed.

  11. Boyne Valley Tombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  12. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  13. Rift Valley Fever Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  14. Mars Marathon Valley Overlook

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows part of "Marathon Valley," a destination on the western rim of Endeavour Crater, as seen from an overlook north of the valley. The scene spans from east, at left, to southeast. It combines four pointings of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) on March 13, 2015, during the 3,958th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. The rover team selected Marathon Valley as a science destination because observations of this location using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter yielded evidence of clay minerals, a clue to ancient wet environments. By the time Opportunity explores Marathon Valley, the rover will have exceeded a total driving distance equivalent to an Olympic marathon. Opportunity has been exploring the Meridiani Planum region of Mars since January 2004. This version of the image is presented in approximate true color by combining exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters at each of the four camera pointings, using filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19151

  15. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  16. Fretted Terrain Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of a fretted terrain valley in the Coloe Fossae region. Valleys found at north middle latitudes, such as this one, often have odd linear features on them. When seen at much lower resolution by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s, investigators assumed that the linear features indicated flow of ice or ice-rich debris, as might occur in a glacier or rock glacier. MOC images show little evidence to support the notion that these materials flow; indeed, similar ridges occur in closed valleys, from which nothing can flow. This picture shows a close-up of one such closed valley.

    Location near: 35.3oN, 303.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  17. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  18. The Colombia Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Chia, J. F.; Poveda, E.; Pedraza, P.

    2013-05-01

    The latest seismological equipment and data processing instrumentation installed at the Colombia Seismological Network (RSNC) are described. System configuration, network operation, and data management are discussed. The data quality and the new seismological products are analyzed. The main purpose of the network is to monitor local seismicity with a special emphasis on seismic activity surrounding the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean oceans, for early warning in case a Tsunami is produced by an earthquake. The Colombian territory is located at the South America northwestern corner, here three tectonic plates converge: Nazca, Caribbean and the South American. The dynamics of these plates, when resulting in earthquakes, is continuously monitored by the network. In 2012, the RSNC registered in 2012 an average of 67 events per day; from this number, a mean of 36 earthquakes were possible to be located well. In 2010 the network was also able to register an average of 67 events, but it was only possible to locate a mean of 28 earthquakes daily. This difference is due to the expansion of the network. The network is made up of 84 stations equipped with different kind of broadband 40s, 120s seismometers, accelerometers and short period 1s sensors. The signal is transmitted continuously in real-time to the Central Recording Center located at Bogotá, using satellite, telemetry, and Internet. Moreover, there are some other stations which are required to collect the information in situ. Data is recorded and processed digitally using two different systems, EARTHWORM and SEISAN, which are able to process and share the information between them. The RSNC has designed and implemented a web system to share the seismological data. This innovative system uses tools like Java Script, Oracle and programming languages like PHP to allow the users to access the seismicity registered by the network almost in real time as well as to download the waveform and technical details. The coverage

  19. Burden of epilepsy in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Ayala, Alejandro; Nariño, Daniel; Rosselli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy lays an important burden on healthcare systems and society in general. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been developed to compare the burden of this disease both between conditions and between geographical boundaries. With improving data on disease incidence and prevalence in Colombia, we can refine our DALYs-based estimates. Using different strategies, including the official healthcare provision database and death certificates, as well as extrapolation from published neuroepidemiologic studies, we estimated the incidence and prevalence by age groups, disease duration and attributable mortality. With this information we calculated DALYs for the year 2012. Overall, it was found that epilepsy was responsible for 0.88% of all deaths in Colombia. A total of 5.25 DALYs per 1,000 person-years are lost due to epilepsy in Colombia, 75% of which (3.91 DALYs) are due to premature mortality, with a higher burden in men (6.12 DALYs) than in women (4.41 DALYs). We reported new estimations on epilepsy incidence and prevalence by age groups in Colombia and conclude that DALYs lost due to epilepsy in Colombia are almost double the previous figure, mostly because of the underestimation of attributable mortality. With this figure, epilepsy ranks 12th instead of 19th in the list of the most important causes of DALYs lost. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Discoveries, financial strength lift Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia plans to play a growing role in international oil markets while expanding and privatizing its domestic gas and electricity industries. Officials intend to curb the government`s spending on energy development while increasing its energy revenues. Their plans imply growing participation in energy projects by private companies. Also certain to help attract investment capital is the country`s new standing as a world-class oil and gas province. Discovery of Cusiana oil field in 1989 and of Cupiagua oil field in 1992 added 2 billion bbl of oil and 3 tcf of gas reserves, effectively doubling Colombia`s totals. Exploration near the giant Cusiana-Cupiagua complex, in the eastern foothills of the Andes about 100 miles northeast of Bogota, has turned up an estimated 10 tcf of gas and 1 billion bbl of oil in Volcanera field and two discoveries overlying it, Florena and Pauto Sur. Colombia`s critics say that, despite its laudable economic stability and improving oil and gas prospectivity, political impediments could interfere with progress toward its lofty energy goals. The paper discusses the heightened political risks, unequal pace of reform, gas pipeline construction, gas regulations, tying gas to power, reform in the oil sector, achieving sustainable change, and the appeal to investors.

  1. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  2. Satellite-Based Estimation of Water Discharge and Runoff in the Magdalena River, Northern Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.; Escobar Correa, R.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Magdalena River and its most important tributary, the Cauca, drain the northern Andes of Colombia. During the wet season, flood events affect the whole region and cause huge damage in low-income communities. Mitigation of such natural disasters in Colombia lacks science-supported tools for evaluating river response to extreme climate events. Here we introduce near-real-time estimations of river discharge towards technical capacity building for evaluation of flood magnitudes and variability along the Magdalena and Cauca. We use the River Watch version 3 system of the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) at five selected measurement sites on the two rivers. For each site, two different rating curves were constructed to transform microwave signal from TRMM, AMSR-E, AMRS-2, and GPM satellites into river discharge. The first rating curves were based on numerical discharge estimates from a global Water Balance Model (WBM); the second were obtained from the relationship between satellite signal and measured river discharge at ground gauging stations at nearby locations. Determination coefficients (R2) between observed versus satellite-derived daily discharge data, range from 0.38 to 0.57 in the upper basin, whereas in the middle of the basin R2 values vary between 0.47 and 0.64. In the lower basin, observed R2 values are lower and range from 0.32 to 0.4. Once time lags between the microwave satellite signal and river discharge from either WBM estimates or ground-based gauging stations are taken into account, the R2 values increase considerably. The time series of satellite-based river discharge during the 1998 - 2016 period show high inter-annual variability as well as strong pulses associated with the ENSO (La Niña/El Niño) cycle. Numerical runoff magnitude estimates at peaks of extreme climatic anomalies are more correlated than stream flows measured at ground-based gauging stations. In fluvial systems such as the Magdalena, characterized by high spatial variability

  3. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease.

  4. Mantidflies of Colombia (Neuroptera, Mantispidae).

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; García, Alexander

    2015-03-26

    This study revises the Mantispidae of Colombia. 151 adult specimens of 12 entomological museums of Colombia were examined and identified. On the basis of the specimens studied and a comprehensive literature search, it is determined that 20 nominal species (including two doubtful records) plus four proposed as new to science, in ten genera (Anchieta, Plega, Trichoscelia, Gerstaeckerella, Buyda, Climaciella, Dicromantispa, Entanoneura, Leptomantispa, and Zeugomantispa) and, three subfamilies (Symphrasinae, Drepanicinae, and Mantispinae) occur in Colombia. In addition, A. eurydella (Westwood), C. amapaensis Penny and P. fasciatella (Westwood) are redescribed, providing complementary information to the original descriptions. A list of Colombian Mantispidae, distribution maps and taxonomic keys to subfamilies, genera and species are included. Illustrations of the external morphology and male genitalia are provided for selected species. The taxonomic status of P. hagenella (Westwood) is discussed, and its diagnostic characters are redefined. Anchieta remipes (Gerstaecker) is newly transferred to this genus from Trichoscelia.

  5. Late Devonian acanthodians from Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, Carole J.; Janvier, Philippe; Villarroel, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Acanthodian remains occur in micaceous siltstone lenses (presumed to have been deposited during a marine incursion) in the Cuche Formation (?Frasnian) of northeast Colombia. The acanthodians are represented by patches of scales from climatiidid Nostolepis sp. cf. N. gaujensis and a fin spine and scales from a new diplacanthid. Type material of N. gaujensis is from the Frasnian Sventoji regional stage in the Baltic, and Nostolepis sp. cf. N. gaujensis has been recorded in the Frasnian of Iran, as well as from Colombia. The new diplacanthid taxon shows affinity to Baltic and Antarctic diplacanthids. The fauna thus shows possible links to both Gondwanan and Euramerican acanthodian assemblages.

  6. Detrital zircon fission-track thermochronology and magnetic fabric of the Amagá Formation (Colombia): Intracontinental deformation and exhumation events in the northwestern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piedrahita, V. A.; Bernet, M.; Chadima, M.; Sierra, G. M.; Marín-Cerón, M. I.; Toro, G. E.

    2017-07-01

    New detrital zircon-fission track (ZFT) and magnetic fabric data are presented to constrain the time of deposition, provenance and deformation of the of Lower and Upper members of the Amagá Formation in the Amagá Basin. The Amagá Basin is located in the northern Andes, between the Western and Central Cordilleras of Colombia. The Amagá Formation was deposited in a transpressive geodynamic context and is allegedly synchronous with tectonic events such as the Andean orogeny and the Panama-Choco Block collision with the northwestern South American Plate. Detrital ZFT data confirm an Oligocene age for the Lower Member and a middle-Miocene age for the Upper Member of the Amagá Formation. In addition to constraining the depositional age, the ZFT data presented in this study also reflect Paleocene-Eocene, late to early Oligocene and late to middle Miocene cooling in sediment source areas mainly located in the Central and Western Cordilleras of Colombia. These ages can be associated with regional exhumation events in the central and northern Andes of South America. Collisional stages of the Panama-Choco Block against northwestern South America, subduction of the Farallon-Nazca Plate and strike-slip reactivation periods of the Cauca-Romeral fault system, caused NW-SE compression and NE-SW simple shear in the Amagá Basin. This deformational regime, identified by magnetic fabric data, induces syn- and post-depositional deformation over the Amagá Formation.

  7. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  8. An Ancient Valley Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Most of the oldest terrains on Mars have eroded into branching valleys, as seen here in by NASA's Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, much like many land regions of Earth are eroded by rain and snowmelt runoff. This is the primary evidence for major climate change on Mars billions of years ago. How the climate of Mars could have supported a warmer and wetter environment has been the subject of scientific debates for 40 years. A full-resolution enhanced color closeup reveals details in the bedrock and dunes on the valley floor (upper left). The bedrock of ancient Mars has been hardened and cemented by groundwater. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21630

  9. [Rift valley fever].

    PubMed

    Markin, V A; Pantiukhov, V B; Markov, V I; Bondarev, V P

    2012-01-01

    In the last quarter of century virus of Rift valley fever (RVF) sharply extended its distribution by moving from Africa to Asia and evolving from low- to high pathogenic for humans causing severe hemorrhagic disease, practically equaling in this respect with some members ofa group of extremely dangerous pathogens. Morbidity and epidemics of RVF are analyzed. Evolution of epidemic development of the infection is examined. Necessity of development of means and methods for diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapy of RVF is underlined.

  10. Receiver functions and crustal structure of the northwestern Andean region, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Esteban; Monsalve, Gaspar; Vargas, Carlos Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We used the receiver function technique to deduce crustal thickness beneath the northwestern Andean system, using data from the permanent seismic network of Colombia, combined with some of the IRIS and CTBTO stations in Colombia and Ecuador. The estimation of crustal thickness was made using the primary P to s conversion and crustal reverberations. The bulk crustal VP/VS ratio was constrained using a crustal thickness versus VP/VS stacking method, in addition to estimations using a time to depth conversion technique based on results of a modified Wadati diagram analysis. We observed a wide range of crustal thicknesses, including values around 17 km beneath the Malpelo Island on the Pacific Ocean, 20 to 30 km at the coastal Pacific and Caribbean plains of Colombia, 25 to 40 km beneath the eastern plains and foothills, 35 km beneath the Western Cordillera, 45 km at the Magdalena River intermountain valley, 52 to 58 km under the northern Central Cordillera, and reaching almost 60 km beneath some of the volcanoes of the Southern Cordilleran system of Colombia; crustal thickness can be slightly greater than 60 km beneath the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera. The values of VP/VS are particularly high for some of the stations on the volcanic centers, reaching values above 1.79, probably related to the addition of mafic materials to the lower crust, and in the plateau of the Eastern Cordillera near Bogota, where we speculate about the possibility of crustal seismic anisotropy associated with shear zones.

  11. Modeling high resolution stratigraphy in the Cusiana Field, Eastern Colombia; static builds to dynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A. ); MacDonald, D.; Colin, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Cusiana Field (BP, Ecopetrol, Total and Triton) is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The Cusiana reservoirs range from late Cretaceous, passive margin deltaic to early Tertiary, early foreland basin estuarine-fluvial. The key reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises over 50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 180,00 bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are sandstone-dominated and comprise the majority of the reservoir quality in the reservoir. Critical to an effective understanding of reservoir behavior has been a detailed reservoir description and reservoir modeling of the incised valley stratigraphy in the Mirador. Models have been constructed using the deterministic information provided by extensive core (3000 feet) coupled with stochastic tools and techniques. Dynamic data, provided by extensive acquisition of production logs during early development drilling, have been integrated within the static-descriptions. Important reservoir characteristics such as degree of valley connectivity, intra-valley heterogeneities and textural controls on permeability have been captured in the modeling process. Upscaling of the high resolution static model has preserved the key sequence stratigraphic facets of the reservoir and also incorporated textural controls on relative permeability. Prediction of pressure transient behavior and fluid movement is working well in the full field simulator, VIP.

  12. Modeling high resolution stratigraphy in the Cusiana Field, Eastern Colombia; static builds to dynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pulham, A.; MacDonald, D.; Colin, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Cusiana Field (BP, Ecopetrol, Total and Triton) is located in the Llanos Foothills of Eastern Colombia. The Cusiana reservoirs range from late Cretaceous, passive margin deltaic to early Tertiary, early foreland basin estuarine-fluvial. The key reservoir is the late Eocene Mirador Formation which comprises over 50% of reserves. Currently the Mirador reservoir is providing nearly all of the 180,00 bopd of production from the Cusiana Field. The Mirador reservoir comprises a stack of incised valley deposits. The fills of the valleys are sandstone-dominated and comprise the majority of the reservoir quality in the reservoir. Critical to an effective understanding of reservoir behavior has been a detailed reservoir description and reservoir modeling of the incised valley stratigraphy in the Mirador. Models have been constructed using the deterministic information provided by extensive core (3000 feet) coupled with stochastic tools and techniques. Dynamic data, provided by extensive acquisition of production logs during early development drilling, have been integrated within the static-descriptions. Important reservoir characteristics such as degree of valley connectivity, intra-valley heterogeneities and textural controls on permeability have been captured in the modeling process. Upscaling of the high resolution static model has preserved the key sequence stratigraphic facets of the reservoir and also incorporated textural controls on relative permeability. Prediction of pressure transient behavior and fluid movement is working well in the full field simulator, VIP.

  13. Biblored, Colombia's Innovative Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Maria Cristina

    This report describes Biblored, the library network in Bogota, Colombia, that received the 2002 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award. Biblored is a network of 19 libraries that attract about 200,000 users per month and serve some of the poorest neighborhoods in Bogota. The network's success in making information and…

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  15. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  16. Bogota--Colombia's thriving capital.

    PubMed

    Hakkert, R

    1987-05-01

    Like most of its Latin American counterparts, Colombia is rapidly urbanizing. Home to 20% of Colombia's urban population and the largest industrial agglomeration in the nation, Bogota shares its dominance with several other large Colombian cities. Projections compiled from the 1973 census--the latest census available-- project the 1980 population of Bogota at 4 to 5.1 million. Government estimates peg Bogota's 1990 population at 8.5 million people. Most of Bogota's best neighborhoods now lie to the north of the city. On the whole, housing contrasts in Bogota are not as stark as in some other Latin American cities, although the estimated 1980 housing deficit of 210,000 units led to significant self-help construction. Women have made dramatic in-roads into equalizing educational attainment with men. Among the city's most important problems is unemployment. Completed family size in Bogota has plummeted since the inception of family planning programs in the early 1960s. Between 1956 and 1973, Colombia's per capita income increased by about 45%, but the increase was more rapid in Bogota, where per capita incomes in 1970 were about 60% higher than the national average. Much of the current in-depth data on Bogota comes from the World Bank research project known as the City Study. Much of the data in this profile of Bogota came from the analysis of this survey data, presented in World Bank Research publications. Rather than from Colombia's last census of 1973.

  17. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  18. Solving Colombia’s Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    parties for political control during the period from 1948 to 1953.15 “During this period, referred to as ‘La Violencia ,’ groups of armed men paid by...surprise to those familiar with the Colombia government history of mishandling foreign aid in the war against drugs and in their parallel inability to

  19. Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

  20. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1989-10-01

    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  1. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  2. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however,more » remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.« less

  3. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  4. Death Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-11

    STS059-S-026 (11 April 1994) --- This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space Radar Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the Valley range from 70 meters below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3300 meters above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about the Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the image as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans help scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are bulit up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation, and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (or inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. the goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global cimate-change scenarios

  5. The California Valley grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  6. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  8. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    PubMed

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  9. Valley Glaciers on Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-17

    Ice (probably frozen nitrogen) that appears to have accumulated on the uplands on the right side of this 390-mile (630-kilometer) wide image is draining from Pluto's mountains onto the informally named Sputnik Planum through the 2- to 5-mile (3- to 8- kilometer) wide valleys. The flow front of the ice moving into Sputnik Planum is outlined by the blue arrows. The origin of the ridges and pits on the right side of the image remains uncertain. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19944

  10. Evaluation of a PCR-RFLP- ITS2 assay for discrimination of Anopheles species in northern and western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cienfuegos, Astrid V.; Rosero, Doris A.; Naranjo, Nelson; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are routinely identified using morphological characters of the female that often lead to misidentification due to interspecies similarity and intraspecies variability. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of a previously developed PCR-RFLP-ITS2 assay for accurate discrimination of anophelines in twelve localities spanning three Colombian malaria epidemiological regions: Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and Uraba-Bajo Cauca-Alto Sinu Region. The evaluation of the stability of the PCR-RFLP patterns is required since variability of the ITS2 has been documented and may produce discrepancies in the patterns previously reported. The assay was used to evaluate species assignation of 939 mosquitoes identified by morphology. Strong agreement between the morphological and molecular identification was found for species An. albimanus, An. aquasalis, An. darlingi and An. triannulatus s.l. (p ≥ 0.05, kappa=1). However, disagreement was found for species An. nuneztovari s.l., An. neomaculipalpus, An. apicimacula and An. punctimacula (p ≤ 0.05; kappa ranging from 0.33–0.80). The ITS2-PCR-RFLP assay proved valuable for discriminating anopheline species of northern and western Colombia, especially those with overlapping morphology in the Oswaldoi Group. PMID:21345325

  11. [Surveillance of healthcare associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption in high-complexity hospitals in Colombia, 2011].

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Andrea Patricia; Barrero, Liliana Isabel; Rivera, Sandra Milena; Ovalle, María Victoria; Valera, Danik

    2014-04-01

    Preventing healthcare associated infections, especially for resistant microorganisms, is a priority. In Colombia, the surveillance of such events was started through a national pilot study. To describe the epidemiology of device-associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption patterns in institutions with intensive care units (ICU), 2011. Descriptive observational study in 10 health institutions from three Colombian provinces: Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, and Bogotá. Surveillance protocols were designed and implemented by trained health professionals in each hospital. A web tool was designed for data reporting and analysis. Infection rates, device-use percentages and antibiotics defined daily dose (DDD) were calculated. Bacterial resistance phenotypes and profiles were reported and analyzed using Whonet 5.6. The most common event was bloodstream infection (rate > 4.8/1000 catheter-days) followed by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-related urinary tract infection, showing a wide variability among institutions. A high consumption of meropenem in the ICU (DDD 22.5/100 beds-day) was observed, as well as a high carbapenem resistance (> 11.6%) and a high frequency of third generation cephalosporins resistance (> 25.6%) in Enterobacteriaceae in ICUs and hospitalization wards. The percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was higher in hospitalization wards (34.3%). This is the first experience in measuring these events in Colombia. It is necessary to implement a national surveillance system aimed at guiding governmental and institutional actions oriented to infection prevention and control, to resistance management and to the promotion of antibiotics rational use, along with a follow-up and monitoring process.

  12. PLAN COLOMBIA: Some Differing Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    units to their frontier with Colombia. Peru, while President Fujimori was in charge, showed a willingness even to confront the guerrillas militarily...contrast to the position of former President Fujimori of Peru, President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela has shown evident sympathy for the Colombian...could be temporary, as well as an early end to acts of personal terrorism . These agreements would be effective tests of whether both sides in the

  13. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Studies of Mosquitoes of the Genus Haemagogus in Colombia (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg., 43: 13-28. Lane, J. 1953. Neotropical Culicidae...malariae and P. ovale). Female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the exclusive vectors of human malaria. During feeding, the mosquito ingests...birds are implicated reservoirs. The biting midge, Culicoides paraensis, is a proven vector. Culex quinquefasciatus is also capable of transmission

  14. Cerrejon puts Colombia in spotlight

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, P.C.

    1983-11-01

    The Cerrejon project in Colombia is described. Production will commence within 2 years and the operation is likely to become one of the largest bituminous coal mines in the world, scheduled to produce 15 million t/y by opencast working. The geology of the site is indicated. Of the 55 seams, 40 will be worked during the lifetime of the mine. All the coal is destined for export.

  15. A Critique of Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-17

    U.S . Department of State A paper submitted to the faculty of the Naval...Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S . Department of State . March 2005. <http://www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcpt/2005/vol1/html/42363.htm> [26 April 2005...www.lawg.org/Misc/Publications.htm> [15 May 2005]. “Support for Plan Colombia.” U.S . Department of State .

  16. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated to peripheral arterial disease in an adult population from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Lorena; Portilla, Eliana; Muñoz, Wilson; Hofman, Albert; Sierra-Torres, Carlos H

    2017-06-13

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of mortality in Latin America while peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. To establish the prevalence of PAD and the distribution of traditional CVD risk factors in a population from the Department of Cauca, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was performed in a total of 10,000 subjects aged ≥40 years from 36 municipalities. An ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤0.9 in either leg was used diagnostic criterion of PAD. Overall PAD prevalence was 4.4% (4.7% females vs. 4.0% males), with diabetes being the most prevalent risk factor (23%). Among individuals self-reporting a history of acute myocardial infarction or stroke, PAD prevalence was 31.0% and 8.1%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, PAD was significantly associated to hypertension (OR 4.6; 95% CI 3.42-6.20), diabetes (4.3; 3.17-5.75), dyslipidemia (3.1; 2.50-3.88), obesity (1.8; 1.37-2.30) and cigarette smoking (1.6; 1.26-1.94). Analysis for the interaction of risk factors showed that diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity accounted for 13.2 times the risk for PAD (6.9-25.4), and when adding hypertension to the model, the risk effect was the highest (17.2; 8.4-35.1). Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity but not smoking were strong predictors of PAD. ABI measurement should be routinely conducted as a screening test in intermediate and high-risk patients for CVD prevention. This will allow for early intervention and follow up on populations at risk, thus, contributing to improve strategies for reducing CVD burden. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  18. [Detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Istmina, Chocó, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, José Joaquín; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Díaz, Silvia Patricia; Ruiz, Edinso Rafael; Asprilla, Jimmy; Ardila, Susanne; Parra-Henao, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus is widely distributed around the world. Its introduction to the Americas occurred in 1985 and it is considered a potential vector of dengue viruses and one of the principal vectors of chikungunya virus. In Colombia, this species was reported for the first time in Leticia (Amazonas) in 1998, followed by Buenaventura (Valle del Cauca) in 2001, Barrancabermeja (Santander) in 2010, and Medellín (Antioquia) in 2011. So far, this species has been reported in ten departments of the country. Objective: To report the finding of A. albopictus in the city of Istmina, Chocó, and its implications for public health. Materials and methods: In January 2015, we conducted an inspection of immature stages of Aedes spp. in breeding sites in the neighborhoods of San Agustín, Santa Genoveva and Subestación in Istmina, Chocó. The immature stages collected in this municipality were identified at the Unidad de Entomología of the Laboratorio de Salud Pública Departamental de Chocó, and confirmed by the Laboratorio de Entomología, Red Nacional de Laboratorios, Instituto Nacional de Salud, in Bogotá. In January 2015, twelve A. albopictus larvae were found in the breeding sites located in Subestación and San Agustín neighborhoods. The occurrence of A. albopictus in the municipality of Istmina underlines the importance of strengthening continuous entomological surveillance strategies at national and local levels in the country, especially in Istmina and its surrounding municipalities.

  19. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Long Valley Coring Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John; Finger, John; McConnel, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997, the California Energy Commission (CEC) agreed to provide funding for Phase III continued drilling of the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) near Mammoth Lakes, CA, from its present depth. The CEC contribution of $1 million completes a funding package of $2 million from a variety of sources, which will allow the well to be cored continuously to a depth of between 11,500 and 12,500 feet. The core recovered from Phase III will be crucial to understanding the origin and history of the hydrothermal systems responsible for the filling of fractures in the basement rock. The borehole may penetrate the metamorphic roof of the large magmatic complex that has fed the volcanism responsible for the caldera and subsequent activity.

  1. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  2. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-02-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures. These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black. In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03463

  3. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  4. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11161

  5. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  6. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-05-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  7. Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T

    2015-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants, camels and humans. The causative agent of RVF, the RVF virus (RVFV), has the capacity to cause large and severe outbreaks in animal and human populations and to cross significant natural geographic barriers. Rift Valley fever is usually inapparent in non-pregnant adult animals, but pregnant animals and newborns can be severely affected; outbreaks are characterised by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. The majority of human infections are subclinical or associated with moderate to severe, non-fatal, febrile illness, but some patients may develop a haemorrhagic syndrome and/or ocular and neurological lesions. In both animals and humans, the primary site of RVFV replication and tissue pathology is the liver. Outbreaks of RVF are associated with persistent high rainfalls leading to massive flooding and the emergence of large numbers of competent mosquito vectors that transmit the virus to a wide range of susceptible vertebrate species. Outbreaks of RVF have devastating economic effects on countries for which animal trade constitutes the main source of national revenue. The propensity of the virus to spread into new territories and re-emerge in traditionally endemic regions, where it causes large outbreaks in human and animal populations, presents a formidable challenge for public and veterinary health authorities. The presence of competent mosquito vectors in RVF-free countries, the wide range of mammals susceptible to the virus, altering land use, the global changes in climate, and increased animal trade and travel are some of the factors which might contribute to international spread of RVF.

  8. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  9. Barriers to Combating Human Trafficking in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    developing 107 La Republica de Colombia Decreto 1974 de 1996, 1974, vol. 42.912, 1996, http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_1974_1996.htm...x=37. La Republica de Colombia Decreto 1974 de 1996. 1974. Vol. 42.912, 1996. http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_1974_1996.htm

  10. Prevention of School Desertion in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Colombia has been ravaged for over 40-years by escalating civil conflict and more than half of its population of 42 million live below the poverty line. As a result, many children and young people are excluded from school and drop out rates of those who gain places are high. It is in Bogota, the capital of Colombia, where many displaced families…

  11. Discoveries, high potential spur interest in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart-Gordon, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    Colombia's Llanos basin offers the chance of discovering giant stratigraphic fields. Small to medium structural fields are also attractive thanks to the terms of Colombia's association contracts. This work reviews Llanos geology and recent discoveries, and outlines Ecopetrol's drilling and completion practices.

  12. How Military Actions Affected Citizen Security During Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Paper No. 700, Banco de la Republica , Bogotá, Colombia, 2012), 3. 35 Colombia in a positive light. USAID provides a typical example, declaring, “Plan...First Version of the Democratic Security Policy in Colombia.” Working Paper No. 700, Banco de la Republica , Bogotá, Colombia, 2012. ———. “Plan

  13. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  14. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles Valley...

  15. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  16. Accelerating optimization by tracing valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Xiao; He, Rong-Qiang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    We propose an algorithm to accelerate optimization when an objective function locally resembles a long narrow valley. In such a case, a conventional optimization algorithm usually wanders with too many tiny steps in the valley. The new algorithm approximates the valley bottom locally by a parabola that is obtained by fitting a set of successive points generated recently by a conventional optimization method. Then large steps are taken along the parabola, accompanied by fine adjustment to trace the valley bottom. The effectiveness of the new algorithm has been demonstrated by accelerating the Newton trust-region minimization method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method on the nonlinear fitting problem in exact diagonalization dynamical mean-field theory and on the classic minimization problem of the Rosenbrock's function. Many times speedup has been achieved for both problems, showing the high efficiency of the new algorithm.

  17. Dawn in the Apollo Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-18

    Beam Wave Guide antennas at Goldstone, known as the Beam Waveguide Cluster. They are located in an area at Goldstone called Apollo Valley. The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is located in the Mojave Desert in California, USA.

  18. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  19. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  20. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-03-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the valley, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling in POVA should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. Using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. Validation of campaign days allows to study chemistry indicators in the valley. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  1. [Rift Valley fever].

    PubMed

    Pépin, M

    2011-06-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arbovirosis. Among animals, it mainly affects ruminants, causing abortions in gravid females and mortality among young animals. In humans, RVF virus infection is usually asymptomatic or characterized by a moderate fever. However, in 1 to 3% of cases, more severe forms of the disease (hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, hemorrhagic fever) can lead to the death of infected individuals or to major sequels. The RVF virus (Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) was identified for the first time in the 1930s in Kenya. It then spread over almost all African countries, sometimes causing major epizootics/epidemics. In 2000, the virus was carried out of Africa, in the Middle East Arabian Peninsula. In 2007-2008, Eastern-African countries, including Madagascar, reported significant episodes of RVF virus, this was also the case for the Comoros archipelago and the French island of Mayotte. This ability to spread associated with many vectors, including in Europe, and high viral loads in infected animals led the health authorities worldwide to warn about the potential emergence of RVF virus in areas with a temperate climate. The awareness has increased in recent years with climate changes, which may possibly modify the vector distribution and competence, and prompted many RVF virus-free countries to better prepare for a potential implantation of RVF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  3. Operational fog collection and its role in environmental education and social reintegration: A case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, C. M.; Lopez, A.; Aristizabal, H. F.; Molina, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Experimental efforts with fog collection in Colombia began eight years ago, and in recent papers we have suggested the implementation of operational fog collection as an alternative to meet water requirements in rural areas of the Andes Mountain Range. Since then, an increasing number of individuals from academia and environmental organizations in the country have shown a remarkable interest on this appropriate technology, and some started its exploration in a larger scale. In this work we describe the implementation process of the first operational fog collection project in Colombia and discuss its role in rural water supply, in environmental education issues and in the process of "social reintegration" of people who have been victims of forced displacement. Both the fog collection evaluation stage and construction and administration of the operational system involved the participation of the community of a rural village. The study zone, located in the Andes Mountains of the Valle del Cauca Department and with altitudes ranging from 2600 to 2800 meters a.s.l., has serious limitations in water availability. Eight standard fog collectors (SFC) were implemented and used during the period May/2008 - Feb/2009 in order to assess the water yield from fog. The best average monthly collection rate in the period of study was around 2.0 l.m-2.day-1. The constructed large fog collector (LFC), with a vertical collection surface of 25 m2, and the associated hydraulic system are currently managed and administered by the village inhabitants. The fog collection system benefits a rural school, and the water is mainly used in small-scale irrigation activities for horticultural crops and livestock development. The project has also brought positive impacts in the community organization, mainly comprising people who have been forced out of their rural homes by the country's nearly half-century old armed conflict. The system also allows agriculture- and environment-related issues to be

  4. Colombia staying the course on oil policies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Colombia plans to stay the course on oil policies that turned it into a significant crude exporter in the 1980s. Colombia's Minister of Mines and Energy Luis Fernando Vergara Munarriz said the new administration of President Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, elected May 27, 1990, essentially will maintain the previous administration's policies covering oil, gas, and petrochemical sectors. A strong exploration and development program pushed by state oil company Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (Ecopetrol) separately and in concert with foreign operating companies have made energy the mainspring of Colombia's economic growth the past few years, broadening its economic base significantly.

  5. Transient slab flattening beneath Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, L. S.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Ramírez-Hoyos, L. F.; Monsalve, G.; Cardona, A.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-07-01

    Subduction of the Nazca and Caribbean Plates beneath northwestern Colombia is seen in two distinct Wadati Benioff Zones, one associated with a flat slab to the north and one associated with normal subduction south of 5.5°N. The normal subduction region is characterized by an active arc, whereas the flat slab region has no known Holocene volcanism. We analyze volcanic patterns over the past 14 Ma to show that in the mid-Miocene a continuous arc extended up to 7°N, indicating normal subduction of the Nazca Plate all along Colombia's Pacific margin. However, by 6 Ma, we find a complete cessation of this arc north of 3°N, indicating the presence of a far more laterally extensive flat slab than at present. Volcanism did not resume between 3°N and 6°N until after 4 Ma, consistent with lateral tearing and resteepening of the southern portion of the Colombian flat slab at that time.

  6. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  7. Pediatric Uveitis: Experience in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lonngi, Marcela; Aguilar, María Camila; Ríos, Hernán Andrés; Aristizábal-Duque, Cristhian H; Rodríguez, Francisco José; de-la-Torre, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    To describe the clinical features of uveitis in children treated at two ophthalmologic centers in Bogotá, Colombia, in a 13 year-period. Retrospective observational clinical record review of pediatric children with diagnosis of uveitis. In total, 310 children were evaluated, 51.9% were female, mean age of 10.1 years. Posterior uveitis was the most common location (58.7%), of insidious onset (87.4%) and chronic course (78.1%). The most common etiology was infection (58.4%) caused by toxoplasmosis (76.8%). There was a statistically significant difference in visual acuity between anterior (20/68) and intermediate uveitis (20/70), compared with posterior uveitis (20/434) (p<0.05). This is the first study to report the clinical features of pediatric uveitis in Colombia, where infectious etiologies are the leading cause. It will improve awareness and knowledge of pediatric uveitis in developing countries, and contribute to the development of public health policies of pediatric visual health. Received 12 September 2015; revised 23 February 2016; accepted 25 February 2016; published online 18 May 2016.

  8. Colombia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that despite the usual violent interference from drug lords and the guerilla group ELN (National Liberation Army), Colombia's upstream sector continues to chug along. Production was up again last year, foreign operators are still signing exploration contracts, and a new pipeline complex connecting smaller producing oil fields with terminal facilities should bring another 80,000 bpd of capacity onstream by the end of this year. Officials intend to keep this pace of development moving along if they can, but they acknowledge that the rate that reserves are replaced must increase if Colombia is to avoid becoming a net importer by 1996. Operators added only 140 MMbbl from 1988 through 1990 versus a government target of 400 MMbbl. Exploration and development must be expanded, but Ecopetrol is hamstrung to do much more on its own. With the government draining revenue for domestic needs, Ecopetrol actually may have to slow down from current funding levels. So an increase in foreign operators' activity is needed.

  9. A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

    2014-12-22

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades. 

  10. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  11. Energy and natural resource policies in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaPedraja, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Despite being richly endowed with mineral, metal, and water resources, Colombia has enjoyed neither economic prosperity nor abundant energy. This book explores the history and development of Colombia's petroleum, natural gas, electric, coal, and atomic energy industries. The author surveys the political and economic factors - both domestic and international - that have shaped the nation's energy and resource policies during the last fifty years. The book revolves around two central issues: Why has the role of the Colombian state in energy matters grown so vastly while private sector involvement has diminished drastically Why has the state consistently followed policies that have hindered rather than helped the development of Colombia's energy resources The author concludes that the defense of class interests in Colombia has been the real motivation behind the nation's energy policies.

  12. El Cerrejon moves into the market. [Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.

    1985-10-01

    The article describes Colombia's El Cerrejon North Block coal project, a $3.2 billion undertaking that will establish the largest coal mine in South America and one of the biggest surface mines in the world. The first shipments from Colombia's new mine have begun, and it is projected that by 1989 the surface mine will invade the export market of three continents with 15 million mtpy.

  13. Colombia - A Case Study in Smart Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    the case of Colombia : (1) alliances, partnerships, and institutions; (2) global development; (3) public diplomacy; (4) economic integration; and...proved crucial to expanding presence and influence, and later in the decade even included a number of public - private partnerships. As to war ownership...Office, 3. 96Ibid. 97Beittel, 33. 98U.S. Department of State, Colombia U.S. Foreign Assistance Performance Publication FY 2009, http

  14. Area Handbook Series: Colombia: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Units of Constant Purchasing Power ( Unidades de Poder Adquisitivo Constante-UPAC), a system by which an investment not only accrued interest but also was...Colombia joined the Latin American Economic Sys- tem ( Sistema Econ6mica Latinoamericana-SELA), which was created in 1975 to promote regional cooperation on...Bernardo, ii Celam), 116 351 Colombia: A Country Study Latin American Economic System L6pez Michelsen, Alfonso, 44, 46, 53-54, ( Sistema Econ6mica

  15. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  16. Channels and valleys on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Tentative conclusions about the origins of channels and valleys on Mars based on the consensus of investigators who have studied the problem are presented. The morphology of outflow channels is described in detail, and the morphology, distribution, and genesis of Martian valleys are addressed. Secondary modification of channels and valleys by mass-wasting phenomena, eolian processes, cratering, and mantling by lava flows is discussed. The physics of the flows needed to account for the immense volumes of Martian outflow channels is considered in detail, including the possible influence of debris flows and mudflows, glaciers, and ice sheets. It is concluded that Mars once probably possessed an atmosphere with higher temperatures and pressures than at present which played an essential role in an active hydrological cycle.

  17. Groundwater formation of martian valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malin, M.C.; Carr, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The martian surface shows large outflow channels, widely accepted as having been formed by gigantic floods that could have occurred under climatic conditions like those seen today. Also present are branching valley networks that commonly have tributaries. These valleys are much smaller than the outflow channels and their origins and ages have been controversial. For example, they might have formed through slow erosion by water running across the surface, either early or late in Mars' history, possibly protected from harsh conditions by ice cover. Alternatively, they might have formed through groundwater or ground-ice processes that undermine the surface and cause collapse, again either early or late in Mars' history. Long-duration surface runoff would imply climatic conditions quite different from the present environment. Here we present high-resolution images of martian valleys that support the view that ground water played an important role in their formation, although we are unable as yet to establish when this occurred.

  18. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  19. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulfert, G.; Chemel, C.; Chaxel, E.; Chollet, J. P.

    2005-09-01

    Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys), to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening). Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System), developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms) of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model) code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing.

    This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds) and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  20. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopus griseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopus griseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopus griseicollis griseicollis and Scytalopus griseicollis gilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. PMID:26085800

  1. A distinctive new subspecies of Scytalopusgriseicollis (Aves, Passeriformes, Rhinocryptidae) from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Donegan, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new subspecies of Pale-bellied Tapaculo Scytalopusgriseicollis from the northern Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and Venezuela. This form differs diagnosably in plumage from described subspecies Scytalopusgriseicollisgriseicollis and Scytalopusgriseicollisgilesi and from the latter in tail length. It is also differentiated non-diagnosably in voice from both these populations. Ecological niche modelling analysis suggests that the new subspecies is restricted to the Andean montane forest and páramo north of both the arid Chicamocha valley and the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.

  2. 27 CFR 9.191 - Ramona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ramona Valley viticultural area is located in central San Diego County, California. The area's boundaries..., passing through Barona Valley, to the peak (1,002 feet) near the center of the unnamed island in the San...

  3. An Energy Overview of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site--each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Colombia. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  4. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  5. El Espanol Hablado en Pamplona (Colombia) (Spanish Spoken in Pamplona, Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza Barrios, Jorge Enrique

    1974-01-01

    Using two informants and the questionnaires of the "Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Colombia," a linguistic corpus of Pamplona, Colombia, was derived. Regional speech characteristics are discussed here, including use of vowels and consonants, reversing sound position, elision, and lexical anomalies. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  6. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as “I am bothered by the color of my gums”(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),“I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste” (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), “I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are” (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and “I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well” (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation. PMID:23485597

  7. 77 FR 38793 - Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley Electric Association, Inc., Intermountain Rural Electric Association, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Public... CFR 385.206 and 385.212 (2011), Grand Valley Rural Power Lines, Inc., Yampa Valley...

  8. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  9. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  10. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  11. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  12. 78 FR 30965 - AG Valley Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Ag Valley Holdings, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board AG Valley Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Ag Valley Holdings, LLC AG... Facility trackage (the Line), in Chicago, Ill., pursuant to an operating agreement with Ag Valley Holdings, LLC, (Ag Valley Holdings). AVRR states that there are no mileposts on the Line. Based on the map...

  13. Predicted altitudinal shifts and reduced spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum vector species under climate change scenarios in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Camila; Paz, Andrea; Ferro, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi), and is epidemiologically relevant due to its wide geographic distribution, the number of annual cases reported and the increase in its co-infection with HIV. Two vector species have been incriminated in the Americas: Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi. In Colombia, L. longipalpis is distributed along the Magdalena River Valley while L. evansi is only found in the northern part of the Country. Regarding the epidemiology of the disease, in Colombia the incidence of VL has decreased over the last few years without any intervention being implemented. Additionally, changes in transmission cycles have been reported with urban transmission occurring in the Caribbean Coast. In Europe and North America climate change seems to be driving a latitudinal shift of leishmaniasis transmission. Here, we explored the spatial distribution of the two known vector species of L. infantum in Colombia and projected its future distribution into climate change scenarios to establish the expansion potential of the disease. An updated database including L. longipalpis and L. evansi collection records from Colombia was compiled. Ecological niche models were performed for each species using the Maxent software and 13 Worldclim bioclimatic coverages. Projections were made for the pessimistic CSIRO A2 scenario, which predicts the higher increase in temperature due to non-emission reduction, and the optimistic Hadley B2 Scenario predicting the minimum increase in temperature. The database contained 23 records for L. evansi and 39 records for L. longipalpis, distributed along the Magdalena River Valley and the Caribbean Coast, where the potential distribution areas of both species were also predicted by Maxent. Climate change projections showed a general overall reduction in the spatial distribution of the two vector species, promoting a shift in altitudinal distribution for L

  14. Palms (Arecaceae) from a Paleocene rainforest of northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Navarro, Carolina; Jaramillo, Carlos; Herrera, Fabiany; Wing, Scott L; Callejas, Ricardo

    2009-07-01

    Palms are a monophyletic group with a dominantly tropical distribution; however, their fossil record in low latitudes is strikingly scarce. In this paper, we describe fossil leaves, inflorescences, and fruits of palms from the middle to late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation, outcropping in the Ranchería River Valley, northern Colombia. The fossils demonstrate the presence of at least five palm morphospecies in the basin ca. 60 Ma. We compare the morphology of the fossils with extant palms and conclude that they belong to at least three palm lineages: the pantropical Cocoseae of the subfamily Arecoideae, the monotypic genus Nypa, and either Calamoideae or Coryphoideae. The fossil fruits and inflorescences are among the oldest megafossil records of these groups and demonstrate that the divergence of the Cocoseae was more than 60 Ma, earlier than has previously been thought. These fossils are useful in tracing the range expansion or contraction of historical or current neotropical elements and also have profound implications for the understanding of the evolution of neotropical rainforests.

  15. Socio-demographic transformations and living conditions among two indigenous and black populations in Northern Cauca during the period of 1993-2005

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Diego Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the changes that occurred in some patterns of socio-demographic variables and in living conditions among the Nasa, Guambiana and Afrocolombian populations in the northern region of the Department of Cauca, and those occurring in two residential communities, one white-mestizo and one black, in Cali during the 1993-2005 period. Methods: This paper presents a descriptive study that analyzes several socio-demographic indicators from the census of 1993 and 2005, the specific data include: rate of juvenile dependency; total masculinity index; average size of the household; specific global and local birth rates, and infant mortality rates; life expectancy at birth; average years of schooling; health cover age status; and percentage of the population with unmet basic needs (UBN). In this way, it is possible to note differences in the course of socio-demographic evolution and in the standard of living trends in the differing populations under study. Results: The Guambiana Indian population in the municipality of Silvia presents lower birth rates than the Nasa population, characterized by their seasonal birth rates. Differing from the pattern of the indigenous people of Northern Cauca, the Afro-Colombian population both from this region and from the population residing in the urban zones of Cali's tend to show similar socio-demographic patterns. Conclusions: Although there have been profound changes recorded during this period among these populations under study, the ethnic-racial inequalities and those of social class seem to persist. From this first diagnosis, attention is called to the need for a more adequate reproductive health policy to attend the specific needs presented by the indigenous population. PMID:24893053

  16. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  17. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Napa Valley. 9.23 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.23 Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Napa Valley.”...

  18. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    use of the valley has been limited to livestock grazing. b. Geology and Soils : This discussion of the geologic charac- teristics of Dry Lake Valley...aged alluvial fans are the predominant surficial geologic units within the valley. Soils range from.sandy gravels near the mountain fronts to sandy silts...Coyote Wash, the central stream channel flowing into Dry Lake Valley from Muleshoe Valley, contains with fine-grained soils and is grown over with

  19. McMurdo Dry Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the few areas of Antarctica not covered by thousands of meters of ice, the McMurdo Dry Valleys stand out in this satellite image. For a few weeks each summer temperatures are warm enough to melt glacial ice, creating streams that feed freshwater lakes that lie at the bottom of the valleys. Beneath a cap of ice these lakes remains unfrozen year-round, supporting colonies of bacteria and phytoplankton. Over the past 14 years, however, summers have been colder than usual, and the lakes are becoming more and more frozen. If the trend continues, the biological communities they support may go into hibernation. Most of Antarctica has cooled along with the Dry Valleys, in contrast to much of the rest of the Earth, which has warmed over the past 100 years. No one knows if the trend is related to global climate, or just a quirk in the weather. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument on December 18, 1999. For more information, visit: National Public Radio's Mixed Signals from Antarctica Declassified Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Image by Robert Simmon, based on data provided by the NASA GSFC Oceans and Ice Branch and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  20. Diablo Valley College Trends, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Les; And Others

    This report provides 31 charts showing trends in enrollment; transfer students; and ethnic and gender characteristics of students, faculty, and staff at Diablo Valley College (DVC), in California, up to fall 1992. Following a brief introduction highlighting statewide trends, charts are provided for the following areas: (1) DVC fall enrollments…

  1. Navigating the valley of death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2014-11-01

    Taking an innovation from the lab to the market is hard in any discipline, but physics start-ups face some unique challenges crossing the so-called "valley of death". James Dacey speaks to scientists and business professionals in the Boston area of the US who have dared to take on this journey.

  2. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Diabetes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Casas-Figueroa, Luz Ángela

    2015-01-01

    The burden of diabetes is a global problem, wherein the significant growth of diabetes in Colombia reflects a complex pathophysiology and epidemiology found in many other South American nations. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiologic data from Colombia and the South American region in general to identify certain disease drivers and target them for intervention to curb the increasing prevalence of diabetes. A detailed search was conducted using MEDLINE, SciELO, HINARI, LILACS, IMBIOMED, and Latindex databases, in addition to clinical practice guidelines, books, manuals, and other files containing relevant and verified information on diabetes in Colombia. According to the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization, the prevalence of diabetes in Colombia is 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively. In contrast, a national survey in Colombia shows a prevalence ranging from 1.84% to 11.2%, depending on how the diagnosis is made, the criteria used, and the age range studied. The prevalence exclusively in rural areas ranges from 1.4% to 7.9% and in urban areas from 1% to 46%. The estimated mean overall (direct and indirect) cost attributed to type 2 diabetes is 5.7 billion Colombian pesos (US $2.7 million). Diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death in Colombia with a rate of 15 deaths per 100,000 individuals. Based on a clustering of factors, 4 relevant disease drivers emerge that may account for the epidemiology of diabetes in Colombia: demographic transition, nutritional transition, forced displacement/internal migration and urban development, and promotion of physical activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Small Glaciofluvial Valleys on Amazonian Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassett, C.; Dickson, J.; Head, J. W.; Levy, J. S.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present new observations of small valleys associated with glacial features in the Martian mid-latitudes, based on a survey of images from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These valleys are small (~50-400 m wide) and short (<~10 km in length); indeed, the small-scale of these valleys appears to have hindered earlier recognition. The valleys usually are adjacent to probable glacial landforms (lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill and viscous flow features); the mechanism most likely to explain their origin is top-down melting of these cold-based glaciers. Some valleys have associated sedimentary deposits (small fans) (e.g., Fig. 1). Both stratigraphic relations and crater counting constrain most such valleys to the Amazonian period. The observed glaciofluvial valleys are typically on slopes of <<10°, which makes them morphologically distinct from young Mars gullies, which form only on steep slopes (~15-30°). These features are also qualitatively different from valley networks that date from the Noachian/Early Hesperian, as these larger valley systems were integrated into networks that were up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers in extent. Thus, we interpret these small glaciofluvial valleys as representing a distinct class of fluvial features on Mars. Their presence shows that the hydrology of Amazonian Mars is more diverse than previously thought. Figure 1. A small valley emanating from concentric crater fill (interpreted as glacial / ice-rich) inside a 70-km crater (352.5°E, 41.5°S; CTX image P16_007256_1383). The valley begins in a small alcove, where remnant glacial materials are now ~1 km from the valley head. The valley is ~5.5 km long, has an average slope of 5°, and terminates in an elongate fan.

  4. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  5. The Valley Networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, V. C.

    2002-12-01

    Despite three decades of exploration, the valley networks on Mars still seem to raise more questions than they answer. Valley systems have formed in the southern highlands, along some regions of the dichotomy boundary and the south rim of Valles Marineris, around the rim of some impact craters, and on the flanks of some volcanoes. They are found on some of the oldest and youngest terrains as well as on intermediate aged surfaces. There is surprisingly little consensus as to the formation and the paleoclimatic implications of the valley networks. Did the valleys require a persistent solar-driven atmospheric hydrological cycle involving precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration and groundwater outflow as they typically do on Earth? Or are they the result of magmatic or impact-driven thermal cycling of ground water involving persistent outflow and subsequent runoff? Are they the result of some other process(es)? Ground-water sapping, surface-water runoff, debris flows, wind erosion, and formation mechanisms involving other fluids have been proposed. Until such basic questions as these are definitively answered, their significance for understanding paleoclimatic change on Mars remains cloudy. I will review what is known about valley networks using data from both past and current missions. I will discuss what we have learned about their morphology, environments in which they formed, their spatial and temporal associations, possible formation mechanisms, relation to outflow channel and gully formation, as well as the possible implications for past climate change on Mars. Finally I will discuss how future, meter to submeter scale imaging and other remote sensing observations may shed new light on the debate over the origin of these enigmatic features.

  6. Down the Slippery, Snowy Slopes of Colombia We Go

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Guerrillas, and Colombia’s New Violencia ." World Policy Journal XVII, no. 3 (Fall 2000). Available via Colombia International Affairs Online. Miller...William M. LeoGrande and Kenneth E. Sharpe, "Two Wars or One? Drugs, Guerrillas, and Colombia’s New Violencia ," World Policy Journal XVII, no. 3 (Fall

  7. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD88 United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties signed a...

  8. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), stature (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), and age (R = 0.073, P = 0.007). However, T-Hg concentrations did not vary according to fish consumption frequency. Subjective health survey showed no Hg-related signs or symptoms within studied sample. However, studies are necessary to detect neurological damage linked to the metal. Changing technologies to Hg-free mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers.

  9. Effect of two agroecological management strategies on ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) diversity on coffee plantations in southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Escobar, M X; Armbrecht, I

    2013-04-01

    Simplification of agroecosystems because of industrialization of agriculture may cause the loss of associated animal biodiversity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. To measure how the agricultural intensification on coffee plantations affects ant biodiversity, we intensively sampled ants in Caldono (Cauca, Colombia). We surveyed 15 sites classified into three management types: sun coffee plantations, shaded coffee plantations, and forest patches. Fifteen 50-m linear transects, each one consisting of 5 pitfall traps and 5 tuna baits, were set at each sampling location between December of 2009 and February of 2010. We collected 18,186 ants that represent 82 ant species, 34 genera, and 9 subfamilies of Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The management intensification index showed an increasing intensification gradient along the 15 sampling locations from forest patches to shaded coffee to sun coffee plantations. Shaded coffee plantations harbored the highest number of species (60), followed by forest (56) and sun coffee (33). Ant species composition and plant structure on shaded coffee plantations resembled the forest patches more than the sun coffee plantations. Forest and shaded coffee plantations had a more equitable distribution of ant species, whereas in sun coffee plantations, Linepithema neotropicum (Emery) and Ectatomma ruidum (Roger) typically outnumbered all other ant species. Evidence from functional groups indicated that specific habitat and feeding requirements exist among the species that are found together. Our results confirmed that intensification of agriculture negatively affects ant diversity, despite the fact that farms were located in a heterogeneous landscape, suggesting that agroecological management is a strong determinant in the conservation of wild fauna.

  10. Supporting development of rural settlements as a means for controlling the growth of large cities: three case studies in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Noriega, M

    1994-01-01

    A hypothesis is advanced that forceful support to small rural settlements can fundamentally redefine regional development and alleviate acute problems facing cities. Colombia is divided into 32 territorial units (departments), 1056 municipalities, which are agglomerations of four or five villages. The three projects were carried out under one contract during early 1993 for the department of Valle de Cauca, a prosperous area located in the Pacific southwest. A master plan for urban development was designed for each of the three villages. The population of the village of Villagorgona was 13,399, which was to exceed 18,000 in less than 5 years. Community development priorities were centered on converting an irrigation canal into the axis of a linear park, building a civic center, and creating a road system. The village of El Placer had a population of 8349 and its priorities included the construction of an upgraded aqueduct and a civic center, the improvement of roadways, the rehabilitation of the river and integrating it into the fabric of the settlement, and the creation of an urban code for local authorities to control growth and development. The village of Amaime had a population of 3730 in 1992. The development plan called for integration with the aqueduct being planned in El Placer, creation of a civic center, construction of a sewage treatment plant, rehabilitation of existing river banks, development of a recreational center, and creation of an urban code. These case studies demonstrated that the villages had higher population growth than the capital city of Cali, the inhabitants preferred to remain in the villages because of their satisfaction with the quality of life, the communities were interested in creating neighborhood organizations for improving the environment, the villages served as service centers for outlying farm inhabitants, and manifest interest was identified in changing from the village status to municipal status.

  11. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L.; Wang, B. G.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  12. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  13. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  14. Morphology of large valleys on Hawaii - Evidence for groundwater sapping and comparisons with Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochel, R. Craig; Piper, Jonathan F.

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric data on the runoff and sapping valleys on the slopes of Hawaii and Molokai in Hawaii are analyzed. The analysis reveals a clear distinction between the runoff valleys and sapping valleys. The Hawaiian sapping valleys are characterized by: (1) steep valley walls and flat floors, (2) amphitheater heads, (3) low drainage density, (4) paucity of downstream tributaries, (5) low frequency of up-dip tributaries, and (6) structural and stratigraphic control on valley patterns. The characteristics of the Hawaiian sapping valleys are compared to Martian valleys and experimental systems, and good correlation between the data is detected. Flume experiments were also conducted to study the evolution of sapping valleys in response to variable structure and stratigraphy.

  15. Identifying structural styles in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.P.; Van Nieuwenhuise, R.E.; Steuer, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Much of our understanding of the Earth is from the study of surface geology and seismic, but many surface structures are responses to deformation which occurred below sedimentary layers. The practice within the petroleum industry is to use top-down processes of analyzing the surface to understand the subsurface, and observed surface structural styles tend to influence seismic interpretations. Yet many conditions which influenced the structural styles seen at the surface are different at depth. Since seismic is a time representation of the Earth, many interpretation pitfalls may exist within areas of complex geology. Also, its reliability decreases with depth and with increasing geologic complexity. Forward modeling and pre-stack depth migration technologies are used to provide true depth images of the seismic data. Even with these advances in seismic imaging technology, the interpreter needs to incorporate additional data into the interpretation. Accurate structural identification requires the interpreter to integrate seismic with surface geology, remote sensing, gravity, magnetic data, geochemistry, fault-plane solutions from earthquakes, and regional tectonic studies. Incorporating these types of data into the interpretation will help us learn how basement is involved in the deformation of overlying sediments. A study of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia shows the deformation to be dominantly transpressional in style. Euler deconvolution of the areomagnetic data shows a highly fractured basement, steep fault lineaments, en echelon structures, and complex fault patterns, all of which would be typical of wrench-type deformation. Available surface geology, regional studies, earthquake data, and forward modeling support this interpretation.

  16. Colombia: why coal won't wait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-11

    Colombia's coal production target is 68-million tons by the year 2000, with hopes to export 10% of world thermal-coal demand. Colombia's economic commitment to coal marketing is not an option, but an imperative. There are indications that coal production in the US - bogged down by complex transportation, environmental, and other disputes - will be revitalized, partly because Colombia will be added to the list of international coal-market competitors. Some coal-industry analysts recognize that the Colombian factor could, through stimulating price competition, encourage world coal consumption. Despite monumental infrastructure requirements that will turn the area between El Cerrejon and the Caribbean Sea into one integrated complex, the government is throwing itself heart and soul back into the coal age. This issue has the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  17. The Owens Valley solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Gary, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    Solar microwave emission contains essential information for the study of the coronal magnetic structure of active regions and of thermal and nonthermal flare electrons. To exploit this potential requires BOTH imaging and spectroscopy with sufficient resolution to resolve spatial and spectral features. The VLA provides excellent solar imaging (when in the C and D configurations) but inadequate spectral coverage. The existing Owens Valley system has excellent spectral coverage but imaging that is adequate only for very simple sources. The Owens Valley system is currently undergoing an expansion, which when completed in October 1990 will provide a SOLAR-DEDICATED 5 antenna array (10 baselines). By using frequency-synthesis, this will provide a significant imaging capability in addition to its current spectral coverage.

  18. VALDRIFT--A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwine, K. Jerry; Bian, Xindi; Whiteman, C. David; Thistle, Harold W.

    1997-08-01

    VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological-that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, although in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are 1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, 2) convective boundary layer growth, 3) inversion descent, and 4) nocturnal temperature inversion breakup. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions in which the winds in the valley are predominantly along the valley's axis. The model is configured to operate through one diurnal cycle for a single narrow valley. The inputs required are the valley topographic characteristics, pollutant release rate as a function of time and space, wind speed and direction as functions of time measured at one height, lateral and vertical turbulent eddy diffusivities as functions of stability, and the valley temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise. The outputs are three-dimensional concentration fields and ground-level deposition fields as functions of time. The scientific foundations of VALDRIFT are given in this paper along with a brief discussion of the model inputs and outputs. Air concentrations estimated by VALDRIFT compare favorably with results from a tracer experiment conducted in a deep mountain valley.

  19. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  20. [Estimation of the sampling cover for dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabacinae) in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Jorge Ari; Camero, Edgar R; Arias-Buriticá, Jorge; Pardo-Locarno, Luis Carlos; Mauricio Montes, José; Acevedo, Aldemar A; Esparza, Andrea; Murcia Ordóñez, Betselene; Garcia, Hector; Solís, Cesil

    2015-03-01

    The promotion of biodiversity conservation strategies must address the lack of information and the difficulty of identifying knowledge gaps that may facilitate our knowledge of different taxonomic groups. Dung beetles constitute one of those groups, despite having been proposed as an efficient bioindicator of environmental disturbance processes. In this work, we aimed to prepare a diagnosis on the state of knowledge of the subfamily Scarabaeinae, focusing on the cover sampling degree of this group in Colombia, with the purpose of identifying high-priority areas that will allow the completion of a national inventory. The work consisted of a bibliographical compilation using 12 referential databases and the examination of specimens deposited in 26 national collections. A total of 16 940 individuals were examined, finding registers for 232 species from 386 localities. The respective distribution cover maps were presented, and the cover at a national level was 10.62%. A historical analysis demonstrated a proliferation in the number of studies for the last three decades; nevertheless, a great proportion of unpublished works persists, resulting in only 64 sampled localities with published records. The localities with the greatest sampling efforts were RN La Planada, Lloro, AUN Los Estoraques, PNN Tinigua and Mariquita. Registries for all departments were available, and the best sampled ones were Cundinamarca, Antioquia, Valle del Cauca and Boyaca. The ecosystems with the greatest number of publications are the Andean pre mountain humid forest, followed by the Andean mountain humid forest and the Pacific humid forest. Other ecosystems with few studies included mangroves, desert zones, natural savannahs, palm swamps, paramos, flooding forests and agroforestry systems. The biogeographic region with the greatest number of localities was the Andean region, followed by Choco-Magdalenense and Amazonia. Our results showed that high levels of subsampling persist and that some

  1. Three new species of Hemibrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-Valencia, César; Ruiz-C, Raquel I; Taphorn, Donald C; Mancera-Rodriguez, Néstor J; García-Alzate, Carlos A

    2013-09-01

    Fish biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems is highly threatened by different economic activities driven by human populations, and its description is increasingly a priority. For the Cauca-Magdalena River system we have described 14 species, and the purpose of this paper was to describe three new species belonging to the same genus Hemibrycon from the Nare and Guatapé River drainages of the middle Magdalena River, Colombia. The description was based on a series of 200 specimens, and the use of morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, as well as fish distribution and morphogeometric analytical methods. We have found that Hemibrycon fasciatus n. sp. (n = 54) differs from other species of Hemibrycon (that also have a vertical humeral spot) in having: melanophores outlining the posterior margins of the scales along sides of body; humeral spot extending onto posterior margin of opercle; a dark lateral stripe, formed by deep pigment that is continuous with the peduncular spot; the toothed portion of the maxilla not reaching the dorsal margin of the dentary (vs. toothed portion of maxilla extending beyond dorsal margin of dentary); all maxillary teeth tricuspid (vs. some unicuspid teeth present on maxilla). H. cardalensis n. sp. (n = 64) differs in having: a vertically elongate humeral spot that extends one or two scales below the lateral line canal. H. cardalensis n. sp. differs from all congeners in having the pigment of the caudal spot restricted to the ventral half of the caudal peduncle, and in having melanophores around the anterior scales of the lateral line. Hemibrycon antioquiae n. sp. (n = 82) differs in having a circular humeral spot. It differs from the other species with a circular humeral spot, like H. mikrostiktos, in having a projection of disperse melanophores extending from the dorsal margin of the humeral spot to below the lateral stripe. Habitat data and environmental impacts caused by the construction of reservoirs for hydroelectric projects

  2. Potential Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling.

    PubMed

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Suárez-Escudero, Laura C; González-Caro, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling of Triatominae bugs allow us to establish the local risk of transmission of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. This information could help to guide health authority recommendations on infection monitoring, prevention, and control. In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. prolixus, and Triatoma maculata) were analyzed. The variables that provided more information to explain the ecologic niche of these vectors were related to precipitation, altitude, and temperature. We found that the species with the broadest potential geographic distribution were P. geniculatus, R. pallescens, and R. prolixus. In general, the models predicted the highest occurrence probability of these vectors in the eastern slope of the Eastern Cordillera, the southern region of the Magdalena valley, and the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta.

  3. Potential Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Escudero, Laura C.; González-Caro, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling of Triatominae bugs allow us to establish the local risk of transmission of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. This information could help to guide health authority recommendations on infection monitoring, prevention, and control. In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. prolixus, and Triatoma maculata) were analyzed. The variables that provided more information to explain the ecologic niche of these vectors were related to precipitation, altitude, and temperature. We found that the species with the broadest potential geographic distribution were P. geniculatus, R. pallescens, and R. prolixus. In general, the models predicted the highest occurrence probability of these vectors in the eastern slope of the Eastern Cordillera, the southern region of the Magdalena valley, and the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. PMID:28115946

  4. INTRODUCED LAND SNAILS AND SLUGS IN COLOMBIA.

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, BERNHARD

    2002-05-01

    Twelve species of introduced land molluscs, including seven slug species, have been found in the cold zone above 2000 m altitude in the Departamentos Cundinamarca and Boyacá, and the Distrito Especial in Colombia. The introduced land molluscs remain generally restricted to disturbed environments, from which native species are often absent. Most recorded species originated from Europe. Deroceras laeve has been present in Colombia for more than a century, whereas the other species are probably more recent introductions. The records of Boettgerilla pallens, which is indigenous to the Caucasus and has spread over Europe only during the last decades, demonstrates that the process of introduction of alien molluscs is continuing.

  5. Forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cabelus, Nancy B; Sheridan, Gary T

    2007-01-01

    Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in Bogotá, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia.

  6. DNA Barcoding Survey of Anurans across the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Impact of the Andes on Cryptic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo, Carlos E.; Paz, Andrea; Muñoz-Ortiz, Astrid; Flechas, Sandra V.; Méndez-Narváez, Javier; Crawford, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Colombia hosts the second highest amphibian species diversity on Earth, yet its fauna remains poorly studied, especially using molecular genetic techniques. We present the results of the first wide-scale DNA barcoding survey of anurans of Colombia, focusing on a transect across the Eastern Cordillera. We surveyed 10 sites between the Magdalena Valley to the west and the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, sequencing portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genes for 235 individuals from 52 nominal species. We applied two barcode algorithms, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery and Refined Single Linkage Analysis, to estimate the number of clusters or “unconfirmed candidate species” supported by DNA barcode data. Our survey included ~7% of the anuran species known from Colombia. While barcoding algorithms differed slightly in the number of clusters identified, between three and ten nominal species may be obscuring candidate species (in some cases, more than one cryptic species per nominal species). Our data suggest that the high elevations of the Eastern Cordillera and the low elevations of the Chicamocha canyon acted as geographic barriers in at least seven nominal species, promoting strong genetic divergences between populations associated with the Eastern Cordillera. PMID:26000447

  7. DNA Barcoding Survey of Anurans across the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Impact of the Andes on Cryptic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Paz, Andrea; Muñoz-Ortiz, Astrid; Flechas, Sandra V; Méndez-Narváez, Javier; Crawford, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Colombia hosts the second highest amphibian species diversity on Earth, yet its fauna remains poorly studied, especially using molecular genetic techniques. We present the results of the first wide-scale DNA barcoding survey of anurans of Colombia, focusing on a transect across the Eastern Cordillera. We surveyed 10 sites between the Magdalena Valley to the west and the eastern foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, sequencing portions of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) genes for 235 individuals from 52 nominal species. We applied two barcode algorithms, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery and Refined Single Linkage Analysis, to estimate the number of clusters or "unconfirmed candidate species" supported by DNA barcode data. Our survey included ~7% of the anuran species known from Colombia. While barcoding algorithms differed slightly in the number of clusters identified, between three and ten nominal species may be obscuring candidate species (in some cases, more than one cryptic species per nominal species). Our data suggest that the high elevations of the Eastern Cordillera and the low elevations of the Chicamocha canyon acted as geographic barriers in at least seven nominal species, promoting strong genetic divergences between populations associated with the Eastern Cordillera.

  8. The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva Area, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, J. )

    1993-02-01

    The Villeta-Caballos( ) petroleum system of the Neiva area covers 5120 km[sup 2] and includes 18 fields with ultimate recoverable reserves of 83.8[times]10*6 m[sup 3] (527 million bbl) of oil and 5.7[times]10*9 m[sup 3] (201 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas. Sedimentary rocks range in age from Aptian through Holocene, and were deposited in rift, margin-sag, and foreland basins. The hydrocarbons were sourced mainly from two intervals within the Albian-Santonian Villeta Formation and migrated from the footwall of the Chusma fault and the center of the Neiva syncline beginning at the end of the Oligocene to the present. The two main reservoirs are Cretaceous sandstones of the Caballos and Monserrate formations. Secondary reservoirs of significance are the Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Honda Group. The traps are mainly structures associated with the formation of a fold and thrust belt which began in the Oligocene and is still active. The system extends in time from the Aptian (-110 Ma) to the present. The first event was the deposition of the lower Caballos reservoir. The source rock was deposited a few million years later and reached maturity in synchronism with the formation of structural traps during the last 25 m.y. Destruction of some of the accumulations, by uplift and erosion in the fold belt, started in the Miocene. The volume of the hydrocarbons generated by the system was calculated using an average TOC content of 2.1 wt% for 235 m of total source interval in two intervals, and an area of mature source of 1650 km[sup 2]. A hydrocarbon generation of 325 mgHC/gTOC was used based on the Hydrogen Index measurements of immature Villeta source rock and a hydrocarbon generation algorithm. The efficiency of the system and the percentage of hydrocarbons generated that are present in discovered traps was determined to be about 10%.

  9. Mapping Environmental Dimensions of Dengue Fever Transmission Risk in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Sair; Nicolas, Jaramillo-O.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in Medellín, the second largest Colombian city, and surrounding municipalities. We used DF case and satellite environmental data to investigate conditions associated with suitable areas for DF occurrence in 2008 in three municipalities (Bello, Medellín and Itagüí). We develop spatially stratified tests of ecological niche models, and found generally good predictive ability, with all model tests yielding results significantly better than random expectations. We concluded that Bello and Medellín present ecological conditions somewhat different from, and more suitable for DF than, those of Itagüí. We suggest that areas predicted by our models as suitable for DF could be considered as at-risk, and could be used to guide campaigns for DF prevention in these municipalities. PMID:20049244

  10. The subthrust trap beneath the western foothills of the eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.A.; Osorio, M.; Sharp, A.

    1996-08-01

    LASMO started exploration in the Espinal Block within the Upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia in 1987. Since then six exploration wells have been drilled within the block which have resulted in four New Field Wildcat successes. Two of these successes have been in subthrust configurations. This presentation shall describe the exploration and appraisal techniques used to delimit the Venganza Field which was the first subthrust field discovery made in Colombia. The first stages of our exploration for the subthrust trap were conventional seismic surveying, and structural modelling using the excellent geological outcrop data. These led to the formulation of the Venganza prospect which comprised tilted Late Cretaceous Guadalupe sandstones overthrusted by stratigraphically older Villeta shales. The Venganza Prospect was drilled in 1991 and encountered the reservoir as expected directly beneath the thrust plane, and produced oil at 5800 barrels/day on test. Subsequent to the Venganza-1 discovery, further seismic data were acquired and processed using pre-stack depth migration. These new data {open_quotes}verified{close_quotes} the Venganza geological model, and formed the basis for appraisal drilling. The Venganza-2 appraisal well, drilled 4 km to the north of the successful exploration well, was dry and indicated that the subthrust trap configuration was much more subtle than first anticipated. The presentation shall then demonstrate the evolution of our understanding of the subthrust trap configuration and the evolution of our search techniques for it.

  11. Genetic variability among populations of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, E; Munstermann, L E; Martínez, O; Corredor, D; Ferro, C

    2001-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to elucidate genetic variation at 13 isozyme loci among forest populations of Lutzomyia shannoni from three widely separated locations in Colombia: Palambí (Nariño Department), Cimitarra (Santander Department) and Chinácota (Norte de Santander Department). These samples were compared with a laboratory colony originating from the Magdalena Valley in Central Colombia. The mean heterozygosity ranged from 16 to 22%, with 2.1 to 2.6 alleles detected per locus. Nei's genetic distances among populations were low, ranging from 0.011 to 0.049. The estimated number of migrants (Nm=3.8) based on Wright's F-Statistic, F ST, indicated low levels of gene flow among Lu. shannoni forest populations. This low level of migration indicates that the spread of stomatitis virus occurs via infected host, not by infected insect. In the colony sample of 79 individuals, the Gpi locus was homozygotic (0.62/0.62) in all females and heterozygotic (0.62/0.72) in all males. Although this phenomenon is probably a consequence of colonization, it indicates that Gpi is linked to a sex determining locus.

  12. Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, A C; Medina, G M; Kalvatchev, Z; Brault, A C; Barrera, R; Boshell, J; Ferro, C; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; Salas, R; De Siger, J; Vasquez, C; Walder, R; Weaver, S C

    2001-12-01

    During field studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses associated with epizootic emergence, a large number of virus isolates were made in sylvatic foci of Venezuela and Colombia. To rapidly characterize these isolates, antigenic subtypes were determined by means of immunofluorescence and by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis by use of an 856-bp fragment from the P62 gene, which we used to distinguish genetic variants. Representative isolates were sequenced to assess the sensitivity of SSCP to detect genetic differences. The SSCP analysis distinguished isolates differing by as little as 1 nucleotide; overall, differences of > or = 1 nucleotide were recognized 89% of the time, and the sensitivity to distinguish strains that differed by only 1 or 4 nucleotides was 17 and 57%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of representative sequences showed that all recent isolates from the Catatumbo region of western Venezuela and the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia were closely related to epizootic subtype IAB and IC strains; strains from Yaracuy and Miranda States were more distantly related. Cocirculation of the same virus genotype in both Colombian and Venezuelan foci indicated that these viruses are readily transported between enzootic regions separated by > 300 km. The SSCP analysis appears to be a simple, fast, and relatively efficient method of screening VEE virus isolates to identify meaningful genetic variants.

  13. Optical tuning of electronic valleys (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sie, Edbert J.; Gedik, Nuh

    2017-02-01

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WS2 are prime examples of atomically thin semiconducting crystals that exhibit remarkable electronic and optical properties. They have a pair of valleys that can serve as a new electronic degree of freedom, and these valleys obey optical selection rules with circularly polarized light. Here, we discuss how ultrafast laser pulses can be used to tune their energy levels in a controllable valley-selective manner. The energy tunability is extremely large, comparable to what would be obtained using a hundred Tesla of magnetic field. We will also show that such valley tunability can be performed while we effectively manipulate the valley selection rules. Finally, we will explore the prospect of using this technique through photoemission spectroscopy to create a new phase of matter called a valley Floquet topological insulator.

  14. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  15. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  16. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Prowers County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Prowers County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  17. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  18. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2017-04-01

    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  19. Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Kai; Xu, Lixiang; Wu, Fengcheng; Nagler, Philipp; Tran, Kha; Ma, Xin; Schüller, Christian; Korn, Tobias; MacDonald, Allan H.; Moody, Galan; Li, Xiaoqin

    2017-06-01

    The emerging field of valleytronics aims to exploit the valley pseudospin of electrons residing near Bloch band extrema as an information carrier. Recent experiments demonstrating optical generation and manipulation of exciton valley coherence (the superposition of electron-hole pairs at opposite valleys) in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a critical step towards control of this quantum degree of freedom. The charged exciton (trion) in TMDs is an intriguing alternative to the neutral exciton for control of valley pseudospin because of its long spontaneous recombination lifetime, its robust valley polarization, and its coupling to residual electronic spin. Trion valley coherence has however been unexplored due to experimental challenges in accessing it spectroscopically. In this work, we employ ultrafast 2D coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect trion valley coherence in monolayer MoSe2 demonstrating that it persists for a few-hundred femtoseconds. We conclude that the underlying mechanisms limiting trion valley coherence are fundamentally different from those applicable to exciton valley coherence.

  20. Colombia Exports Its "New School" Blueprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Asbel

    1999-01-01

    To compensate for disadvantages of traditional rural schools, Colombia's Escuela Nueva (New School) movement offers solutions such as self-instruction guides geared to aspects of daily life and flexible school schedules. Teacher training that encourages student and community involvement is a key element. Escuela Nueva successes have led to its…

  1. Current status of onchocerciasis in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Corredor, A; Nicholls, R S; Duque, S; Munoz de Hoyos, P; Alvarez, C A; Guderian, R H; Lopez, H H; Palma, G I

    1998-05-01

    To assess the current epidemiologic status of onchocerciasis in Colombia two surveys were undertaken in 1995 in a suspected new focus on the border between Colombia and Ecuador and in the known focus located on the Micay River. No new focus was found along the Colombia-Ecuador border. In the known focus, communities along the upper Micay River and its tributaries were surveyed; 655 adults underwent physical examinations and skin biopsies. Infected individuals were found almost exclusively in the community of Naiciona, where prevalence of infection was 40% (36 of 91). Polymerase chain reaction detection of onchocercal DNA in skin snips correlated with the skin-snip biopsy results. The prevalence of punctate keratitis, the only ocular manifestation found, was 33%. A rapid entomologic assessment demonstrated Simulium exiguum infected with Onchocerca volvulus. This is the first finding in Colombia of naturally infected black flies and confirms S. exiguum as a vector species. These data will be used for implementing a control program using periodic ivermectin distribution.

  2. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  3. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region. PMID:21881765

  4. Tightening the Screws: Restoring Security in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    21 Aug. 2002. LexisNexis. National Defense University, Fort McNair DC. 20 Sep. 2002. Gunson, Phil and Tamayo, Juan. “ Chavez may reopen the skies...story> Sweig, Julia E. “What Kind of War for Colombia?” Foreign Affairs Sep. – Oct. 2002. LexisNexis. National Defense University, Fort McNair DC. 20

  5. The State and Higher Education in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio, Ricardo; Serrano, Mariana

    1993-01-01

    Development of higher education in Colombia is analyzed in the context of recent expansion, democratization, emphasis on quality, and efforts to differentiate programs and institutions. Critical policy areas emerging, overall funding and administration of the public sector, are examined; and possible future developments are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  6. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Cesar Padilla; Uribe, Gilberto Álvarez; Araújo, Roberto Montoya; Narváez, Pablo Chaparro; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2011-08-01

    Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia), with high predominance (85%) in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region.

  7. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  8. Fuelling a National Innovation System in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Arias, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This presentation of the innovation-driven environment in Colombia derives from important national efforts to gather and store pertinent information. Two large surveys have tested the "innovative behaviour" of Colombian manufacturing firms--the more recent of these was in 2005. Another information source is the Scienti platform, an…

  9. Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)

  10. Colombia's Libraries: Modernizing amidst a Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes the impact that the war on drugs in Colombia has had on their library services and on the lives of professional librarians. Topics discussed include political, staffing, budget, resource, and physical plant problems; the serious shortage of professional librarians; and extending library service to rural areas. (LRW)

  11. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  12. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Treesearch

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  13. Ten new species of Rhagovelia in the angustipes complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to the Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Gil, Dora Nancy

    2015-12-21

    Ten new species of Rhagovelia are described from Colombia as follows: Rhagovelia penta sp. n., and Rhagovelia santanderi sp. n., from the Upper and Middle Magdalena River Valley respectively; Rhagovelia carina sp. n., Rhagovelia tricoma sp. n., and Rhagovelia barbacoensis sp. n., from Altaquer, Río Ñambi; Rhagovelia caunapi sp. n. from Río Caunapi; Rhagovelia tumaquensis sp. n., from Tumaco, Río Mejicano; Rhagovelia jagua sp. n., from Eastern Andes; Rhagovelia mocoa sp. n. and Rhagovelia umbria sp. n., from Amazonas region. Rhagovelia tantilla Drake & Harris is recorded from Colombia, for the first time; the description of macropterous morph of Rhagovelia espriella Padilla-Gil, 2011 and a key to the Rhagovelia, angustipes complex of Colombian species are provided.

  14. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia FTA construction threshold of $7,777,000... ``Colombia FTA, Chile FTA,'' and adding ``Chile FTA, Colombia FTA,'' in its place. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  15. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  16. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  17. Precision Mapping of Valley Networks in Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Luo, W.; Qi, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Valley networks in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle are mapped using a computer algorithm. The new map reveals wider existence of valleys than has been inferred from older maps. This suggests runoff as the primary mechanism for origin of the valleys.

  18. 2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DISTANT VIEW OF THE SITE LOOKING TOWARDS MILL VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued.

  20. North Valley/South Valley Survey--Perceptions of Utah Valley State College and the Need for a Branch Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bart R.

    Utah Valley Community College became Utah Valley State College (UVSC) in 1993, due to the increasing need for a four-year, degree-granting institution in Utah County. UVSC now offers 21 four-year programs, and enrollment has been growing at an average rate of 8% per year since 1986. There were 20,946 students enrolled for fall term 2000, and…

  1. M’zab Valley, Algeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired Feb. 9, 2011 Less than 5 percent of Algeria’s land surface is suitable for growing crops, and most precipitation falls on the Atlas Mountains along the coast. Inland, dust-laden winds blow over rocky plains and sand seas. However, in north central Algeria—off the tip of Grand Erg Occidental and about 450 kilometers (280 miles) south of Algiers—lies a serpentine stretch of vegetation. It is the M’zab Valley, filled with palm groves and dotted with centuries-old settlements. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image of M’zab Valley on February 9, 2011. ASTER combines infrared, red, and green wavelengths of light. Bare rock ranges in color from beige to peach. Buildings and paved surfaces appear gray. Vegetation is red, and brighter shades of red indicate more robust vegetation. This oasis results from water that is otherwise in short supply in the Sahara Desert, thanks to the valley’s approximately 3,000 wells. Chemical analysis of Algerian aquifers, as well studies of topography in Algeria and Tunisia, suggest this region experienced a cooler climate in the late Pleistocene, and potentially heavy monsoon rains earlier in the Holocene. The M’zab region shows evidence of meandering rivers and pinnate drainage patterns. The vegetation lining M’zab Valley highlights this old river valley’s contours. Cool summer temperatures and monsoon rains had long since retreated from the region by eleventh century, but this valley nevertheless supported the establishment of multiple fortified settlements, or ksours. Between 1012 A.D. and 1350 A.D., locals established the ksours of El-Atteuf, Bounoura, Melika, Ghardaïa, and Beni-Isguen. Collectively these cities are now a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage site. NASA Earth Observatory image by Robert Simmon and Jesse Allen, using data from the GSFC

  2. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  3. Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthes, Francois E.

    1930-01-01

    Projection of the longitudinal profiles of these hanging valleys forward to the axis of the Merced Canyon shows that they are closely accordant in height. Their profiles indicate a series of points on a former profile of the Merced with respect to which the side streams had graded their courses prior to the last uplift. This old profile can be extended upward into the glaciated part of the Merced Canyon above El Portal and even into the profoundly glaciated Yosemite Valley, accordant points being furnished by a number of hanging side valleys (due allowance being made for glacial erosion suffered by those valleys). However, not all the hanging valleys of the Yosemite region are accordant with this set. Several of them, including the upland valley of Yosemite Creek, constitute a separate set indicating another old profile of the Merced at a level 600 to 1,000 feet higher than the first. Others, including the hanging gulch of lower Bridalveil Creek, point to an old profile of the Merced about 1,200 feet lower than the first. There are thus three distinct sets of hanging valleys produced in three cycles of stream erosion. The valleys of the upper set, like those of the middle set, were left hanging as a result of rapid trenching by the Merced induced by an uplift of the range, there having been two such uplifts. Only the valleys of the lower set hang because of glacial deepening and widening of the Yosemite Valley, the cycle in which they were cut having been interrupted by the advent of the Pleistocene glaciers. They consequently indicate the preglacial depth of the Yosemite Valley. That depth, measured from the brow of El Capitan, was about 2,400 feet; measured from the rim at Glacier Point it was about 2,000 feet.

  4. Phylogenetic evidence of a new canine distemper virus lineage among domestic dogs in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Maria A; Díaz, Francisco J; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2014-08-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral disease of carnivores affecting both wild and domestic populations. The hemagglutinin gene, encoding for the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, shows high heterogeneity among strains, allowing for the distinction of ten different lineages distributed worldwide according to a geographic pattern. We obtained the sequences of the full-length H gene of 15 wild-type CDV strains circulating in domestic dog populations from the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. A phylogenetic analysis of H gene nucleotide sequences from Colombian CDV viruses along with field isolates from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Colombian wild-type viruses formed a distinct monophyletic cluster clearly separated from the previously identified wild-type and vaccine lineages, suggesting that a novel genetic variant, quite different from vaccines and other lineages, is circulating among dog populations in the Aburrá Valley. We propose naming this new lineage as "South America 3". This information indicates that there are at least three different CDV lineages circulating in domestic and wild carnivore populations in South America. The first one, renamed Europe/South America 1, circulates in Brazil and Uruguay; the second, South America 2, appears to be restricted to Argentina; and the third, South America 3, which comprises all the strains characterized in this study, may also be circulating in other northern countries of South America.

  5. 1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. Mill Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION OF BUILDING 223, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Civil Engineering Administration Office, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  6. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  7. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  9. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  10. Rift Valley fever in Namibia, 2010.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Calistri, Paolo; Molini, Umberto; Bishi, Alec; Conte, Annamaria; Scacchia, Massimo; Lelli, Rossella

    2013-12-01

    During May-July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009-2010.

  11. Model Program: Conestoga Valley School District, PA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features the Conestoga Valley School District and its Technology Education program. Conestoga Valley, which is located in historic Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, covers 56 square miles comprising a population of approximately 29,000 people in an area that is best described as agricultural and rural-residential. Situated near the…

  12. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Southern Mauritania, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September–November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

  13. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmerlee-Greiner, Gloria

    To meet the needs of pregnant and parenting adolescents in Boulder Valley (Colorado), the local public school district has developed the Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program, now in its 12th year. The program was designed to help teen parents to mature to meet the challenges of parenting, enhance the school district's dropout/intervention…

  14. Rift Valley Fever in Namibia, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Federica; Pinoni, Chiara; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Calistri, Paolo; Molini, Umberto; Bishi, Alec; Conte, Annamaria; Scacchia, Massimo; Lelli, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    During May–July 2010 in Namibia, outbreaks of Rift Valley fever were reported to the National Veterinary Service. Analysis of animal specimens confirmed virus circulation on 7 farms. Molecular characterization showed that all outbreaks were caused by a strain of Rift Valley fever virus closely related to virus strains responsible for outbreaks in South Africa during 2009–2010. PMID:24274469

  15. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  16. Valley Pearl’ table grape

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  17. Properties of the West Valley waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Cadoff, L.H.; Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical properties of an envelope of West Valley waste form compositions that encompass the centroid composition and which fulfill criteria mandating high chemical durability and good processibility. Data are presented to demonstrate that full-scale process controls at West Valley are sufficiently good to produce acceptably durable non-radioactive glass waste forms.

  18. Ground water in Pavant Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, P. E.; Maxey, G.B.; Thomas, H.E.

    1946-01-01

    The users of wells for irrigation in Pavant Valley, particularly in the Flowell district, have long been cognizant of their utter dependency upon ground water for livelihood, and were among the first in the State to make an organized effort to conserve supplies by prevention of waste. Since passage of the State ground-water law in 1935, the State Engineer has not approved applications for new wells in the areas of most concentrated development, and has deferred adjudication of existing water rights until adequate data concerning the ground-water resources become available. The investigation of ground-water resources in Pavant Valley was suggested by the State Engineer and constitutes one of a series that are being made in the important groundwater basins of Utah by the Federal Geological Survey in cooperation with the State Engineer. The investigation was under the general supervision of Oscar E. Meinzer, geologist in charge of the ground-water division of the Federal Geological Survey. H. E. Thomas, in charge of groundwater investigations in Utah, returned from military service overseas in time to assist in the completion of the manuscript, and edited the report.

  19. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Long Valley Caldera GIS database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Williams, M.J.; Venezky, D.Y.; Hill, D.P.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Howle, J.F.; Sneed, M.; Segall, P.

    2003-01-01

    This database provides an overview of the studies being conducted by the Long Valley Observatory in eastern California from 1975 to 2001. The database includes geologic, monitoring, and topographic datasets related to Long Valley caldera. The CD-ROM contains a scan of the original geologic map of the Long Valley region by R. Bailey. Real-time data of the current activity of the caldera (including earthquakes, ground deformation and the release of volcanic gas), information about volcanic hazards and the USGS response plan are available online at the Long Valley observatory web page (http://lvo.wr.usgs.gov). If you have any comments or questions about this database, please contact the Scientist in Charge of the Long Valley observatory.

  1. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged <5 y, school-age children, adolescents, and adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and the National Nutritional Survey that included 17,696 children aged <5 y, 25,508 school-aged children, 28,328 adolescents, 89,164 adults, and 10,487 households with mothers and children aged <5 y. The dual burden of malnutrition was defined as the coexistence of overweight and stunting or anemia in the same person or household. In Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged <5 y and an overweight mother compared with an expected prevalence of 6.9% (P < 0.001). Among school-aged children, 0.1% were classified as stunted and obese and 1.4% were both anemic and overweight compared with expected prevalences of 0.5% (P < 0.001) and 1.5% (P = 0.037), respectively. Among 13- to 49-y-old women, 3.4% had anemia and were overweight compared with an expected prevalence of 3.5% (P = 0.038). National estimates of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition

  2. Transforming the "Valley of Death" into a "Valley of Opportunity"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Merceret, Francis J.; O'Brien, T. P.; Roeder, William P.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    Transitioning technology from research to operations (23 R2O) is difficult. The problem's importance is exemplified in the literature and in every failed attempt to do so. Although the R2O gap is often called the "valley of death", a recent a Space Weather editorial called it a "Valley of Opportunity". There are significant opportunities for space weather organizations to learn from the terrestrial experience. Dedicated R2O organizations like those of the various NOAA testbeds and collaborative "proving ground" projects take common approaches to improving terrestrial weather forecasting through the early transition of research capabilities into the operational environment. Here we present experience-proven principles for the establishment and operation of similar space weather organizations, public or private. These principles were developed and currently being demonstrated by NASA at the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The AMU was established in 1991 jointly by NASA, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide tools and techniques for improving weather support to the Space Shuttle Program (Madura et al., 2011). The primary customers were the USAF 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG who provided the weather observing and forecast support for Shuttle operations). SPoRT was established in 2002 to transition NASA satellite and remote-sensing technology to the NWS. The continuing success of these organizations suggests the common principles guiding them may be valuable for similar endeavors in the space weather arena.

  3. Sirenomelia: two cases in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Salcedo-Arellano, Maria Jimena; Ramirez-Cheyne, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of sirenomelia, a rare congenital defect with a prevalence rate of 1:100 000 births; both cases were observed in Cali, Colombia. Both pregnant women were referred from Buenaventura, Colombia. The expecting mothers shared multiple adverse sociodemographic factors. Their homes were located in a city where the entire population is of low socioeconomic status living under conditions of extreme poverty. They were uneducated, with nutritional deficiencies and no access to drinking water most of the time. Both were exposed to water and fish from a nearby river contaminated with leachate from a poorly managed landfill. A similar relation was previously reported in Cali in 2005 between environmental factors and sirenomelia. We suggest that there is a common aetiological factor of environmental origin between these two sirenomelia cases and propose that exposure to derivatives from landfills should be included among the factors for this rare defect of multifactorial aetiological origin. PMID:25636631

  4. Occupational and environmental medicine in Colombia.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, R E; Guerrero, E; Espinosa, M T; de Fex, R L

    2000-04-01

    Colombia is a country rich in natural resources, with a steadily developing economy. Occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) education and practice have developed relatively recently in Colombia, mainly in response to a series of long overdue (and still partially implemented) reforms to the health care, social benefits, and education systems. Expansion in general and occupational health coverage of the Colombian population and development of OEM education and training were to be achieved through a clear stimulus to private sector initiatives. Despite some measurable overall progress, the goals remain elusive. This article discusses several aspects and the perspectives for further development of the specialty in this country, in the context of the socioeconomic factors involved in that process.

  5. Hand anthropometric study in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Martínez Buelvas, Laura; Hernández, José; Escobar, Jaime

    2016-09-02

    The main purpose of this study is to gather information about the dimensions of the northern Colombian (Caribbean region) population, focusing on the dimensions of the hand and comparing them with measurements from other regions. Thirty-two hand dimensions were chosen and 120 males and 86 females were measured. Results indicated that there were differences between the dimensions of the hand for men and women, showing that men are larger. Also, there was a comparison made between some measurements of other studies in different regions of Colombia, the USA, Chile, Jordan, Korea and Japan. The results indicated important physiological differences between regions in Colombia and across countries. It was therefore concluded that differences in anthropometric measurements must be included in the design and procurement of machinery and apparatus in order to avoid productivity loss, occupational injuries or illness.

  6. Autosomal microsatellite data from Northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Oscar Darío; Triana, Omar; Gaviria, Aníbal; Ibarra, Adriana Alexandra; Ochoa, Luz Mariela; Posada, Yeny; Maya, María Clara; Lareu, María Victoria; Brión, María; Acosta, María Amparo; Carracedo, Angel

    2006-07-13

    Allele frequencies and some forensic parameters for 12 autosomal microsatellites (CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1, VWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, D5S818, F13A1, FESFPS, F13B, LPL) were estimated from three departments from Northwestern Colombia. The total number of samples analysed was 1045 individuals. Comparative analysis among the three studied departments and with other published Colombian populations were also performed and discussed.

  7. Balancing U.S. Strategy in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in Colombia might indicate to others that weak democratic methods are not capable of governing in Latin America. The Colombian President, Alvaro Uribe...2004&m=May&x=2004051 9163815ASrelliMO. 5711481 &t=livefeeds/wf-latest.html>; Internet; accessed 14 September 2004. 24 Javier Fernandez, interview by...Internet. Accessed 16 September 2004. Fernandez, Javier . Interview by author with COL, Colombian Army. 23 February 2005, Carlisle Barracks, PA. Hill

  8. Colombia: Learning Institutions Enable Integrated Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Communist Party of Colombia), an army (which FARC itself claimed to be, the “ Popular Army,” or FARC–Ejército del Pueblo), and a united front (the...in the country, with the military invariably at the very top in popular esteem.10 Yet with processes and funding that were neither transparent nor...mature in incorporating its physical and popular elements. It is possibly more cohesive and more representative than at any time in its history. Most

  9. [Suicide trends in Colombia, 1985-2002].

    PubMed

    Cendales, Ricardo; Vanegas, Claudia; Fierro, Marco; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Olarte, Ana

    2007-10-01

    To report trends in mortality from suicide in Colombia from 1985 to 2002 by sex, age group, and method, and determine the number of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) to suicide during this period. Age- and sex-specific and age-adjusted crude mortality rates were calculated based on mortality and population information available from the official database of the Department of National Statistics Administration, Colombia. YPLL were estimated and adjusted for societal impact, age, and poor quality of mortality records. The results were tabulated according to codes X600-X849 and Y870 from the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10), and codes E950-E959 from the 9th revision (ICD-9). Suicide rates have been climbing in Colombia since 1998, particularly among young adults and males. The highest rates among males were in the age groups 20-29 years of age and over 70 years of age, and rates increased over time. Among females, the highest rates were recorded for the group 10-19 years of age. The YPLL rose in proportion with the increase in suicides, from 0.81% in 1981 to 2.20% in 2002. Among males, the most common methods used were firearms and explosives, hanging, and poison, with a relative increase in hanging; whereas among females, poison was most common. A rising trend in suicide rates in Colombia was confirmed, especially among the productive segment of the population, which has resulted in a marked increase in YPLL.

  10. Histoplasmosis laryngeal: report first case in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moriones Robayo, Carlos Alberto; Guerra Ortiz, Claudia Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal histoplasmosis is a fungal infection that is frequent in Colombia. Laryngeal histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients through the dissemination of the fungus from the lungs to other organs. Histoplasmosis isolated laryngeal (primary) is rare. If a patient presents with a history of immunosuppression by renal transplant, primary laryngeal histoplasmosis with supraglottic granulomatous inflammation that was treated with amphotericin B and Itraconazole, with complete resolution of laryngeal lesions.

  11. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  12. Dengue mortality in Colombia, 1985-2012.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo; León-Quevedo, Willian; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2016-02-11

    Dengue in Colombia is an important public health problem due to the huge economic and social costs it has caused, especially during the disease outbreaks.  To describe the behavior of dengue mortality in Colombia between 1985 and 2012.  We conducted a descriptive study. Information was obtained from mortality and population projection databases provided by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE) for the 1985-2012 period. Mortality rates, rate ratios, and case fatality rates were estimated.  A total of 1,990 dengue deaths were registered during this period in Colombia. Dengue mortality rates presented an increasing trend with statistical significance between 1985 and 1998. Higher mortality rates were reported in men both younger than 5 years and older than 65 years. Between 1995 and 2012, category 1 to 4 municipalities reported the highest mortality rates. Case fatality rates varied during the period between 0.01% and 0.39%.  Dengue is an avoidable disease that should disappear from mortality statistics as a cause of death. The event is avoidable if the proposed activities from the Estrategia de Gestión Integrada (EGI)-Dengue are implemented and evaluated. We recommend encouraging the development of an informational culture to contribute to decision making and prioritizing resource allocation.

  13. [Recommendations for smoking cessation in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Becerra, Nelci; Páez, Nelson; Cañas, Alejandra; Mosquera, Catalina; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Camacho, Natalia; Gómez, Javier; García-Herreros, Plutarco; Bernal, Luis Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases represent the greatest burden of disease in Colombia for which smoking is the major risk factor. To provide clinical practice recommendations based upon efficacy and safety of smoking cessation therapies for Colombian adults. An adaptation of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) based on the ADAPT methodology was performed. We searched CPG on Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane databases. Six months' cessation rates were appraised for brief and intensive counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, varenicline, clonidine, nortriptyline, acupuncture, hypnosis, homeopathy, and combined treatments. CPG were evaluated with DELBI and selected when having a score above 60% for methodological rigor of development and applicability to the Colombian health system. Formal consensus was performed for questions without strong evidence. 925 references were found, 17 CPG were pre-selected and 5 selected for adaptation. Brief and intensive counseling, NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline, and varenicline are effective for smoking cessation (cessation rates augment 5.1%-22.7%). Alternative therapies have not demonstrated cessation efficacy. Concomitant use of different NRT is the only combination with demonstrated efficacy (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.7). Several alternatives for giving up tobacco smoking have confirmed efficacy. The absolute difference in cessation rates is variable among therapies and duration of effect requires further research. Brief and intensive counseling necessitate standardized formats for their implementation in Colombia. Economic evaluations are required to assess costs and benefits and to select the most suitable interventions for Colombia.

  14. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  15. Automatic mapping of valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, I.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2007-06-01

    Martian valley networks bear some resemblance to terrestrial drainage systems, but their precise origin remains an active research topic. A limited number of valley networks have been manually mapped from images, but the vast majority remains unmapped because standard drainage mapping algorithms are inapplicable to valleys that are poorly organized and lack spatial integration. In this paper, we present a novel drainage delineation algorithm specially designed for mapping the valley networks from digital elevation data. It first identifies landforms characterized by convex tangential curvature, and then uses a series of image processing operations to separate valleys from other features having a convex form. The final map is produced by reconnecting all valley segments along drainage directions. Eight test sites on Mars are selected and manually mapped for valley networks. The algorithm is applied to the test sites and delineated networks are compared to mapped networks using a series of quantitative quality factors. We have found a good agreement between delineated and mapped networks. In the process of comparing manual and delineated networks some shortcomings of manual mapping became apparent. We argue that delineated networks are indeed of better quality than the networks manually mapped from images. Although the algorithm has been developed to study Martian surface, it may also be relevant to terrestrial geomorphology.

  16. Accuracy and Spatial Variability in GPS Surveying for Landslide Mapping on Road Inventories at a Semi-Detailed Scale: the Case in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Feo, C. A.; Martnez Martinez, L. J.; Correa Muñoz, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of locating attributes on topographic surfaces when, using GPS in mountainous areas, is affected by obstacles to wave propagation. As part of this research on the semi-automatic detection of landslides, we evaluate the accuracy and spatial distribution of the horizontal error in GPS positioning in the tertiary road network of six municipalities located in mountainous areas in the department of Cauca, Colombia, using geo-referencing with GPS mapping equipment and static-fast and pseudo-kinematic methods. We obtained quality parameters for the GPS surveys with differential correction, using a post-processing method. The consolidated database underwent exploratory analyses to determine the statistical distribution, a multivariate analysis to establish relationships and partnerships between the variables, and an analysis of the spatial variability and calculus of accuracy, considering the effect of non-Gaussian distribution errors. The evaluation of the internal validity of the data provide metrics with a confidence level of 95% between 1.24 and 2.45 m in the static-fast mode and between 0.86 and 4.2 m in the pseudo-kinematic mode. The external validity had an absolute error of 4.69 m, indicating that this descriptor is more critical than precision. Based on the ASPRS standard, the scale obtained with the evaluated equipment was in the order of 1:20000, a level of detail expected in the landslide-mapping project. Modelling the spatial variability of the horizontal errors from the empirical semi-variogram analysis showed predictions errors close to the external validity of the devices.

  17. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  18. Martian valleys: morphology, distribution, age, and origin.

    PubMed

    Pieri, D C

    1980-11-21

    Branching valley networks throughout the heavily cratered terrain of Mars exhibit no compelling evidence for formation by rainfall-fed erosion. The networks are diffuse and inefficient, with irregular tributary junction angles and large, undissected intervalley areas. Rather, the deeply entrenched canyons, with blunt amphitheater terminations, cliff-bench wall topography, lack of evidence of interior erosion by flow, and clear structural control, suggest headward extension by basal sapping. The size-frequency distributions of impact craters in these valleys and in the heavily cratered terrain that surrounds them are statistically indistinguishable, suggesting that valley formation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years.

  19. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  20. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  1. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  2. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  3. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  4. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  5. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  6. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  8. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Lime Kiln Valley...

  9. The Politics of Rural School Reform: Escuela Nueva in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Benveniste, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Traces evolution of rural-school education plan in Colombia (Escuela Nueva), focusing on importance of Colombia's changing political and social climate in policy development. Identifies three phases of reform development and implementation: grassroots, formalized, and decoupled. Uses Escuela Nueva to demonstrate importance of recognizing dynamic,…

  10. Why Has Peace Not Been Achieved in Colombia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    Catalina Turbay Jiménez, El Estatuto de Seguridad : un Estudio de Caso, congresocienciapolitica.uniandes.edu.co (Accessed November 28, 2011). 23...Serafino, Colombia: Current Issues and Historical Background, 229. 24 David E. Spencer, Colombia Camino a la Recuperación: Seguridad y Gobernabilidad 1982

  11. Valley caloritronics and its realization by graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Hong

    2015-10-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate an idea of valley caloritronics where quantum transport of the valley degrees of freedom is thermally induced. Valley caloritronics addresses questions such as thermal generation of valley polarized current and, more importantly, pure valley current without an accompanying charge current. After establishing a general physical picture, we show that heat-induced pure valley current can be generated by virtue of wedge-shaped graphene nanoribbons in a two-probe device setup. We discover that the quantum transport properties of the valley degree of freedom can be very different when driven by a voltage bias or by a temperature bias. A very surprising result is that an alternating valley current can be thermally generated via gate control: namely the heat-induced valley current changes its flow direction in some quasiperiodic manner versus the value of a gate voltage at a fixed polarity. Our results indicate a vast potential for developing valley caloritronic devices.

  12. Gate-tunable valley currents, nonlocal resistances, and valley accumulation in bilayer graphene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azari, Mohammadhadi; Kirczenow, George

    2017-05-01

    Using the Büttiker-Landauer formulation of transport theory in the linear response regime, the valley currents and nonlocal resistances of bilayer graphene nanostructures with broken inversion symmetry are calculated. It is shown that broken inversion symmetry in bilayer graphene nanostructures leads to striking enhancement of the nonlocal four-terminal resistance and to valley currents several times stronger than the conventional electric current when the Fermi energy is in the spectral gap close to the energy of Dirac point. The scaling relation between local and nonlocal resistances is investigated as the gate voltage varies at zero Fermi energy and a power law is found to be satisfied. The valley velocity field and valley accumulation in four-terminal bilayer graphene nanostructures are evaluated in the presence of inversion symmetry breaking. The valley velocity and nonlocal resistance are found to scale differently with the applied gate voltage. The unit cell-averaged valley accumulation is found to exhibit a dipolar spatial distribution consistent with the accumulation arising from the valley currents. We define and calculate a valley capacitance that characterizes the valley accumulation response to voltages applied to the nanostructure's contacts.

  13. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  14. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Photorevised 1974; (2) Sleepy Valley, CA, 1995; (3) Del Sur, CA, 1995; and (4) Lake Hughes, CA, 1995. (c... along the 3,600-foot elevation line, through section 4 and crossing onto the Lake Hughes map, to its...

  15. UTAH VALLEY DUST AFFECTS HUMAN BAL LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with elevated levels of inhalable air particles. Causative constituents of PM and pathophysiological mechanisms involved have not been determined. A unique situation in the Utah Valley during a three yr period permitted ex...

  16. Valley Networks in the Ancient Martian Highlands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-18

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft the valley networks on Mars are terrains eroded by flowing water billions of years ago. Where bedrock is well exposed, a variety of colors due to altered minerals and polygonal patterns.

  17. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  18. Ground water in the Cuyama Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, J.E.; Worts, George Frank

    1951-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of interpretive reports on the water resources of the major valleys of Santa Barbara County, Calif., prepared by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Santa Barbara County. The first three reports described the other major valleys in the county: the south-coast basins, Goleta and Carpinteria, and the Santa Maria and Santa Ynez River valleys. This report deals with the Cuyama Valley in the northeastern part of the county and adjoining parts of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and Ventura Counties. It includes estimates of natural discharge, pumpage, and yield of ground water, and all data on water levels, well records, and water quality that were available up to June 1946.

  19. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  20. UTAH VALLEY DUST AFFECTS HUMAN BAL LYMPHOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased morbidity and mortality have been associated with elevated levels of inhalable air particles. Causative constituents of PM and pathophysiological mechanisms involved have not been determined. A unique situation in the Utah Valley during a three yr period permitted ex...

  1. Martian valleys - Morphology, distribution, age, and origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The article summarizes the geological and geomorphological evidence concerning the formation of the valley networks of Mars which were observed in the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter images. There is no clear evidence of direct fluid erosion in any Martian valley. The networks are diffuse and inefficient, with irregular tributary junction angles and large, undissected intervalley regions. The deeply entrenched canyons, with steep-walled amphitheater terminations suggest headward extension (sapping) by basal undermining and wall collapse. It is believed that valley formation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years because the size-frequency distributions of impact craters in these valleys and in the heavily cratered terrain which surrounds them are statistically insignificant.

  2. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry.

  3. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  4. Measured crustal deformation in Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, B.E.

    1979-01-01

    Precise geodetic surveys since 1972 indicate that significant vertical deformation of the land surface continues in Imperial Valley, California. Measured vertical changes as great as 3-5 cm per year indicate that two types of tectonic movement are occurring: (1) a downward regional tilt of the valley surface from the Mexican border northward toward Salton Sea, and (2) a deepening of the structural trough presently occupied by Salton Sea. A comparison of 1972ndash;1977 change contours with 1927 topographic contours shows gross parallelism, suggesting that the recent deformation is a continuation of the tectonism that formed the Salton trough. Ground movement since 1972 has tended to steepen slightly the gradients of streams, canals, and drains on the valley floor and to increase the capacity of Salton Sea. A usable record of eight years of background measurements of tectonic change are available prior to the impact of geothermal production in Imperial Valley. ?? 1979.

  5. Small Martian valleys - Pristine and degraded morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Partridge, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    This study is concerned with a more detailed investigation of the small valley networks on Mars. The dual nature of many valley systems is pointed out, taking into account a relatively fresh-appearing network portion versus an apparent larger, less distinct network system. These separate network characteristics are referred to as pristine and degraded. The valley networks included in this study are all located in the equatorial zone of heavily cratered uplands, between latitudes 30 deg N and 40 deg S. Aspects of network morphology are examined, taking into account drainage density, network dissection ratio, and valley length parameters. Age relationships are also discussed, giving attention to crater age, counting problems, a conservative method, and a crater-fraction method.

  6. Mississippi Valley State University educational outreach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-15

    Pat Gaspard, a visitor relations specialist with NASA's StenniSphere visitor center, speaks to Mississippi Valley State University students. Gaspard spoke July 15 during Stennis Space Center's three-day educational outreach program at the college.

  7. Mississippi Valley State University educational outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Pat Gaspard, a visitor relations specialist with NASA's StenniSphere visitor center, speaks to Mississippi Valley State University students. Gaspard spoke July 15 during Stennis Space Center's three-day educational outreach program at the college.

  8. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  9. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  10. Viva Colombia/Colombia Viva! A Fantasy Trip for the Five Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ramirez, Lori Langer

    2006-01-01

    In the author's experience, Colombia is among the most misunderstood Spanish-speaking countries. Most of the news about Columbia involves drug trafficking or guerilla warfare, due to the many social and political problems that face the country. It is rare that the public is informed about the culture and people of this beautiful South American…

  11. Toward Middle-Level Manpower Education for Colombia. A Report to USAID Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, B. Lamar

    Education for middle-level manpower, a high-priority need in Colombia, is discussed. The current programs of five educational agencies--universities, university institutes, SENA (National Apprentice Service), industrial schools, and agricultural schools--that are providing some preparation for middle-level manpower positions are described. A…

  12. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  13. Assessing natural hazards in NE Colombia using Sentinel-1 interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    The DIGENTI project (Digitaler Entscheidertisch für das Naturgefahrenmanagement auf Basis von Satellitendaten und VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information)) aims to assess the natural hazard threat to the Cesar and La Guajira departments of northeast Colombia as guidance for decision makers and disaster relief workers. As members of the DIGENTI project, we use Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry to detect hillslope movements, delineate settlements, and monitor damage to urban areas. Our study area, located in the remote Serranía del Perijá mountain range on the border of Colombia and Venezuela, is mountainous, highly vegetated, and experiences high and spatially variable rainfall (between 1 and 4 m a-1). The remote nature of the region, coupled with the favorable conditions for mass movements and other hillslope instabilities, make it an ideal location to employ remote sensing techniques to monitor potential natural hazards. In the highly vegetated Serranía del Perijá mountain range, traditional damage proxy mapping is complicated by vegetation-related coherence loss between SAR scenes. Cross-referencing existing maps, we define regions of consistently high coherence as settled or urban areas. Using the spatial extent of settled or urban areas as a mask, we establish an algorithm to use coherence loss only in these regions as a damage proxy in urban areas where the local population will be most affected. Outside of settlements, hillslope instabilities and movements are quantified and mapped using a two-prong approach: (1) Horizontal ground displacement is be calculated by dense amplitude cross-correlation using the topsOffsetApp in the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE). This allows the location, direction, and magnitude of mass movements and hillslope instabilities to be identified and mapped; (2) We use a timeseries of interferograms to quantify vertical ground deformation (e.g., as caused by landsliding) during the Sentinel-1

  14. An evaluation of Skylab (EREP) remote sensing techniques applied to investigation of crustal structure. [Death Valley and Greenwater Valley (CA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, I. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study of Greenwater Valley indicates that the valley is bounded on the north and east by faults, on the south by a basement high, and on the west by the dip slope of the black mountains, movement of ground water from the valley is thus Movement of ground water from the valley is thus restricted, indicating the valley is a potential water reservoir.

  15. Fretted Terrain Valley in Coloe Fossae Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    The image in figure 1 shows lineated valley fill in one of a series of enclosed, intersecting troughs known as Coloe (Choloe) Fossae. Lineated valley fill consists of rows of material in valley centers that are parallel to the valley walls. It is probably made of ice-rich material and boulders that are left behind when the ice-rich material sublimates. Very distinct rows can be seen near the south (bottom) wall of the valley. Lineated valley fill is thought to result from mass wasting (downslope movement) of ice-rich material from valley walls towards their centers. It is commonly found in valleys near the crustal dichotomy that separates the two hemispheres of Mars. The valley shown here joins four other valleys with lineated fill near the top left corner of this image. Their juncture is a topographic low, suggesting that the lineated valley fill from the different valleys may be flowing or creeping towards the low area (movement towards the upper left of the image). The valley walls appear smooth at first glance but are seen to be speckled with small craters several meters in diameter at HiRISE resolution (see contrast-enhanced subimage). This indicates that at least some of the wall material has been stable to mass wasting for some period of time. Also seen on the valley wall are elongated features shaped like teardrops. These are most likely slightly older craters that have been degraded due to potentially recent downhill creep. It is unknown whether the valley walls are shedding material today. The subimage is approximately 140 x 400 m (450 x 1280 ft).

    Image PSP_001372_2160 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 11, 2006. The complete image is centered at 35.5 degrees latitude, 56.8 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 290.3 km (181

  16. Timing of Accretion and Mountain-Building in The Northern Andes of Colombia through Low-Temperature Thermochonology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinasco, C. J.; Restrepo-Moreno, S. A.; Marín, M. I.; Botero, M.; Bermudez, M. A.; Min, K. K.; Foster, D. A.; Noriega, S., Sr.; Montoya, E., Sr.; Londoño, L., Sr.; Bernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    Orogenic configuration of the Northern Andes is closely associated to accretional processes since the Upper Cretaceous. In Colombia, the regional boundary between a Paleozoic continental domain to the east and Cretaceous accreted terrenes to the west is well exposed in several E-W sections near Medellin City and along the Cauca River, which occupies a major depression located between the Central and Western cordilleras. The area is dominated by the N-S trending Romeral Fault System (RFS) that can be traced to southern Ecuador. Relationships between the RFS and W-SW verging thrust system are unknown, although they represent key components of a transpressional orogeny. To understand timing of accretion and associated mountain building processes, we performed (U-Th)/He and fission track dating on samples derived from vertical profiles in cordilleran massifs. Samples were collected along four vertical profiles on two distinct litho-tectonic units: (1) three vertical profiles in the older eastern realm corresponding to metamorphic basement rocks of the Paleozoic Paleo-continental margin and associated Cretaceous intrusives, and (2) one vertical profile in the Mande batholith, Eocene in age at the eastern portion of the Panama Chocó Block (PCB) . The resulting zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) ages show a clear contrast between the ancient eastern realm (~50-60 Ma) and the Mande Batholith (~30-40 Ma). Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages also show a strong contrast with 23-42 Ma for the eastern realm and a well defined cluster at ~4 Ma for the Mande Batholith. These preliminary results suggest distinctive cooling histories for the two litho-tectonic blocks. The Mande batholith (western block) records both the late Eocene and Pliocene events whereas the ancient eastern block does not preserve any of these events. The Paleocene events recorded by the eastern block are probably related to the Laramic orogenetic phase. Finally, elevation-invariable ZHe ages from the ancient eastern block

  17. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  18. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  19. APOE gene polymorphism analysis in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Martha; Arias, Isis; Rolón, Gloria; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar; Silvera-Redondo, Carlos

    2016-03-03

    The genetic variability present in the APOE gene polymorphism is considered an important factor associated with predisposition to diseases affecting lipid metabolism, as well as heart diseases and Alzheimer's disease, among others. Understanding it as a risk factor in different populations and ethnic groups is a useful tool.  To analyze the APOE gene polymorphism and determine allelic and genotypic frequencies of a representative sample of population from Barranquilla, Colombia.  We performed a descriptive and comparative study. The sample size was 227 unrelated individuals from Barranquilla, Colombia.  The most frequent allele was the ε3, with 85%, followed by the ε4 allele (13%) and ε2 (1.8%). The genotypes found were: ε3/ε3: 71.8%, ε3/ε4: 24.2%, ε2/ε3: 2.2%, ε2/ε4: 1.3% and ε4/ε4: 0.4%. The ε2/ε2 genotype was not found in this study. The sample exhibited the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.  The frequency of the ε3 allele and the ε3/ε3 genotype was similar to that reported in the literature in countries like Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and in some Colombian Amerindian ethnic groups. The ε2/ε2 genotype was absent. This result is consistent with those found in other population groups worldwide. The frequency of the ε4 allele and the genotypes associated in this population could be related to the presence of diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer.

  20. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  1. [Characterisation of Suicide in Colombia, 2000 2010].

    PubMed

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Cardona Duque, Deisy Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide, affecting all population groups, regardless of age, gender, or area of residence. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the recorded suicides in Colombia, between the years 2000 and 2010, according to the variables of the person, time and place. Descriptive quantitative study with information from secondary sources, from the death certificates of deceased people by suicide registered with the National Bureau of Statistics. The behaviour of the deaths and mortality, were determined using the denominator population projections of Colombia and the Amazon, Andean, Atlantic Coast, Eastern Plains and Pacific regions. Descriptive measurements and mortality rates were calculated using these. A total of 24,882 suicides were recorded in the eleven years studied, with a mean of 6.2 people per day, which increased to 8.0 during holidays The mean age of death was 34.5 years (men 36.4, women 27.7), with male deaths (78.1%) and urban areas (66%) predominating. The greatest risk of dying from this cause was recorded in the Eastern Plains, in young adults and seniors, and residents in rural areas. Suicide rates in Colombia show a downward trend, with a mean of 5.3/100,000 inhabitants, and with an increased risk in men (3.7 times the risk in women, in young adults (9/100,000). A higher death rate was recorded in single people in the months of December and January, and at weekends. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Envenomation by Bothrops punctatus in southwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos A; Vallejo, Alexandra

    2016-12-15

    Bothrops punctatus (Chocoan forest lancehead) is a semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose human envenomation is poorly characterized. We describe two patients bitten by B. punctatus, whose most relevant clinical feature was the development of a severe coagulopathy with few local manifestations (mild edema without signs of necrosis) at the site of the bite. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geometric valley Hall effect and valley filtering through a singular Berry flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Huang, Danhong; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Conventionally, a basic requirement to generate valley Hall effect (VHE) is that the Berry curvature for conducting carriers in the momentum space be finite so as to generate anomalous deflections of the carriers originated from distinct valleys into different directions. We uncover a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) in which the valley-contrasting Berry curvature for carriers vanishes completely except for the singular points. The underlying physics is a singular non-π fractional Berry flux located at each conical intersection point in the momentum space, analogous to the classic Aharonov-Bohm effect of a confined magnetic flux in real space. We demonstrate that, associated with gVHE, exceptional skew scattering of valley-contrasting quasiparticles from a valley-independent, scalar type of impurities can generate charge-neutral, transverse valley currents. As a result, the massless nature of the quasiparticles and their high mobility are retained. We further demonstrate that, for the particular Berry flux of π /2 , gVHE is considerably enhanced about the skew scattering resonance, which is electrically controllable. A remarkable phenomenon of significant practical interest is that, associated with gVHE, highly efficient valley filtering can arise. These phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorders, making them promising for valleytronics applications.

  4. Origin of the Valley Networks On Mars: A Hydrological Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, Virginia C.

    2000-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Martian valley networks is examined from a hydrological perspective for their compatibility with an origin by rainfall, globally higher heat flow, and localized hydrothermal systems. Comparison of morphology and spatial distribution of valleys on geologic surfaces with terrestrial fluvial valleys suggests that most Martian valleys are probably not indicative of a rainfall origin, nor are they indicative of formation by an early global uniformly higher heat flow. In general, valleys are not uniformly distributed within geologic surface units as are terrestrial fluvial valleys. Valleys tend to form either as isolated systems or in clusters on a geologic surface unit leaving large expanses of the unit virtually untouched by erosion. With the exception of fluvial valleys on some volcanoes, most Martian valleys exhibit a sapping morphology and do not appear to have formed along with those that exhibit a runoff morphology. In contrast, terrestrial sapping valleys form from and along with runoff valleys. The isolated or clustered distribution of valleys suggests localized water sources were important in drainage development. Persistent ground-water outflow driven by localized, but vigorous hydrothermal circulation associated with magmatism, volcanism, impacts, or tectonism is, however, consistent with valley morphology and distribution. Snowfall from sublimating ice-covered lakes or seas may have provided an atmospheric water source for the formation of some valleys in regions where the surface is easily eroded and where localized geothermal/hydrothermal activity is sufficient to melt accumulated snowpacks.

  5. Mars Rover Opportunity Panorama of Marathon Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-14

    "Marathon Valley" on Mars opens northeastward to a view across the floor of Endeavour Crater in this scene from the panoramic camera (Pancam) of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The scene merges multiple Pancam exposures taken during the period April 16 through May 15, 2016, corresponding to sols (Martian days) 4,347 through 4,375 of Opportunity's work on Mars. It spans from north, at the left, to west-southwest, at the right. The high point in the right half of the scene is "Knudsen Ridge," which forms part of the southern edge of Marathon Valley. Portions of the northeastern and eastern rim of Endeavour crater appear on the distant horizon. Endeavour Crater is 14 miles (22 kilometers) in diameter. The fractured texture of Marathon Valley's floor is visible in the foreground. The view merges exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). It is presented in approximately true color. The rover team calls this image the mission's "Sacagawea Panorama," for the Lemhi Shoshone woman, also commemorated on U.S. dollar coins, whose assistance to the Lewis and Clark expedition helped enable its successes in 1804-1806. Many rocks and other features in Marathon Valley were informally named for members of Lewis and Clark's "Corps of Discovery" expedition. Opportunity entered Marathon Valley in July 2015. The valley's informal name was chosen because Opportunity's arrival at this point along the western rim of Endeavour Crater coincided closely with the rover surpassing marathon-footrace distance in its total driving odometry since landing on Mars in January 2004. The team's planned investigations in the valley were nearing completion when the component images for this scene were taken. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20749

  6. Quantum valley Hall effect and perfect valley filter based on photonic analogs of transitional metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleu, O.; Solnyshkov, D. D.; Malpuech, G.

    2017-06-01

    We consider theoretically staggered honeycomb lattices for photons which can be viewed as photonic analogs of transitional metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. We propose a simple realization of a photonic quantum valley Hall effect (QVHE) at the interface between two inverted lattices. This results in the formation of valley-polarized propagating modes whose existence relies on the difference between the valley Chern numbers, an analog of the Z2 topological invariant. We show that the magnitude of the photonic spin-orbit coupling based on the energy splitting between TE and TM photonic modes allows to control the number and propagation direction of these interface modes. Finally, we consider the interface between a staggered and a regular honeycomb lattice subject to a nonzero Zeeman field, therefore showing quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). In such a case, the topologically protected one-way modes of the QAHE become valley-polarized and the system behaves as a perfect valley filter.

  7. Seismic responses of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J.W.; Jia, S.; Hou, Z.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, dynamic characteristics of pipelines laid through alluvial valleys are analyzed. The scattering solution of SH-waves by a shallow circular alluvial valley is used to evaluate ground motion, and pipeline-soil interaction is considered. The results show that the alluvial valley has spectacular effects on dynamic behaviors of the pipelines, and for a narrow valley, damage will appear at two interfaces between the alluvial deposit and the riverbed, and for a wider valley, the damage will appear not only at two interfaces but also in the alluvial deposit, this depends on the valley width and the wavelength of incidence seismic waves.

  8. Colombia continues to yield major oil, gas discoveries

    SciTech Connect

    McGettigan, C.K.; Hunt, D.G.

    1996-07-15

    Colombia, where petroleum development began in 1908, is still yielding giant and supergiant discoveries. Recent successes result from improvements in exploration technology, in infrastructure, and in terms of participation offered by the Colombian government. Colombia has 13 sedimentary basins covering an area of 700,000 sq km out of a total country area of 1,350,000 sq km, including the continental shelf. This article highlights four of the seven basins currently productive in Colombia, providing an overview of geology and recent exploration activity.

  9. Smokefree implementation in Colombia: Monitoring, outside funding, and business support.

    PubMed

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country. Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Colombia's Ministry of Health coordinated local implementation practices, which were strongest in larger cities with supportive leadership. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. The bar owners' association provided concerted education campaigns. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.

  10. Population dynamics of Anopheles nuneztovari in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Correa, Margarita M

    2016-11-01

    Anopheles nuneztovari is an important Colombian malaria vector widespread on both sides of the Andean Mountains, presenting morphological, behavioral and genetic heterogeneity throughout the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the population structure and distribution of An. nuneztovari in Colombia are associated with ecological and physical barriers present in a heterogeneous landscape. Further, differences in behavior were addressed. A total of 5392 specimens of An. nuneztovari were collected. Mitochondrial and nuclear marker analyses detected subdivision among the northwest-west, northeast and east populations. For both markers, isolation by distance (~53%) and isolation by resistance (>30%) were determinants of population genetic differentiation. This suggests that physical barriers, geographical distance and ecological differences on both sides of the Andean Mountains promoted the genetic differentiation and population subdivision of An. nuneztovari in Colombia. This species showed the highest biting activity after 20:00h; indoor and outdoor preferences were found in all localities. These results indicated that the most effective interventions for controlling vector populations on both sides of the Andes need to be region-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuberculosis control and managed competition in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Gaviria, Marta Beatriz; Franco, Alvaro; Restrepo, Roman; Hincapié, Doracelly; Blas, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Law 100 introduced the Health Sector Reform in Colombia, a model of managed competition. This article addresses the effects of this model in terms of output and outcomes of TB control. Trends in main TB control indicators were analysed using secondary data sources, and 25 interviews were done with key informants from public and private insurers and provider institutions, and from the health directorate level. We found a deterioration in the performance of TB control: a decreasing number of BCG vaccine doses applied, a reduction in case finding and contacts identification, low cure rates and an increasing loss of follow up, which mainly affects poor people. Fragmentation occurred as the atomization and discontinuity of the technical processes took place, there was a lack of coordination, as well as a breakdown between individual and collective interventions, and the health information system began to disintegrate. The introduction of the Managed Competition (MC) in Colombia appeared to have adverse effects on TB control due to the dominance of the economic rationality in the health system and the weak state stewardship. Our recommendations are to restructure the reform's public health component, strengthen the technical capacity in public health of the state, mainly at the local and departmental levels, and to improve the health information system by reorienting its objectives to public health goals.

  12. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Santos, Óscar; Gómez, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Viviana; Casas, María Consuelo; Ramírez, María Del Pilar; Olaya, Patricia

    2017-01-24

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a worldwide public health problem; it has been estimated that over 180 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. Its precise incidence and prevalence (i.e., epidemiology) and the most frequent circulating genotypes in Colombia are unknown. To describe the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes in infected Colombian patients. We recovered the data on 1,538 HCV isolates from 1,527 patients in two Colombian reference laboratories typed by PAGE or qPCR. Patients' mean age was 53 years; 70% of them were 40 to 70 years old, and 52%, females; 57% of all tests were ordered in Bogotá and 80% of cases were from Cundinamarca, Valle and Atlántico departments. Genotype 1 was detected in 88.6% of cases, distributed as follows: 70% subtype 1b, 13.5% subtype 1a and 5.1%, undetermined subtypes. Genotype 2 was found in 5.4% of the patients, genotype 3 in 2% and genotype 4 in 4%. Mixed genotypes were found in 0.8% of the samples. Genotype 1 is the most common HCV genotype circulating in Colombia, and subtype 1b the most frequent.

  13. Colombia's national plan for sexual education.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The brief summary of Colombia's government's plan for sex education emphasized the active involvement of all sectors of society and targeted individuals, families, and society. The National Plan for Sex Education (PNES) was established by the Colombian presidential program for youth, women, and the family (PROMOVER). The plan is an evolution of rights and duties laid out in the National Constitution of 1991 on sexuality. The plan has the support of the First Lady of Colombia. The Foundation of Human and Social Development will provide technical support, and activities will be coordinated between the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare. The objectives of PNES are to promote the development of attitudes that value sexuality, value social gender equality, value autonomy, value responsibility, value harmony of interactions and solidarity, and value sexual health. PNES will begin with planning, coordinating between ministries and sectors, and implementing the decentralized and participatory action plan. The plan involves training, research, communication, services, and institutionalization. Training will be the first priority and will be directed to sensitizing officials and officials administering the plan about sexuality and sex education, to case workers involved with therapeutic interventions, and to youth, parents, and sexually active adolescents. The plan includes criteria for selecting legal advisors and staff from nongovernmental organizations, who will administer the training and evaluations.

  14. Towards integrated water resources management in Colombia: challenges and opportunities for spatial environmental planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Sergio; Hernández, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    Only until 2010 was enacted the first national policy related to the integrated management of water resources in Colombia. In 2011 was established the Directorate for Integrated Water Resources Management within the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. Between 2010 to 2013 were adopted the regulatory instruments to be developed within the hierarchical structure for spatial environmental planning around the water resources, considering both a transdisciplinary framework and a multi-ethnic and multi-participatory approach. In this context, there is a breakthrough in the development of strategic and tactic actions summarized as follows: i) technical guidelines or projects were developed for the spatial environmental planning at the macroscale river basins (i.e. Magdalena-Cauca river basin with 2.3 million hectares), meso-scale (river basins from 50.000 to 2 million hectares and aquifers) and local scale (catchments areas less than 50.000 hectares); ii) there is an advance in the knowledge of key hydrological processes in the basins of the country as well as actions to restore and preserve ecosystems essential for the regulation of water supply and ecosystem services; iii) demand characterization introducing regional talks with socio-economic stakeholders and promoting water efficiency actions; iv) water use regulation as a way for decontamination and achieving quality standards for prospective uses; v) introduction of risks analysis associated with water resources in the spatial environmental planning and establishment of mitigation and adaptation measures; vi) strengthening the monitoring network of water quality and hydrometeorological variables; vii) strengthening interactions with national and international research as well as the implementation of a national information system of water resources; viii) steps towards water governance with the introduction of socio-economic stakeholder in the spatial environmental planning and implementation of

  15. 76 FR 67055 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Valley City, ND

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... airspace for Valley City, ND. Decommissioning of the Valley City non-directional beacon (NDB) at Barnes... Valley City, ND area. Decommissioning of the Valley City NDB and cancellation of the NDB approach at...

  16. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  17. The hydrology of San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    The San Bernardino basin lies near the eastern end of the valley of southern California.  Under the latter term is included that general lowland area which is definitely limited on the north by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino ranges and on the east by the latter range and the San Jacinto group, but whose southern boundary is irregular and difficult to define.  In this direction there is an interdigitation of ridges and valleys as the Sierra Madre Range of San Diego County dies out toward the north.  The more or less indefinite heights that represent its extension in this direction are separated by lowlands, which in turn are to be regarded as southwest lobes of the well-defined east-west valley that lies along the base of the San Gabriel Range.

  18. Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tengfei; Qiao, Xiaofen; Tan, Pingheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed to be in analogy to the D′yakonov-Perel′ mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley pseudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26490157

  19. Castro Valley High School's Solar Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, A.; Ham, S.; Shin, Y.; Yang, W.; Lam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar panels are photovoltaic cells that are designed to convert the sun's kinetic energy to generate usable energy in the form of electricity. Castro Valley High School has tried to offset the cost of electricity by installing solar panels, costing the district approximately 3.29 million dollars, but have been installed incorrectly and are not operating at peak efficency. By using trigonometry we deduced that Castro Valley High School's south facing solar panels were at an incline of 10o and that the east and west facing solar panels are at an incline of 5o. By taking the averages of the optimum angles for the months of September through May, roughly when school is in session, we found that the optimum angle for south facing solar panels should be roughly 46o. This shows that Castro Valley High School has not used it's budget to its full potential due to the fact that the solar panels were haphazardly installed.

  20. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Anning, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrogeology of the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins of Mohave County in northwestern Arizona to develop a better understanding of groundwater storage within the basin fill aquifers. In our investigation we used geologic maps, well-log data, and geophysical surveys to delineate the sedimentary textures and lithology of the basin fill. We used gravity data to construct a basin geometry model that defines smaller subbasins within the larger basins, and airborne transient-electromagnetic modeled results along with well-log lithology data to infer the subsurface distribution of basin fill within the subbasins. Hydrogeologic units (HGUs) are delineated within the subbasins on the basis of the inferred lithology of saturated basin fill. We used the extent and size of HGUs to estimate groundwater storage to depths of 400 meters (m) below land surface (bls). The basin geometry model for the Hualapai Valley basin consists of three subbasins: the Kingman, Hualapai, and southern Gregg subbasins. In the Kingman subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,200 m deep, saturated basin fill consists of a mixture of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. The Hualapai subbasin, which is the largest of the subbasins, contains a thick halite body from about 400 m to about 4,300 m bls. Saturated basin fill overlying the salt body consists predominately of fine-grained older playa deposits. In the southern Gregg subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,400 m deep, saturated basin fill is interpreted to consist primarily of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. Groundwater storage to 400 m bls in the Hualapai Valley basin is estimated to be 14.1 cubic kilometers (km3). The basin geometry model for the Detrital Valley basin consists of three subbasins: northern Detrital, central Detrital, and southern Detrital subbasins. The northern and central Detrital subbasins are characterized by a predominance of playa evaporite and fine

  1. Meteorological control of air pollution in a complex topography, high-altitude valley in the Tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Arango, C. D.; Peña, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    About two-thirds of the Latin-American population lives on the Andes. In Colombia, 70% of the population lives at altitudes over 1 km above the sea level (ASL) on a complex topography 3 Andean mountain-chain system. Understanding and properly modeling air pollution in the Tropical Andes is thus a challenging task not just because of the complexity of horizontal and vertical transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone but because of the strong influence of regional- and local-scale circulation phenomena. The Sogamoso Valley (5 degrees 43' N, 72 degrees 55' W, 2570 m ASL), located on the Colombian Andes Eastern Mountain Chain, is one of the most industrialized regions of Colombia. Air quality in this region is affected by a heterogeneous group of emission sources, which include truck traffic, heavy industry (including steelworks and cement), medium- and small-scale industry, and around 600 low-technology, highly polluting brick and quicklime production furnaces. 24-h average PM10 concentrations frequently double the Colombian standard (150 μg/m3). Measurements and analysis conducted in 2002 found that relatively rapid changes in the regional atmospheric circulation patterns strongly influence the Sogamoso Valley air quality, including drastic PM10 concentration variations observed during periods of fairly steady emissions. The strong linear dependence of the daily temperature variation amplitude and the maximum wind speed on the daily accumulated solar radiation suggests that air quality is ultimately determined by the synoptic activation of local and mesoscale circulation patterns and meteorological conditions, including mountain and valley winds, strong anabatic and katabatic winds from the lowlands (at both sides of the Colombian Andes Eastern Mountain Chain), channeling, and radiative cooling temperature inversion. During clear sky periods, katabatic advection of pollution from furnaces on the foothills resulted in recurrent nocturnal pollution episodes with

  2. Stably Stratified Flow in a Shallow Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stratified nocturnal flow above and within a small valley of approximately 12-m depth and a few hundred metres width is examined as a case study, based on a network of 20 sonic anemometers and a central 20-m tower with eight levels of sonic anemometers. Several regimes of stratified flow over gentle topography are conceptually defined for organizing the data analysis and comparing with the existing literature. In our case study, a marginal cold pool forms within the shallow valley in the early evening but yields to larger ambient wind speeds after a few hours, corresponding to stratified terrain-following flow where the flow outside the valley descends to the valley floor. The terrain-following flow lasts about 10 h and then undergoes transition to an intermittent marginal cold pool towards the end of the night when the larger-scale flow collapses. During this 10-h period, the stratified terrain-following flow is characterized by a three-layer structure, consisting of a thin surface boundary layer of a few metres depth on the valley floor, a deeper boundary layer corresponding to the larger-scale flow, and an intermediate transition layer with significant wind-directional shear and possible advection of lee turbulence that is generated even for the gentle topography of our study. The flow in the valley is often modulated by oscillations with a typical period of 10 min. Cold events with smaller turbulent intensity and duration of tens of minutes move through the observational domain throughout the terrain-following period. One of these events is examined in detail.

  3. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  4. UAVSAR Acquires False-Color Image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-03

    This false-color image of Colombia Galeras Volcano, was acquired by UAVSAR on March 13, 2013. A highly active volcano, Galeras features a breached caldera and an active cone that produces numerous small to moderate explosive eruptions.

  5. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958.

  6. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162464.html Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  7. 12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING SOUTH END OF OVERHEAD WIRING TERMINATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  8. 11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA, SHOWING DETAIL OF OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  9. 10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF YAKIMA VALLEY TRANSPORTATION COMPANY AND UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD INTERCHANGE TRACKS AT YAKIMA - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  10. Restoring Hetch Hetchy Valley: The Role of Modeling in Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, Sarah E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-10-01

    In 1923, following years of opposition and debate, the City of San Francisco, Calif., completed the O'Shaughnessy Dam, which flooded Hetch Hetchy Valley in California's Yosemite National Park. Today, the future of Hetch Hetchy Valley is still debated.

  11. 79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. COVERED CONDUIT ACROSS ANTELOPE VALLEY WITH WIND FARM IN DISTANCE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. VEGETATION CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE CONTRASTING RIPARIAN SITES, WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the native riparian vegetation of the Willamette Valley, Oregon, has been replaced with agricultural crops or invasive non-native plant species. Detailed information about current Willamette Valley riparian vegetation is generally lacking. Plant species composition data...

  13. Geometric decoherence of valley excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z. R.; Jiang, Z. F.; Xu, Fuming; Wang, B.; Fu, H. C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effects of the Berry phases of the valley excitons in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) when the valley excitons are manipulated by an external terahertz field. We find that the decoherence of the valley degree of freedom of the valley excitons is spontaneously induced because of the different Berry phases of valley excitons accumulated along the opposite trajectories under the manipulation of the external field. It is called the geometric decoherence because it completely results from the geometric phases. The obvious phenomenon related to such spontaneous decoherence is the gradual decrement of the dipole moment matrix element of the valley exciton and consequently the decrement of the emitted signals after the valley excitons are recombined. Moreover, another effect due to the Berry phases is the giant Faraday rotation of the polarization of the emitted photons. Such imperfection of the valley degree of freedom is supposed to provide the potential limits of the valleytronics based on the TMDs optoelecronic devices.

  14. 32. VIEW SOUTH INTO WAIALEIA VALLEY. PIPELINE CAN BE SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW SOUTH INTO WAIALEIA VALLEY. PIPELINE CAN BE SEEN TOWARDS LOWER LEFT WITHIN ROCK WALL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  15. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  16. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  17. Intercrater plains deposits and the origin of Martian valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping of portions of the Thaumasia Fossae and Aeolis Quandrangles has documented several interesting relationships between valley development and local geology. Formation of the valley development was discussed.

  18. View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of abandoned Yosemite Valley Railroad track grade and trestle remain. Seen from same camera location as HAER CA-150-39. Looking northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  19. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  2. Sediment Trajectories Through a Semiarid Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmon, D. V.; Dunne, T.; Reneau, S. L.

    2002-12-01

    Particles follow a range of trajectories through valley floors: some particles pass directly through the channel, reaching the basin outlet rapidly after being introduced to the fluvial system, while others remain in the valley floor for long periods in deposits such as floodplains. The trajectory of a particle through a valley floor can be viewed as a random process, consisting of a series of mobilization, transport, and deposition events, whose probabilities are determined by the sediment budget. We formalized and then tested this theory by modeling the redistribution and radioactive decay of particle-bound 137Cs in a small alluvial valley downstream of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and comparing the modeled distribution in 1997 with the distribution measured independently by mapping. Field monitoring, sampling, and theoretical calculations were used to compute the long term sediment budget of two particle size fractions. Rates of sediment exchange with both the channel and floodplain are large compared with the total sediment flux, and the sediment budget is dominated by events which occur on average at least once per year. Samples of datable deposits and flood-borne sediment were used to reconstruct the release history of 137Cs into the valley over the past 50 years, and the 137Cs was used as a tracer to examine long term sediment trajectories. The probability distributions of sediment residence times are strongly right-skewed, especially for floodplain sediment. Coarse sediment moves gradually through the channel in a wave-like pattern. In contrast, some of the fine particles move rapidly through the system while the trajectories of others involve long term storage in the floodplain. The modeled 1997 inventory of 137Cs was higher than the measured inventory by a factor of 3, but this discrepancy is small compared with the estimated total amount of 137Cs which entered the valley over the past 50 years. The relative spatial distribution of the contaminant throughout

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T; Swanepoel, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944-2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed.

  4. Advanced seismic imaging of overdeepened alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Tanner, David; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Major European alpine valleys and basins are densely populated areas with infrastructure of international importance. To protect the environment by, e.g., geohazard assessment or groundwater estimation, understanding of the geological structure of these valleys is essential. The shape and deposits of a valley can clarify its genesis and allows a prediction of behaviour in future glaciations. The term "overdeepened" refers to valleys and basins, in which pressurized melt-water under the glacier erodes the valley below the fluvial level. Most overdeepened valleys or basins were thus refilled during the ice melt or remain in the form of lakes. The ICDP-project Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE) intends to correlate the sedimentary succession from boreholes between valleys in the entire alpine range. Hereby, seismic exploration is essential to predict the most promising well path and drilling site. In a first step, this DFG-funded project investigates the benefit of multi-component techniques for seismic imaging. At two test sites, the Tannwald Basin and the Lienz Basin, the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics acquired P-wave reflection profiles to gain structural and facies information. Built on the P-wave information, several S-wave reflection profiles were acquired in the pure SH-wave domain as well as 6-C reflection profiles using a horizontal S-wave source in inline and crossline excitation and 3-C receivers. Five P-wave sections reveal the structure of the Tannwald Basin, which is a distal branch basin of the Rhine Glacier. Strong reflections mark the base of the basin, which has a maximum depth of 240 metres. Internal structures and facies vary strongly and spatially, but allow a seismic facies characterization. We distinguish lacustrine, glacio-fluvial, and deltaic deposits, which make up the fill of the Tannwald Basin. Elements of the SH-wave and 6-C seismic imaging correlate with major structures in the P-wave image, but vary in detail. Based on

  5. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  6. Ground water in Tooele Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.S.; Keller, O.A.

    1970-01-01

    This short report was written by condensing parts of a technical report on the ground water in Tooele Valley, which was prepared as part of a cooperative program between the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the U. S. Geological Survey to study water in Utah. If you would like to read the more detailed technical report, write for a copy of the Utah State Engineer Technical Publication 12, “Reevaluation of the ground-water resources of Tooele Valley, Utah” by J. S. Gates. Copies can be obtained free of charge from the Division of Water Rights, State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Leman, Patricia A.; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were examined for 198 Rift Valley fever virus isolates and 5 derived strains obtained from various sources in Saudi Arabia and 16 countries in Africa during a 67-year period (1944–2010). A maximum-likelihood tree prepared with sequence data for a 490-nt section of the Gn glycoprotein gene showed that 95 unique sequences sorted into 15 lineages. A 2010 isolate from a patient in South Africa potentially exposed to co-infection with live animal vaccine and wild virus was a reassortant. The potential influence of large-scale use of live animal vaccine on evolution of Rift Valley fever virus is discussed. PMID:22172568

  8. Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    experienced the same fits and starts as others in the region. There have been successes , including the reintegration of the M-19 (Movimiento del 19... REINTEGRATION AS COUNTER-INSURGENCY IN COLOMBIA Mr. GREGORY E. PHILLIPS, DOS COURSE 5601 and 5602 FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGIC LOGIC and THE NATURE OF...COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Colombia: Gateway to Defeating Transnational Hell in the Western Hemisphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    eliminating coca in southern Colombia region of Putumayo. These crops are being destroyed by aircraft spraying the fields with an herbicide named Glyphosate ...democracy. 6 Fifty Five percent of all terrorist attacks on U.S. interests in 2001 occurred in Colombia. Occidental Petroleum Corporation, a U.S. based oil...million. Many of those remaining have fled ungoverned areas where terrorists find sanctuary, logistical bases , training, and planning for future attacks

  10. Wilderness, water, and quality of life in the Bitterroot Valley

    Treesearch

    Kari Gunderson; Clint Cook

    2007-01-01

    The Bitterroot Valley is located in western Montana, U.S.A. Most of the Bitterroot Range above the Bitterroot Valley is protected as wilderness, and is a source of much of the water that flows down and through the valley floor. With an annual precipitation of only 12.3 inches, the Bitterroot Valley is classified as a high desert environment. Today the quality of life...

  11. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  12. Evidence for gap flows in the Birch Creek Valley, Idaho

    Treesearch

    D. Finn; B. Reese; B. Butler; N. Wagenbrenner; K. L. Clawson; J. Rich; E. Russell; Z. Gao; H. Liu

    2016-01-01

    A field study was conducted of flows in the Birch Creek Valley in eastern Idaho. There is a distinct topographic constriction in the Birch Creek Valley that creates two subbasins: an upper and lower valley. The data were classified into one of three groups based on synoptic influence (weak/absent, high wind speeds, and other evidence of synoptic influence). Gap flows...

  13. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Russian River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Russian...

  14. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  15. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  16. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  17. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  18. 27 CFR 9.129 - Arroyo Grande Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arroyo Grande Valley. 9... Arroyo Grande Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arroyo Grande Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of Arroyo...

  19. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...

  20. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death Valley National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.26 Death Valley National Monument. (a) Mining. Mining in Death Valley National Monument is subject to the following regulations, which are...