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Sample records for causa externa tempo

  1. Tempo, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Michael, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Tempo," the newsletter of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented (TAGT), published during 1996. Each issue focuses on a specific theme, such as math and science instruction, culturally diverse gifted students, parents and teachers working together, and future challenges. Articles include:…

  2. Tempo, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Michael, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Tempo," the newsletter of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented (TAGT), published during 1999. Each issue focuses on a specific theme, including distinguished achievement programs, Hispanic issues in gifted education, creativity, and gifted children in the new millennium. Articles include:…

  3. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  4. Ophthalmomyiasis Externa Caused by Oestrus ovis

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Mahesh Kumar; Diddapur, Seethalakshmi Krishnamurthy; Nadagir, Shobha Dhruv; Kota, Subramanya Giliyar

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with foreign body sensation, pain, and redness in left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed tiny larvae crawling around the conjunctival sac. The larvae, numbering 13, were mechanically removed under topical anesthesia and identified under light microscope as first-stage larvae of Oestrus ovis causing ophthalmomyiasis externa. PMID:22923922

  5. [Sluggish cognitive tempo: an updated review].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Ruiz-García, Beatriz M; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Hernáez-Goñi, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. El estudio del tempo cognitivo lento (TCL) surgio en gran parte de las investigaciones del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Este constructo se define con una gama de sintomas conductuales, como apariencia de somnolencia, soñar despierto, hipoactividad fisica, pobre iniciativa, letargo y apatia. Desarrollo. Se revisa el constructo de TCL a traves de articulos recientemente publicados al respecto sobre caracteristicas clinicas, sintomas asociados, evaluacion, prevalencia, etiologia, comorbilidad, perfiles neuropsicologicos y tratamiento. Los trabajos mas actuales proponen entender el TCL como un cluster de sintomas distintivo del TDAH. Aunque no hay un consenso claro, los datos son cada vez mas consistentes y dotan de gran validez externa al TCL, asociandolo con sintomas internalizantes. Conclusiones. Consideramos necesario anclar los diferentes subtipos de TDAH en modelos conceptuales atencionales. Asi, la red de orientacion atencional se relacionaria con el TCL, la red de vigilancia o atencion sostenida con el TDAH subtipo inatento, y la atencion ejecutiva seria la implicada en el TDAH subtipo combinado. La evidencia hasta la fecha, incluyendo esta revision, apoya la idea de que el TCL es un trastorno de atencion diferenciado del TDAH, pero que, como cualquier trastorno dimensional, puede solaparse con el aproximadamente en la mitad de los casos.

  6. Ophthalmomyiasis Externa: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sundu, Cem; Dinç, Erdem; Kurtuluş, Umut Can; Yıldırım, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Three patients were admitted to our clinic with symptoms of conjunctivitis. On ocular examination, moving larvae were seen in the conjunctival sac. All of the larvae were immobilized by topical cyclopentolate and removed mechanically under topical anesthesia. The patients healed without any complications after the treatment. Physicians should consider ophthalmomyiasis externa in patients presenting with similar symptoms, especially in areas with high numbers of livestock. Otherwise the diagnosis can be missed. PMID:27800236

  7. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Mileva, M H; Pencheva, D V; Bryaskova, R G; Genova-Kalou, P D; Kantardjiev, T V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product "Betazon Trio". It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days.

  8. Tempo and amplitude in growth.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Growth is defined as an increase of size over time with time usually defined as physical time. Yet, the rigid metric of physical time is not directly relevant to the internal dynamics of growth. Growth is linked to maturation. Children and adolescents differ in the tempo at which they mature. One calendar year differs in its meaning in a fast maturing, and in a slow maturing child. The slow child needs more calendar years for completing the same stage of maturity. Many characteristics in the human growth curve are tempo characteristics. Tempo - being fast or slow maturing - has to be carefully separated from amplitude - being tall or short. Several characteristic phenomena such as catch-up growth after periods of illness and starvation are largely tempo phenomena, and do usually not affect the amplitude component of growth. Applying Functional Data Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, the two main sources of height variance: tempo and amplitude can statistically be separate and quantified. Tempo appears to be more sensitive than amplitude to nutrition, health and environmental stress. An appropriate analysis of growth requires disentangling its two major components: amplitude and tempo. The assessment of the developmental tempo thus is an integral part of assessing child and adolescent growth. Though an Internet portal is currently available to process small amounts of height data (www.willi-will-wachsen.com) for separately determining amplitude and tempo in growth, there is urgent need of better and practical solutions for analyzing individual growth.

  9. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Mileva, M.H.; Pencheva, D.V.; Bryaskova, R.G.; Genova-Kalou, P.D.; Kantardjiev, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product “Betazon Trio”. It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days. PMID:26623362

  10. Tempo: Pulsar timing data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, R.; Taylor, J.; Peters, W.; Weisberg, J.; Irwin, A.; Wex, N.; Stairs, I.; Demorest, P.; Nice, D.

    2015-09-01

    Tempo analyzes pulsar timing data. Pulse times of arrival (TOAs), pulsar model parameters, and coded instructions are read from one or more input files. The TOAs are fitted by a pulse timing model incorporating transformation to the solar-system barycenter, pulsar rotation and spin-down and, where necessary, one of several binary models. Program output includes parameter values and uncertainties, residual pulse arrival times, chi-squared statistics, and the covariance matrix of the model. In prediction mode, ephemerides of pulse phase behavior (in the form of polynomial expansions) are calculated from input timing models. Tempo is the basis for the Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) code.

  11. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Akira; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Fukuzumi, Hayaka

    2011-01-01

    Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (~74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

  12. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Akira; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Fukuzumi, Hayaka

    2011-01-01

    Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios>100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (∼74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

  13. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  14. New combination for the therapy of canine otitis externa. I. Microbiology of otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Kiss, G; Radványi, S; Szigeti, G

    1997-02-01

    In order to compound a new drug combination against canine otitis externa (OE), 515 dogs affected with OE were subjected to physical examination and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates. OE was erythematous-ceruminous in 83 per cent and suppurative in 17 per cent of the patient material. Erythematous-ceruminous inflammations were characterised by severe pruritus and accumulation of brownish, greasy cerumen in the auditory canal. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the ears of 76 per cent of the dogs, often in combination with Staphylococcus intermedius bacteria. M pachydermatis showed the most sensitivity, in decreasing order of efficacy, to ketoconazole, econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and nystatin. S intermedius isolates were most sensitive to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, cephalexin and gentamicin. The microorganism most frequently isolated from dogs with suppurative OE was Pseudomonas aeruginosa; in some cases Proteus, Streptococcus and Pasteurella were also isolated. The P aeruginosa isolates showed the highest sensitivity to gentamicin, polymyxin B and tobramycin.

  15. Operation of the TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lawson, R.N.; Lancaster, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    The TEMPO machine is a repetitively pulsed, high-voltage driver for experimental microwave generating devices. Three units have been built. TEMPO has a transformer-charged, water-insulated Blumlein directly coupled to the vacuum diode. The Blumlein has a relatively high impedance (20-..cap omega..) strip-type, pulse-forming transmission line (PFL) designed to minimize size. Stray capacitance and enhanced electric fields along the edges of the PFL are controlled by lining the tank in which the Blumlein is housed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic sheet. During the initial stage of operation, problems with breakdowns in the plastic occurred that necessitated replacing the liner with either polyethylene or polypropylene. During the same period, problems with the power supplies and high voltage switch performance were addressed. These modifications and their results are discussed in the following sections.

  16. Reactivity of organothorium complexes with TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Langeslay, Ryan R; Walensky, Justin R; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2014-08-18

    Reactions of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) with thorium metallocenes have been examined to investigate both the radical reaction patterns for organothorium complexes and the coordination chemistry of TEMPO with thorium. (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThMe2 reacts with 2 equiv of TEMPO to generate 1-methoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Me-TEMPO) and (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThMe(η(1)-TEMPO), which contains a TEMPO(-) anion coordinated to thorium through oxygen only. (η(5)-C5Me5)2Th(η(1)-C3H5)(η(3)-C3H5), synthesized from (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThBr2 and (C3H5)MgBr, reacts with 2 equiv of TEMPO to form 1-(2-propen-1-yloxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (allyl-TEMPO) and (η(5)-C5Me5)2Th(η(1)-C3H5)(η(1)-TEMPO). Although bis(TEMPO) metallocenes were not obtained in these reactions, the methyl group in (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThMe(η(1)-TEMPO) is reactive with 1 equiv of CuBr to form (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThBr(η(1)-TEMPO). The bis(TEMPO) metallocene (η(5)-C5Me5)2Th(η(1)-TEMPO)2 is accessible in the reaction of [(η(5)-C5Me5)2ThH2]2 with 4 equiv of TEMPO. In contrast, (η(5)-C5Me5)2ThBr2 reacts with 2 equiv of TEMPO by loss of C5Me5 to form (C5Me5)2 and (η(2)-TEMPO)2ThBr2, in which the TEMPO(-) anions bind through oxygen and nitrogen. The bromide ions in (η(2)-TEMPO)2ThBr2 can be replaced by an additional 2 equiv of TEMPO in the presence of 2 equiv of KC8 to form the per(TEMPO) complex Th(η(1)-TEMPO)2(η(2)-TEMPO)2. ThBr4(THF)4 reacts with TEMPO to form ThBr4(THF)2(η(1)-TEMPO), which contains an oxygen-bound TEMPO radical. The Th(3+) complex (η(5)-C5Me4H)3Th is oxidized in the presence of TEMPO, without ligand loss, to afford the Th(4+) species (η(5)-C5Me4H)3Th(η(1)-TEMPO). The reactions show that TEMPO can react with organothorium complexes in several ways including coordination, anion substitution, and cyclopentadienyl replacement.

  17. Otitis externa: a practical guide to treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sander, R

    2001-03-01

    Otitis externa is most commonly caused by infection (usually bacterial, although occasionally fungal), but it may also be associated with a variety of noninfectious systemic or local dermatologic processes. The most characteristic symptom is discomfort that is limited to the external auditory canal, while the most characteristic signs are erythema and swelling of the canal with variable discharge. Excessive moisture and trauma, both of which impair the canal's natural defenses, are the two most common precipitants of otitis externa, and avoidance of these precipitants is the cornerstone of prevention. Thorough cleansing of the canal is essential for diagnosis and treatment, but flushing should be avoided. Acidification with a topical solution of 2 percent acetic acid combined with hydrocortisone for inflammation is effective treatment in most cases and, when used after exposure to moisture, is an excellent prophylactic. Other prophylactic measures such as drying the ears with a hair dryer and avoiding manipulation of the external auditory canal may help prevent recurrence.

  18. [Bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].

    PubMed

    Bornand, V

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria Staphylococcus intermedius (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus spp. (6%) and Streptococcus canis (5%). A statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in otitic dogs. Many strains of S.intermedius, P.aeruginosa and Proteus spp. are resistant to antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa. Therefore an antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using "Cobas Bact" for these bacterias. Furthermore, 80 strains of M.pachydermatis were submitted to identification-kits (API 20 CAUX, API STAPH, Cobas Micro). The observed results showed that an identification with these tests was not possible.

  19. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  20. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.; Tempo Science Team

    2013-05-01

    TEMPO has been selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (Mexico City is measured at 1.6 km N/S by 4.5 km E/W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary

  1. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Janz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    TEMPO is a proposed concept to measure pollution for greater North America using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (9 km2). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007

  2. Tropospheric emissions: monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2013-09-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch circa 2018. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (~2 km N/S×4.5 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring together with European Sentinel-4 and Korean GEMS.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lilenbaum, W; Veras, M; Blum, E; Souza, G N

    2000-07-01

    Samples were obtained from 65 unmedicated adult dogs, processed for isolation of Staphylococcus species and tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin and rifampin. Forty-four isolates were obtained, which represents 67.7% of samples. Coagulase-negative species were most commonly found, and the most frequently isolated staphylococcus species were Staph. epidermidis and Staph. aureus. Other species, such as Staph. simulans, Staph. haemolyticus, Staph. saprophyticus and Staph. intermedius were also isolated. Resistance to antibiotics was frequently observed, with 90.9% of the isolates showing resistance to at least one drug. The most active antimicrobial agents against staphylococci isolated from otitis externa of dogs were rifampin and oxacillin. Multidrug resistance was a common finding, and one strain of Staph. haemolyticus species, was resistant to all tested antimicrobial agents. Resistance to three or more different drugs was a common finding, observed in 16 strains (36.4%) of both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. This study highlights the emergence of cases of otitis externa determined by coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains and once more emphasizes the need for bacterial culture with species identification and susceptibility testing of swab specimens from the ear canal in order to choose appropriate antimicrobial agents.

  4. Scedosporium apiospermum: a rare cause of malignant otitis externa.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Oliver; Potter, Christian

    2016-09-09

    A 79-year-old man, with a history of well-controlled diabetes mellitus, presented with left-sided otalgia. With an initial diagnosis of simple otitis externa, he was discharged on topical drops. He represented 2 months later with worsening otalgia and discharge. A diagnosis of malignant otitis externa was made based on clinical and radiological findings. Intravenous Tazocin and Gentamicin were given based on previous bacterial culture from ear swabs. The patient failed to improve and developed left-sided facial nerve palsy. His condition stabilised following a change in antimicrobial therapy and his management continued in the community on intravenous Meropenem with twice weekly aural toilet. Repeated nuclear medicine imaging failed to demonstrate resolution. A bony sequestration was removed from the external auditory canal in the outpatient clinic, which following extended culture grew Scedosporium apiospermum; his management was subsequently changed to oral Voriconazole. This led to rapid clinical improvement and disease resolution over a 6 -week period.

  5. Scedosporium apiospermum: a rare cause of malignant otitis externa.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Oliver; Potter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man, with a history of well-controlled diabetes mellitus, presented with left-sided otalgia. With an initial diagnosis of simple otitis externa, he was discharged on topical drops. He represented 2 months later with worsening otalgia and discharge. A diagnosis of malignant otitis externa was made based on clinical and radiological findings. Intravenous Tazocin and Gentamicin were given based on previous bacterial culture from ear swabs. The patient failed to improve and developed left-sided facial nerve palsy. His condition stabilised following a change in antimicrobial therapy and his management continued in the community on intravenous Meropenem with twice weekly aural toilet. Repeated nuclear medicine imaging failed to demonstrate resolution. A bony sequestration was removed from the external auditory canal in the outpatient clinic, which following extended culture grew Scedosporium apiospermum; his management was subsequently changed to oral Voriconazole. This led to rapid clinical improvement and disease resolution over a 6 -week period. PMID:27613266

  6. Fractal Tempo Fluctuation and Pulse Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Summer K.; Large, Edward W.; Fink, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    WE INVESTIGATED PEOPLES’ ABILITY TO ADAPT TO THE fluctuating tempi of music performance. In Experiment 1, four pieces from different musical styles were chosen, and performances were recorded from a skilled pianist who was instructed to play with natural expression. Spectral and rescaled range analyses on interbeat interval time-series revealed long-range (1/f type) serial correlations and fractal scaling in each piece. Stimuli for Experiment 2 included two of the performances from Experiment 1, with mechanical versions serving as controls. Participants tapped the beat at ¼- and ⅛-note metrical levels, successfully adapting to large tempo fluctuations in both performances. Participants predicted the structured tempo fluctuations, with superior performance at the ¼-note level. Thus, listeners may exploit long-range correlations and fractal scaling to predict tempo changes in music. PMID:25190901

  7. Etiological significance of Candida albicans in otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vijay J; Pal, M; Mishra, G S

    2003-01-01

    A study covering 79 patients (42 males, 37 females) of different age groups clinically diagnosed as otomycosis were investigated mycologically to elucidate the role of Candia albicans, an opportunistic polymorphic yeast, in otitis externa. C. albicans was diagnosed as the sole pathogen in two patients (1 male and 1 female) aged 18 and 20 years, respectively. The organism was repeatedly demonstrated in the aural specimens both by direct microscopy as well as culture isolation. Both the patients had unilateral otomycosis and used antibiotic solution and removed wax with wooden stick. The topical application of one per cent clotrimazole lotion showed good response both clinically as well as mycologically. The growing significance of opportunistic fungi emphasizes on comprehensive studies to establish the etiologic role in various clinical disorders in human and animal medicine.

  8. Individual musical tempo preference correlates with EEG beta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anna-Katharina R; Kreutz, Gunter; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2015-04-01

    Every individual has a preferred musical tempo, which peaks slightly above 120 beats per minute and is subject to interindividual variation. The preferred tempo is believed to be associated with rhythmic body movements as well as motor cortex activity. However, a long-standing question is whether preferred tempo is determined biologically. To uncover the neural correlates of preferred tempo, we first determined an individual's preferred tempo using a multistep procedure. Subsequently, we correlated the preferred tempo with a general EEG timing parameter as well as perceptual and motor EEG correlates-namely, individual alpha frequency, auditory evoked gamma band response, and motor beta activity. Results showed a significant relation between preferred tempo and the frequency of motor beta activity. These findings suggest that individual tempo preferences result from neural activity in the motor cortex, explaining the interindividual variation.

  9. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  10. A rare and sinister variant of a common ailment: Fungal malignant otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Lilic, N; Mowjood, MT; Wong, MHW

    2012-01-01

    A recent case report in this journal highlighted the pathophysiology and management of bacterial malignant otitis externa (MOE) (1). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who had a delayed diagnosis of fungal MOE with advanced diseased at time of diagnosis. This case highlights the changing microbiology of this serious disease and the difficulty in diagnosis given the rarity of this form of otitis externa relative to its uncomplicated form. PMID:24960790

  11. Cognitive tempo in children and their parents.

    PubMed

    Salkind, N J

    1977-04-01

    An adoption study was conducted to determine if cognitive tempo (as characterized by errors and latencies on the Matching Familiar Figures Test) is more similar between parents and their biological children or between parents and their adopted children. Zero-order correlations between parents and children were not significant (regardless of familial relationship), but the results of canonical correlations for mean of parents' scores with those of biological and adopted children respectively were consonant with hypothesized values, suggesting a degree of heritability exists. A slight trend for parents' latency to be consistently related to their biological children's latency was noted, but no such trend was present for errors. The heritability of latency versus errors in cognitive tempo is discussed.

  12. Otitis externa associated with aquatic activities (swimmer's ear).

    PubMed

    Strauss, M B; Dierker, R L

    1987-01-01

    Infections of the ear canal may vary in terms of severity. Their frequency and morbidity qualify them as significant aquatic problems. The aquatic environment adds the conditional variable of moisture to the ear canal. Usually bacteria are introduced with the moisture and in the warm environment of the canal multiply, generate debris, invade the canal lining, and generate the symptoms of otitis externa. Fortunately, the incidence of this condition can be minimized by eliminating moisture in the canal. In situations where excessive moisture is likely to be introduced such as in swimmers, scuba divers, and deep sea divers the prophylactic measures of desiccation and acidification of the canal should be used. They are very effective. In the saturation diver, ear canal infections are not likely to resolve without interruption of diving activities. Individuals who have recurring ear canal infections require evaluation by an ear specialist to identify possible remedial problems that can trigger infection. Correction of anatomical problems or underlying dermatoses can prevent recurrences of OE.

  13. Malignant otitis externa in a healthy non-diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Peng, Hong; Mo, Ting-Ting; Liang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    A healthy 60-year-old male was initially treated for external otitis, and subsequently received multiple surgeries including abscess drainage, temporal bone debridement, canaloplasty of the external auditory meatus, and fistula excision and was treated with numerous antibiotics at another hospital over a 1-year period. He was seen at our hospital on February 14, 2014 with a complaint of a non-healing wound behind the left ear and drainage of purulent fluid. He had no history of diabetes mellitus or compromised immune function. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies at our hospital showed osteomyelitis involving the left temporal, occipital, and sphenoid bones, the mandible, and an epidural abscess. Routine blood testing and tests of immune function were normal, and no evidence of other infectious processes was found. He was diagnosed with malignant otitis externa (MOE). Bone debridement and incision and drainage of the epidural abscess were performed, and vancomycin was administered because culture results revealed Corynebacterium jeikeium, Corynebacterium xerosis, and Enterococcus faecalis. MOE should be considered in healthy patients with external otitis who fail initial treatment. PMID:26233245

  14. [N. Leonicenus interpretes of Galen on causa coniuncta].

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The philosopher and physician Nicolò Leoniceno, one of the most important members of the Medical Humanism, in the N. Leoniceni in libros Galeni e Graeca in linguam Latinam a se translatos Praefatio communis (1508) discusses his emendation to Galens's Ars Medicinalis (28, 4 Boudon = I 381 Kühn, [see text]). In spite of the debatable conjecture, it is a significant effort to solve a serious contradiction in Galen's text. Leoniceno rejects the solutions proposed by the Arabic and Medieval Latin commentators and offers the right interpretation of causa coniuncta in Galen's concept of disease.

  15. [N. Leonicenus interpretes of Galen on causa coniuncta].

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The philosopher and physician Nicolò Leoniceno, one of the most important members of the Medical Humanism, in the N. Leoniceni in libros Galeni e Graeca in linguam Latinam a se translatos Praefatio communis (1508) discusses his emendation to Galens's Ars Medicinalis (28, 4 Boudon = I 381 Kühn, [see text]). In spite of the debatable conjecture, it is a significant effort to solve a serious contradiction in Galen's text. Leoniceno rejects the solutions proposed by the Arabic and Medieval Latin commentators and offers the right interpretation of causa coniuncta in Galen's concept of disease. PMID:21563489

  16. Synthesis and reactivity of a transition metal complex containing exclusively TEMPO ligands: Ni(η2-TEMPO)2.

    PubMed

    Isrow, Derek; Captain, Burjor

    2011-07-01

    The reaction of Ni(COD)(2) with two equivalents of the TEMPO radical at 68 °C affords the 16 e(-) "bow-tie" complex Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(2), 1, in 78% yield. Compound 1 reacts with tert-butyl isocyanide and phenylacetylene at room temperature to yield the 16 e(-) distorted square planar nickel complexes Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(η(1)-TEMPO)(CN(t)Bu), 2, and Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(η(1)-TEMPOH)(CCPh), 4, respectively. The facile reactivity of 1 is aided by the transition of the TEMPO ligand from an η(2) to η(1) binding mode. Complex 4 is an unusual example of hydrogen atom transfer from phenylacetylene to a coordinated TEMPO ligand.

  17. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  18. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  19. A review of techniques for the investigation of otitis externa and otitis media.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K M

    2001-11-01

    Otitis externa, inflammation of the externa ear canal, is relatively easy to diagnose based on the history and physical examination findings. The diagnosis of otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear cavity, is more challenging, with the work-up being both costly and, at times, invasive. The pathogenesis of otitis externa has been classified into predisposing, primary, and perpetuating factors. It is critical to the management of ear disease that the clinician recognize and investigate which factors are contributing to each individual patient's ear disease. Failure to identify and address the primary and/or predisposing factors is the most common cause of chronic recurrent otitis externa. Chronic inflammation of the ear canal leads to the development of the perpetuating factors, which may be the major reason for treatment failure, regardless of the primary cause of the ear disease. In this article, the predisposing, primary, and perpetuating factors involved in ear disease will be presented, along with a review of the techniques used in the diagnosis of otitis externa and otitis media. PMID:11793879

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in "sine causa" recurrent abortion.

    PubMed

    Olliaro, P; Regazzetti, A; Gorini, G; Milano, F; Marchetti, A; Rondanelli, E G

    One hundred and one women suffering from "sine causa" recurrent abortion were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) infection by using direct examination, cultural and serological procedures. In this series, C.T. infection did not appear to be related to increased risk of recurrent abortion. The culture-positive and serology-positive rates (14.85% and 34.65%, respectively) did not differ from other unselected populations. Neither time from last abortion nor type of abortion were significantly related to C.T. infection. Nonetheless, the women who underwent examination within one year from last abortion and had a culture-positive partner as well, were more likely to present with a C.T.-positive culture.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Penna, B.; Thomé, S.; Martins, R.; Martins, G.; Lilenbaum, W.

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:24031774

  2. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18–35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate—acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04–0.15 Hz) to high (0.15–0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  3. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  4. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  5. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  6. Brain oscillations and electroencephalography scalp networks during tempo perception.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yin; Ma, Weiyi; Tian, Chunyang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-12-01

    In the current study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the relation between musical tempo perception and the oscillatory activity in specific brain regions, and the scalp EEG networks in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. The results showed that the theta power at the frontal midline decreased with increased arousal level related to tempo. The alpha power induced by original music at the bilateral occipital-parietal regions was stronger than that by tempo-transformed music. The beta power did not change with tempo. At the network level, the original music-related alpha network had high global efficiency and the optimal path length. This study was the first to use EEG to investigate multi-oscillatory activities and the data support the tempo-specific timing hypothesis.

  7. Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

  8. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  9. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  10. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  11. Implementation of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The updated status of TEMPO, as it proceeds from formulation phase into implementation phase is presented. TEMPO, the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. GEO-CAPE is not planned for implementation this decade. However, instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form parts of a global GEO constellation for pollution monitoring later this decade, with a major focus on intercontinental

  12. The tempo and mode of barnacle evolution.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Harp, Margaret; Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Watanabe, Hiromi; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic attempts at resolving barnacle evolutionary relationships are few and have relied on limited taxon sampling. Here we combine DNA sequences from three nuclear genes (18S, 28S and H3) and 44 morphological characters collected from 76 thoracican (ingroup) and 15 rhizocephalan (outgroup) species representing almost all the Thoracica families to assess the tempo and mode of barnacle evolution. Using phylogenetic methods of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference and 14 fossil calibrations, we found that: (1) Iblomorpha form a monophyletic group; (2) pedunculated barnacles without shell plates (Heteralepadomorpha) are not ancestral, but have evolved, at least twice, from plated forms; (3) the ontogenetic pattern with 5-->6-->8-->12+ plates does not reflect Thoracica shell evolution; (4) the traditional asymmetric barnacles (Verrucidae) and the Balanomorpha are each monophyletic and together they form a monophyletic group; (5) asymmetry and loss of a peduncle have evolved twice in the Thoracica, resulting in neither the Verrucomorpha nor the Sessilia forming monophyletic groups in their present definitions; (6) the Scalpellomorpha are not monophyletic; (7) the Thoracica suborders evolved since the Early Carboniferous (340mya) with the final radiation of the Sessilia in the Upper Jurassic (147mya). These results, therefore, reject many of the underlying hypotheses about character evolution in the Cirripedia Thoracica, stimulate a variety of new thoughts on thoracican radiation, and suggest the need for a major rearrangement in thoracican classification based on estimated phylogenetic relationships.

  13. A fast electrochromic polymer based on TEMPO substituted polytriphenylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lvlv; Dai, Yuyu; Yan, Shuanma; Lv, Xiaojing; Su, Chang; Xu, Lihuan; Lv, Yaokang; Ouyang, Mi; Chen, Zuofeng; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel strategy to obtain rapid electrochromic switching response by introducing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) moiety into polytriphenylamine backbone has been developed. The electrochromic properties of the integrated polymer film are investigated and a possible mechanism is proposed with TEMPO as a counterion-reservoir group to rapidly balance the charges during electrochromic switching, which leads to significantly improved electrochromism performance.

  14. A fast electrochromic polymer based on TEMPO substituted polytriphenylamine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lvlv; Dai, Yuyu; Yan, Shuanma; Lv, Xiaojing; Su, Chang; Xu, Lihuan; Lv, Yaokang; Ouyang, Mi; Chen, Zuofeng; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-07-22

    A novel strategy to obtain rapid electrochromic switching response by introducing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) moiety into polytriphenylamine backbone has been developed. The electrochromic properties of the integrated polymer film are investigated and a possible mechanism is proposed with TEMPO as a counterion-reservoir group to rapidly balance the charges during electrochromic switching, which leads to significantly improved electrochromism performance.

  15. A fast electrochromic polymer based on TEMPO substituted polytriphenylamine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lvlv; Dai, Yuyu; Yan, Shuanma; Lv, Xiaojing; Su, Chang; Xu, Lihuan; Lv, Yaokang; Ouyang, Mi; Chen, Zuofeng; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy to obtain rapid electrochromic switching response by introducing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) moiety into polytriphenylamine backbone has been developed. The electrochromic properties of the integrated polymer film are investigated and a possible mechanism is proposed with TEMPO as a counterion-reservoir group to rapidly balance the charges during electrochromic switching, which leads to significantly improved electrochromism performance. PMID:27444398

  16. A fast electrochromic polymer based on TEMPO substituted polytriphenylamine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lvlv; Dai, Yuyu; Yan, Shuanma; Lv, Xiaojing; Su, Chang; Xu, Lihuan; Lv, Yaokang; Ouyang, Mi; Chen, Zuofeng; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy to obtain rapid electrochromic switching response by introducing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) moiety into polytriphenylamine backbone has been developed. The electrochromic properties of the integrated polymer film are investigated and a possible mechanism is proposed with TEMPO as a counterion-reservoir group to rapidly balance the charges during electrochromic switching, which leads to significantly improved electrochromism performance. PMID:27444398

  17. Temporal predictions based on a gradual change in tempo.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas E; Grube, Manon; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies investigating sensitivity to step changes in tempo and prediction of tone onset time have generally utilized isochronous sequences. This study investigates subjects' ability to detect deviations from a gradual change in the tempo of a tone sequence (experiment 1) and their judgment of the perceptually optimal timing of this tone (experiment 2). In experiment 1, inter-onset-intervals within pairs of eight-tone sequences followed a geometric progression to create a gradual tempo change. In one sequence, the final tone was presented either earlier or later than specified by the progression. Subjects performed well at detecting deviations that exaggerated the tempo progression but poorly when it was counteracted. Experiment 2 used similar pairs except that the final tone was always presented earlier in one sequence than the other. Final interval length was adaptively adjusted to subjects' judgments; it was adjudged in best agreement with the progression when its length was roughly half way between the mathematically correct value and the length of the penultimate interval. The data support "multiple-look" and entrainment models of tempo sensitivity and suggest that temporal prediction is based less on the tempo contour of a whole sequence than on the duration of the preceding interval.

  18. Comparative study of the microbial profile from bilateral canine otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lis C; Leite, Carlos A L; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Carvalho, Cibele B M

    2008-08-01

    Fifty dogs with bilateral otitis externa were studied over a 10-month period. The exudates of both external ears were obtained, using sterile swabs, and microorganisms were isolated according to standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus intermedius was done by the agar diffusion method. There was bacterial and/or fungal growth in all of the samples. These were all polymicrobial infections. Anaerobic bacteria were not isolated in any sample. The most common pathogens isolated were S. intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the isolation pattern between the right and left ears in 34 of the 50 animals (68%). High resistance rates of S. intermedius strains to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were found. The results suggest that in bilateral canine otitis externa, each ear should be cultured separately and considered as separate units.

  19. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-11-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  20. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test.

  1. Effect of Binghuang ear drop treatment on otitis externa in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Suo-qiang; Yu, Ning; Guo, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of Binghuang ear drop on acute suppurative otitis externa in guinea pig model. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups, with ten animals in each group. Group A animals had normal ear canal and Binghuang ear drops (two drops, B.I.D) were applied in both ears for 7 days; Group B animals had induced otitis externa and received identical prescription as group A; Group C had normal ear canal and were treated with normal saline (two drops, B.I.D) for 7 days. After the treatments, the external morphology of ear canals was observed and the paraffin sections of external auditory canal were prepared and examined under the microscope. The inflammatory manifestation and cell infiltration into the skin of group B was significantly attenuated after the Binghuang ear drops treatment. In contrast, no allergy or side effects were produced by Binghuang ear drops application in the animals with normal ear canals. Binghuang ear drops could be used to treat acute otitis externa by eliciting anti-bacterial effects. PMID:25269771

  2. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, A; Sukegawa, T; Mizumoto, N; Tani, H; Miyamoto, T; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2000-11-01

    An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). Ninety-five auditory cerumen specimens were cultured for Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) and analyzed for concentrations of major fatty acids. Although rates of cases positive for M. pachydermatis in both ear pinna shapes were almost the same, i.e. 55.2% in the pendulous group and 53.6% in the erect group, the average total fatty acid level of the pendulous ear group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the erect ear group after dismissing extraordinary levels in the Siberian husky. Isolated M. pachydermatis strains were examined for the effects of fatty acid supplementation on their growth. The majority of the strains utilized fatty acids and grew faster in fatty acid supplemented broth. These results suggest that M. pachydermatis, the predominant causative agent of canine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed.

  3. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms are an essential characteristic of our lives, and auditory-motor coupling affects a variety of behaviors. Previous research has shown that the neural regions associated with motor system processing are coupled to perceptual rhythmic and melodic processing such that the perception of rhythmic stimuli can entrain motor system responses. However, the degree to which individual preference modulates the motor system is unknown. Recent work has shown that passively listening to metrically strong rhythms increases corticospinal excitability, as indicated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, this effect is modulated by high-groove music, or music that inspires movement, while neuroimaging evidence suggests that premotor activity increases with tempos occurring within a preferred tempo (PT) category. PT refers to the rate of a hypothetical endogenous oscillator that may be indicated by spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) and preferred perceptual tempo (PPT) measurements. The present study investigated whether listening to a rhythm at an individual’s PT preferentially modulates motor system excitability. SMT was obtained in human participants through a tapping task in which subjects were asked to tap a response key at their most comfortable rate. Subjects listened a 10-beat tone sequence at 11 log-spaced tempos and rated their preference for each (PPT). We found that SMT and PPT measurements were correlated, indicating that preferred and produced tempos occurred at a similar rate. Crucially, single-pulse TMS delivered to left M1 during PPT judgments revealed that corticospinal excitability, measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was modulated by tempos traveling closer to individual PT. However, the specific nature of this modulation differed across individuals, with some exhibiting an increase in excitability around PT and others exhibiting a decrease. These findings suggest that auditory-motor coupling induced by rhythms is preferentially

  4. Status of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies.TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available.TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form

  5. Remembering the melody and timbre, forgetting the key and tempo.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The identity of a melody is independent of surface features such as key (pitch level), tempo (speed), and timbre (musical instrument). We examined the duration of memory for melodies (tunes) and whether such memory is affected by changes in key, tempo, or timbre. After listening to previously unfamiliar melodies twice, participants provided recognition ratings for the same (old) melodies as well as for an equal number of new melodies. The delay between initial exposure and test was 10 min, 1 day, or 1 week. In Experiment 1, half of the old melodies were transposed by six semitones or shifted in tempo by 64 beats per minute. In Experiment 2, half of the old melodies were changed in timbre (piano to saxophone, or vice versa). In both experiments, listeners remembered the melodies, and there was no forgetting over the course of a week. Changing the key or tempo from exposure to test had a detrimental impact on recognition after 10 min and 1 day, but not after 1 week. Changing the timbre affected recognition negatively after all three delays. Mental representations of unfamiliar melodies appear to be consolidated after only two presentations. These representations include surface information unrelated to a melody's identity, although information about key and tempo fades at a faster rate than information about timbre. PMID:25802029

  6. Remembering the melody and timbre, forgetting the key and tempo.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The identity of a melody is independent of surface features such as key (pitch level), tempo (speed), and timbre (musical instrument). We examined the duration of memory for melodies (tunes) and whether such memory is affected by changes in key, tempo, or timbre. After listening to previously unfamiliar melodies twice, participants provided recognition ratings for the same (old) melodies as well as for an equal number of new melodies. The delay between initial exposure and test was 10 min, 1 day, or 1 week. In Experiment 1, half of the old melodies were transposed by six semitones or shifted in tempo by 64 beats per minute. In Experiment 2, half of the old melodies were changed in timbre (piano to saxophone, or vice versa). In both experiments, listeners remembered the melodies, and there was no forgetting over the course of a week. Changing the key or tempo from exposure to test had a detrimental impact on recognition after 10 min and 1 day, but not after 1 week. Changing the timbre affected recognition negatively after all three delays. Mental representations of unfamiliar melodies appear to be consolidated after only two presentations. These representations include surface information unrelated to a melody's identity, although information about key and tempo fades at a faster rate than information about timbre.

  7. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols.

  8. Mechanism of copper(I)/TEMPO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-02-13

    Homogeneous Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) have emerged as some of the most versatile and practical catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Recently, we disclosed a (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system (NMI = N-methylimidazole) that exhibits fast rates and high selectivities, even with unactivated aliphatic alcohols. Here, we present a mechanistic investigation of this catalyst system, in which we compare the reactivity of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. This work includes analysis of catalytic rates by gas-uptake and in situ IR kinetic methods and characterization of the catalyst speciation during the reaction by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods. The data support a two-stage catalytic mechanism consisting of (1) "catalyst oxidation" in which Cu(I) and TEMPO-H are oxidized by O(2) via a binuclear Cu(2)O(2) intermediate and (2) "substrate oxidation" mediated by Cu(II) and the nitroxyl radical of TEMPO via a Cu(II)-alkoxide intermediate. Catalytic rate laws, kinetic isotope effects, and spectroscopic data show that reactions of benzylic and aliphatic alcohols have different turnover-limiting steps. Catalyst oxidation by O(2) is turnover limiting with benzylic alcohols, while numerous steps contribute to the turnover rate in the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:23317450

  9. Spontaneous tempo and rhythmic entrainment in a bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Gray, Patricia M

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of speech and music in the human species represent major evolutionary transitions that enabled the use of complex, temporally structured acoustic signals to coordinate social interaction. While the fundamental capacity for temporal coordination with complex acoustic signals has been shown in a few distantly related species, the extent to which nonhuman primates exhibit sensitivity to auditory rhythms remains controversial. In Experiment 1, we assessed spontaneous motor tempo and tempo matching in a bonobo (Pan paniscus), in the context of a social drumming interaction. In Experiment 2, the bonobo spontaneously entrained and synchronized her drum strikes within a range around her spontaneous motor tempo. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of acoustic communication builds upon fundamental neurodynamic mechanisms that can be found in a wide range of species, and are recruited for social interactions.

  10. Spontaneous tempo and rhythmic entrainment in a bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Gray, Patricia M

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of speech and music in the human species represent major evolutionary transitions that enabled the use of complex, temporally structured acoustic signals to coordinate social interaction. While the fundamental capacity for temporal coordination with complex acoustic signals has been shown in a few distantly related species, the extent to which nonhuman primates exhibit sensitivity to auditory rhythms remains controversial. In Experiment 1, we assessed spontaneous motor tempo and tempo matching in a bonobo (Pan paniscus), in the context of a social drumming interaction. In Experiment 2, the bonobo spontaneously entrained and synchronized her drum strikes within a range around her spontaneous motor tempo. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of acoustic communication builds upon fundamental neurodynamic mechanisms that can be found in a wide range of species, and are recruited for social interactions. PMID:26147705

  11. MTV-style home video generation via tempo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Hung; Yeh, Chia H.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2004-10-01

    Intelligent video pre-processing and authoring techniques that facilitate people to create MTV-style music video clips are investigated in this research. First, we present an automatic approach to detect and remove bad shots often occurring in home video, such as video with poor lighting or motion blur. Then, we consider the generation of MTV-style video clips by performing video and music tempo analysis and seeking an effective way in matching these two tempos. Experiment results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed techniques for home video editing.

  12. Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  13. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  14. The Effect of Articulation Style on Perception of Modulated Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…

  15. Control of Humorous Affect in Relation to Children's Conceptual Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinsky, David M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between conceptual tempo and control of humorous affect in young children. Records the responses of reflective, fast-accurate, impulsive, and slow-accurate fourth-grade children to a videotape of an adult telling a series of jokes, half of which are followed by audience laughter. (CM)

  16. The Tempo of Sexual Activity and Later Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba R.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long-term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low- to moderate-income…

  17. Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age =…

  18. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  19. TEMPO: a mobile catalyst for rechargeable Li-O₂ batteries.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Schürmann, Adrian; Peppler, Klaus; Garsuch, Arnd; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-10-22

    Nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries are an intensively studied future energy storage technology because of their high theoretical energy density. However, a number of barriers prevent a practical application, and one of the major challenges is the reduction of the high charge overpotential: Whereas lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is formed during discharge at around 2.7 V (vs Li(+)/Li), its electrochemical decomposition during the charge process requires potentials up to 4.5 V. This high potential gap leads to a low round-trip efficiency of the cell, and more importantly, the high charge potential causes electrochemical decomposition of other cell constituents. Dissolved oxidation catalysts can act as mobile redox mediators (RM), which enable the oxidation of Li2O2 particles even without a direct electric contact to the positive electrode. Herein we show that the addition of 10 mM TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl), homogeneously dissolved in the electrolyte, provides a distinct reduction of the charging potentials by 500 mV. Moreover, TEMPO enables a significant enhancement of the cycling stability leading to a doubling of the cycle life. The efficiency of the TEMPO mediated catalysis was further investigated by a parallel monitoring of the cell pressure, which excludes a considerable contribution of a parasitic shuttle (i.e., internal ionic short circuit) to the anode during cycling. We prove the suitability of TEMPO by a systematic study of the relevant physical and chemical properties, i.e., its (electro)chemical stability, redox potential, diffusion coefficient and the influence on the oxygen solubility. Furthermore, the charging mechanisms of Li-O2 cells with and without TEMPO were compared by combining different electrochemical and analytical techniques.

  20. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  1. Polyvinylamine-graft-TEMPO adsorbs onto, oxidizes, and covalently bonds to wet cellulose.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Robert; Ren, Pengchao; Liu, Jieyi; Mijolovic, Darijo

    2011-04-11

    Described is a new, greener approach to increasing adhesion between wet cellulose surfaces. Polyvinylamine (PVAm) with grafted TEMPO spontaneously adsorbs onto cellulose and oxidizes the C6 hydroxyl to aldehyde groups that react to form covalent bonds with primary amines on PVAm. Grafted TEMPO offers two important advantages over solutions of low-molecular-weight water-soluble TEMPO derivatives. First, the oxidation of porous cellulose wood fibers is restricted to the exterior surfaces accessible to high-molecular-weight PVAm. Thus, fibers are not weakened by excessive oxidation of the interior fiber wall surfaces. The second advantage of tethered TEMPO is that the total dose of TEMPO required to oxidize dilute fiber suspensions is much less than that required by water-soluble TEMPO derivatives. PVAm-TEMPO is stable under oxidizing conditions. The oxidation activity of the immobilized TEMPO was demonstrated by the conversion of methylglyoxal to pyruvic acid.

  2. Selective N,O-Addition of the TEMPO Radical to Conjugated Boryldienes.

    PubMed

    Türkyilmaz, Fatma; Kehr, Gerald; Li, Jun; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Tesch, Matthias; Studer, Armido; Erker, Gerhard

    2016-01-22

    B(C6F5)2-containing boryldienes 4 underwent the addition of two molar equivalents of TEMPO to give N,O-bonded four-membered heterocyclic products 7. The reaction is a metal-free example of the generation of reactive nitrogen-centered TEMPO radical derivatives, in this case by the addition of TEMPO to the borane, followed by carbon-nitrogen bond formation and subsequent trapping of the resulting allyl radical by the second equivalent of TEMPO.

  3. Grover Cleveland High School Project CAUSA, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, Project CAUSA completed a three-year funding cycle at Grover Cleveland High School in Queens, New York. The project provided 132 newly arrived students from Italy and several Spanish-speaking countries with instruction in English as a second language (ESL), native language arts, and content areas. Basic goals were to help students…

  4. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) .

  5. In vitro evaluation of the synergistic activity of neomycin-polymyxin B association against pathogens responsible for otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Mangiafico, A; Genovese, C; Giudice, E; Mastrojeni, S; Nicolosi, D; Ferneri, P M

    2009-01-01

    The most recent guidelines recommend, for otitis externa antibiotic therapy, the use of topical formulations in that they are very safe, have a quicker effect and do not induce bacterial resistance compared to systemic therapy. The choice of the class of antibiotics in empiric therapy of otitis externa must take into consideration the polymicrobic nature of the infection that includes both bacteria (Grampositive and Gram-negative) and mycetes. For this reason, in this study we evaluated the synergic activity of neomycin in association with polymyxin B against the pathogens commonly responsible for otitis externa, compared to that of a single antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The polymyxinB/neomycin association shows clear synergic effects with values of both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) reduced by 3-4 times with respect to the single antibiotic; and in P. aeruginosa the synergistic effect of the neomycin/polymyxin B association with respect to neomycin was more evident (5-6 times), with an intrinsic in vitro activity constantly higher than that of ciprofloxacin alone or in association with hydrocortisone. From the analysis of the data obtained in vitro, we can conclude that the possibility of using a topical formulation containing a synergistic association of antibiotics, such as neomycin-polymyxin B, in such a way as to obtain the maximum effect in the minimum time with an increase in the spectrum of action of non-bacterial pathogens, is an optimal choice for the clinician for the empiric therapy of otitis externa.

  6. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ≤ 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  7. Suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens as food source for the green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Venzon, Madelaine; Rosado, Maria C; Euzébio, Denise E; Souza, Brígida; Schoereder, José H

    2006-01-01

    Diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. In this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. Newly emerged females and males of C. externa were reared on diets containing pollen of pigeon pea, sunn hemp, or castor bean, used as a control. The reproductive success of C. externa was evaluated when females fed the pollen species and when honey was added to the diets, to verify the predator need for an extra carbohydrate source. Similar intrinsic growth rates were found for females fed on pigeon pea pollen and on sunn hemp pollen but these rates increased significantly when honey was added to the diets. Females fed with pigeon pea pollen plus honey and with sunn hemp pollen plus honey had higher intrinsic growth rates than those fed with castor bean pollen plus honey. Females fed on castor bean pollen only or on honey only, did not oviposit. Leguminous pollen species were equally suitable for C. externa especially when they were complemented with honey. The results suggest that to successfully enhance predator effectiveness, organic coffee plantation should be diversified with plant providing pollen in combination with plant providing nectar.

  8. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Caroline

    2001-05-01

    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  9. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed. PMID:27551819

  10. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed.

  11. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context.

    PubMed

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  12. Operant generalization of auditory tempo in quail neonates.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susan M; Lickliter, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Operant generalization, a building block of cognition, has never been studied in neonates. We developed a preparation for newly hatched quail in order to investigate the form of the generalization gradient very early in development. For their first 4-5 days after hatching, northern bobwhite chicks pecked for brief heat presentations while hearing a high-pitched sound repeated at a constant rate (nondifferential training). Tempo generalization was then assessed in extinction. A significantly excitatory average gradient resulted despite minimal postnatal experience.

  13. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context

    PubMed Central

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  14. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song.

  15. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song. PMID:24972559

  16. Population genetics of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Lavagnini, T C; Morales, A C; Freitas, S

    2015-11-01

    Green lacewings are insects with great potential to be use in the biological control of agricultural pests, but relatively few studies have attempted to understand the genetic structure of these agents, especially those of predatory insects. The purpose of this study was to characterize genetically populations of C. externa using sequences of subunit I of the cytochrome oxidase, a mitochondrial gene, and examine the population structure of this species in sampled areas in São Paulo state. The results indicate high genetic diversity but no genetic structure, detected by AMOVA analysis, and high levels of haplotype sharing in the network. These genetic patterns could be a consequence of environmental homogeneity provided by agroecosystem (citrus orchard), allowing gene flow among populations. Probably there is a unique population in the area sampled that could be used as a population (genetic) source for mass-reared and posterior release in these farms.

  17. Honoris Causa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawson, M. A.

    Chancellor: Abdus Salam is a man of three worlds, the world of theoretical physics, the world of international co-operation, and the world of Islam. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979, for his theoretical unification of two of the fundamental forces of nature. One of these two is the familiar force of electromagnetism, the force which drives electric trains and which allows telecommunication. The other is a less familiar but equally important force, the so-called weak nuclear force which causes radioactivity and which is also largely responsible for the heat of the sun. It took the genius of Abdus Salam to show that these two forces are simply different manifestations of one and the same fundamental force. Predictions from his theory have been abundantly verified by experiment. So the four known fundamental forces of nature — gravitation, strong nuclear forces, weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism — have been reduced from four to three. Undoubtedly this marks one of the leading conceptual advances of the century…

  18. Toy play, play tempo, and reaction to frustration in infants.

    PubMed

    Longo, J; Harvey, A; Wilson, S; Deni, R

    1982-08-01

    Measures of toy play including duration and tempo of play were obtained for a combined sample of 7 male and 5 female infants 22 to 26 mo. of age. Additional measures of reaction to frustration were obtained during a second session where toys were placed out of reach of the subjects. Measures of frustration included crying, squirm/escape attempts, and non-crying vocalizations. Several correlations between toy play and reaction to frustration were found and were indicative of a general relationship between response persistence during play and attempts to escape from the frustrating situation. PMID:7133910

  19. Tempo, mode, the progenote, and the universal root.

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W F; Brown, J R

    1994-01-01

    Early cellular evolution differed in both mode and tempo from the contemporary process. If modern lineages first began to diverge when the phenotype-genotype coupling was still poorly articulated, then we might be able to learn something about the evolution of that coupling through comparing the molecular biologies of living organisms. The issue is whether the last common ancestor of all life, the cenancestor, was a primitive entity, a progenote, with a more rudimentary genetic information-transfer system. Thinking on this issue is still unsettled. Much depends on the placement of the root of the universal tree and on whether or not lateral transfer renders such rooting meaningless. PMID:8041689

  20. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria and yeasts isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Lyskova, P; Vydrzalova, M; Mazurova, J

    2007-12-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of the external ear canal of dogs with otitis externa and of healthy dogs were studied. The most frequently isolated microorganism from otitic ears was Staphylococcus intermedius (58.8%), followed by Malassezia pachydermatis (30.9%), Streptococcus canis (29.9%), Proteus spp. (14.4%) and Escherichia coli (10.3%). A statistical analysis of our results showed that the prevalence of these microorganisms is significant in dogs with otitis externa. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains were determined. Majority of all bacterial isolates were most susceptible to gentamicin. Malassezia pachydermatis, the most prevalent yeast in this study, showed an excellent level of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested.

  1. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . PMID:25327755

  2. Multi-scale Characterization of Cellulose TEMPO-Nanofiber Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yimin; Liu, Kai; Hsiao, Benjamin

    Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) suspensions were characterized at multiple length scales. CNF suspension was prepared by applying 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1- piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) oxidation method to dry wood pulp. TEMPO method was able to produce fine fibers with a cross section dimension being in the order of magnitude of several nanometers, and length being several hundred nanometers. The surface was negatively charged. Charge density was characterized by Zeta-potential measurement. Both small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and small-angle neutron (SANS) methods were employed to examine fiber dimensions in solution. Data fitting indicated that newly-developed ribbon model was able to capture the essence of CNF's geometry, which is also computationally economic. The rectangular-shaped cross section was consistent to cellulose's crystal structure; and was able to provide insights into how cellulose crystals were biologically synthesized and packed in nature. Multi-angle dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to study CNF's diffusion properties. A strong scattering-angle dependence of auto-correlation function was observed. The characterization is useful to understanding suspension quality of CNF, and can provide guideline for follow-up research aimed for a variety of applications.

  3. Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Hudson, P; Edwards, B

    2010-08-01

    In an in vivo laboratory controlled study, 12 healthy male students cycled at self-chosen work-rates while listening to a program of six popular music tracks of different tempi. The program lasted about 25 min and was performed on three occasions--unknown to the participants, its tempo was normal, increased by 10% or decreased by 10%. Work done, distance covered and cadence were measured at the end of each track, as were heart rate and subjective measures of exertion, thermal comfort and how much the music was liked. Speeding up the music program increased distance covered/unit time, power and pedal cadence by 2.1%, 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively; slowing the program produced falls of 3.8%, 9.8% and 5.9%. Average heart rate changes were +0.1% (faster program) and -2.2% (slower program). Perceived exertion and how much the music was liked increased (faster program) by 2.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and decreased (slower program) by 3.6% and 35.4%. That is, healthy individuals performing submaximal exercise not only worked harder with faster music but also chose to do so and enjoyed the music more when it was played at a faster tempo. Implications of these findings for improving training regimens are discussed.

  4. Latitude, elevation and the tempo of molecular evolution in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Len N; Keeling, D Jeanette; Ross, Howard A; Wright, Shane D

    2009-09-22

    Faster rates of microevolution have been recorded for plants and marine foraminifera occupying warmer low latitude environments relative to those occurring at higher latitudes. By contrast, because this rate heterogeneity has been attributed to a relationship between thermal habit and mutagenesis via a body temperature linkage, it has been assumed that microevolution in mammals should not also vary systematically with environmental temperature. However, this assumption has not previously been empirically examined. In this study, we tested for a thermally mediated influence on the tempo of microevolution among mammals using a comprehensive global dataset that included 260 mammal species, from 10 orders and 29 families. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we found that substitution rates in the cytochrome b gene have been substantially faster for species living in warmer latitudes and elevations relative to sister species living in cooler habitats. These results could not be attributed to factors otherwise thought to influence rates of microevolution, such as body mass differentials or genetic drift. Instead, the results indicate that the tempo of microevolution among mammals is either responding directly to the thermal environment or indirectly via an ecological mechanism such as the 'Red Queen' effect.

  5. Comparison of lipid profiles of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa and without clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Urszula; Siemieniuk, Magdalena; Pyrkowska, Aleksandra; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Bieganska, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Iwona; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Tylicki, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It becomes a problem also in medicine. It is considered that metabolic disorders as well as hormonal and immunological status of the host promote diseases caused by M. pachydermatis. Here we consider whether specific features of fungi could also favour infections. We checked whether there are differences in lipid profiles between strains obtained from dogs with otitis externa and strains obtained from healthy dogs. Lipid profiles were determined using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All analyses were carried out on 32 strains derived from dogs with otitis externa and 31 strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of disease. The results show that strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of otitis externa are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids. They contain significantly more behenic and lignoceric acids on medium without addition of lipids, and more oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids on medium with lipids supplementation. These strains have also a higher content of esters of ergosterol and triglycerides. Data obtained show differences which may be specific features of M. pachydermatis-specific strains related to the ability of infection, which could be not directly related of the host condition.

  6. Clinical evaluation of an antiinflammatory and antioxidant diet effect in 30 dogs affected by chronic otitis externa: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Beribè, Francesca; Laus, Fulvio; Cerquetella, Matteo; Spaterna, Andrea; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the possible role of a specific nutraceutical diet in relieving main clinical symptoms of chronic bilateral otitis externa (occlusion of ear canal, erythema, discharge quantity, and odor) in 30 adult dogs. Thirty dogs of different breeds (mean age ± SEM; 6.03 ± 0.15 years and mean weight ± SEM; 32.01 ± 1.17 Kg; 53.3% males, 46.6% females) with evident chronic clinical otitis symptoms were equally divided and randomly assigned to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group) or a standard diet (SD group) over a period of 90 days. In all cases a topical pharmacological treatment was given. The nutraceutical diet, also endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, significantly decreased the mean score intensity of all symptoms after 90 days of intervention (P < 0.0001) with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis infection which was only slightly reduced. Our investigation is one of the few evidence-based results where a commercial nutraceutical diet has been proven effective, in combination with drugs, in relieving otitis externa-related symptoms. This study opens new insights into otitis externa clinical management providing evidence of efficacy of a combined therapy with drugs and a specific nutraceutical diet.

  7. Nitroxide TEMPO: a genotoxic and oxidative stress inducer in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Guo, Lei; Shaddock, Joseph G; Heflich, Robert H; Bigger, Anita H; Moore, Martha M; Mei, Nan

    2013-08-01

    2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) is a low molecular weight nitroxide and stable free radical. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of TEMPO in mammalian cells using the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. In the absence of metabolic activation (S9), 3mM TEMPO produced significant cytotoxicity and marginal mutagenicity in the MLA; in the presence of S9, treatment of mouse lymphoma cells with 1-2mM TEMPO resulted in dose-dependent decreases of the relative total growth and increases in mutant frequency. Treatment of TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells with 0.9-2.3mM TEMPO increased the frequency of both micronuclei (a marker for clastogenicity) and hypodiploid nuclei (a marker of aneugenicity) in a dose-dependent manner; greater responses were produced in the presence of S9. Within the dose range tested, TEMPO induced reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels in mouse lymphoma cells. In addition, the majority of TEMPO-induced mutants had loss of heterozygosity at the Tk locus, with allele loss of ⩽34Mbp. These results indicate that TEMPO is mutagenic in the MLA and induces micronuclei and hypodiploid nuclei in TK6 cells. Oxidative stress may account for part of the genotoxicity induced by TEMPO in both cell lines.

  8. Cu-Catalyzed Cyanation of Arylboronic Acids with Acetonitrile: A Dual Role of TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yamin; Li, Linyi; Shen, Zengming

    2015-09-14

    The cyanation of arylboronic acids by using acetonitrile as the "CN" source has been achieved under a Cu(cat.)/TEMPO system (TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide). The broad substrate scope includes a variety of electron-rich and electron-poor arylboronic acids, which react well to give the cyanated products in high to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies reveal that TEMPO-CH2 CN, generated in situ, is an active cyanating reagent, and shows high reactivity for the formation of the CN(-) moiety. Moreover, TEMPO acts as a cheap oxidant to enable the reaction to be catalytic in copper.

  9. MUSIC TEMPO'S EFFECT ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: COMMENT ON DYER AND McKUNE.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki

    2015-06-01

    Dyer and McKune (2013) stated that music tempo has no influence on performance, physiological, and psychophysical variables in well-trained cyclists during high intensity endurance tasks. However, there are important limitations in the methodology of the study. The participants' music preferences and tempo change were not well measured. It is not possible to affirm that music tempo does not influence athletes' performance. Potential areas of future research include: (a) use of instruments to assess the qualities of music; (b) standardizing music of tempo according to exercise type (e.g., running, cycling, etc.); PMID:26057422

  10. MUSIC TEMPO'S EFFECT ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: COMMENT ON DYER AND McKUNE.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki

    2015-06-01

    Dyer and McKune (2013) stated that music tempo has no influence on performance, physiological, and psychophysical variables in well-trained cyclists during high intensity endurance tasks. However, there are important limitations in the methodology of the study. The participants' music preferences and tempo change were not well measured. It is not possible to affirm that music tempo does not influence athletes' performance. Potential areas of future research include: (a) use of instruments to assess the qualities of music; (b) standardizing music of tempo according to exercise type (e.g., running, cycling, etc.);

  11. Tuning the reactivity of TEMPO by coordination to a Lewis acid: isolation and reactivity of MCl3(η1-TEMPO) (M = Fe, Al).

    PubMed

    Scepaniak, Jeremiah J; Wright, Ashley M; Lewis, Richard A; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2012-11-28

    Addition of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) to MCl(3) (M = Fe, Al) results in the formation of MCl(3)(η(1)-TEMPO) [M = Fe (1), Al (2)]. Both 1 and 2 oxidize alcohols to generate ketones or aldehydes along with the reduced complexes MCl(3)(η(1)-TEMPOH) [M = Fe (3), Al (4)]. Complexes 1-4 were fully characterized, including analysis by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, control experiments indicated that neither MCl(3) (M = Al, Fe) nor TEMPO are capable of effecting the oxidation of alcohols independently.

  12. Molecular mass and molecular-mass distribution of TEMPO-oxidized celluloses and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Hiraoki, Ryoya; Ono, Yuko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Native wood cellulose was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and the fibrous TEMPO-oxidized celluloses (TOCs) thus obtained were disintegrated in water to prepare TOC nanofibrils (TOCNs). The carboxyl groups of TOCs and TOCNs were methyl-esterified, and the methylated samples were dissolved in 8% LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide for size-exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser-light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis to obtain their molecular-mass (MM) values and MM distributions (MMDs). The results showed that remarkable depolymerization occurred in TOCs and TOCNs and depended on the oxidation and sonication conditions. Because single peaks without bimodal patterns were observed in the MMDs for all of the TOC and TOCN samples, depolymerization may have randomly occurred on whole cellulose molecules and oxidized cellulose molecules in the microfibrils during these treatments. Compared with the MM values obtained by SEC-MALLS, the intrinsic viscosities of TOCs dissolved in 0.5 M copper ethylenediamine solution provided lower MM values owing to depolymerization during the dissolution and postreduction processes.

  13. Molecular mass and molecular-mass distribution of TEMPO-oxidized celluloses and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Hiraoki, Ryoya; Ono, Yuko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Native wood cellulose was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and the fibrous TEMPO-oxidized celluloses (TOCs) thus obtained were disintegrated in water to prepare TOC nanofibrils (TOCNs). The carboxyl groups of TOCs and TOCNs were methyl-esterified, and the methylated samples were dissolved in 8% LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide for size-exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser-light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis to obtain their molecular-mass (MM) values and MM distributions (MMDs). The results showed that remarkable depolymerization occurred in TOCs and TOCNs and depended on the oxidation and sonication conditions. Because single peaks without bimodal patterns were observed in the MMDs for all of the TOC and TOCN samples, depolymerization may have randomly occurred on whole cellulose molecules and oxidized cellulose molecules in the microfibrils during these treatments. Compared with the MM values obtained by SEC-MALLS, the intrinsic viscosities of TOCs dissolved in 0.5 M copper ethylenediamine solution provided lower MM values owing to depolymerization during the dissolution and postreduction processes. PMID:25584418

  14. Effects of lifting tempo on one repetition maximum and hormonal responses to a bench press protocol.

    PubMed

    Headley, Samuel A; Henry, Kelley; Nindl, Bradley C; Thompson, Brian A; Kraemer, William J; Jones, Margaret T

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out in 2 parts: part 1 was designed to measure the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press with 2 different moderate-velocity tempos (2/0/2) vs. (2/0/4) in male lifters while part 2 compared the hormonal responses at the same tempos as described in part 1. In both parts 1 and 2, the 1RMs (lbs) were higher on the 2/0/2 tempo than on the 2/0/4 tempo. The change in plasma volume (PV) was greater after the 2/0/4 tempo (-5.7 ± 1.7% vs. 0.96 ± 1.2%, p < 0.05). All blood parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) higher post-exercise compared with baseline. With PV corrected, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (ng·mL⁻¹) was higher with the 2/0/2 tempo only (pre-exercise: 277.4 ± 21.8, post-exercise: 308.1 ± 22.9; 2/0/4 tempo pre-exercise: 277.2 ± 17.6, post-exercise: 284.8 ± 21.2). In conclusion, heavier loads can be lifted and more total work can be performed using a (2/0/2) tempo compared with a slower (2/0/4) tempo, but with the exception of IGF-1, the hormonal responses are similar. Individuals may get the same metabolic responses to training by using different tempos, but they will need to use less weight at a slower tempo.

  15. Automatic movie skimming with story units via general tempo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Hung; Yeh, Chia H.; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-12-01

    A skimming system for movie content exploration is proposed using story units extracted via general tempo analysis of audio and visual data. Quite a few schemes have been proposed to segment video data into shots with low-level features, yet the grouping of shots into meaningful units, called story units here, is important and challenging. In this work, we detect similar shots using key frames and include these similar shots as a node in the scene transition graph. Then, an importance measure is calculated based on the total length of each node. Finally, we select sinks and shots according to this measure. Based on these semantic shots, a meaningful skims can be successfully generated. Simulation results will be presented to show that the proposed video skimming scheme can preserve the essential and significant content of the original video data.

  16. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

  17. Cellulose nanowhiskers extracted from TEMPO-oxidized jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinwang; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-10-01

    Cellulose nanowhiskers is a kind of renewable and biocompatible nanomaterials evoke much interest because of its versatility in various applications. Here, for the first time, a novel controllable fabrication of cellulose nanowhiskers from jute fibers with a high yield (over 80%) via a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)/NaBr/NaClO system selective oxidization combined with mechanical homogenization is reported. The versatile jute cellulose nanowhiskers with ultrathin diameters (3-10 nm) and high crystallinity (69.72%), contains C6 carboxylate groups converted from C6 primary hydroxyls, which would be particularly useful for applications in the nanocomposites as reinforcing phase, as well as in tissue engineering, pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives.

  18. Cellulose nanowhiskers extracted from TEMPO-oxidized jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinwang; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-10-01

    Cellulose nanowhiskers is a kind of renewable and biocompatible nanomaterials evoke much interest because of its versatility in various applications. Here, for the first time, a novel controllable fabrication of cellulose nanowhiskers from jute fibers with a high yield (over 80%) via a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)/NaBr/NaClO system selective oxidization combined with mechanical homogenization is reported. The versatile jute cellulose nanowhiskers with ultrathin diameters (3-10 nm) and high crystallinity (69.72%), contains C6 carboxylate groups converted from C6 primary hydroxyls, which would be particularly useful for applications in the nanocomposites as reinforcing phase, as well as in tissue engineering, pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives. PMID:22840042

  19. Development's Tortoise and Hare: Pubertal Timing, Pubertal Tempo, and Depressive Symptoms in Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the sequence of pubertal maturation remains consistent across most individuals, the timing and tempo of development fluctuate widely. While past research has largely focused on the sequelae of pubertal timing, a faster tempo of maturation might also present special challenges to children for acclimating to new biological and social…

  20. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with starch nanoparticles prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoran; Ji, Na; Zhao, Mei; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the interaction of starch nanoparticles prepared through TEMPO oxidation (TEMPO-SNPs) with protein (bovine serum albumin) by various spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enhanced absorbance observed by UV spectra and the decrease in fluorescence spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by TEMPO-SNPs demonstrated the occurrence of an interaction between BSA and TEMPO-SNPs. The quenching constant was inversely correlated with temperature, showing that the quenching effect of TEMPO-SNPs was static quenching. Electrostatic force had a leading contribution to the binding roles of BSA on TEMPO-SNPs, which was confirmed by negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change. When interacting with TEMPO-SNPs at different concentrations, the content of the α-helix structure in BSA decreased and β-sheet and random coil structures increased, indicating that TEMPO-SNPs had an effect on the secondary conformation of BSA. Furthermore, TEM images suggested that nanoparticle-protein complexes were formed.

  1. Musicians' Preferences for Tempo and Pitch Levels in Recorded Orchestral Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain musicians' tempo and pitch level preferences when listening to orchestral music. Ninety graduate and undergraduate music major students were assigned randomly to one of three groups. Participants listened individually to recorded symphonic excerpts, 5 with relatively fast and 5 with relatively slow tempos.…

  2. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with starch nanoparticles prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoran; Ji, Na; Zhao, Mei; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the interaction of starch nanoparticles prepared through TEMPO oxidation (TEMPO-SNPs) with protein (bovine serum albumin) by various spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enhanced absorbance observed by UV spectra and the decrease in fluorescence spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by TEMPO-SNPs demonstrated the occurrence of an interaction between BSA and TEMPO-SNPs. The quenching constant was inversely correlated with temperature, showing that the quenching effect of TEMPO-SNPs was static quenching. Electrostatic force had a leading contribution to the binding roles of BSA on TEMPO-SNPs, which was confirmed by negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change. When interacting with TEMPO-SNPs at different concentrations, the content of the α-helix structure in BSA decreased and β-sheet and random coil structures increased, indicating that TEMPO-SNPs had an effect on the secondary conformation of BSA. Furthermore, TEM images suggested that nanoparticle-protein complexes were formed. PMID:25907012

  3. Effects of Modeling and Tempo Patterns as Practice Techniques on the Performance of High School Instrumentalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effect of modeling conditions and tempo patterns on high school instrumentalists' performance. Focuses on high school students (n=60) who play wind instruments. Reports that the with-model condition was superior in rhythm and tempo percentage gain when compared to the no-model condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

  5. Children's Preference for Sequenced Accompaniments: The Influence of Style and Perceived Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the influence of tempo on musical preference for students in grades 2-6, focusing on the effects of various styles using a MIDI keyboard. Explains that the students listened to 10 musical selections identifying their preferences and perceptions of tempo. Reveals that the preferred styles were Hip-Hop, Heavy Rock Shuffle, Samba, and Funk2.…

  6. Control Over the Time Course of Cognition in the Tempo-Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    Five experiments are reported in which standard naming and tempo-naming tasks were used to investigate mechanisms of control over the time course of lexical processing. The time course of processing was manipulated by asking participants to time their responses with an audiovisual metronome. As the tempo of the metronome increased, results showed…

  7. Cu(bipy)2+/TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols: radical or nonradical mechanism?

    PubMed

    Belanzoni, Paola; Michel, Carine; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2011-12-01

    In the oxidation of alcohols with TEMPO as catalyst, the substrate has alternatively been postulated to be oxidized but uncoordinated TEMPO(+) (Semmelhack) or Cu-coordinated TEMPO(•) radical (Sheldon). The reaction with the Cu(bipy)(2+)/TEMPO cocatalyst system has recently been claimed, on the basis of DFT calculations, to not be a radical reaction but to be best viewed as electrophilic attack on the alcohol C-H(α) bond by coordinated TEMPO(+). This mechanism combines elements of the Semmelhack mechanism (oxidation of TEMPO to TEMPO(+)) and the Sheldon proposal ("in the coordination sphere of Cu"). The recent proposal has been challenged on the basis of DFT calculations with a different functional, which were reported to lead to a radical mechanism. We carefully examine the results for the two functionals and conclude from both the calculated energetics and from an electronic structure analysis that the results of the two DFT functionals are consistent and that both lead to the proposed mechanism with TEMPO not acting as radical but as (coordinated) positive ion.

  8. Cu-NHC-TEMPO catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Xia, Qinqin; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Congyan; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-09-01

    Imidazolium salts bearing TEMPO groups react with commercially available copper powder affording Cu-NHC complexes. The in situ generated Cu-NHC-TEMPO complexes are quite efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols into aldehydes. The catalyst is easily available, and various primary alcohols were selectively converted to aldehydes in excellent yields. PMID:23944937

  9. Reaction time to changes in the tempo of acoustic pulse trains.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. P.; Warm, J. S.; Westendorf, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the ability of human observers to detect accelerations and decelerations in the rate of presentation of pulsed stimuli, i.e., changes in the tempo of acoustic pulse trains. Response times to accelerations in tempo were faster than to decelerations. Overall speed of response was inversely related to the pulse repetition rate.

  10. Aetiology of canine otitis externa: a retrospective study of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Farmaki, Rania; Leontides, Leonidas S; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate in 100 dogs with otitis externa (OE) the possible associations between signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings and the various primary, secondary and perpetuating causative factors of ear canal inflammation. The age of the dogs ranged from 3 months to 14 years (median: 4.75 years) and they included 45 males and 55 females. Cocker spaniels, Jura des Alpes and Brittany spaniels were significantly overrepresented among dogs with OE when compared to the hospital canine population. In the majority of the cases, OE was chronic-recurrent (63%) or bilateral (93%). Allergic dermatitis (43/100 dogs), grass awns (12/100) and otoacariasis (7/100) were the most common primary causative factors; no primary factor could be incriminated in 32 cases and more than one was found in three dogs. Malassezia spp. (66/100 dogs), cocci (38/100) and rods (22/100) were the secondary causative factors, while ear canal stenosis (38/100) and tympanic membrane perforation-otitis media (25/100) were the most important perpetuating factors. Atopic dermatitis and adverse food reactions-associated OE was more common in females and dogs with a history of pruritic skin disease, while grass awn-induced OE occurred in cocker spaniels and acute cases. Tympanic membrane perforation was less frequent in atopic dermatitis and adverse food reactions-associated OE, but more common when otoscopic and ear canal cytological examination revealed the presence of grass awns and rods, respectively. Finally, cocci overgrowth was positively associated with ear canal stenosis. PMID:17845622

  11. Status of the first NASA EV-I Project, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (2 km N/S × 4.5 km E/W at the center of its field of regard). The status of TEMPO including progress in instrument definition and implementation of the ground system will be presented. TEMPO provides a minimally-redundant measurement suite that includes all key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO will be delivered in 2017 for integration onto a NASA-selected GEO host spacecraft for launch as early as 2018. It will provide the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. Additional gases not central to air quality, including BrO, OClO, and IO will also be measured. TEMPO and its Asian (GEMS) and European (Sentinel-4) constellation partners make the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, building on the heritage of six spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed

  12. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1994-07-19

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  13. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Gould, S J

    1994-07-19

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  14. Tempo and mode in the macroevolutionary reconstruction of Darwinism.

    PubMed Central

    Gould, S J

    1994-01-01

    Among the several central meanings of Darwinism, his version of Lyellian uniformitarianism--the extrapolationist commitment to viewing causes of small-scale, observable change in modern populations as the complete source, by smooth extension through geological time, of all magnitudes and sequences in evolution--has most contributed to the causal hegemony of microevolution and the assumption that paleontology can document the contingent history of life but cannot act as a domain of novel evolutionary theory. G. G. Simpson tried to combat this view of paleontology as theoretically inert in his classic work, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (1944), with a brilliant argument that the two subjects of his title fall into a unique paleontological domain and that modes (processes and causes) can be inferred from the quantitative study of tempos (pattern). Nonetheless, Simpson did not cash out his insight to paleontology's theoretical benefit because he followed the strict doctrine of the Modern Synthesis. He studied his domain of potential theory and concluded that no actual theory could be found--and that a full account of causes could therefore be located in the microevolutionary realm after all. I argue that Simpson was unduly pessimistic and that modernism's belief in reductionistic unification (the conventional view of Western intellectuals from the 1920s to the 1950s) needs to be supplanted by a postmodernist commitment to pluralism and multiple levels of causation. Macro- and microevolution should not be viewed as opposed, but as truly complementary. I describe the two major domains where a helpful macroevolutionary theory may be sought--unsmooth causal boundaries between levels (as illustrated by punctuated equilibrium and mass extinction) and hierarchical expansion of the theory of natural selection to levels both below (gene and cell-line) and above organisms (demes, species, and clades). Problems remain in operationally defining selection at non-organismic levels

  15. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently. PMID:23385775

  16. Ratings of speed in real music as a function of both original and manipulated beat tempo.

    PubMed

    Madison, Guy; Paulin, Johan

    2010-11-01

    There is an apparent contradiction between the narrow range of tempi optimal for perceptual judgment and motor synchronization and the wide range of beat tempi found in real music. The relation between listeners' perception of speed and beat tempo was therefore investigated, both for real music excerpts (ME) and metronome sequences. Tempi ranged from 42 to 200 beats per minute (BPM), and some excerpts were further tempo manipulated in four levels from ±5 to ±20%. Regression analyses showed that speed was a shallower function of original tempo for fast (>150 BPM) and slow (<95 BPM) MEs than for MEs with intermediate tempi, describing a non-linear, sigmoid function. Manipulated tempo had twice as large an effect on speed as had original tempo. In contrast, speed was an almost linear function of tempo for metronome sequences. Taken together, these results show that the non-linearity stems from properties of the musical signal, rather than being a subjective perceptual effect. They indicate an inverse relation between tempo and relative event density in real music, and demonstrate that the perception of periodic signals is affected not only by the beat level, but also by faster and slower levels.

  17. Revisiting the relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    PubMed

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M; Reddick, Benjamin T; Bishop, Daniel T; Lim, Harry B T

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step changes and plateaus that punctuate the profile of music tempo preference may occur (Karageorghis, Jones, & Stuart, 2008). Tempi bands consisted of slow (95-100 bpm), medium (115-120 bpm), fast (135-140 bpm), and very fast (155-160 bpm) music. Twenty-eight active undergraduate students cycled at exercise intensities representing 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of their maximal HR reserve while their music preference was assessed using a 10-point scale. The Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo interaction was significant, F(6.16, 160.05) = 7.08, p < .001, 7,2 = .21, as was the test for both cubic and quartic trajectories in the exercise HR-preferred-music-tempo relationship (p < .001). Whereas slow tempo music was not preferred at any exercise intensity, preference for fast tempo increased, relative to medium and very fast tempo music, as exercise intensity increased. The implications for the prescription of music in exercise and physical activity contexts are discussed.

  18. Evidence for tempo-specific timing in music using a web-based experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan

    2006-06-01

    Perceptual invariance has been studied and found in several domains of cognition, including those of speech, motor behavior, and object motion. It has also been the topic of several studies in music perception. However, the existing perceptual studies present rather inconclusive evidence with regard to the perceptual invariance of expressive timing under tempo transformation in music performance. The current study used a novel experimental methodology that took advantage of new technologies, such as an online Internet setup, high-quality audio, and state-of-the-art tempo-transformation techniques. The results show that listeners could detect which was the original performance when asked to compare 2 recordings, 1 of which was tempo-transformed to make both similar in overall tempo. This result is taken as support for the tempo-specific timing hypothesis--which predicts that a tempo-transformed performance will sound less natural than an original performance--and as counterevidence for the relationally invariant timing hypothesis, which predicts that a tempo-transformed performance will sound equally natural.

  19. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  20. Paramagnetic carbon-13 shifts induced by the free radical tempo. 2. Nitrogen heterocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Z.W.; Grant, D.M.; Pugmire, R.J.

    1984-02-08

    With use of the free radical Tempo as a shift and relaxation reagent, both paramagnetic shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates of nitrogen heterocycles are reported. Paramagnetic shifts of these compounds are larger than the corresponding shifts of the aromatic hydrocarbons, indicating a stronger interaction between nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and Tempo. Paramagnetic shifts increase with the number of nitrogen atoms per molecule. For pyridine type compounds, both shift and relaxation data show that the stronger interaction is not at the adjacent positions to the nitrogen atoms. It would appear in these heterocyclic complexes with Tempo that the nitrogen atoms tend to orient away from the N-O group in Tempo. In contrast, imidazole and indole exhibit a much stronger interaction with the Tempo due to hydrogen bond formation, and the positions near the N-H group exhibit larger paramagnetic shifts and relaxation rates. An approximate static model involving an indole-Tempo, hydrogen-bond complex accounts for the relaxation data from which both an equilibrium constant of complexation and a hydrogen-bond distance in the indole-Tempo complex could be estimated.

  1. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification.

  2. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  3. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely “Tension” (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), “Expressiveness” (Expressionless to Expressive), “Amusement” (Boring to Amusing) and “Attractiveness” (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are “Happiness,” “Surprise,” and “Sadness.” This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  4. Tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution in Primates.

    PubMed

    Duran, Andressa; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-09-01

    Climatic niches have increasingly become a nexus in our understanding of a variety of ecological and evolutionary phenomena, from species distributions to latitudinal diversity gradients. Despite the increasing availability of comprehensive datasets on species ranges, phylogenetic histories, and georeferenced environmental conditions, studies on the evolution of climate niches have only begun to understand how niches evolve over evolutionary timescales. Here, using primates as a model system, we integrate recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, species distribution patterns, and climatic data to explore primate climatic niche evolution, both among clades and over time. In general, we found that simple, constant-rate models provide a poor representation of how climatic niches evolve. For instance, there have been shifts in the rate of climatic niche evolution in several independent clades, particularly in response to the increasingly cooler climates of the past 10 My. Interestingly, rate accelerations greatly outnumbered rate decelerations. These results highlight the importance of considering more realistic evolutionary models that allow for the detection of heterogeneity in the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution, as well as to infer possible constraining factors for species distributions in geographical space. PMID:26178157

  5. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  6. Micromechanics of TEMPO-oxidized fibrillated cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Bulota, Mindaugas; Tanpichai, Supachok; Hughes, Mark; Eichhorn, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Composites of poly(lactic) acid (PLA) reinforced with TEMPO-oxidized fibrillated cellulose (TOFC) were prepared to 15, 20, 25, and 30% fiber weight fractions. To aid dispersion and to improve stress transfer, we acetylated the TOFC prior to the fabrication of TOFC-PLA composite films. Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the deformation micromechanics in these systems. Microtensile specimens were prepared from the films and deformed in tension with Raman spectra being collected simultaneously during deformation. A shift in a Raman peak initially located at ~1095 cm(-1), assigned to C-O-C stretching of the cellulose backbone, was observed upon deformation, indicating stress transfer from the matrix to the TOFC reinforcement. The highest band shift rate, with respect to strain, was observed in composites having a 30% weight fraction of TOFC. These composites also displayed a significantly higher strain to failure compared to pure acetylated TOFC film, and to the composites having lower weight fractions of TOFC. The stress-transfer processes that occur in microfibrillated cellulose composites are discussed with reference to the micromechanical data presented. It is shown that these TOFC-based composite materials are progressively dominated by the mechanics of the networks, and a shear-lag type stress transfer between fibers.

  7. Heliospheric Magnetic Field: The Bashful Ballerina dancing in Waltz Tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.

    The recent developments in the long-term observations of the heliospheric magnetic field HMF observed at 1 AU have shown that the HMF sector coming from the northern solar hemisphere systematically dominates in the late declining to minimum phase of the solar cycle This leads to a persistent southward shift or coning of the heliospheric current sheet at these times that can be picturesquely described by the concept of the Bashful Ballerina This result has recently been verified by direct measurements of the solar magnetic field The average field intensity is smaller and the corresponding area is larger in the northern hemisphere Also ground-based observations of the HMF sector structure extend these results to 1920s Moreover it has been shown that the global HMF has persistent active longitudes whose dominance depicts an oscillation with a period of about 3 2 years Accordingly the Bashful Ballerina takes three such steps per activity cycle thus dancing in waltz tempo We discuss the implications of this behaviour

  8. Tempo and mode in plant breeding system evolution.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Emma E; Igić, Boris

    2012-12-01

    Classic questions about trait evolution-including the directionality of character change and its interactions with lineage diversification-intersect in the study of plant breeding systems. Transitions from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are frequent, and they may proceed within a species ("anagenetic" mode of breeding system change) or in conjunction with speciation events ("cladogenetic" mode of change). We apply a recently developed phylogenetic model to the nightshade family Solanaceae, quantifying the relative contributions of these two modes of evolution along with the tempo of breeding system change, speciation, and extinction. We find that self-incompatibility, a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization, is lost largely by the cladogenetic mode. Self-compatible species are thus more likely to arise from the isolation of a newly self-compatible population than from species-wide fixation of self-compatible mutants. Shared polymorphism at the locus that governs self-incompatibility shows it to be ancestral and not regained within this family. We demonstrate that failing to account for cladogenetic character change misleads phylogenetic tests of evolutionary irreversibility, both for breeding system in Solanaceae and on simulated trees.

  9. Tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution in Primates.

    PubMed

    Duran, Andressa; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-09-01

    Climatic niches have increasingly become a nexus in our understanding of a variety of ecological and evolutionary phenomena, from species distributions to latitudinal diversity gradients. Despite the increasing availability of comprehensive datasets on species ranges, phylogenetic histories, and georeferenced environmental conditions, studies on the evolution of climate niches have only begun to understand how niches evolve over evolutionary timescales. Here, using primates as a model system, we integrate recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, species distribution patterns, and climatic data to explore primate climatic niche evolution, both among clades and over time. In general, we found that simple, constant-rate models provide a poor representation of how climatic niches evolve. For instance, there have been shifts in the rate of climatic niche evolution in several independent clades, particularly in response to the increasingly cooler climates of the past 10 My. Interestingly, rate accelerations greatly outnumbered rate decelerations. These results highlight the importance of considering more realistic evolutionary models that allow for the detection of heterogeneity in the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution, as well as to infer possible constraining factors for species distributions in geographical space.

  10. Micromechanics of TEMPO-oxidized fibrillated cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Bulota, Mindaugas; Tanpichai, Supachok; Hughes, Mark; Eichhorn, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Composites of poly(lactic) acid (PLA) reinforced with TEMPO-oxidized fibrillated cellulose (TOFC) were prepared to 15, 20, 25, and 30% fiber weight fractions. To aid dispersion and to improve stress transfer, we acetylated the TOFC prior to the fabrication of TOFC-PLA composite films. Raman spectroscopy was employed to study the deformation micromechanics in these systems. Microtensile specimens were prepared from the films and deformed in tension with Raman spectra being collected simultaneously during deformation. A shift in a Raman peak initially located at ~1095 cm(-1), assigned to C-O-C stretching of the cellulose backbone, was observed upon deformation, indicating stress transfer from the matrix to the TOFC reinforcement. The highest band shift rate, with respect to strain, was observed in composites having a 30% weight fraction of TOFC. These composites also displayed a significantly higher strain to failure compared to pure acetylated TOFC film, and to the composites having lower weight fractions of TOFC. The stress-transfer processes that occur in microfibrillated cellulose composites are discussed with reference to the micromechanical data presented. It is shown that these TOFC-based composite materials are progressively dominated by the mechanics of the networks, and a shear-lag type stress transfer between fibers. PMID:22181067

  11. Tempo of trophic evolution and its impact on mammalian diversification.

    PubMed

    Price, Samantha A; Hopkins, Samantha S B; Smith, Kathleen K; Roth, V Louise

    2012-05-01

    Mammals are characterized by the complex adaptations of their dentition, which are an indication that diet has played a critical role in their evolutionary history. Although much attention has focused on diet and the adaptations of specific taxa, the role of diet in large-scale diversification patterns remains unresolved. Contradictory hypotheses have been proposed, making prediction of the expected relationship difficult. We show that net diversification rate (the cumulative effect of speciation and extinction), differs significantly among living mammals, depending upon trophic strategy. Herbivores diversify fastest, carnivores are intermediate, and omnivores are slowest. The tempo of transitions between the trophic strategies is also highly biased: the fastest rates occur into omnivory from herbivory and carnivory and the lowest transition rates are between herbivory and carnivory. Extant herbivore and carnivore diversity arose primarily through diversification within lineages, whereas omnivore diversity evolved by transitions into the strategy. The ability to specialize and subdivide the trophic niche allowed herbivores and carnivores to evolve greater diversity than omnivores.

  12. The functional independence of response latency and accuracy: implications for the concept of conceptual tempo.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Lahey, B B

    1977-12-01

    Kagan (1965a) developed the concepts of impulsive and reflective cognitive styles (conceptual tempo) to add a new dimension to the understanding and assessment of human intelligence. Although latency (the principal component of conceptual tempo) is negatively correlated with academic performance, it may not be necessary to modify latency in order to modify accuracy.. With 40 disadvantaged preschool children, it was found that reinforcing long latencies in choice tasks did not increase accuracy and vice versa, and that reinforcing both long latencies and accuracy was no more effective than reinforcing accuracy alone. These data were used to question the usefulness of the construct of conceptual tempo.

  13. Villar's nodule: a case report and systematic literature review of endometriosis externa of the umbilicus.

    PubMed

    Victory, Rahi; Diamond, Michael P; Johns, D Alan

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of umbilical endometriosis externa and systematically review the literature regarding this finding. In our case report, a 47-year-old woman with cyclic umbilical bleeding, pelvic pain, and no previous umbilical surgery developed a spontaneous umbilical endometrioma, cured by surgical resection and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In our review, 122 patients with documented umbilical endometriomas from 1966 to the present and 109 cases reported before 1953 were analyzed. Procedures used for diagnosis and/or therapeutic intervention included umbilical biopsy or resection, abdominal wall repair, diagnostic and/or operative laparoscopy, adhesiolysis, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Variables included patient age; race; medical and surgical history; past use of oral contraceptives; history of umbilical pain, bleeding, or swelling; duration of signs and symptoms; size and color of the lesion; diagnostic evaluations; and medical or surgical management. Mean age of the study population was 37.7 +/- 0.98 years. Up to 40% of patients with extrapelvic endometriosis present with umbilical endometriomas, with symptoms occurring an average of 17.8 +/- 3.9 months before presentation. Lesions averaged 2.3 +/- 0.2 cm in diameter; were predominantly brown (19.1%), blue (13.2%), or purple (10.3%); and patients frequently had with pain (77.93%), cyclical bleeding (47.1%), and swelling (88.2%). Most patients had no history of endometriosis (73.1%), and laparoscopic, umbilical trocar-related seeding was identified in only 5 patients. Three patients received medical management, and surgical management was invariably curative, though 1 patient required repeat surgical therapy. Umbilical endometriosis is a common manifestation of external endometriosis, representing primary or secondary endometriosis, with a typical presentation that has little variation. Laparoscopic endometrioid tissue excision can result in iatrogenic seeding to the umbilicus

  14. TEMPO-functionalized zinc phthalocyanine: synthesis, magnetic properties, and its utility for electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Sibel Eken; Akyüz, Duygu; Özdoğan, Kemal; Yerli, Yusuf; Koca, Atıf; Şener, M Kasım

    2016-02-21

    Zinc(ii) phthalocyanine (TEMPO-ZnPc), peripherally functionalized with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) radicals is synthesized and its magneto structural and electrochemical behaviors are investigated. TEMPO-ZnPc shows multi-electron ring based reduction reactions and a TEMPO based oxidation reaction. Spectroelectrochemical measurements support these peak assignments. TEMPO-ZnPc is tested as a homogeneous and heterogeneous ascorbic acid (AA) sensor. Disappearance of TEMPO-ZnPc based reduction processes and the observation of new waves at around 0 and 1.20 V with respect to increasing AA concentration indicate the interaction of TEMPO-ZnPc with AA and usability of the complex as an electrochemical AA sensor. For practical usage as heterogeneous electrocatalysts for AA sensing, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is coated with TEMPO-ZnPc (GCE/TEMPO-ZnPc) and this modified electrode is tested as a heterogeneous AA sensor. The redox peak of GCE/TEMPO-ZnPc at 0.81 V decreases the peak current while a new wave is observed at 0.65 V during the titration of the electrolyte with AA. GCE/TEMPO-ZnPc sense AA with 1.75 × 10(-6) mol dm(-3) LOD with a sensitivity of 1.89 × 10(3) A cm mol(-1).

  15. Electrocatalytic Alcohol Oxidation with TEMPO and Bicyclic Nitroxyl Derivatives: Driving Force Trumps Steric Effects.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Mohammad; Miles, Kelsey C; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-11-25

    Bicyclic nitroxyl derivatives, such as 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO) and 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl (ABNO), have emerged as highly effective alternatives to TEMPO-based catalysts for selective oxidation reactions (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl). Their efficacy is widely attributed to their smaller steric profile; however, electrocatalysis studies described herein show that the catalytic activity of nitroxyls is more strongly affected by the nitroxyl/oxoammonium redox potential than by steric effects. The inexpensive, high-potential TEMPO derivative, 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT), exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than AZADO and ABNO for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. Mechanistic studies provide insights into the origin of these unexpected reactivity trends. The superior activity of ACT is especially noteworthy at high pH, where bicyclic nitroxyls are inhibited by formation of an oxoammonium hydroxide adduct.

  16. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose hydrogel as a high-capacity and reusable heavy metal ion adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Noriyuki; Chen, Xiaoxia; Kim, Ung-Jin; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-09-15

    Nitroxy radical catalyzed oxidation with hypochlorite/bromide (TEMPO-mediated oxidation) was performed on a cellulose hydrogel prepared using LiOH/urea solvent. TEMPO oxidation successfully introduced carboxyl groups onto the surface of the cellulose hydrogel with retention of the gel structure and its nanoporous property. The equilibrium measurement of Cu(2+) adsorption showed favorable interaction with Cu(2+) and high maximum adsorption capacity. In addition, over 98% of the adsorbed Cu(2+) was recovered using acid treatment, and the subsequent washing allowed the TEMPO-oxidized gels to be used repeatedly. Furthermore, the TEMPO-oxidized cellulose hydrogel showed high adsorption capacity for other toxic metal ions such as Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Cd(2+), and Cs(+).

  17. Influence of TEMPO-mediated oxidation on the lignin of thermomechanical pulp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pu; Fu, Shaoling; Zhai, Huamin; Law, Kweinam; Daneault, Claude

    2012-08-01

    The influences of various factors in 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation on delignification, lignin aromatic ring and side chain structures of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) were investigated. The results indicate neither TEMPO nor NaBr alone can provoke changes in lignin content or lignin structure under weakly alkaline conditions. However, NaClO and NaClO-NaBr were able to remove lignin effectively, causing remarkable changes in lignin structure. Delignification was promoted when TEMPO was used with NaBr and NaClO. In contrast to NaClO alone, an additional 15% lignin was removed when TEMPO-mediated oxidation system was used, but it did not induce further changes on lignin structure. Increased doses of oxidizing agent and reaction time also improved the oxidation of cellulose and delignification, but they did not have a significant impact on lignin aromatic and side chain structures.

  18. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, M.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a TEMPO catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  19. Studies on the Synergy of TEMPO/GEO-CAPE with GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciren, P.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) is a space-borne UV-spectral radiometer to be flown in a geostationary orbit as part of NASA's Earth Venture program. NASA also is planning a decadal survey mission-The GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE). However, NASA has initiated scientific studies to determine if TEMPO can meet both its and GEO-CAPE's requirements by synergistically retrieving aerosol properties using TEMPO and GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) measurements. Because TEMPO does not have a cloud camera or needed spectral channels to identify clouds and a Shortwave IR band to characterize the surface that are essential for aerosol retrievals, GOES-R ABI can supplement those measurements. GOES-R aerosol team conducted a study to determine idealistic position of TEMPO and GOES-R (in its both east and west location) for scene overlap and projection of ABI Shortwave IR (2.25 um) reflectance and cloud mask to TEMPO pixels. The BRDF effect was taken into consideration in determining the spatial coverage of pixels ideal for aerosol retrievals using ABI shortwave IR reflectance in TEMPO pixels to extrapolate reflectance at visible spectral bands. Analysis shows that GOES-R (in its west location, 135W) and TEMPO do not overlap over eastern part of the United States (US) and Atlantic Ocean, while GOES-R (in its east location, 75W) overlaps with TEMPO over most part of the United States (US) except for small part of Pacific Ocean. In addition, retrievals in the early morning and late afternoon are not possible due to BRDF effects rendering the surface reflectance too bright. Cloud mask information from GOES-R observations in both its east and west location seems to be sufficient for TEMPO. In summary, GOES-R ABI Shortwave IR radiances and cloud mask information are adequate to be used with TEMPO measurements to retrieve aerosol optical depth product several times during the sunlit portion of the continental US.

  20. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location.

  1. TEMPO-Mediated Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Synthesis of Tetrahydropyridazines Using Ketohydrazones and Olefins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Long; Peng, Xie-Xue; Chen, Fei; Han, Bing

    2016-05-01

    A novel, facile, and efficient method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyridazines by a one-pot tandem reaction of easily accessible ketohydrazones and olefins in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) has been successfully developed. The reaction involves the initial generation of azoalkenes from direct oxidative dehydrogenation of ketohydrazones using TEMPO as the commercially available oxidant, followed by a subsequent aza-Diels-Alder reaction with olefins.

  2. Fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives.

    PubMed

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives was studied in aqueous solutions with the use of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy methods. In order to distinguish each TEMPO derivative from the others and to understand the mechanism of quenching, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as well as decays of the fluorescence of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin were registered as a function of each TEMPO derivative concentration. There were no deviations from a linearity in the Stern-Volmer plots (determined from both, steady-state and time-resolved measurements). The fluorescence quenching mechanism was found to be entirely collisional, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at 5 temperatures ranging from 15 to 55°C. Based on theoretical calculations of molecular radii and ionization potentials of all TEMPO derivatives the mechanism of electron transfer was rejected. The fluorescence quenching which was being studied seems to be diffusion-limited and caused by the increase of non-radiative processes, such as an internal conversion and an intersystem crossing. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching constants were determined at the room temperature for all TEMPO derivatives studied. Among all TEMPO derivatives studied TEMPO-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) was found to be the most effective quencher of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin fluorescence (kq for TOAC was approximately 1.5 higher than kq for other TEMPO compounds studied). The findings demonstrate the possibility of developing an analytical method for the quantitative determination of TOAC, which incorporation into membrane proteins may provide a direct detection of peptide backbone dynamics.

  3. ESR study of molecular orientation and dynamics of TEMPO derivatives in CLPOT 1D nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Yuta; Nakagawa, Haruka; Asaji, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    The molecular orientations and dynamics of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) radical derivatives with large substituent groups at the 4-position (4-X-TEMPO) in the organic one-dimensional nanochannels within the nanosized molecular template 2,4,6-tris(4-chlorophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (CLPOT) were examined using ESR. The concentrations of guest radicals, including 4-methoxy-TEMPO (MeO-TEMPO) or 4-oxo-TEMPO (TEMPONE), in the CLPOT nanochannels in each inclusion compound (IC) were reduced by co-including 4-substituted-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (4-R-TEMP) compounds at a ratio of 1 : 30-1 : 600. At higher temperatures, the guest radicals in each IC underwent anisotropic rotational diffusion in the CLPOT nanochannels. The rotational diffusion activation energy, Ea , associated with MeO-TEMPO or TEMPONE in the CLPOT nanochannels (6-7 kJ mol(-1) ), was independent of the size and type of substituent group and was similar to the Ea values obtained for TEMPO and 4- hydroxy-TEMPO (TEMPOL) in our previous study. However, in the case in which TEMP was used as a guest compound for dilution (spacer), the tilt of the rotational axis to the principal axis system of the g-tensor, and the rotational diffusion correlation time, τR , of each guest radical in the CLPOT nanochannels were different from the case with other 4-R-TEMP. These results indicate the possibility of controlling molecular orientation and dynamics of guest radicals in CLPOT ICs through the appropriate choice of spacer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Therapeutic inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species with mito-TEMPO reduces diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Cao, Ting; Xiong, Sidong; Ma, Jian; Fan, Guo-Chang; Lacefield, James C.; Lu, Yanrong; Le Tissier, Sydney; Peng, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Aims The mitochondria are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart. Mitochondrial ROS production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that therapeutic strategies specifically targeting mitochondrial ROS may have benefit in this disease. We investigated the therapeutic effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-TEMPO on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mito-TEMPO was administrated after diabetes onset in a mouse model of streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetic db/db mice. Cardiac adverse changes were analyzed and myocardial function assessed. Cultured adult cardiomyocytes were stimulated with high glucose, and mitochondrial superoxide generation and cell death were measured. Results Incubation with high glucose increased mitochondria superoxide generation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was prevented by mito-TEMPO. Co-incubation with mito-TEMPO abrogated high glucose-induced cell death. Mitochondrial ROS generation, and intracellular oxidative stress levels were induced in both type-1 and type-2 diabetic mouse hearts. Daily injection of mito-TEMPO for 30 days inhibited mitochondrial ROS generation, prevented intracellular oxidative stress levels, decreased apoptosis and reduced myocardial hypertrophy in diabetic hearts, leading to improvement of myocardial function in both type-1 and type-2 diabetic mice. Incubation with mito-TEMPO or inhibition of Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase prevented oxidative stress levels and cell death in high glucose-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Mechanistic study revealed that the protective effects of mito-TEMPO were associated with down-regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conclusions Therapeutic inhibition of mitochondrial ROS by mito-TEMPO reduced adverse cardiac changes and mitigated myocardial dysfunction in diabetic mice. Thus, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be an effective therapy for diabetic

  5. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  6. Predicting the similarity between expressive performances of music from measurements of tempo and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmers, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of tempo and dynamics from audio files or MIDI data are frequently used to get insight into a performer's contribution to music. The measured variations in tempo and dynamics are often represented in different formats by different authors. Few systematic comparisons have been made between these representations. Moreover, it is unknown what data representation comes closest to subjective perception. The reported study tests the perceptual validity of existing data representations by comparing their ability to explain the subjective similarity between pairs of performances. In two experiments, 40 participants rated the similarity between performances of a Chopin prelude and a Mozart sonata. Models based on different representations of the tempo and dynamics of the performances were fitted to these similarity ratings. The results favor other data representations of performances than generally used, and imply that comparisons between performances are made perceptually in a different way than often assumed. For example, the best fit was obtained with models based on absolute tempo and absolute tempo times loudness, while conventional models based on normalized variations, or on correlations between tempo profiles and loudness profiles, did not explain the similarity ratings well. .

  7. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-03-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint.

  8. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-02-01

    Rhizocephalan parasites are dioecious organisms, in that one or several dwarf males are implanted into the external part of the female parasite soon after it emerges from the interior of the host animal. The structure of the female externa and its resident males is crucial for understanding both the reproductive biology and the taxonomy of these specialized parasites. We use scanning electron microscopy and histological methods to study the anatomy of juvenile and the mature externae of the rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus texanus parasitizing the blue crab Callinectes rathbunae. We put emphasis on the implantation of males and the histology of the female reproductive organs. In the virgin externae, male cyprids attach around a cuticular hood covering the mantle aperture, which is partially blocked by a plug of cuticle so only trichogon larvae, not cyprids, can access the mantle cavity. This resembles the situation known from Sacculina carcini. The mature externa is characterized by a visceral mass that contains the ovary, paired colleteric glands, a single male receptacle, but paired receptacle ducts. The proximal attachment of the visceral mass is located at some distance from the basal stalk, as is characteristic for the genus Loxothylacus. The internal anatomy of the mature externa of L. texanus is in most features similar to that seen in other species of the Sacculinidae, which comprises the majority of rhizocephalan species. However, the single receptacle creates a situation where the two implanted males cannot be kept separate as in most other rhizocephalans, but pass through spermatogenesis in a common chamber. This may have unknown effects on the reproductive biology such as male-male competition. PMID:19714752

  9. Sensorimotor synchronization with tempo-changing auditory sequences: Modeling temporal adaptation and anticipation.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, M C Marieke; Jacoby, Nori; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2015-11-11

    The current study investigated the human ability to synchronize movements with event sequences containing continuous tempo changes. This capacity is evident, for example, in ensemble musicians who maintain precise interpersonal coordination while modulating the performance tempo for expressive purposes. Here we tested an ADaptation and Anticipation Model (ADAM) that was developed to account for such behavior by combining error correction processes (adaptation) with a predictive temporal extrapolation process (anticipation). While previous computational models of synchronization incorporate error correction, they do not account for prediction during tempo-changing behavior. The fit between behavioral data and computer simulations based on four versions of ADAM was assessed. These versions included a model with adaptation only, one in which adaptation and anticipation act in combination (error correction is applied on the basis of predicted tempo changes), and two models in which adaptation and anticipation were linked in a joint module that corrects for predicted discrepancies between the outcomes of adaptive and anticipatory processes. The behavioral experiment required participants to tap their finger in time with three auditory pacing sequences containing tempo changes that differed in the rate of change and the number of turning points. Behavioral results indicated that sensorimotor synchronization accuracy and precision, while generally high, decreased with increases in the rate of tempo change and number of turning points. Simulations and model-based parameter estimates showed that adaptation mechanisms alone could not fully explain the observed precision of sensorimotor synchronization. Including anticipation in the model increased the precision of simulated sensorimotor synchronization and improved the fit of model to behavioral data, especially when adaptation and anticipation mechanisms were linked via a joint module based on the notion of joint internal

  10. Hearing the speed: visual motion biases the perception of auditory tempo.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Huang; Jonikaitis, Donatas

    2011-10-01

    The coupling between sensory and motor processes has been established in various scenarios: for example, the perception of auditory rhythm entails an audiomotor representation of the sounds. Similarly, visual action patterns can also be represented via a visuomotor transformation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the visual motor information, such as embedded in a coherent motion flow, can interact with the perception of a motor-related aspect in auditory rhythm: the tempo. In the first two experiments, we employed an auditory tempo judgment task where participants listened to a standard auditory sequence while concurrently watching visual stimuli of different motion information, after which they judged the tempo of a comparison sequence related to the standard. In Experiment 1, we found that the same auditory tempo was perceived as faster when it was accompanied by accelerating visual motion than by non-motion luminance change. In Experiment 2, we compared the perceived auditory tempo among three visual motion conditions, increase in speed, decrease in speed, and no speed change, and found the corresponding bias in judgment of auditory tempo: faster than it was, slower than it was, and no bias. In Experiment 3, the perceptual bias induced by the change in motion speed was consistently reflected in the tempo reproduction task. Taken together, these results indicate that between a visual spatiotemporal and an auditory temporal stimulation, the embedded motor representations from each can interact across modalities, leading to a spatial-to-temporal bias. This suggests that the perceptual process in one modality can incorporate concurrent motor information from cross-modal sensory inputs to form a coherent experience.

  11. Consensus of microbiology reporting of ear swab results to primary care clinicians in patients with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Geyer, M; Howell-Jones, R; Cunningham, R; McNulty, C

    2011-01-01

    Otitis externa is a ubiquitous inflammatory disease; although it arises most commonly from an infection, there is no consensus in the UK for the reporting of ear swab culture results. This study aims to review current microbiology laboratory reporting of ear swab specimens to primary care and reach an evidence-based consensus for a reporting policy. Fifty consecutive ear swab reports were reviewed from each of 12 laboratories in the South West region to determine and discuss reporting practice. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) GP Microbiology Laboratory Use Group reviewed the underlying evidence and worked towards a consensus of expert microbiology opinion for laboratory reporting of ear swab results using a modified version of the Delphi technique. A total of 487 reports from primary care were reviewed (54% female; 46% male). Cultures most commonly yielded Pseudomonas species (36%), Staphylococcus species (21%), Streptococcus species (15%) and fungi (11%). Five reporting policies were agreed: Policy 1: Common pathogens such as group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus - Always reported by name with antibiotic susceptibilities. Policy 2: Pseudomonas species - Always reported, but antibiotic susceptibilities only reported in severe disease. Policy 3: Aspergillus, Candida, coliforms and Proteus species, as well as non-group A streptococci and anaerobes - Only reported if moderate numbers of colonies and it is the predominant organism present; if appropriate report antibiotic susceptibilities. Policy 4: Coagulase-negative staphylococci, diphtheroids and enterococci - Not reported by name; generic terms used and antibiotic susceptibilities not reported. Policy 5: When antibiotic susceptibilities reported these must include susceptibility to a topical antibiotic. It is suggested that laboratories should consider adopting this evidence-based reporting consensus for ear swab culture results from primary care patients with

  12. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  13. The appropriate or optimal tempo for music: a comparison between non-musicians and musicians.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra; Watt, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Musicians have enhanced skills that result from intensive training. Whilst musicians show enhanced auditory capabilities (Kraus and Chandrasekaran, 2010 Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11 599-605), non-musicians demonstrate an ability to perform musical tasks (eg listening, dancing, and singing). Non-musicians can also undertake tasks that would normally be reserved for musicians. For example, non-musicians can perceive optimal tempi (ie an appropriate speed) for music (Quinn and Watt, 2006 Perception 35 267-280; Quinn and Watt, 2012 Perception 41 236-238; Quinn et al, 2012 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 3595-3598). This suggests that formalised musical training is not a prerequisite for developing a sense of the tempo that sounds right for a melody. The current studies examine this issue and compare the tempo that musicians choose to perform unfamiliar melodies with the tempo that non-musicians perceive to be optimal for the same melodies. The results demonstrate that the perceived optimal tempo is similar to the performed tempo. PMID:24422251

  14. Operant tempo varies with reinforcement rate: implications for measurement of reward efficacy.

    PubMed

    Conover, Kent L.; Fulton, Stephanie; Shizgal, Peter

    2001-11-01

    Herrnstein's melioration theory has been used to account for the hyperbolic form of the single operant matching law and to scale the effectiveness of reinforcing brain stimulation. Underlying this scaling method is the assumption that the mean rate of responding during operant bouts (the response 'tempo') is fixed and does not vary with the rate of reinforcement. The validity of this account was assessed by testing the constant-tempo assumption via a survivor analysis of the distributions of inter-response times at different variable-intervals (VIs) in rats responding for rewarding electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. Contrary to the constant-tempo assumption, response tempo was not fixed but rather decreased as the VI was lengthened. This demonstration challenges Herrnstein's account of single-operant matching and suggests that the reinforcement rate that supports a half-maximal rate of responding on a single VI schedule may not provide a valid scale for the value of brain stimulation. Possible remedies are discussed. Although the conclusions of the study are restricted to experiments on brain stimulation reward in rats, the inter-response time analysis employed can provide the basis for testing the validity of the constant-tempo assumption in other species and for other reinforcers.

  15. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing versus tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals’ pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies. PMID:25437757

  16. Modeling pubertal timing and tempo and examining links to behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Adriene M; Corley, Robin P; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2014-12-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self-reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals' pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies.

  17. Relationship between length and degree of polymerization of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Ryuji; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Okita, Yusuke; Isogai, Akira

    2012-03-12

    The influence of 2,2,6,6-tetrametylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation of wood cellulose and the mechanical disintegration of oxidized cellulose in water on degree of polymerization determined by viscosity measurement (DP(v)) and the apparent length of the TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) was investigated. DP(v) values decreased from 1270 to 500-600 with increasing addition of NaClO in the TEMPO-mediated oxidation stage. The DP(v) values were further decreased by mechanical fibrillation in water. There is a linear relationship between the average fibril length and DP(v); the lengths of TOCNs can be approximated from DP(v) using 0.5 M copper ethylenediamine as a solvent of both the cellulose and oxidized celluloses in TOCNs. Based on the cellulose fibril models and TEMPO oxidation mechanism, the depolymerization behavior of TOCNs is tentatively explained in terms of distribution of disordered regions in wood cellulose fibrils and formation of C6-aldehydes in cellulose fibrils during TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

  18. Synthesis of Isoxazoline/Cyclic Nitrone-Featured Methylenes Using Unsaturated Ketoximes: A Dual Role of TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Long; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Han, Bing

    2016-04-01

    A novel, metal-free, and regioselective approach for the synthesis of isoxazoline/cyclic nitrone-featured methylenes has been developed by the reaction of readily accessible β,γ- and γ,δ-unsaturated ketoximes with TEMPO via tandem iminoxyl radical-promoted cyclization/TEMPO-mediated Cope-like elimination, respectively. This protocol utilizes commercially available TEMPO as the iminoxyl radical initiator as well as the β-hydrogen acceptor in the Cope-like elimination.

  19. Reactivity of TEMPO toward 16- and 17-electron organometallic reaction intermediates: a time-resolved IR study.

    PubMed

    Lomont, Justin P; Nguyen, Son C; Harris, Charles B

    2013-07-31

    The (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl radical (TEMPO) has been employed for an extensive range of chemical applications, ranging from organometallic catalysis to serving as a structural probe in biological systems. As a ligand in an organometallic complex, TEMPO can exhibit several distinct coordination modes. Here we use ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy to study the reactivity of TEMPO toward coordinatively unsaturated 16- and 17-electron organometallic reaction intermediates. TEMPO coordinates to the metal centers of the 16-electron species CpCo(CO) and Fe(CO)4, and to the 17-electron species CpFe(CO)2 and Mn(CO)5, via an associative mechanism with concomitant oxidation of the metal center. In these adducts, TEMPO thus behaves as an anionic ligand, characterized by a pyramidal geometry about the nitrogen center. Density functional theory calculations are used to facilitate interpretation of the spectra and to further explore the structures of the TEMPO adducts. To our knowledge, this study represents the first direct characterization of the mechanism of the reaction of TEMPO with coordinatively unsaturated organometallic complexes, providing valuable insight into its reactions with commonly encountered reaction intermediates. The similar reactivity of TEMPO toward each of the species studied suggests that these results can be considered representative of TEMPO's reactivity toward all low-valent transition metal complexes.

  20. Pentacene appended to a TEMPO stable free radical: the effect of magnetic exchange coupling on photoexcited pentacene.

    PubMed

    Chernick, Erin T; Casillas, Rubén; Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Gardner, Daniel M; Gruber, Marco; Kropp, Henning; Meyer, Karsten; Wasielewski, Michael R; Guldi, Dirk M; Tykwinski, Rik R

    2015-01-21

    Understanding the fundamental spin dynamics of photoexcited pentacene derivatives is important in order to maximize their potential for optoelectronic applications. Herein, we report on the synthesis of two pentacene derivatives that are functionalized with the [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy] (TEMPO) stable free radical. The presence of TEMPO does not quench the pentacene singlet excited state, but does quench the photoexcited triplet excited state as a function of TEMPO-to-pentacene distance. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm that triplet quenching is accompanied by electron spin polarization transfer from the pentacene excited state to the TEMPO doublet state in the weak coupling regime.

  1. One-sided surface modification of cellulose fabric by printing a modified TEMPO-mediated oxidant.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Binder, Christa; Bechtold, Thomas

    2014-06-15

    One-sided surface oxidation of lyocell type cellulose fabric can be achieved by use of a modified TEMPO-mediated oxidation system. A borate-based buffer was used to maintain stable pH conditions and screen printing was applied to achieve oxidation on the fabric surface only. To formulate an applicable procedure, the TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl system was split into two treatment steps: firstly, the fabric was impregnated with a buffered TEMPO/NaBr solution and dried, then a thickened NaOCl paste was printed on the fabric. FTIR-ATR spectra and methylene blue sorption experiments demonstrated successful modification on the printed side of the fabric. Substantial increases in carboxylic group content and water retention value were observed. The higher concentration of carboxylic groups on the fabric surface also led to a localised increase in binding capacity for Ca(2+)-ions. This new concept permits controlled oxidation of cellulose surfaces by printing techniques.

  2. The nitroxide TEMPO is an efficient scavenger of protein radicals: cellular and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David I; Lam, Magdalena; Shinde, Sujata S; Anderson, Robert F; Davies, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Protein oxidation occurs during multiple human pathologies, and protein radicals are known to induce damage to other cell components. Such damage may be modulated by agents that scavenge protein radicals. In this study, the potential protective reactions of the nitroxide TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl radical) against Tyr- and Trp-derived radicals (TyrO./TrpN.) have been investigated. Pretreatment of macrophage cells with TEMPO provided protection against photo-oxidation-induced loss of cell viability and Tyr oxidation, with the nitroxide more effective than the hydroxylamine or parent amine. Pulse radiolysis was employed to determine rate constants, k, for the reaction of TEMPO with TyrO. and TrpN. generated on N-Ac-Tyr-amide and N-Ac-Trp-amide, with values of k~10(8) and 7×10(6)M(-1)s(-1), respectively, determined. Analogous studies with lysozyme, chymotrypsin, and pepsin yielded k for TEMPO reacting with TrpN. ranging from 1.5×10(7) (lysozyme) to 1.1×10(8) (pepsin)M(-1)s(-1). Pepsin-derived TyrO. reacted with TEMPO with k~4×10(7)M(-1)s(-1); analogous reactions for lysozyme and chymotrypsin TyrO. were much slower. These data indicate that TEMPO can inhibit secondary reactions of both TyrO. and TrpN., though this is protein dependent. Such protein radical scavenging may contribute to the positive biological effects of nitroxides.

  3. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Ryland, Bradford L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2′-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  4. Speed on the dance floor: Auditory and visual cues for musical tempo.

    PubMed

    London, Justin; Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-02-01

    Musical tempo is most strongly associated with the rate of the beat or "tactus," which may be defined as the most prominent rhythmic periodicity present in the music, typically in a range of 1.67-2 Hz. However, other factors such as rhythmic density, mean rhythmic inter-onset interval, metrical (accentual) structure, and rhythmic complexity can affect perceived tempo (Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011 Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011). Visual information can also give rise to a perceived beat/tempo (Iversen, et al., 2015), and auditory and visual temporal cues can interact and mutually influence each other (Soto-Faraco & Kingstone, 2004; Spence, 2015). A five-part experiment was performed to assess the integration of auditory and visual information in judgments of musical tempo. Participants rated the speed of six classic R&B songs on a seven point scale while observing an animated figure dancing to them. Participants were presented with original and time-stretched (±5%) versions of each song in audio-only, audio+video (A+V), and video-only conditions. In some videos the animations were of spontaneous movements to the different time-stretched versions of each song, and in other videos the animations were of "vigorous" versus "relaxed" interpretations of the same auditory stimulus. Two main results were observed. First, in all conditions with audio, even though participants were able to correctly rank the original vs. time-stretched versions of each song, a song-specific tempo-anchoring effect was observed, such that sped-up versions of slower songs were judged to be faster than slowed-down versions of faster songs, even when their objective beat rates were the same. Second, when viewing a vigorous dancing figure in the A+V condition, participants gave faster tempo ratings than from the audio alone or when viewing the same audio with a relaxed dancing figure. The implications of this illusory tempo percept for cross-modal sensory integration and

  5. Copper/TEMPO-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Mechanistic Assessment of Different Catalyst Systems.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Ryland, Bradford L; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-11-01

    Combinations of homogeneous Cu salts and TEMPO have emerged as practical and efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Several closely related catalyst systems have been reported, which differ in the identity of the solvent, the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine as a ligand, the identity of basic additives, and the oxidation state of the Cu source. These changes have a significant influence on the reaction rates, yields, and substrate scope. In this report, we probe the mechanistic basis for differences among four different Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems and elucidate the features that contribute to efficient oxidation of aliphatic alcohols. PMID:24558634

  6. Speed on the dance floor: Auditory and visual cues for musical tempo.

    PubMed

    London, Justin; Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-02-01

    Musical tempo is most strongly associated with the rate of the beat or "tactus," which may be defined as the most prominent rhythmic periodicity present in the music, typically in a range of 1.67-2 Hz. However, other factors such as rhythmic density, mean rhythmic inter-onset interval, metrical (accentual) structure, and rhythmic complexity can affect perceived tempo (Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011 Drake, Gros, & Penel, 1999; London, 2011). Visual information can also give rise to a perceived beat/tempo (Iversen, et al., 2015), and auditory and visual temporal cues can interact and mutually influence each other (Soto-Faraco & Kingstone, 2004; Spence, 2015). A five-part experiment was performed to assess the integration of auditory and visual information in judgments of musical tempo. Participants rated the speed of six classic R&B songs on a seven point scale while observing an animated figure dancing to them. Participants were presented with original and time-stretched (±5%) versions of each song in audio-only, audio+video (A+V), and video-only conditions. In some videos the animations were of spontaneous movements to the different time-stretched versions of each song, and in other videos the animations were of "vigorous" versus "relaxed" interpretations of the same auditory stimulus. Two main results were observed. First, in all conditions with audio, even though participants were able to correctly rank the original vs. time-stretched versions of each song, a song-specific tempo-anchoring effect was observed, such that sped-up versions of slower songs were judged to be faster than slowed-down versions of faster songs, even when their objective beat rates were the same. Second, when viewing a vigorous dancing figure in the A+V condition, participants gave faster tempo ratings than from the audio alone or when viewing the same audio with a relaxed dancing figure. The implications of this illusory tempo percept for cross-modal sensory integration and

  7. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African-American females had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  8. Metal-ligand synergistic effects in the complex Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)2: synthesis, structures, and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Isrow, Derek; DeYonker, Nathan J; Koppaka, Anjaneyulu; Pellechia, Perry J; Webster, Charles Edwin; Captain, Burjor

    2013-12-16

    In the current investigation, reactions of the "bow-tie" Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)2 complex with an assortment of donor ligands have been characterized experimentally and computationally. While the Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)2 complex has trans-disposed TEMPO ligands, proton transfer from the C-H bond of alkyne substrates (phenylacetylene, acetylene, trimethylsilyl acetylene, and 1,4-diethynylbenzene) produce cis-disposed ligands of the form Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(κ(1)-TEMPOH)(κ(1)-R). In the case of 1,4-diethynylbenzene, a two-stage reaction occurs. The initial product Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(κ(1)-TEMPOH)[κ(1)-CC(C6H4)CCH] is formed first but can react further with another equivalent of Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)2 to form the bridged complex Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(κ(1)-TEMPOH)[κ(1)-κ(1)-CC(C6H4)CC]Ni(η(2)-TEMPO)(κ(1)-TEMPOH). The corresponding reaction with acetylene, which could conceivably also yield a bridging complex, does not occur. Via density functional theory (DFT), addition mechanisms are proposed in order to rationalize thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity. Computations have also been used to probe the relative thermodynamic stabilities of the cis and trans addition products and are in accord with experimental results. Based upon the computational results and the geometry of the experimentally observed product, a trans-cis isomerization must occur.

  9. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility and rRNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus intermedius from healthy dogs and from dogs suffering from pyoderma or otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K; Wegener, H C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 60 Staphylococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). Fifteen isolates were from healthy dogs, 9 with otitis externa, and 36 with pyoderma, including 10 strains from a previous study. Sixty per cent of the 50 strains tested for antibiotic susceptibility demonstrated resistance to penicillin, 24% to spiramycin, 20% to tetracycline, 16% to chloramphenicol, and 2% to fucidic acid. All isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin with clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and sulphonamides with trimethoprim. There were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed among isolates from pyoderma, otitis externa or healthy dogs. Among the 60 strains studied by ribotyping, 10 different ribotypes were identified: 6 different ribotypes among isolates from otitis externa, 8 among isolates from pyoderma, and 5 among isolates from healthy dogs. One ribotype (profile C) was dominant among the isolates from healthy dogs while another ribotype (profile A) was dominant among strains from dogs suffering from pyoderma. This profile was not demonstrated in any of the strains from healthy dogs. From 5 different dogs suffering from pyoderma, 2 different clones were demonstrated based on their plasmid profile and antibiogram. In these dogs 1 of the clones always belonged to ribotype A. The results concerning strains of S. intermedius isolated from furunculosis suggest the existence of distinct subpopulations with different pathogenicity to dogs.

  11. The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Sankarpandi, Sathish K; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories.

  12. Susceptibility of Iα- and Iβ-Dominated Cellulose to TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Daniel O; Lindh, Jonas; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2015-05-11

    The susceptibility of Iα- and Iβ-dominated cellulose to TEMPO-mediated oxidation was studied in this work since the cellulose Iα-allomorph is generally considered to be thermodynamically less stable and therefore more reactive than the cellulose Iβ-allomorph. Highly crystalline Cladophora nanocellulose, which is dominated by the Iα-allomorph, was oxidized to various degrees with TEMPO oxidant via bulk electrolysis in the absence of co-oxidants. Further, the Cladophora nanocellulose was thermally annealed in glycerol to produce its Iβ-dominated form and then oxidized. The produced materials were subsequently studied using FTIR, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, XRD, and SEM. The solid-state analyses confirmed that the annealed Cladophora cellulose was successfully transformed from an Iα- to an Iβ-dominated form. The results of the analyses of pristine and annealed TEMPO-oxidized samples suggest that Iα- and Iβ-dominated cellulose do not differ in susceptibility to TEMPO-oxidation. This work hence suggests that cellulose from different sources are not expected to differ in susceptibility to the oxidation due to differences in allomorph composition.

  13. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in…

  14. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  15. Effects of Movement, Tempo, and Gender on Steady Beat Performance of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Paige

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to discover the effects of manual (hand) and pedal (foot) movements, tempo, and gender on steady beat accuracy. Participants (N = 119) consisted of male (n = 63) and female (n = 56) kindergarten students randomly divided into two groups, counterbalanced with regard to school, homeroom, and gender. Participants…

  16. Revisiting the Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I.; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M.; Reddick, Benjamin T.; Bishop, Daniel T.; Lim, Harry B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step…

  17. Evaluating the Utility of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Discriminating among "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Kelly M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate how the inclusion of 3 Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria influences the external validity of the ADHD subtypes. The sample comprised 228 children (166 boys, 62 girls) ranging in age from 5-18 years who were referred to…

  18. Why Should Speech Rate (Tempo) Be Integrated into Pronunciation Teaching Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtbasi, Meti

    2015-01-01

    The pace of speech i.e. tempo can be varied to our mood of the moment. Fast speech can convey urgency, whereas slower speech can be used for emphasis. In public speaking, orators produce powerful effects by varying the loudness and pace of their speech. The juxtaposition of very loud and very quiet utterances is a device often used by those trying…

  19. Factor Structure of a Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Scale in Clinically-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Murphy-Bowman, Sarah C.; Pritchard, Alison E.; Tart-Zelvin, Ariana; Zabel, T. Andrew; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    "Sluggish cognitive tempo" (SCT) is a construct hypothesized to describe a constellation of behaviors that includes daydreaming, lethargy, drowsiness, difficulty sustaining attention, and underactivity. Although the construct has been inconsistently defined, measures of SCT have shown associations with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

  20. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  1. Developing a Measure of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo for Children: Content Validity, Factor Structure, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Ann Marie; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Klein, Raymond M.; Corkum, Penny; Eskes, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a construct that some researchers believe may be extremely useful in understanding the inattentive subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and may even help define a completely new disorder. However, the construct of SCT is as yet inadequately operationally or theoretically defined. The authors took…

  2. Do Symptoms of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children with ADHD Symptoms Represent Comorbid Internalizing Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Annie A.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hodgens, Bart; Patterson, Cryshelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) are correlated with inattention and internalizing difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether symptoms of SCT reflect comorbid internalizing disorder with ADHD or a separate syndrome. Method: Using a clinical sample of youth evaluated for behavioral and learning…

  3. Dimensions and Correlates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Annie A.; Marceaux, Janice; Mrug, Sylvie; Patterson, Cryshelle; Hodgens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) in relation to ADHD symptoms, clinical diagnosis, and multiple aspects of adjustment in a clinical sample. Parent and teacher reports were gathered for 322 children and adolescents evaluated for behavioral, emotional, and/or learning problems at a university clinic. Confirmatory factor…

  4. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  5. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  6. Validity of the Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Symptom Dimensions: Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Barkley, Russell A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Martinez, Jose V.; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the latent structure and validity of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. We evaluated mother and teacher ratings of ADHD and SCT symptoms in 140 Puerto Rican children (55.7% males), ages 6 to 11 years, via factor and regression analyses. A three-factor model (inattention,…

  7. Distinguishing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo from ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Executive Functioning, Impairment, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    Controversy continues as to whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or a distinct disorder. This study examined differences between these disorders in demographics, executive functioning (EF), impairment, and prior professional diagnoses to address the issue. There were 1,800 children…

  8. Effects of Excerpt Tempo and Duration on Musicians' Ratings of High-Level Piano Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapnick, Joel; Ryan, Charlene; Campbell, Louise; Deek, Patricia; Lemire, Renata; Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how judgments of solo performances recorded at an international piano competition might be affected by excerpt duration (20 versus 60 seconds) and tempo (slow versus fast). Musicians rated performances on six test items. Results indicated that piano majors rated slow excerpts higher than they rated fast…

  9. Comparative characterization of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril films prepared from non-wood resources.

    PubMed

    Puangsin, Buapan; Yang, Quanling; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Three non-wood celluloses, hemp bast holocellulose, and commercial bamboo and bagasse bleached kraft pulps, were oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation in water at pH 10. The water-insoluble TEMPO-oxidized celluloses thus obtained were converted to aqueous dispersions of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) and then to self-standing TOCN films. Weight recovery ratios of the TEMPO-oxidized celluloses decreased to 70-80% and their carboxylate contents reached 1.5-1.7mmolg(-1) by the TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The viscosity-average degrees of polymerization remarkably decreased from 800-1100 to 200-480 by partial depolymerization occurring during the oxidation, depending on the non-wood celluloses used as the starting materials. The average lengths and widths of the TOCNs were estimated to be 500-650nm and 2.4-2.9nm, respectively, from their atomic force microscopy images. The self-standing TOCN films had high light-transparencies (>87% at 600nm), high tensile strengths (140-230MPa), high Young's moduli (7-11MPa), low coefficients of thermal expansion (4-6ppmK(-1)) in spite of low densities of 1.4-1.7gcm(-3). In particular, the TOCN films prepared from the hemp bast holocellulose had clearly high works of fracture (~30MJm(-3)), whereas those prepared from other two non-wood celluloses had 2-8MJm(-3).

  10. Serum Malassezia-specific IgE in dogs with recurrent Malassezia otitis externa without concurrent skin disease.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2016-08-01

    Immediate-type hypersensitivity (ITH), mediated by IgE, to Malassezia pachydermatis is recognized in atopic dogs with recurrent yeast dermatitis and otitis externa (OE). Malassezia-associated OE commonly occurs in dogs without other signs of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to detect Malassezia-specific IgE in the sera of dogs with recurrent Malassezia OE without concurrent skin disease. Sera from healthy dogs were used for comparison. An FcεRIα-based ELISA was used to measure Malassezia-specific IgE. There was no significant difference between number of positive affected dogs (6/21, 29%) and number of positive unaffected dogs (15/86, 17%) (P=0.36). There was also no significant difference in the concentrations of Malassezia-specific IgE between the two groups (P=0.97). Malassezia-specific IgE did not distinguish between patient groups so, as with other canine allergens, serum IgE reactivity for Malassezia could not be used to differentiate between diseased and healthy patients. The presence of Malassezia-specific IgE in some of the affected dogs might indicate ITH to Malassezia in those dogs. Evaluation of ITH via intradermal test reactivity and response to allergen-specific immunotherapy might clarify the role of Malassezia-associated ITH in similarly affected dogs. PMID:27288851

  11. Acute otitis externa in divers working in the North Sea: a microbiological survey of seven saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Saturation diving is an important and widely used technique in the Offshore Oil Industry. During 1974-5 two saturation dives in the North Sea were terminated because of outbreaks of incapacitating otitis externa, and others were disrupted. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was consistently isolated from the ears of affected divers. Because complex work schedules were threatened seven subsequent dives were subjected to microbiological monitoring and control. Colonization of ear canal with P. aeruginosa or with other gram-negative bacilli occurred in 39 (67%) of the 58 divers studied, usually within 7 days of starting the dive. Data obtained by serotyping this isolations of P. aeruginosa suggested that a single infected diver may be the source of organisms which rapidly spread to his colleagues and throughout the living chambers, that the living chambers may constitute a reservoir of infection during and between dives, and that certain serotypes of P. aeruginosa are more likely than others to colonize the ear canal in the conditions of a saturation dive. The control measures used during the dives were only partially effective, but none of the divers suffered severe pain and all the dives were an operational success. PMID:405421

  12. Structural, thermal and photo-physical data of azo-aromatic TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting to polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, Francesca; Domenichelli, Ilaria; Coiai, Serena; Bellina, Fabio; Lessi, Marco; Spiniello, Roberto; Passaglia, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The data reported in this paper are complementary to the characterization of 4-(phenylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AzO-TEMPO) and of the 4-(2-thienylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (ThiO-TEMPO) before and after their grafting to two polyethylene matrices (a copolymer ethylene/α-olefin (co-EO) and a high density polyethylene (HDPE)). Particularly the data reported in this paper confirm the structure (FT-IR analysis), the thermal (TGA and EPR) and the photo-physical (UV-vis) properties of the RO-TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting. Herein, the FT-IR spectrum and TGA thermogram of ThiO-TEMPO were compared with those of AzO-TEMPO. Moreover, the superimposition of UV-vis spectra collected during the irradiation under 366 or 254 nm emitting lamp of AzO-TEMPO and ThiO-TEMPO in acetonitrile solution are reported. Finally, a complete DSC characterization of the functionalized POs is shown. DOI of original article: 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2015.11.018〉 [1]. PMID:26909368

  13. Structural, thermal and photo-physical data of azo-aromatic TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting to polyolefins

    PubMed Central

    Cicogna, Francesca; Domenichelli, Ilaria; Coiai, Serena; Bellina, Fabio; Lessi, Marco; Spiniello, Roberto; Passaglia, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The data reported in this paper are complementary to the characterization of 4-(phenylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AzO-TEMPO) and of the 4-(2-thienylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (ThiO-TEMPO) before and after their grafting to two polyethylene matrices (a copolymer ethylene/α-olefin (co-EO) and a high density polyethylene (HDPE)). Particularly the data reported in this paper confirm the structure (FT-IR analysis), the thermal (TGA and EPR) and the photo-physical (UV–vis) properties of the RO-TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting. Herein, the FT-IR spectrum and TGA thermogram of ThiO-TEMPO were compared with those of AzO-TEMPO. Moreover, the superimposition of UV–vis spectra collected during the irradiation under 366 or 254 nm emitting lamp of AzO-TEMPO and ThiO-TEMPO in acetonitrile solution are reported. Finally, a complete DSC characterization of the functionalized POs is shown. DOI of original article: 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2015.11.018〉 [1] PMID:26909368

  14. Structural, thermal and photo-physical data of azo-aromatic TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting to polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Cicogna, Francesca; Domenichelli, Ilaria; Coiai, Serena; Bellina, Fabio; Lessi, Marco; Spiniello, Roberto; Passaglia, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The data reported in this paper are complementary to the characterization of 4-(phenylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (AzO-TEMPO) and of the 4-(2-thienylazo)-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (ThiO-TEMPO) before and after their grafting to two polyethylene matrices (a copolymer ethylene/α-olefin (co-EO) and a high density polyethylene (HDPE)). Particularly the data reported in this paper confirm the structure (FT-IR analysis), the thermal (TGA and EPR) and the photo-physical (UV-vis) properties of the RO-TEMPO derivatives before and after their grafting. Herein, the FT-IR spectrum and TGA thermogram of ThiO-TEMPO were compared with those of AzO-TEMPO. Moreover, the superimposition of UV-vis spectra collected during the irradiation under 366 or 254 nm emitting lamp of AzO-TEMPO and ThiO-TEMPO in acetonitrile solution are reported. Finally, a complete DSC characterization of the functionalized POs is shown. DOI of original article: 〈http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2015.11.018〉 [1].

  15. Poor-quality water in swimming pools associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hajjartabar, M

    2004-01-01

    There are many large and small public outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Tehran that hundreds of people use, especially on hot summer days. The bacteriological quality of the water of some of these pools was assayed over a period of about one year (2001-2002). To assess if these swimming pools were a health risk to users, eleven public swimming pools, in the east and northeast of the city, were examined, and the exposed people were monitored. Samples of swimming-pool waters were examined for colony counts, Escherichia coli and coliforms. In addition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from nine (81.8%) of those pools. P. aeruginosa grew in seven (63.6%) of the swimming-pool water samples. In two (18.2%) other samples, in addition to P. aeruginosa, high rates of total bacterial count, total coliforms and faecal coliform counts were also found. At the same time, users of the swimming pools were asked to complete a questionnaire. Ear swabs were collected from 179 users with a history of ear problems during the previous two weeks. An adequate control group was chosen randomly from those who never used the investigated pools. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the ear swabs of 142 (79.3%) of the cases, as well as from 4% of the controls. Results were matched for age, sex, duration of time spent in the pools, place of occurrence and other useful information. Investigation of the contaminated swimming pools revealed that chlorination was often inadequate, especially when high numbers of people led to overuse of the pools. Although the results of this research showed that otitis externa was strongly associated with the swimming pools, due to P. aeruginosa, an extensive follow-up study is needed to determine the other possible health risks associated with public pools.

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals prepared via formic acid hydrolysis followed by TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Xu, Wenyang; Kronlund, Dennis; Määttänen, Anni; Liu, Jun; Smått, Jan-Henrik; Peltonen, Jouko; Willför, Stefan; Mu, Xindong; Xu, Chunlin

    2015-11-20

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a renewable and biodegradable nanomaterial have wide application value. In this work, CNCs were extracted from bleached chemical pulp using two stages of isolation (i.e. formic acid (FA) hydrolysis and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediated oxidation) under mild conditions. In the first stage, FA was used to remove hemicellulose, swell cellulose fibers, and release CNCs. The FA could be readily recovered and reused. In the second stage, the CNCs isolated by FA were further modified by TEMPO-mediated oxidation to increase the surface charge of CNCs. It was found that the modified CNCs with more ordered crystal structure and higher surface charge had better redispersibility and higher viscosity in aqueous phase. Therefore, the modified CNCs could be more effective when used as rheology modifier in the fields of water based coating, paint, food etc.

  17. A novel approach for grafting of β-cyclodextrin onto wool via laccase/TEMPO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Jiugang; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Ping

    2016-11-20

    This study demonstrated a new enzymatic methodology to graft β-cyclodextrin onto wool. The primary hydroxyl groups in β-cyclodextrin were oxidized to aldehyde groups using laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), which reacted with the amino groups of wool to form Schiff bases. The effects of treatment conditions (treatment temperature, laccase dosage, TEMPO dosage, treatment time) on the aldehyde and carboxyl contents in β-cyclodextrin were studied. FTIR spectrum of oxidized β-cyclodextrin showed the presence of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Results of MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the coupling of β-cyclodextrin to tyrosine, which was used as a model compound for wool. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the grafted wool confirmed the presence of β-cyclodextrin in grafted wool and the formation of a Schiff base between β-cyclodextrin and wool.

  18. A novel approach for grafting of β-cyclodextrin onto wool via laccase/TEMPO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Jiugang; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Ping

    2016-11-20

    This study demonstrated a new enzymatic methodology to graft β-cyclodextrin onto wool. The primary hydroxyl groups in β-cyclodextrin were oxidized to aldehyde groups using laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), which reacted with the amino groups of wool to form Schiff bases. The effects of treatment conditions (treatment temperature, laccase dosage, TEMPO dosage, treatment time) on the aldehyde and carboxyl contents in β-cyclodextrin were studied. FTIR spectrum of oxidized β-cyclodextrin showed the presence of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Results of MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy confirmed the coupling of β-cyclodextrin to tyrosine, which was used as a model compound for wool. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of the grafted wool confirmed the presence of β-cyclodextrin in grafted wool and the formation of a Schiff base between β-cyclodextrin and wool. PMID:27561518

  19. TEMPO EC for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Torontali, Marianne; Goetz, Katherine; Agin, James; Goins, David; Johnson, Ronald; Achen, M; Barlowe, A; Clark, M; Colón-Reveles, J; Dixon, K; Fisher, K; Hanson, P; Jechorek, R; Johnson, L; Kelly, M; Kim, S; Kohler, H; Kondratko, D; Kupski, B; McCallum, K; Mills, J; Mohnke, F; Moon, B; Olson, B; Reed, C; Sauter, J; Thompson, L

    2010-01-01

    The automated method for enumeration of Escherichia coli, TEMPO EC, in foods uses a dehydrated culture medium and enumeration card containing 48 wells across three different dilutions for the automatic determination of the most probable number (MPN). The alternative method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to AOAC Official Method 966.24. Six food types were artificially contaminated with E. coli: raw ground beef, bagged lettuce, cooked chicken, pasteurized crabmeat, frozen green beans, and pasteurized whole milk. All foods were analyzed for E. coli counts by 11 collaborating laboratories throughout the United States. Test portions from the six food types each contaminated at four different contamination levels were evaluated. The study demonstrated that the TEMPO EC method is a reliable, automated assay for the enumeration of E. coli in foods.

  20. Hydrophobic modification of cotton fabric with octadecylamine via laccase/TEMPO mediated grafting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Jiugang; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Ping; Cui, Li

    2016-02-10

    Hydrophobic cotton fabrics were prepared by grafting octadecylamine (ODA) onto cotton fiber surfaces via the laccase/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) treatment. The cotton fibers were oxidized by laccase/TEMPO to introduce aldehyde groups, which reacted with the amino groups of ODA to form Schiff base. First, ODA was coupled to glucan, used as a model compound of cellulose. The results of FT-IR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy prove the formation of a Schiff base between ODA and glucan. Moreover, the existence of ODA in the grafted cotton fibers was verified by ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, the hydrophobicity of the ODA-grafted cotton fabrics was estimated. The surface hydrophobicity of the cotton fabrics increased after the enzymatic grafting reaction.

  1. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    PubMed

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music.

  2. Description and operating instructions: TEMPO high-voltage microwave driver, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1988-06-01

    This manual describes the TEMPO high-voltage (HV) microwave driver and provides operating procedures and general maintenance requirements. It is intended as a guide for experienced personnel familiar with operating HV pulsed power equipment and not as a detailed instruction for inexperienced operators. For safety reasons, inexperienced personnel should never attempt to charge and fire HV pulsed power equipment. Serious personnel injury and damage to the machine can result from improper operation. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) - Status and Potential Science Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, to launch between 2019 and 2021. It measures atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly at high spatial resolution, ~ 10 km2. It measures the key elements of air pollution chemistry. Geostationary (GEO) measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies. TEMPO measures the UV/visible spectra to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2 CO, C2 H2 O2, H2 O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean GEMS. TEMPO studies may include: Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity, carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; Measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; Measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; Measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NOx and O3 production; Cropland measurements follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; Measurements investigate the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; Measurements examine ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; Spectra of nighttime lights are markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards intended to reduce light pollution.

  4. Analysis of fluorescence quenching of coumarin derivatives by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of different coumarin derivatives (7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, 7-amino-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid, 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in aqueous solutions at the room temperature was studied with the use of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy as well as a steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to understand the mechanism of quenching the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of all coumarins along with fluorescence decays were recorded under the action of 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. The Stern-Volmer plots (both from time-averaged and time-resolved measurements) displayed no positive (upward) deviation from a linearity. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was found to be entirely dynamic, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at different temperatures. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching rate constants were obtained for all coumarins studied at the room temperature. The findings demonstrate the possibility of developing an analytical method for the quantitative determination of the free radicals' scavenger, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. PMID:24337873

  5. Tempo and mode in fossil molluscs: Investigating organism-environment interactions, species, and speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, D.H. )

    1992-01-01

    After 20 years of investigation into the tempo and mode of species-level change in the fossil record, it is clear that both punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism occur, as do a variety of intermediate patterns. Important questions regarding the maintenance and diversification of species remain, however. The author documents a variety of evolutionary patterns from gastropods and bivalves, and uses these to discuss two basic issues: environment-organism interactions over time, and the importance of information on geographic variation. The tempo of morphological change is an expression of the interaction of organisms and their environment. The initial over which new species appear may be a geologic instant'' (Melanopsis gastropods), or may last 10[sup 4]--10[sup 5] years (Prunum gastropods), or 10[sup 6] years (Melanopsis). This wide range of intervals indicates a variety of tempos of environmental change, and/or different kinds of organismal responses. Analysis of geographic variation is of critical importance in understanding species and speciation, yet is lacking in many paleontological studies. An example of the utility of geographic information is a study of the muricid gastropod Acanthina, which demonstrates how a geographically localized form may spread through a species range. Another example involves a species of Pleuriocardia in stasis: geographic variation among roughly correlative samples greatly exceeds long-term temporal variation. Considerations of the mechanisms for stasis and change must take into account such intraspecific variation.

  6. Introduction of aldehyde vs. carboxylic groups to cellulose nanofibers using laccase/TEMPO mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Darja; Vogrinčič, Robert; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-02-13

    The chemo-enzymatic modification of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using laccase as biocatalysts and TEMPO or 4-Amino-TEMPO as mediators under mild aqueous conditions (pH 5, 30 °C) has been investigated to introduce surface active aldehyde groups. 4-Amino TEMPO turned out to be kinetically 0.5-times (50%) more active mediator, resulting to oxoammonium cation intermediacy generated and its in situ regeneration during the modification of CNFs. Accordingly, beside of around 750 mmol/kg terminally-located aldehydes, originated during CNFs isolation, the reaction resulted to about 140% increase of C6-located aldehydes at optimal conditions, without reducing CNFs crystallinity. While only the C6-aldehydes were wholly transformed into the carboxyls after additional post-treatment using NaOH according to the Cannizzaro reaction, the post-oxidation with air-oxygen in EtOH/water medium or NaClO2 resulted to no- or very small amounts of carboxyls created, respectively, at a simultaneous loss of all C6- and some terminal-aldehydes in the latter due to the formation of highly-resistant hemiacetal covalent linkages with available cellulose hydroxyls. The results indicated a new way of preparing and stabilizing highly reactive C6-aldehydes on cellulose, and their exploitation in the development of new nanocellulose-based materials.

  7. Photodissociation of TEMPO-modified peptides: new approaches to radical-directed dissociation of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David L; Hansen, Christopher S; Trevitt, Adam J; Oh, Han Bin; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2014-03-14

    Radical-directed dissociation of gas phase ions is emerging as a powerful and complementary alternative to traditional tandem mass spectrometric techniques for biomolecular structural analysis. Previous studies have identified that coupling of 2-[(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl)methyl]benzoic acid (TEMPO-Bz) to the N-terminus of a peptide introduces a labile oxygen-carbon bond that can be selectively activated upon collisional activation to produce a radical ion. Here we demonstrate that structurally-defined peptide radical ions can also be generated upon UV laser photodissociation of the same TEMPO-Bz derivatives in a linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. When subjected to further mass spectrometric analyses, the radical ions formed by a single laser pulse undergo identical dissociations as those formed by collisional activation of the same precursor ion, and can thus be used to derive molecular structure. Mapping the initial radical formation process as a function of photon energy by photodissociation action spectroscopy reveals that photoproduct formation is selective but occurs only in modest yield across the wavelength range (300-220 nm), with the photoproduct yield maximised between 235 and 225 nm. Based on the analysis of a set of model compounds, structural modifications to the TEMPO-Bz derivative are suggested to optimise radical photoproduct yield. Future development of such probes offers the advantage of increased sensitivity and selectivity for radical-directed dissociation.

  8. Molecular weight distribution and functional group profiles of TEMPO-oxidized lyocell fibers.

    PubMed

    Milanovic, Jovana; Schiehser, Sonja; Milanovic, Predrag; Potthast, Antje; Kostic, Mirjana

    2013-10-15

    The effects of TEMPO-mediated oxidation, performed with NaClO, a catalytic amount of NaBr, and 2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO), were studied on lyocell fibers by means of GPC using multiple detection and group-selective fluorescence labeling according to the CCOA and FDAM methodology. The applied method determines functional group content as a sum parameter, as well as functional group profiles in relation to the molecular weight of the cellulose fibers. Both the CHO and COOH profiles, as well as molecular weight alterations, were analyzed. A significant decrease in the average molecular weight was obtained during the first hour of TEMPO-mediated oxidation, but prolonged oxidation time resulted in no strong additional chain scission. Significant amounts of COOH groups were introduced in the high molecular weight fractions by the oxidation with higher concentrations of NaClO (2.42-9.67 mmol NaClO/g fiber) after modification times of 1h or longer.

  9. Oxidation of alcohols and activated alkanes with Lewis acid-activated TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Wright, Ashley M; Page, Joshua S; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-11-01

    The reactivity of MCl3(η(1)-TEMPO) (M = Fe, 1; Al, 2; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) with a variety of alcohols, including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxyethanol, and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol, was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complex 1 was effective in cleanly converting these substrates to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. Complex 2 was also able to oxidize these substrates; however, in a few instances the products of overoxidation were also observed. Oxidation of activated alkanes, such as xanthene, by 1 or 2 suggests that the reactions proceed via an initial 1-electron concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) event. Finally, reaction of TEMPO with FeBr3 in Et2O results in the formation of a mixture of FeBr3(η(1)-TEMPOH) (23) and [FeBr2(η(1)-TEMPOH)]2(μ-O) (24), via oxidation of the solvent, Et2O.

  10. Intra- and intersubject comparison of cochlear implant systems using the Esprit and the Tempo+ behind-the-ear speech processor.

    PubMed

    Kompis, Martin; Jenk, Martin; Vischer, Mattheus W; Seifert, Eberhard; Häusler, Rudolf

    2002-12-01

    A patient with bilateral profound deafness was implanted with a Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant (CI) and used an Esprit behind-the-ear (BTE) speech processor. Thirteen months later, the implant had to be removed because of a cholesteatoma. As the same electrode could not be reinserted, a Medel combi40s CI was implanted in the same ear, and the patient used a Tempo+ BTE processor. After 1 year of use of the Combi40s/Tempo+ system, speech recognition was better and was rated better subjectively than with the CI24M/Esprit system. Speech recognition and subjective ratings were also assessed for two matched groups of nine CI users each, using either an Esprit or a Tempo+ processor. On average, speech recognition scores were higher for the group of Tempo+ users, but the difference was not statistically significant. Users of the Esprit processors rated their device higher in terms of cosmetic appearance and comfort of wearing.

  11. Catalytic Cycle Employing a TEMPO-Anion Complex to Obtain a Secondary Mg-O2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tohru; Hase, Yoko; Yagi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Naoko; Takechi, Kensuke

    2014-05-15

    Nonaqueous Mg-O2 batteries are suitable only as primary cells because MgO precipitates formed during discharging are not decomposed electrochemically at ambient temperatures. To address this problem, the present study examined the ability of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-oxyl (TEMPO)-anion complex to catalyze the decomposition of MgO. It was determined that this complex was capable of chemically decomposing MgO at 60 °C. A catalytic cycle for the realization of a rechargeable Mg-O2 electrode was designed by combining the decomposition of MgO via the TEMPO-anion complex and the TEMPO-redox couple. This work also demonstrates that a nonaqueous Mg-O2 battery incorporating acrylate polymer having TEMPO side units in the cathode shows evidence of being rechargeable.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of combinations of EDTA-Tris and amikacin or neomycin on the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sparks, T A; Kemp, D T; Wooley, R E; Gibbs, P S

    1994-01-01

    Combinations of EDTA-Tris and two aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin and neomycin) were tested for synergistic activities against the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs and for the solutions' stability over time. Synergistic activity was observed when EDTA-Tris plus amikacin and EDTA-Tris plus neomycin were tested against Staphylococcus intermedius, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but not against Candida albicans. Stability studies over a 3-month period indicated that the test solutions were stable at room temperature and that their antimicrobial activity was maintained.

  13. Comparison of Boric Acid and Combination Drug of Polymyxin, Neomycin and Hydrocortisone (polymyxin NH) in the Treatment of Acute Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute otitis externa is an inflammation of the external auditory canal known as "swimmer’s ear". Direct costs including medical treatment, painkillers, antibiotics, steroids or both and indirect costs are also remarkable. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the effect of boric acid and polymyxin, neomycin and hydrocortisone composition in the treatment of acute otitis externa. Materials and Methods This randomized clinical trial was carried out on 80 patients aged more than 17-year-old who were referred to Kashani hospital clinic with a diagnosis of acute otitis externa by otolaryngologist. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (A: Boric acid and B: polymyxin NH ear drops) and Painkiller was prescribed and administered orally for all patients and in the presence of fever, cellulitis around the ears and neck adenopathy, broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics were used besides topical treatment. Symptoms of patients who were evaluated by a physician includes pain, discharge from the ear, swelling of the ear canal, auricle swelling, tenderness, and ear itching. In addition, pain was evaluated in patients and was recorded by Macgill Pain Questionnaire, in the first, third, seventh and tenth days. Results Results showed that itching on third day (p=0.007) and swelling of the ear canal in the examination of the third day (p=0.006) and the seventh day (p=0.001) in the polymyxin NH group was more than those of boric acid group. Overall mean pain based on McGill questionnaire was 11.10±1.49 in boric acid group in the examination on the first day and was 4.05±0.22 in the examination on the tenth day and in the polymyxin NH group, it was 10.9±0.99 on the first day and 4.20±0.40 on the tenth day. In both groups, pain relief was the same and there was no significant difference between two groups (p=0.075). Conclusion The findings of this study showed slight differences in the effectiveness of the boric acid drug and combination of polymyxin

  14. Comparison of Boric Acid and Combination Drug of Polymyxin, Neomycin and Hydrocortisone (polymyxin NH) in the Treatment of Acute Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute otitis externa is an inflammation of the external auditory canal known as "swimmer’s ear". Direct costs including medical treatment, painkillers, antibiotics, steroids or both and indirect costs are also remarkable. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the effect of boric acid and polymyxin, neomycin and hydrocortisone composition in the treatment of acute otitis externa. Materials and Methods This randomized clinical trial was carried out on 80 patients aged more than 17-year-old who were referred to Kashani hospital clinic with a diagnosis of acute otitis externa by otolaryngologist. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups (A: Boric acid and B: polymyxin NH ear drops) and Painkiller was prescribed and administered orally for all patients and in the presence of fever, cellulitis around the ears and neck adenopathy, broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics were used besides topical treatment. Symptoms of patients who were evaluated by a physician includes pain, discharge from the ear, swelling of the ear canal, auricle swelling, tenderness, and ear itching. In addition, pain was evaluated in patients and was recorded by Macgill Pain Questionnaire, in the first, third, seventh and tenth days. Results Results showed that itching on third day (p=0.007) and swelling of the ear canal in the examination of the third day (p=0.006) and the seventh day (p=0.001) in the polymyxin NH group was more than those of boric acid group. Overall mean pain based on McGill questionnaire was 11.10±1.49 in boric acid group in the examination on the first day and was 4.05±0.22 in the examination on the tenth day and in the polymyxin NH group, it was 10.9±0.99 on the first day and 4.20±0.40 on the tenth day. In both groups, pain relief was the same and there was no significant difference between two groups (p=0.075). Conclusion The findings of this study showed slight differences in the effectiveness of the boric acid drug and combination of polymyxin

  15. Anhydrous TEMPO-H: reactions of a good hydrogen atom donor with low-valent carbon centres.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Nick A; Makramalla, Miller; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Robertson, Katherine N; Sherren, Cody; Pye, Cory C; Masuda, Jason D; Clyburne, Jason A C

    2011-05-21

    In this paper, we report a novel synthesis of anhydrous 1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine (TEMPO-H). An X-ray crystal structure and full characterization of the compound are included. Compared to hydrated TEMPO-H, its anhydrous form exhibits improved stability and a differing chemical reactivity. The reactions of anhydrous TEMPO-H with a variety of low-valent carbon centres are described. For example, anhydrous TEMPO-H was reacted with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes), an unsaturated NHC. Crystals of [CHNC(6)H(2)(CH(3))(3)](2)C···HO(NC(5)H(6)(CH(3))(4)), IMes···TEMPO-H, were isolated and a crystal structure determined. The experimental structure is compared to the results of theoretical calculations on the hydrogen-bonded dimer. Anhydrous TEMPO-H was also reacted with the saturated NHC, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-ylidene (SIPr), giving the product [CH(2)Ni-Pr(2)C(6)H(3)](2)CH···O(NC(5)H(6)(CH(3))(4)). In contrast, the reaction of hydrated TEMPO-H with 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-ylidene gave small amounts of the hydrolysis product, N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N-[2-(2,6-diisopropylphenylamino)ethyl]formamide. Finally, anhydrous TEMPO-H was reacted with (triphenylphosphoranylidene)ketene to generate Ph(3)PC(H)C(=O)O(NC(5)H(6)(CH(3))(4)). A full characterization of the product, including an X-ray crystal structure, is described.

  16. Electrolytes based on TEMPO-Co tandem redox systems outperform single redox systems in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jiayan; Hao, Yan; Boschloo, Gerrit; Kloo, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A new TEMPO-Co tandem redox system with TEMPO and Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) has been investigated for the use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A large open-circuit voltage (VOC ) increase, from 862 mV to 965 mV, was observed in the tandem redox system, while the short-circuit current density (JSC ) was maintained. The conversion efficiency was observed to increase from 7.1 % for cells containing the single Co(bpy)3 (2+/3+) redox couple, to 8.4 % for cells containing the TEMPO-Co tandem redox system. The reason for the increase in VOC and overall efficiency is ascribed to the involvement of partial regeneration of the sensitizing dye molecules by TEMPO. This assumption can be verified through the observed much faster regeneration dynamics exhibited in the presence of the tandem system. Using the tandem redox system, the faster recombination problem of the single TEMPO redox couple is resolved and the mass-transport of the metal-complex-based electrolyte is also improved. This TEMPO-Co tandem system is so far the most efficient tandem redox electrolyte reported not involving iodine. The current results show a promising future for tandem system as replacements for single redox systems in electrolytes for DSSCs.

  17. Scope and limitations of the TEMPO/EPR method for singlet oxygen detection: the misleading role of electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Giacomo; Manet, Ilse; Monti, Sandra; Miranda, Miguel A; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie

    2014-12-01

    For many biological and biomedical studies, it is essential to detect the production of (1)O2 and quantify its production yield. Among the available methods, detection of the characteristic 1270-nm phosphorescence of singlet oxygen by time-resolved near-infrared (TRNIR) emission constitutes the most direct and unambiguous approach. An alternative indirect method is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in combination with a singlet oxygen probe. This is based on the detection of the TEMPO free radical formed after oxidation of TEMP (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) by singlet oxygen. Although the TEMPO/EPR method has been widely employed, it can produce misleading data. This is demonstrated by the present study, in which the quantum yields of singlet oxygen formation obtained by TRNIR emission and by the TEMPO/EPR method are compared for a set of well-known photosensitizers. The results reveal that the TEMPO/EPR method leads to significant overestimation of singlet oxygen yield when the singlet or triplet excited state of the photosensitizer is efficiently quenched by TEMP, acting as electron donor. In such case, generation of the TEMP(+) radical cation, followed by deprotonation and reaction with molecular oxygen, gives rise to an EPR-detectable TEMPO signal that is not associated with singlet oxygen production. This knowledge is essential for an appropriate and error-free application of the TEMPO/EPR method in chemical, biological, and medical studies.

  18. Determination and control of TEMPO, a potentially genotoxic free radical reagent used in the synthesis of filibuvir.

    PubMed

    Strohmeyer, Holly E; Sluggett, Gregory W

    2012-03-25

    The synthesis of filibuvir, a hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor candidate, involves use of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), a potentially genotoxic free radical reagent. A headspace gas chromatographic method utilizing selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode mass spectrometric detection was developed, validated and applied to the determination of low levels of TEMPO in filibuvir. The GC-MS method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy/recovery, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD). The method was shown to be specific for detection of TEMPO in the presence of filibuvir and exhibited acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.997) over the range of 4-60 ppm vs. filibuvir (0.4-6.0 μg/mL). The system precision was 14% and 8% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the 4 ppm and 8 ppm levels, respectively. Method repeatability was 15% and 13% RSD at the 4 ppm and 8 ppm levels, respectively. Recovery was approximately 50-80% across the method range. Accuracy was 135% and 91% vs. nominal at the 4 and 8 ppm levels, respectively. The LOQ and LOD are 4 ppm and 2 ppm, respectively. Thirteen batches of filibuvir drug substance had no detectable TEMPO (≤ 2 ppm). Purge studies demonstrated that the synthetic process has an extremely high capability to remove TEMPO and consistently delivers filibuvir drug substance with TEMPO levels well below the staged threshold of toxicological concern.

  19. Tempo, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Michael, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The four issues of this 1998 publication on gifted and talented students address the themes of: (1) acceleration and grouping, (2) professional development, (3) core content areas, and (4) giftedness: a Texas tradition. Major articles are: "Cooperative Learning, Curriculum Access, and the Challenge of Acceleration" (Ann Robinson); "Acceleration…

  20. Tempo, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Michael, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The three issues of this 1997 publication on gifted and talented students focus on the themes of teaching gifted students in the regular classroom, atypical gifted students, and the 1997 annual conference of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented. Major articles include the following: "Meeting the Needs of Gifted Learners in the Regular…

  1. Tempo, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Michael, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents four issues of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented's quarterly publication, each of which focused on a particular theme: (1) instructional grouping options; (2) humanities and gifted students; (3) math and science; and (4) a 25th anniversary issue, "Silver Legacy: Shining on the Future for Gifted Youth." Each…

  2. Tempo, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Michael, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the four issues of the newsletter of the Texas Association for the Gifted focuses on a theme: leadership, evaluation and assessment, curriculum issues, and accountability issues. Issues usually contain theme-related major articles, columns by the Association's president and executive director, a column examining related research, answers…

  3. Tempo, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Michael, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Each of the four issues of the newsletter of the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented focus on a theme: guidance and counseling, continuing options for gifted learners, early childhood gifted, and gifted students in the global community. Issues usually contain theme-related major articles, columns by the Association's president and…

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) against strains causing otitis externa in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Moulari, B; Pellequer, Y; Chaumont, J P; Guillaume, Y C; Millet, J

    2007-03-01

    Otitis externa in dogs and cats is always caused by a combination of yeasts and bacteria, among which the most important are Malassezia pachydermatis, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pseudomonas species. These organisms often develop resistance to classical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of an ethyl acetate leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis against the organisms cited, to carry out the phytochemical investigation of this extract and to determine its bioactive chemical class using dilution techniques, the bioautography method and the standard phytochemical method described by Harborne (1973). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and anthracenic derivatives. The bioassay showed that the antimicrobial properties may be attributed to astilbin, a flavanone derivative identified on the basis of its spectroscopic data. The results suggest that the extract could be used in an antimicrobial preparation effective against the whole range of organisms incriminated in otitis externa in dogs and cats, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 250 microg/ml.

  5. Reactive oxygen species and c-Jun N-terminal kinases contribute to TEMPO-induced apoptosis in L5178Y cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Chen, Si; Zhang, Zhuhong; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Dial, Stacey L; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-06-25

    The biological consequences of exposure to piperidine nitroxides is a concern, given their widespread use in manufacturing processes and their potential use in clinical applications. Our previous study reported that TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a low molecular weight free radical, possesses pro-oxidative activity in L5178Y cells. In this study, we investigated and characterized the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TEMPO-induced toxicity in L5178Y cells. We found that TEMPO induced time- and concentration-dependent intracellular ROS production and glutathione depletion. TEMPO also induced apoptosis as demonstrated by increased caspase-3/7 activity, an increased proportion of annexin V stained cells, and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, attenuated the ROS production and apoptosis induced by TEMPO. Moreover, Western blot analyses revealed that TEMPO activated γ-H2A.X, a hallmark of DNA damage, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), a key member in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Addition of SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor, blocked TEMPO-mediated JNK phosphorylation and also attenuated TEMPO-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that both ROS production and JNK activation are involved in TEMPO-induced apoptosis, and may contribute to the toxicity of TEMPO in L5178Y cells.

  6. Malignant otitis externa

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroy the bones. The infection may affect the cranial nerves, brain, or other parts of the body if ... nervous system (neurological) exam may show that the cranial nerves are affected. If there is any drainage, the ...

  7. Continuous loudness response to acoustic intensity dynamics in melodies: effects of melodic contour, tempo, and tonality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate perceived loudness change in response to melodies that increase (up-ramp) or decrease (down-ramp) in acoustic intensity, and the interaction with other musical factors such as melodic contour, tempo, and tonality (tonal/atonal). A within-subjects design manipulated direction of linear intensity change (up-ramp, down-ramp), melodic contour (ascending, descending), tempo, and tonality, using single ramp trials and paired ramp trials, where single up-ramps and down-ramps were assembled to create continuous up-ramp/down-ramp or down-ramp/up-ramp pairs. Twenty-nine (Exp 1) and thirty-six (Exp 2) participants rated loudness continuously in response to trials with monophonic 13-note piano melodies lasting either 6.4s or 12s. Linear correlation coefficients >.89 between loudness and time show that time-series loudness responses to dynamic up-ramp and down-ramp melodies are essentially linear across all melodies. Therefore, 'indirect' loudness change derived from the difference in loudness at the beginning and end points of the continuous response was calculated. Down-ramps were perceived to change significantly more in loudness than up-ramps in both tonalities and at a relatively slow tempo. Loudness change was also greater for down-ramps presented with a congruent descending melodic contour, relative to an incongruent pairing (down-ramp and ascending melodic contour). No differential effect of intensity ramp/melodic contour congruency was observed for up-ramps. In paired ramp trials assessing the possible impact of ramp context, loudness change in response to up-ramps was significantly greater when preceded by down-ramps, than when not preceded by another ramp. Ramp context did not affect down-ramp perception. The contribution to the fields of music perception and psychoacoustics are discussed in the context of real-time perception of music, principles of music composition, and performance of musical dynamics.

  8. Phylogenies, the Comparative Method, and the Conflation of Tempo and Mode.

    PubMed

    Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; Adams, Dean C

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of mathematical models that represent alternative hypotheses about the tempo and mode of evolutionary change is a common approach for assessing the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. However, because model parameters are estimated simultaneously, they are inextricably linked, such that changes in tempo, the pace of evolution, and mode, the manner in which evolution occurs, may be difficult to assess separately. This may potentially complicate biological interpretation, but the extent to which this occurs has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined 160 phylogeny × trait empirical data sets, and conducted extensive numerical phylogenetic simulations, to investigate the efficacy of phylogenetic comparative methods to distinguish between models that represent different evolutionary processes in a phylogenetic context. We observed that, in some circumstances, a high uncertainty exists when attempting to distinguish between alternative evolutionary scenarios underlying phenotypic variation. When examining data sets simulated under known conditions, we found that evolutionary inference is straightforward when phenotypic patterns are generated by simple evolutionary processes that are represented by modifying a single model parameter at a time. However, inferring the exact nature of the evolutionary process that has yielded phenotypic variation when facing complex, potentially more realistic, mechanisms is more problematic. A detailed investigation of the influence of different model parameters showed that changes in evolutionary rates, marked changes in phylogenetic means, or the existence of a strong selective pull on the data, are all readily recovered by phenotypic model comparison. However, under evolutionary processes with a milder restraining pull acting on trait values, alternative models representing very different evolutionary processes may exhibit similar goodness-of-fit to the data, potentially leading to

  9. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions.

  10. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions. PMID:27112871

  11. Nap environment control considering respiration rate and music tempo by using sensor agent robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaso, Sayaka; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    We propose a system that controls a nap environment considering respiration rates and music tempo by using a sensor agent robot. The proposed system consists of two sub-systems. The first sub-system measures respiration rates using optical flow. We conducted preparatory experiments to verify the accuracy of this sub-system. The experimental results showed that this sub-system can measure the respiration rates accurately despite several positional relationships. It was also shown that the accuracy could be affected by clothes, movements and light. The second sub-system we constructed was the music play sub-system that chooses music with the certain tempo corresponding to the respiration rates measured by the first sub-system. We conducted verification experiments to verify the effectiveness of this music play sub-system. The experimental results showed the effectiveness of varying music tempo based on the respiration rates in taking a nap. We also demonstrated this system in a real environment; a subject entered into the room being followed by ebioNα. When the subject was considered sleeping, ebioNα started measuring respiration rates, controlling music based on the respiration rates. As a result, we showed that this system could be realized. As a next step, we would like to improve this system to a nap environment control system to be used in offices. To realize this, we need to update the first sub-system measuring respiration rates by removing disturbances. We also need to upgrade music play sub-system considering the numbers of tunes, the kinds of music and time to change music.

  12. Transparent bionanocomposite films based on chitosan and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Soni, Bhawna; Hassan, El Barbary; Schilling, M Wes; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2016-10-20

    The development of biobased active films for use in food packaging is increasing due to low cost, environmental appeal, renewability and availability. The objective of this research was to develop an effective and complete green approach for the production of bionanocomposite films with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. This was accomplished by incorporating TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) into a chitosan matrix. An aqueous suspension of chitosan (100-75wt%), sorbitol (25wt%) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TEMPO-CNFs, 0-25wt%) were cast in an oven at 40°C for 2-4days. Films were preconditioned at 25°C and 50% RH for characterization. The surface morphology of the films was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties and crystal structure of the films were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Incorporation of TEMPO-CNFs enhanced the mechanical strength of the films due to the high aspect ratio (3-20nm width, and 10-100nm length) of TEMPO-CNFs and strong interactions with the chitosan matrix. Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates for films that are prepared with chitosan and TEMPO-CNFs (15-25wt%) were significantly reduced. Furthermore, these bionanocomposite films had good thermal stability. Use of TEMPO-CNFs in this method makes it possible to produce bionanocomposite films that are flexible, transparent, and thus have potential in food packaging applications.

  13. Transparent bionanocomposite films based on chitosan and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Soni, Bhawna; Hassan, El Barbary; Schilling, M Wes; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2016-10-20

    The development of biobased active films for use in food packaging is increasing due to low cost, environmental appeal, renewability and availability. The objective of this research was to develop an effective and complete green approach for the production of bionanocomposite films with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. This was accomplished by incorporating TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) into a chitosan matrix. An aqueous suspension of chitosan (100-75wt%), sorbitol (25wt%) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TEMPO-CNFs, 0-25wt%) were cast in an oven at 40°C for 2-4days. Films were preconditioned at 25°C and 50% RH for characterization. The surface morphology of the films was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties and crystal structure of the films were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Incorporation of TEMPO-CNFs enhanced the mechanical strength of the films due to the high aspect ratio (3-20nm width, and 10-100nm length) of TEMPO-CNFs and strong interactions with the chitosan matrix. Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates for films that are prepared with chitosan and TEMPO-CNFs (15-25wt%) were significantly reduced. Furthermore, these bionanocomposite films had good thermal stability. Use of TEMPO-CNFs in this method makes it possible to produce bionanocomposite films that are flexible, transparent, and thus have potential in food packaging applications. PMID:27474625

  14. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. PMID:24767959

  15. Investigation of Method for Changing Impression of Musical Piece by Changing its Tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Makoto; Okamatsu, Keita; Matsuo, Kazuhisa

    We propose a simple method that changes impression of musical piece by changing its tempo and investigate psycho-physiological effects of the method with listening experiment. In the experiment, 8 subjects listened same musical pieces with various tempi, and analysis of heartbeat and Semantic-Differential method were used. In 6 out of 10 adjective pairs, inverted-U shapes were observed, and peak tempi of them were different. Moreover, “relaxed” evaluation might be related to listener's heart rate in rest. These results suggest possibility of constructing novel media player that changes impression of musical piece.

  16. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail.

  17. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  18. Unidirectional adaptation in tempo in pairs of chimpanzees during simultaneous tapping movement: an examination under face-to-face setup.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have reported a spontaneous nature to synchronized movement in humans and in non-human primates. However, it is not yet clear whether individuals mutually adapt their movement to each other or whether one individual significantly changes to synchronize with the other. In the current study, we examined a directionality of the tempo adaptation to understand an introductive process of interactional synchrony in pairs of chimpanzees. Four pairs, consisting of five female chimpanzees, produced a finger-tapping movement under a face-to-face experimental setup where both auditory and visual cues of the partner's movement were available. Two test conditions were prepared: alone and paired. An analysis of the tapping tempo depending on condition showed that only one chimpanzee in each pair significantly changed their tapping tempo in the direction of the partner's tapping tempo in the paired condition compared with the alone condition. The current study demonstrated that unidirectional adaptation in tempo occurs in pairs of chimpanzees when they simultaneously produce the tapping movement under auditory and visual interaction.

  19. Individual differences in the biomechanical effect of loudness and tempo on upper-limb movements during repetitive piano keystrokes.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Aoki, Tomoko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    The present study addressed the effect of loudness and tempo on kinematics and muscular activities of the upper extremity during repetitive piano keystrokes. Eighteen pianists with professional music education struck two keys simultaneously and repetitively with a combination of four loudness levels and four tempi. The results demonstrated a significant interaction effect of loudness and tempo on peak angular velocity for the shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints, mean muscular activity for the corresponding flexors and extensors, and their co-activation level. The interaction effect indicated greater increases with tempo when eliciting louder tones for all joints and muscles except for the elbow velocity showing a greater decrease with tempo. Multiple-regression analysis and K-means clustering further revealed that 18 pianists were categorized into three clusters with different interaction effects on joint kinematics. These clusters were characterized by either an elbow-velocity decrease and a finger-velocity increase, a finger-velocity decrease with increases in shoulder and wrist velocities, or a large elbow-velocity decrease with a shoulder-velocity increase when increasing both loudness and tempo. Furthermore, the muscular load considerably differed across the clusters. These findings provide information to determine muscles with the greatest potential risk of playing-related disorders based on movement characteristics of individual pianists. PMID:21816497

  20. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-06-17

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  1. Analysis of surface EMG activation in hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the tempo.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-08-01

    Although instrument playing-based training has been repeatedly reported to improve functional hand movements including grasping, the attempts to present quantitative information on physiological mechanism of grasping have been relatively insufficient to determine the type and the intensity of the exercises involved. This study aimed to examine the muscle activation during hand percussion playing depending on the grasping type and the playing tempo. A total of twelve healthy older adults with a mean age of 71.5 years participated in this study. Surface electrodes were placed on three grasping-related muscles: Flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, and flexor pollicis brevis. Participants were instructed to play with the egg shaker, paddle drum mallet and clave involving different types of grasp at three different tempi (i.e., 80, 100, and 120 bpm) and sEMG data were collected during each playing. Significantly greater muscle activation was generated with the small sphere type of egg shaker, compared to the handle type of paddle drum mallet and the small cylinder type of clave. Playing at faster tempo also elicited significantly greater muscle activation than at slower tempo. With regard to the rise time of muscle activation, while tempo significantly affected the rise time, the time to peak muscle did not significantly change depending on the grasping type. This study confirmed that grasping pattern and the tempo of movement significantly influence the muscular activation of grasping involved in instrument playing. Based on these results, clinical implication for instrument selection and structured instrument playing would be suggested.

  2. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  3. Disparate rates, differing fates: tempo and mode of evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J W

    1994-07-19

    Over the past quarter century, detailed genus- and species-level similarities in cellular morphology between described taxa of Precambrian microfossils and extant cyanobacteria have been noted and regarded as biologically and taxonomically significant by numerous workers world-wide. Such similarities are particularly well documented for members of the Oscillatoriaceae and Chroococcaceae, the two most abundant and widespread Precambrian cyanobacterial families. For species of two additional families, the Entophysalidaceae and Pleurocapsaceae, species-level morphologic similarities are supported by in-depth fossil-modern comparisons of environment, taphonomy, development, and behavior. Morphologically and probably physiologically as well, such cyanobacterial "living fossils" have exhibited an extraordinarily slow (hypobradytelic) rate of evolutionary change, evidently a result of the broad ecologic tolerance characteristic of many members of the group and a striking example of G. G. Simpson's [Simpson, G.G. (1944) Tempo and Mode in Evolution (Columbia Univ. Press, New York)] "rule of the survival of the relatively unspecialized." In both tempo and mode of evolution, much of the Precambrian history of life--that dominated by microscopic cyanobacteria and related prokaryotes--appears to have differed markedly from the more recent Phanerozoic evolution megascopic, horotelic, adaptationally specialized eukaryotes.

  4. Disparate rates, differing fates: tempo and mode of evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, detailed genus- and species-level similarities in cellular morphology between described taxa of Precambrian microfossils and extant cyanobacteria have been noted and regarded as biologically and taxonomically significant by numerous workers world-wide. Such similarities are particularly well documented for members of the Oscillatoriaceae and Chroococcaceae, the two most abundant and widespread Precambrian cyanobacterial families. For species of two additional families, the Entophysalidaceae and Pleurocapsaceae, species-level morphologic similarities are supported by in-depth fossil-modern comparisons of environment, taphonomy, development, and behavior. Morphologically and probably physiologically as well, such cyanobacterial "living fossils" have exhibited an extraordinarily slow (hypobradytelic) rate of evolutionary change, evidently a result of the broad ecologic tolerance characteristic of many members of the group and a striking example of G. G. Simpson's [Simpson, G.G. (1944) Tempo and Mode in Evolution (Columbia Univ. Press, New York)] "rule of the survival of the relatively unspecialized." In both tempo and mode of evolution, much of the Precambrian history of life--that dominated by microscopic cyanobacteria and related prokaryotes--appears to have differed markedly from the more recent Phanerozoic evolution megascopic, horotelic, adaptationally specialized eukaryotes.

  5. Slower tempo of microevolution in island birds: implications for conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Shane D; Gillman, Len N; Ross, Howard A; Keeling, D Jeanette

    2009-09-01

    Whether microevolution on small islands differs from that on larger landmasses is a key question in biology with substantial implications for species conservation. However, due to the difficulties faced in producing adequately replicated samples and in controlling for confounding variables, prior attempts to examine evolutionary questions relating to habitat area and population size have produced equivocal results. Here we show, using experimental design criteria that reduce the potential for such confounding, that bird species on larger landmasses have higher rates of molecular evolution. The study involves a global dataset of 48 independent contrasts for the cytochrome b gene encompassing all possible paired sister species comparisons (from seven orders and 17 families) that were available at the time of dataset assembly. A more rapid evolutionary tempo in larger areas has important ramifications for biodiversity conservation because it indicates a new imperative, beyond that of simply maintaining preexisting genetic diversity, for securing large areas for threatened species. This result suggests that the trend of confining species to limited refugia is likely to be slowing the tempo of microevolution. That effect might constrain the potential for adaptive shifts in response to changing environments such as those associated with global warming.

  6. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were oxidized into carboxyl groups. XRD analysis suggested that TEMPO-oxidation decreased the crystallinity of KGM. DO80% was considered as the optimum candidate for capsule preparation owing to its superior solubility, transparency and reduced viscosity. The hydrophilicity of OKGM films, measured by contact angle measurement, increased with increasing DO. The elongation at break and tensile strength of the OKGM films enhanced with increasing DO. In vitro drug dissolution profile of OKGM capsules showed that the shell rupture time of DO80% capsule is about 5-10 min, and 80% of the drugs were released within 30-45 min. Thus DO80% OKGM was qualified to be used for gastric soluble hard capsules.

  7. TEMPO-Oxidized Nanofibrillated Cellulose as a High Density Carrier for Bioactive Molecules.

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Ramon; Siqueira, Gilberto; Schubert, Mark; Tingaut, Philippe; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Zimmermann, Tanja; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Faccio, Greta; Ihssen, Julian

    2015-11-01

    Controlled and efficient immobilization of specific biomolecules is a key technology to introduce new, favorable functions to materials suitable for biomedical applications. Here, we describe an innovative and efficient, two-step methodology for the stable immobilization of various biomolecules, including small peptides and enzymes onto TEMPO oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (TO-NFC). The introduction of carboxylate groups to NFC by TEMPO oxidation provided a high surface density of negative charges able to drive the adsorption of biomolecules and take part in covalent cross-linking reactions with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDAC) and glutaraldehyde (Ga) chemistry. Up to 0.27 μmol of different biomolecules per mg of TO-NFC could be reversibly immobilized by electrostatic interaction. An additional chemical cross-linking step prevented desorption of more than 80% of these molecules. Using the cysteine-protease papain as model, a highly active papain-TO-NFC conjugate was achieved. Once papain was immobilized, 40% of the initial enzymatic activity was retained, with an increase in kcat from 213 to >700 s(-1) for the covalently immobilized enzymes. The methodology presented in this work expands the range of application for TO-NFC in the biomedical field by enabling well-defined hybrid biomaterials with a high density of functionalization.

  8. Fluorescence quenching of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Makowski, Mariusz; Pranczk, Joanna; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2014-12-10

    The fluorescence quenching of norfloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin, belonging to a group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO was studied in aqueous solutions with the use of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy methods. In order to understand the mechanism of quenching the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of all fluoroquinolone antibiotics studied as well as decreases of their fluorescence were registered as a function of the 4-hydroxy-TEMPO concentration. No deviations from a linearity in the Stern-Volmer plots (determined from both, steady-state and time-resolved measurements) were observed. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was proved to be totally dynamic, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at 5 temperatures ranging from 15 to 55°C. On the basis of theoretical calculations of fluoroquinolones' molecular radii and ionization potentials the mechanism of electron transfer was rejected. It seems that the fluorescence quenching is diffusion-limited and is caused by the increase of nonradiative processes, such as internal conversion or intersystem crossing. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching constants were determined at the room temperature for all fluoroquinolone antibiotics studied.

  9. Influence of varied tempo music on wheelchair mechanical efficiency following 3-week practice.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V L; West, M; Lenton, J P; Tolfrey, K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse adaptations in propulsion technique and gross efficiency in novice able-bodied subjects during the initial phase of learning hand-rim wheelchair propulsion to music. 22 able bodied participants performed wheelchair propulsion (1.1 m·s(-1)) followed by a VO(2) peak test on a wheelchair ergometer. Push frequency, gross efficiency (GE), heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and propulsion technique variables (force application and temporal characteristics) were recorded. Participants were then assigned to a 3-wk practice period listening to i) 125 beats·min(-1) tempo music (LOW); ii) 170 beats·min(-1) tempo music (HIGH); or iii) a control group (CON). Following practice, all participants repeated the pre-testing protocol whilst force application data was collected in practice trials 1 and 9. After accounting for the pre-practice differences in GE (using ANCOVA), GE was higher in LOW compared with CON (P=0.038; 6.6 vs. 6.1% respectively). The differences between CON vs. HIGH and LOW vs. HIGH (P=0.830; P=0.188) were trivial suggesting that only LOW experienced an increase in GE. Practice had a favourable effect on the perceptions of effort, work per cycle, push and cycle time in contrast to the CON group. The use of music in a rehabilitation setting warrants further investigation.

  10. Distribution of tempo-dichlorotriazine spin label on immunoglobulin molecule. Interpretation of ESR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Nezlin, R.

    1986-03-05

    Spin label TEMPO-dichlorotriazine (DT) has been used previously for determination of the rotational relaxation times of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules and evaluation of their flexibility. Well defined outer wide extrema as well as sharp inner extrema are characteristic for ESR spectra of spin labeled Ig molecules. Such patterns of the spectrum can be accounted for either by the existence of the spin label in two states, one corresponding to its rapid and another to its restricted rotation or by varying environments of the spin label located in different areas of the Ig molecule. To choose between these possibilities, the distribution of /sup 14/C-TEMPO-DT on human IgG1(k) was studied. The same amount of the label per mg of protein was found in H and L chains as well as in the Fab fragment, and a smaller amount in the pFc'. The label was detected in most of the L chain tryptic peptides. Thus, the spin label is distributed nearly uniformly on IgG molecule, which is due to the regular distribution of amino acid residues reacted with the spin label. ESR spectra can be interpreted as a sum of individual spectra.

  11. EPR spectroscopy applied to the study of the TEMPO mediated oxidation of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Juan M; Grela, María Alejandra; Aranguren, Mirta I; Mucci, Verónica

    2016-01-20

    Two different methods of pH control were used in the synthesis of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and the reaction kinetics and degree of oxidation were investigated. In method I the media pH was controlled by addition of NaOH solution. The effect of the oxidant concentration (sodium hypochloride, NaClO) on the final degree of oxidation and crystallinity of the samples was investigated. Conditions for obtaining an optimum balance between high crystallinity and degree of oxidation were selected from those results. In method II, pH was fixed by using a buffer solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy offered direct information of the decay of TEMPO concentration under these conditions. The kinetics of the reaction was determined, finding a direct correlation between these results and those corresponding to the decay of the NaClO concentration and the advance of the CNC degree of oxidation. Differences found between the two methods were analyzed. PMID:26572408

  12. TEMPO TVC for the enumeration of aerobic mesophilic flora in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M; Torontali, Marianne K; Agin, James R; Goins, David G; Johnson, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The automated system for enumeration of total viable count (TVC) in foods, TEMPO TVC, uses a dehydrated culture medium and an enumeration card containing 48 wells across 3 different dilutions for the automatic determination of the most probable number (MPN). The alternative method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to AOAC Method 966.23 for determination of aerobic plate count for nondairy products and the Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) Standard Plate Count for dairy products. Five food types, raw ground beef, raw ground chicken, cooked whitefish fillets, bagged lettuce, and milk, were analyzed for TVC by 14 collaborating laboratories throughout the United States and Canada. Three lots of naturally contaminated food products representing a wide range of counts were tested for each of the 5 food types. The study demonstrated that the overall repeatability, reproducibility, and mean log counts of the TEMPO TVC method were statistically comparable to those of the 2 standard methods at the 5% level.

  13. Intrasensory Redundancy Facilitates Infant Detection of Tempo: Extending Predictions of the Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Lickliter, Robert; Castellanos, Irina; Todd, James Torrence

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that intersensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized across multiple senses) is highly salient and facilitates processing of amodal properties in multimodal events, bootstrapping early perceptual development. The present study is the first to extend this central principle of the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (IRH) to certain types of intrasensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized within a single sense). Infants were habituated to videos of a toy hammer tapping silently (unimodal control), depicting intersensory redundancy (synchronized with a soundtrack) or intrasensory redundancy (synchronized with another visual event; light flashing or bat tapping). In Experiment 1, 2-month-olds showed both intersensory and intrasensory facilitation (with respect to the unimodal control) for detecting a change in tempo. However, intrasensory facilitation was found when the hammer was synchronized with the light flashing (different motion) but not with the bat tapping (same motion). Experiment 2 tested 3-month-olds using a somewhat easier tempo contrast. Results supported a similarity hypothesis: intrasensory redundancy between two dissimilar events was more effective than that between two similar events for promoting processing of amodal properties. These findings extend the IRH and indicate that in addition to intersensory redundancy, intrasensory redundancy between two synchronized dissimilar visual events is also effective in promoting perceptual processing of amodal event properties. PMID:26207101

  14. EPR spectroscopy applied to the study of the TEMPO mediated oxidation of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Juan M; Grela, María Alejandra; Aranguren, Mirta I; Mucci, Verónica

    2016-01-20

    Two different methods of pH control were used in the synthesis of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and the reaction kinetics and degree of oxidation were investigated. In method I the media pH was controlled by addition of NaOH solution. The effect of the oxidant concentration (sodium hypochloride, NaClO) on the final degree of oxidation and crystallinity of the samples was investigated. Conditions for obtaining an optimum balance between high crystallinity and degree of oxidation were selected from those results. In method II, pH was fixed by using a buffer solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy offered direct information of the decay of TEMPO concentration under these conditions. The kinetics of the reaction was determined, finding a direct correlation between these results and those corresponding to the decay of the NaClO concentration and the advance of the CNC degree of oxidation. Differences found between the two methods were analyzed.

  15. TEMPO-mediated oxidation on galactomannan: Gal/Man ratio and chain flexibility dependence.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Caroline Novak; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Lucyszyn, Neoli; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2016-11-20

    Guar (GG) and locust bean (LBG) galactomannans (GMs) oxidation at C-6 was performed with catalyst TEMPO, in which the reaction progress was monitored by consume of NaOH solution. The products were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, infrared, and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, confirming the presence of aldehydes groups as intermediate of reaction to carboxylic acid. From high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection Man/Gal molar ratio was determined and demonstrated a preference to oxidize Man during the reaction on both GMs, following a first order kinetics of oxidation. The comparative macromolecular behavior of native and oxidized GMs was obtained through the analysis by high performance size exclusion chromatography, and the persistence length (Lp) was 6nm and 4nm to native LBG and GG, respectively. A more accessible OH-6 at mannose residue in LBG could be related with a two times faster reaction than GG. The selective oxidation with catalyst TEMPO proved to be efficient to increase the flexibility of the GMs during oxidation. Short reaction time and β-elimination process were mainly observed to LBG, probably due to a more favorable oxidation access to the polysaccharide main chain. PMID:27561508

  16. Antioxidant activities of a polyglucuronic acid sodium salt obtained from TEMPO-mediated oxidation of xanthan.

    PubMed

    Delattre, C; Pierre, G; Gardarin, C; Traikia, M; Elboutachfaiti, R; Isogai, A; Michaud, P

    2015-02-13

    A xanthouronic acid sodium salt called xanthouronan was produced from xanthan by regioselective oxidation with NaOCl/NaBr using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) as catalyst. The efficiency of the one pot TEMPO-mediated oxidation was confirmed by HPAEC-PAD, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR. The oxidation degree was close to 98% and the mass yield of this new polyglucuronic acid was higher than 90% (w/w). The macromolecular characterization of xanthouronan using SEC-MALLS showed a molecular size reduced by a third due to the oxidation treatment and the degree of polymerization (DP) of the xanthouronan form was about 665. The evaluation of the enzymatic degradation of this C-6 carboxylated xanthan by various polysaccharide hydrolases and one polysaccharide lyase showed its high resistant to biodegradation. The antioxidant activity of xanthouronan was also tested by using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical procedures. At 1 g/L, xanthouronan presented 75% of the ascorbic acid antioxidant activity.

  17. TEMPO-mediated oxidation on galactomannan: Gal/Man ratio and chain flexibility dependence.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Caroline Novak; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Lucyszyn, Neoli; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2016-11-20

    Guar (GG) and locust bean (LBG) galactomannans (GMs) oxidation at C-6 was performed with catalyst TEMPO, in which the reaction progress was monitored by consume of NaOH solution. The products were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, infrared, and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, confirming the presence of aldehydes groups as intermediate of reaction to carboxylic acid. From high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection Man/Gal molar ratio was determined and demonstrated a preference to oxidize Man during the reaction on both GMs, following a first order kinetics of oxidation. The comparative macromolecular behavior of native and oxidized GMs was obtained through the analysis by high performance size exclusion chromatography, and the persistence length (Lp) was 6nm and 4nm to native LBG and GG, respectively. A more accessible OH-6 at mannose residue in LBG could be related with a two times faster reaction than GG. The selective oxidation with catalyst TEMPO proved to be efficient to increase the flexibility of the GMs during oxidation. Short reaction time and β-elimination process were mainly observed to LBG, probably due to a more favorable oxidation access to the polysaccharide main chain.

  18. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed.

  19. Mechanistic insight into alcohol oxidation mediated by an efficient green Cu(II)-bipy catalyst with and without TEMPO by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Meiyan; Wu, Zhijian

    2010-06-14

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the alcohol oxidation to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the Cu-bipy (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) catalyst with and without TEMPO (TEMPO stands for 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy). In the presence of TEMPO, two mechanisms are proposed, which are (1) TEMPO and the alcohol coordinate to the Cu center and react in the coordination sphere, and (2) the formation of the nitronium cation. On the basis of our calculations, the nitronium cation mechanism can be ruled out. For the case without TEMPO, it is found that the change of the Cu oxidation states (Cu(II) <--> Cu(I)) plays an important role in assisting the catalytic reaction cycle, while the O(2) molecule assists the formation of the product acetaldehyde. In addition, the overall activation barrier with TEMPO is preferred over the pathway without TEMPO by 5.2 kcal mol(-1). This is consistent with the experimental observation that the Cu-bipy catalyst in the absence of TEMPO is less efficient when compared with that in the presence of TEMPO. The difference in mechanism is discussed tentatively based on the molecular orbitals.

  20. First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Dziva, Francis; Wint, Crystal; Auguste, Tennille; Heeraman, Carolyn; Dacon, Cherrelle; Yu, Priscilla; Koma, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%), streptomycin (49.2%), penicillin (49.2%), polymyxin B (44.6%), tetracycline (36.9%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%), kanamycin (33.8%), doxycycline (32.3%), norfloxacin (23.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%), ciprofloxacin (20%), enrofloxacin (18.5%), gentamicin (16.9%), and cephalothin (9.2%). Forty (61.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc) gene, 38/65 (58.5%) isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4%) as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1%) as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1%) as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in Trinidad

  1. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  2. Stable TEMPO and ABNO Catalyst Solutions for User-Friendly (bpy)Cu/Nitroxyl-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-11-01

    Two solutions, one consisting of bpy/TEMPO/NMI and the other bpy/ABNO/NMI (bpy =2,2'-bipyridyl; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl, ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl; NMI = N-methylimidazole), in acetonitrile are shown to have good long-term stability (≥1 year) under air at 5 °C. The solutions may be combined in appropriate quantities with commercially available [Cu(MeCN)4]OTf to provide a convenient catalyst system for the aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols.

  3. Stable TEMPO and ABNO Catalyst Solutions for User-Friendly (bpy)Cu/Nitroxyl-Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-11-01

    Two solutions, one consisting of bpy/TEMPO/NMI and the other bpy/ABNO/NMI (bpy =2,2'-bipyridyl; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxyl, ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl; NMI = N-methylimidazole), in acetonitrile are shown to have good long-term stability (≥1 year) under air at 5 °C. The solutions may be combined in appropriate quantities with commercially available [Cu(MeCN)4]OTf to provide a convenient catalyst system for the aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. PMID:26457658

  4. Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.

    PubMed

    Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

  5. Continuous loudness response to acoustic intensity dynamics in melodies: effects of melodic contour, tempo, and tonality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T; Bailes, Freya

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate perceived loudness change in response to melodies that increase (up-ramp) or decrease (down-ramp) in acoustic intensity, and the interaction with other musical factors such as melodic contour, tempo, and tonality (tonal/atonal). A within-subjects design manipulated direction of linear intensity change (up-ramp, down-ramp), melodic contour (ascending, descending), tempo, and tonality, using single ramp trials and paired ramp trials, where single up-ramps and down-ramps were assembled to create continuous up-ramp/down-ramp or down-ramp/up-ramp pairs. Twenty-nine (Exp 1) and thirty-six (Exp 2) participants rated loudness continuously in response to trials with monophonic 13-note piano melodies lasting either 6.4s or 12s. Linear correlation coefficients >.89 between loudness and time show that time-series loudness responses to dynamic up-ramp and down-ramp melodies are essentially linear across all melodies. Therefore, 'indirect' loudness change derived from the difference in loudness at the beginning and end points of the continuous response was calculated. Down-ramps were perceived to change significantly more in loudness than up-ramps in both tonalities and at a relatively slow tempo. Loudness change was also greater for down-ramps presented with a congruent descending melodic contour, relative to an incongruent pairing (down-ramp and ascending melodic contour). No differential effect of intensity ramp/melodic contour congruency was observed for up-ramps. In paired ramp trials assessing the possible impact of ramp context, loudness change in response to up-ramps was significantly greater when preceded by down-ramps, than when not preceded by another ramp. Ramp context did not affect down-ramp perception. The contribution to the fields of music perception and psychoacoustics are discussed in the context of real-time perception of music, principles of music composition, and performance of musical dynamics. PMID:24809252

  6. Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Dowling, W Jay; Bartlett, James C; Halpern, Andrea R; Andrews, W Melinda

    2008-04-01

    Eighty-one listeners defined by three age ranges (18-30, 31-59, and over 60 years) and three levels of musical experience performed an immediate recognition task requiring the detection of alterations in melodies. On each trial, a brief melody was presented, followed 5 sec later by a test stimulus that either was identical to the target or had two pitches changed, for a same-different judgment. Each melody pair was presented at 0.6 note/sec, 3.0 notes/sec, or 6.0 notes/sec. Performance was better with familiar melodies than with unfamiliar melodies. Overall performance declined slightly with age and improved substantially with increasing experience, in agreement with earlier results in an identification task. Tempo affected performance on familiar tunes (moderate was best), but not on unfamiliar tunes. We discuss these results in terms of theories of dynamic attending, cognitive slowing, and working memory in aging. PMID:18459260

  7. Transparent, conductive, and printable composites consisting of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose and carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hirotaka; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Kitaoka, Takuya; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Isogai, Akira

    2013-04-01

    Ultrastrong, transparent, conductive and printable nanocomposites were successfully prepared by mixing single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) with abundant sodium carboxyl groups on the crystalline nanocellulose surfaces. The surface-anionic cellulose nanofibrils had reinforcing and nanodispersing effects on the CNTs both in water used as the dispersed medium and in the dried composite film, providing highly conductive and printable nanocomposites with a small amount of CNTs. TOCNs are therefore expected as an effective flexible matrix that can be used as an alternative to conventional polymers for various electrical materials, when nanocomposited with CNTs and also graphene. Our findings provide a promising route to realize green and flexible electronics. PMID:23428212

  8. La relatività debole. La fisica dello spazio e del tempo senza paradossi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.

  9. In situ growth of silver nanoparticles on TEMPO-oxidized jute fibers by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinwang; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2013-01-30

    Cellulose fibers deposited with metallic nanoparticles as one kind of renewable, biocompatible and antimicrobial nanomaterials evoke much interest because of their versatility in various applications. Herein, for the first time, a facile, simple and rapid method was developed to fabricate TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) selectively oxidized jute fibers in situ deposited with silver nanoparticles in the absence of reducing reagents. The average size of silver nanoparticles deposited on the fibers is 50.0 ± 2.0 nm by microwave heating for 5 min and 90.0 ± 4.7 nm for 10 min heating sample, respectively. The versatile jute-silver nanoparticles nanocomposites with superior thermal stability and high crystallinity would be particularly useful for applications in the public health care and biomedical fields.

  10. In situ growth of silver nanoparticles on TEMPO-oxidized jute fibers by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinwang; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2013-01-30

    Cellulose fibers deposited with metallic nanoparticles as one kind of renewable, biocompatible and antimicrobial nanomaterials evoke much interest because of their versatility in various applications. Herein, for the first time, a facile, simple and rapid method was developed to fabricate TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) selectively oxidized jute fibers in situ deposited with silver nanoparticles in the absence of reducing reagents. The average size of silver nanoparticles deposited on the fibers is 50.0 ± 2.0 nm by microwave heating for 5 min and 90.0 ± 4.7 nm for 10 min heating sample, respectively. The versatile jute-silver nanoparticles nanocomposites with superior thermal stability and high crystallinity would be particularly useful for applications in the public health care and biomedical fields. PMID:23218337

  11. The tempo of relationship progression among low-income couples ☆

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba; Hartmann, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the factors associated with the tempo of low-income couples’ relationship progression into sexual involvement and coresidence. Data come from a recently-collected survey, the Marital and Relationship Survey (MARS) that obtained information from low- to moderate-income married and cohabiting couples. Over one-fifth of male and female respondents reported becoming sexually involved with their current partner within the first week of dating. Entrance into shared living was also quite rapid; about one-third of respondents moved in with their partner within 6 months. Furthermore, about two-thirds of married respondents initially cohabited with their partners. Indicators of family disadvantage accelerated entrance into sexual involvement and coresidence; these effects are more pronounced for women than men. Our results also suggest that the pace of relationship progression, into sexual involvement as well as shared living, has accelerated among unions formed more recently. PMID:25197151

  12. Highly practical copper(I)/TEMPO catalyst system for chemoselective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jessica M; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-10-26

    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O(2) as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)Cu(I)/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  13. U/Pb zircon geochronology and tempo of the end-permian mass extinction

    PubMed

    Bowring; Erwin; Jin M W Martin YG; Davidek; Wang

    1998-05-15

    The mass extinction at the end of the Permian was the most profound in the history of life. Fundamental to understanding its cause is determining the tempo and duration of the extinction. Uranium/lead zircon data from Late Permian and Early Triassic rocks from south China place the Permian-Triassic boundary at 251.4 +/- 0.3 million years ago. Biostratigraphic controls from strata intercalated with ash beds below the boundary indicate that the Changhsingian pulse of the end-Permian extinction, corresponding to the disappearance of about 85 percent of marine species, lasted less than 1 million years. At Meishan, a negative excursion in delta13C at the boundary had a duration of 165,000 years or less, suggesting a catastrophic addition of light carbon. PMID:9582110

  14. Surfactant-free emulsions stabilized by tempo-oxidized bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhai, Xiaoli; Fu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Fei; Zhong, Cheng

    2016-10-20

    In order to seek a safe, biodegradable, and sustainable solid stabilizer for food, topical and pharmaceutical emulsions, individualized cellulose nanofibers were prepared by oxidizing bacterial cellulose (BC) in a Tempo-mediated system; their ability to stabilize oil/water interface was investigated. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups were selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface, so that the hydrophilicity was strengthened, leading to lower contact angles. Meanwhile, both the length and width of fibrils were decreased significantly, by partial cleavage of numerous numbers of inter- and intra-fibrillar hydrogen bonds. Tempo-oxidized BC (TOBC) was more effective than BC in stabilizing oil-water interface, attributing to the much smaller size. Fibril dosage and oxidation degree exerted a great influence on the stability and particle size distribution of emulsion samples. When the fibril dosage was 0.7wt.%, the sample was so stable that it did not experience creaming and coalescence over 8 months. The 2-TOBC coated droplets showed the greatest stability, although both the zeta potential and the electric repulsion were the largest for the 10-TOBC analogue, which was manipulated by the wettability of fibrils. In addition, the stability of samples was analyzed from the viewpoint of particle size distribution. Consequently, fibril size and wettability are two counterbalanced factors influencing the stability of TOBC-stabilized emulsions; a combination of suitable wettability and size imparts TOBC-stabilized emulsion high stability. As a kind of biomass-based particle stabilizer, TOBC showed great potential applications in food, topical and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:27474639

  15. The road from Santa Rosalia: A faster tempo of evolution in tropical climates

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Shane; Keeling, Jeannette; Gillman, Len

    2006-01-01

    Using an appropriately designed and replicated study of a latitudinal influence on rates of evolution, we test the prediction by K. Rohde [(1992) Oikos 65, 514–527] that the tempo of molecular evolution in the tropics is greater than at higher latitudes. Consistent with this prediction we found tropical plant species had more than twice the rate of molecular evolution as closely related temperate congeners. Rohde’s climate-speciation hypothesis constitutes one explanation for the cause of that relationship. This hypothesis suggests that mutagenesis occurs more frequently as productivity and metabolic rates increase toward the equator. More rapid mutagenesis was then proposed as the mechanism that increases evolutionary tempo and rates of speciation. A second possible explanation is that faster rates of molecular evolution result from higher tropical speciation rates [e.g., Bromham, L. & Cardillo, M. (2003) J. Evol. Biol. 16, 200–207]. However, we found the relationship continued to hold for genera with the same number of, or more, species in temperate latitudes. This finding suggests that greater rates of speciation in the tropics do not cause higher rates of molecular evolution. A third explanation is that more rapid genetic drift might have occurred in smaller tropical species populations [Stevens, G. C. (1989) Am. Nat. 133, 240–256]. However, we targeted common species to limit the influence of genetic drift, and many of the tropical species we used, despite occurring in abundant populations, had much higher rates of molecular evolution. Nonetheless, this issue is not completely resolved by that precaution and requires further examination. PMID:16672371

  16. Surfactant-free emulsions stabilized by tempo-oxidized bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhai, Xiaoli; Fu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Fei; Zhong, Cheng

    2016-10-20

    In order to seek a safe, biodegradable, and sustainable solid stabilizer for food, topical and pharmaceutical emulsions, individualized cellulose nanofibers were prepared by oxidizing bacterial cellulose (BC) in a Tempo-mediated system; their ability to stabilize oil/water interface was investigated. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups were selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface, so that the hydrophilicity was strengthened, leading to lower contact angles. Meanwhile, both the length and width of fibrils were decreased significantly, by partial cleavage of numerous numbers of inter- and intra-fibrillar hydrogen bonds. Tempo-oxidized BC (TOBC) was more effective than BC in stabilizing oil-water interface, attributing to the much smaller size. Fibril dosage and oxidation degree exerted a great influence on the stability and particle size distribution of emulsion samples. When the fibril dosage was 0.7wt.%, the sample was so stable that it did not experience creaming and coalescence over 8 months. The 2-TOBC coated droplets showed the greatest stability, although both the zeta potential and the electric repulsion were the largest for the 10-TOBC analogue, which was manipulated by the wettability of fibrils. In addition, the stability of samples was analyzed from the viewpoint of particle size distribution. Consequently, fibril size and wettability are two counterbalanced factors influencing the stability of TOBC-stabilized emulsions; a combination of suitable wettability and size imparts TOBC-stabilized emulsion high stability. As a kind of biomass-based particle stabilizer, TOBC showed great potential applications in food, topical and pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Doubly TEMPO-coordinated gadolinium(III), lanthanum(III), and yttrium(III) complexes. Strong superexchange coupling across rare earth ions.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Rina; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ishida, Takayuki

    2014-04-21

    We prepared crystalline [RE(III)(hfac)3(TEMPO)2] (RE = Gd, La, Y), where TEMPO and hfac stand for 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl and 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dionate, respectively. The X-ray crystal structure of TEMPO-coordinated RE compounds was determined for the first time. The Gd and Y analogues are isomorphous, and the La derivative has a similar molecular skeleton. The Gd-O(TEMPO) bond lengths were 2.322(3) and 2.354(3) Å with the O-Gd-O angle of 140.36(11)°. The magnetic study clarified that [Gd(hfac)3(TEMPO)2] behaved as a ground Stotal = 7/2 species. The La and Y analogues showed the superexchange interactions across the diamagnetic ions with 2JTEMPO1-TEMPO2/kB = -14.9(1) and -49.8(2) K, respectively. Assuming the presence of a similar interaction like the Y derivative, the Gd-TEMPO exchange couplings are estimated with 2JGd-TEMPO/kB = -12.9(5) and +8.0(6) K.

  18. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions. PMID:24611252

  19. A filled duration illusion in music: Effects of metrical subdivision on the perception and production of beat tempo.

    PubMed Central

    Repp, Bruno H.; Bruttomesso, Meijin

    2010-01-01

    This study replicates and extends previous findings suggesting that metrical subdivision slows the perceived beat tempo (Repp, 2008). Here, musically trained participants produced the subdivisions themselves and were found to speed up, thus compensating for the perceived slowing. This was shown in a synchronization-continuation paradigm (Experiment 1) and in a reproduction task (Experiment 2a). Participants also judged the tempo of a subdivided sequence as being slower than that of a preceding simple beat sequence (Experiment 2b). Experiment 2 also included nonmusician participants, with similar results. Tempo measurements of famous pianists’ recordings of two variation movements from Beethoven sonatas revealed a strong tendency to play the first variation (subdivided beats) faster than the theme (mostly simple beats). A similar tendency was found in musicians’ laboratory performances of a simple theme and variations, despite instruc-tions to keep the tempo constant (Experiment 3a). When playing melodic sequences in which only one of three beats per measure was subdivided, musicians tended to play these beats faster and to perceive them as longer than adjacent beats, and they played the whole sequence faster than a sequence without any subdivisions (Experiments 3b and 3c). The results amply demonstrate a filled duration illusion in rhythm perception and music performance: Intervals containing events seem longer than empty intervals and thus must be shortened to be perceived as equal in duration. PMID:20689669

  20. The Relationship between Music Preferences of Different Mode and Tempo and Personality Traits--Implications for Music Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrota, Snježana; Reic Ercegovac, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between music preferences of different mode and tempo and personality traits. The survey included 323 students who had to fill out the following tests: questionnaire of music preferences, scale of optimism and pessimism and International Personality Item Pool for measuring Big Five…

  1. A Study of Music Students' Tempo Changes of a Soloist's Performance of Mozart's 1st Horn Concerto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate music students' tempo changes of a soloist's performance in an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto No. 1 in D Major for Horn and Orchestra." We then compared the composite rubato pattern to tendencies found in a previous investigation using Mozart's "Concerto No. 2 in E[flat] Major for Horn…

  2. Ruthenium- and osmium-arene-based paullones bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit as potential anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Arion, Vladimir B; Dobrov, Anatolie; Göschl, Simone; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rapta, Peter

    2012-09-01

    A modified paullone ligand bearing a TEMPO free-radical unit (HL) and its ruthenium(II) and osmium(II)-arene complexes [M(p-cymene)(HL)Cl]Cl·nH(2)O (M = Ru, Os) exhibit high antiproliferative activity in human cancer cell lines.

  3. Poly(TEMPO)/Zinc Hybrid-Flow Battery: A Novel, "Green," High Voltage, and Safe Energy Storage System.

    PubMed

    Winsberg, Jan; Janoschka, Tobias; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hagemann, Tino; Muench, Simon; Hauffman, Guillaume; Gohy, Jean-François; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-03-16

    The combination of a polymer-based 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO) catholyte and a zinc anode, together with a cost-efficient size-exclusion membrane, builds a new type of semi-organic, "green," hybrid-flow battery, which features a high potential range of up to 2 V, high efficiencies, and a long life time.

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo throughout Childhood: Temporal Invariance and Stability from Preschool through Ninth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Daniel R.; Christopher, Micaela E.; Burns, G. Leonard; Becker, Stephen P.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although multiple cross-sectional studies have shown symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be statistically distinct, studies have yet to examine the temporal stability and measurement invariance of SCT in a longitudinal sample. To date, only six studies have assessed SCT…

  5. Hypervalent iodine/TEMPO-mediated oxidation in flow systems: a fast and efficient protocol for alcohol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ambreen, Nida; Kumar, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hypervalent iodine(III)/TEMPO-mediated oxidation of various aliphatic, aromatic and allylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds was successfully achieved by using microreactor technology. This method can be used as an alternative for the oxidation of various alcohols achieving excellent yields and selectivities in significantly shortened reaction times. PMID:23946840

  6. Selective Alcohol Oxidation by a Copper TEMPO Catalyst: Mechanistic Insights by Simultaneously Coupled Operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rabeah, Jabor; Bentrup, Ursula; Stößer, Reinhard; Brückner, Angelika

    2015-09-28

    The first coupled operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR spectroscopy setup for mechanistic studies of gas-liquid phase reactions is presented and exemplarily applied to the well-known copper/TEMPO-catalyzed (TEMPO=(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl) oxidation of benzyl alcohol. In contrast to previous proposals, no direct redox reaction between TEMPO and Cu(I) /Cu(II) has been detected. Instead, the role of TEMPO is postulated to be the stabilization of a (bpy)(NMI)Cu(II) -O2 (⋅-) -TEMPO (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, NMI=N-methylimidazole) intermediate formed by electron transfer from Cu(I) to molecular O2 .

  7. Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of erbium(III)-TEMPO complex as a potential single-molecule magnet: Interplay of the crystal-field and exchange coupling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław; Nakamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Rina; Ishida, Takayuki

    2016-10-01

    Crystallographic, spectroscopic, and magnetic studies of three-center systems: lanthanoid-Ln3+ ions doubly-coordinated by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) radicals [Ln-TEMPO2] are reported. The temperature dependence of alternating-current magnetic susceptibility indicates the single-molecule-magnet behavior of Er-TEMPO2, exhibiting relatively slow magnetization relaxation. Well-resolved absorption spectra were obtained only for Er-TEMPO2. Other samples yielded spectra not amenable for meaningful interpretation. The crystal-field parameters (CFPs) determined from the measured Er3+-energy levels served as starting CFPs for fitting the direct-current magnetic susceptibility result. Compatibility of the so-determined and fine-tuned CFPs, and interplay between crystal-field-related effects and exchange-coupling effects are considered. Exchange couplings in Ln-TEMPO2 appear antiferromagnetic and unexpectedly large.

  8. Musicians are more consistent: Gestural cross-modal mappings of pitch, loudness and tempo in real-time.

    PubMed

    Küssner, Mats B; Tidhar, Dan; Prior, Helen M; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli reveal valuable insights into how humans make sense of sound and music. Whereas researchers have investigated cross-modal mappings of sound features varied in isolation within paradigms such as speeded classification and forced-choice matching tasks, investigations of representations of concurrently varied sound features (e.g., pitch, loudness and tempo) with overt gestures-accounting for the intrinsic link between movement and sound-are scant. To explore the role of bodily gestures in cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli we asked 64 musically trained and untrained participants to represent pure tones-continually sounding and concurrently varied in pitch, loudness and tempo-with gestures while the sound stimuli were played. We hypothesized musical training to lead to more consistent mappings between pitch and height, loudness and distance/height, and tempo and speed of hand movement and muscular energy. Our results corroborate previously reported pitch vs. height (higher pitch leading to higher elevation in space) and tempo vs. speed (increasing tempo leading to increasing speed of hand movement) associations, but also reveal novel findings pertaining to musical training which influenced consistency of pitch mappings, annulling a commonly observed bias for convex (i.e., rising-falling) pitch contours. Moreover, we reveal effects of interactions between musical parameters on cross-modal mappings (e.g., pitch and loudness on speed of hand movement), highlighting the importance of studying auditory stimuli concurrently varied in different musical parameters. Results are discussed in light of cross-modal cognition, with particular emphasis on studies within (embodied) music cognition. Implications for theoretical refinements and potential clinical applications are provided.

  9. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ≤0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale

  10. Tempo of the Deccan Traps eruptions in relation to events at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, Paul; Sprain, Courtney; Pande, Kanchan; Richards, Mark; Vanderkluysen, Loyc; Self, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    It has been known for decades that the Deccan Traps (DT) continental flood basalts were erupted over an interval spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB). Paleomagnetic data clearly show that the volumetric majority of preserved DT lavas were erupted during geomagnetic polarity chron 29r, hence over an interval <1 Ma. Until recently, radioisotope geochronology has failed to clarify the tempo of the eruptions or to delineate where the KPB age-equivalent horizon occurs within the eruptive sequence. An ongoing high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic study is providing the first indications of variable time-averaged eruption rates in the important Western Ghats region, in addition to providing the first precise location of the KPB within the Deccan pile. One to three samples from each of the ten geochemically-defined Jawhar through Mahabaleshwar Formations [Beane et al., 1986], sampled in seven stratigraphic sections, have been analyzed. Replicate analyses of plagioclase separates were conducted in as many as five incremental-heating experiments for each sample, yielding weighted mean plateau ages as precise as ±0.035 Ma with fully propagated systematic uncertainties as low as ±0.055 Ma. The accumulating data require abandoning several misconceptions about Deccan magmatism. Most importantly, the notion of several temporally discrete pulses of volcanism in the Western Ghats is unsupported by our data and should be abandoned. Despite changes in mean extrusion rates, volcanism was essentially continuous for 0.91 ±0.1 Ma, from 66.38 ±0.05 to 65.47 ±0.1 Ma, with no regional hiatuses >100 ka. A sharp increase in mean volumetric eruption rate commencing within the Poladpur or uppermost Bushe Fm., near the base of the laterally extensive Wai Subgroup, is now well-documented. Based on recent area-weighted volume estimates [Richards et al., 2015], the eruption rate tripled from 0.2 to 0.6 km^3/year at this transition. The transition coincided with increased mantle

  11. Left hand finger force in violin playing: tempo, loudness, and finger differences.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional force transducer was installed in the neck of a violin under the A string at the D5 position in order to study the force with which the violinist clamps the string against the fingerboard under normal playing conditions. Violinists performed repetitive sequences of open A- and fingered D-tones using the ring finger at tempi of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 notes/s at mezzo-forte. At selected tempi, the effects of dynamic level and the use of different fingers were investigated as well. The force profiles were clearly dependent on tempo and dynamic level. At slow tempi, the force profiles were characterized by an initial pulse followed by a level force to the end of the finger contact period. At tempi higher than 2 Hz, only pulsed profiles were observed. The peak force exceeded 4.5 N at 1 and 2 Hz and decreased to 1.7 N at 16 Hz. All force and impulse values were lower at softer dynamic levels, and when using the ring or little finger compared to the index finger. PMID:19603895

  12. The tempo and mode of three-dimensional morphological evolution in male reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    McPeek, Mark A; Shen, Li; Torrey, John Z; Farid, Hany

    2008-05-01

    Various evolutionary forces may shape the evolution of traits that influence the mating decisions of males and females. Phenotypic traits that males and females use to judge the species identify of potential mates should evolve in a punctuated fashion, changing significantly at the time of speciation but changing little between speciation events. In contrast, traits experiencing sexual selection or sexually antagonistic interactions are generally expected to change continuously over time because of the directional selection pressures imposed on one sex by the actions of the other. To test these hypotheses, we used spherical harmonic representations of the shapes of male mating structures in reconstructions of the evolutionary tempo of these structures across the history of the Enallagma damselfly clade. Our analyses show that the evolution of these structures is completely consistent with a punctuated model of evolutionary change and a constant evolutionary rate throughout the clade's history. In addition, no interpopulation variation in shape was detected across the range of one species. These results indicate that male mating structures in this genus are used primarily for identifying the species of potential mates and experience little or no selection from intraspecific sexual selection or sexual antagonism. The implications of these results for speciation are discussed.

  13. Sluggish cognitive tempo in abnormal child psychology: an historical overview and introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.

  14. Timing and Tempo of Early and Successive Adaptive Radiations in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Chul; McGowen, Michael R.; Lubinsky, Pesach; Barber, Janet C.; Mort, Mark E.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2008-01-01

    The flora of Macaronesia, which encompasses five Atlantic archipelagos (Azores, Canaries, Madeira, Cape Verde, and Salvage), is exceptionally rich and diverse. Spectacular radiation of numerous endemic plant groups has made the Macaronesian islands an outstanding area for studies of evolution and speciation. Despite intensive investigation in the last 15 years, absolute age and rate of diversification are poorly known for the flora of Macaronesia. Here we report molecular divergence estimates and rates of diversification for five representative, putative rapid radiations of monophyletic endemic plant lineages across the core eudicot clade of flowering plants. Three discrete windows of colonization during the Miocene and early Pliocene are suggested for these lineages, all of which are inferred to have had a single colonization event followed by rapid radiation. Subsequent inter-archipelago dispersal events into Madeira and the Cape Verdes took place very recently during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene after initial diversification on the Canary Islands. The tempo of adaptive radiations differs among the groups, but is relatively rapid compared to continental and other island radiations. Our results demonstrate that opportunity for island colonization and successful radiation may have been constrained to discrete time periods of profound climatic and geological changes in northern African and the Mediterranean. PMID:18478126

  15. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate. PMID:24398883

  16. Effects of instructed timing and tempo on snare drum sound in drum kit performance.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Anne; Waadeland, Carl Haakon; Sundt, Henrik G; Witek, Maria A G

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on an experiment investigating the expressive means with which performers of groove-based musics signal the intended timing of a rhythmic event. Ten expert drummers were instructed to perform a rock pattern in three different tempi and three different timing styles: "laid-back," "on-the-beat," and "pushed." The results show that there were systematic differences in the intensity and timbre (i.e., sound-pressure level, temporal centroid, and spectral centroid) of series of snare strokes played with these different timing styles at the individual level. A common pattern was found across subjects concerning the effect of instructed timing on sound-pressure level: a majority of the drummers played laid-back strokes louder than on-the-beat strokes. Furthermore, when the tempo increased, there was a general increase in sound-pressure level and a decrease in spectral centroid across subjects. The results show that both temporal and sound-related features are important in order to indicate that a rhythmic event has been played intentionally early, late, or on-the-beat, and provide insight into the ways in which musicians communicate at the microrhythmic level in groove-based musics.

  17. Detection and representation of rhythm and tempo II: The modulation spectrogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Neil P. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the paper a second algorithm is presented for the computation of a primitive representation of rhythmic and temporal structure [N. P. Todd, C. S. Lee, and D. J. O'Boyle, J. New Mus. Res. 28, 5-28 (1999)]. The algorithm consists of the following stages: (1) cochlear filtering, by means of an ear model based on the gammatone filter-bank, (2) modulation filtering, by means of a constant-Q band-pass modulation filter-bank (3) peak detection and sensorimotor filtering; (4) feedforward control of a simple plant to simulate tapping. The output of the modulation filter-bank produces a representation in the form of a modulation spectrogram whereby any periodic input gives rise to a harmonic series. Metrical structure may be inferred from the harmonic structure of the spectrum with the addition of a learning and recognition mechanism. This algorithm may account for a number of additional phenomena including the approximate Weber law property of tempo sensitivity, adaptation to perturbations in the period or phase and the autocorrelation statistics of sensorimotor synchronization. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparison with the tapping behavior of 20 human subjects to the 48 fugue subjects from the Well-Tempered Clavier by J. S. Bach.

  18. Homogeneous suspensions of individualized microfibrils from TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of native cellulose.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsuguyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Vignon, Michel; Isogai, Akira

    2006-06-01

    Never-dried native celluloses (bleached sulfite wood pulp, cotton, tunicin, and bacterial cellulose) were disintegrated into individual microfibrils after oxidation mediated by the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical followed by a homogenizing mechanical treatment. When oxidized with 3.6 mmol of NaClO per gram of cellulose, almost the totality of sulfite wood pulp and cotton were readily disintegrated into long individual microfibrils by a treatment with a Waring Blendor, yielding transparent and highly viscous suspensions. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the wood pulp and cotton microfibrils exhibited a regular width of 3-5 nm. Tunicin and bacterial cellulose could be disintegrated by sonication. A bulk degree of oxidation of about 0.2 per one anhydroglucose unit of cellulose was necessary for a smooth disintegration of sulfite wood pulp, whereas only small amounts of independent microfibrils were obtained at lower oxidation levels. This limiting degree of oxidation decreased in the following order: sulfite wood pulp > cotton > bacterial cellulose, tunicin.

  19. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation.

  20. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes.

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Eytan, Ron I; Keck, Benjamin P; Smith, W Leo; Kuhn, Kristen L; Moore, Jon A; Price, Samantha A; Burbrink, Frank T; Friedman, Matt; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-07-30

    Spiny-rayed fishes, or acanthomorphs, comprise nearly one-third of all living vertebrates. Despite their dominant role in aquatic ecosystems, the evolutionary history and tempo of acanthomorph diversification is poorly understood. We investigate the pattern of lineage diversification in acanthomorphs by using a well-resolved time-calibrated phylogeny inferred from a nuclear gene supermatrix that includes 520 acanthomorph species and 37 fossil age constraints. This phylogeny provides resolution for what has been classically referred to as the "bush at the top" of the teleost tree, and indicates acanthomorphs originated in the Early Cretaceous. Paleontological evidence suggests acanthomorphs exhibit a pulse of morphological diversification following the end Cretaceous mass extinction; however, the role of this event on the accumulation of living acanthomorph diversity remains unclear. Lineage diversification rates through time exhibit no shifts associated with the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but there is a global decrease in lineage diversification rates 50 Ma that occurs during a period when morphological disparity among fossil acanthomorphs increases sharply. Analysis of clade-specific shifts in diversification rates reveal that the hyperdiversity of living acanthomorphs is highlighted by several rapidly radiating lineages including tunas, gobies, blennies, snailfishes, and Afro-American cichlids. These lineages with high diversification rates are not associated with a single habitat type, such as coral reefs, indicating there is no single explanation for the success of acanthomorphs, as exceptional bouts of diversification have occurred across a wide array of marine and freshwater habitats.

  1. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation. PMID:27294799

  2. Catalytic N-radical cascade reaction of hydrazones by oxidative deprotonation electron transfer and TEMPO mediation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Qiang; Qi, Xiaotian; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zhao, Quan-Qing; Wei, Qiang; Lan, Yu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the popularity of various C-centred radicals, the N-centred radicals remain largely unexplored in catalytic radical cascade reactions because of a lack of convenient methods for their generation. Known methods for their generation typically require the use of N-functionalized precursors or various toxic, potentially explosive or unstable radical initiators. Recently, visible-light photocatalysis has emerged as an attractive tool for the catalytic formation of N-centred radicals, but the pre-incorporation of a photolabile groups at the nitrogen atom largely limited the reaction scope. Here, we present a visible-light photocatalytic oxidative deprotonation electron transfer/2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediation strategy for catalytic N-radical cascade reaction of unsaturated hydrazones. This mild protocol provides a broadly applicable synthesis of 1,6-dihydropyradazines with complete regioselectivity and good yields. The 1,6-dihydropyradazines can be easily transformed into diazinium salts that showed promising in vitro antifungal activities against fungal pathogens. DFT calculations are conducted to explain the mechanism. PMID:27048886

  3. TEMPO: a contemporary model for police education and training about mental illness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Terry; Cotton, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing number of interactions between police and people with mental illnesses (PMI), there has been widespread interest in the development of education for police about how best to interact with PMI. This paper reflects the review of current practice in a variety of jurisdictions across Canada as well as in the United States (U.S.), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia; it proposes a comprehensive model of learning based on the literature that addresses not only the content in the narrow sense but also the importance of broader contextual knowledge and understanding in developing effective education and training. Embedded in the principles articulated in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada, the TEMPO (Training and Education about Mental illness for Police Organizations) model is a multilevel learning strategy for Canadian police personnel. Learning objectives and key principles are articulated in order to ensure the model is applicable to a wide range of police agencies and individual jurisdictional needs. In addition to providing a firm basis of factual knowledge for police personnel, the resultant model embraces a human rights/anti-stigma philosophy, provides for a range of education appropriate to diverse police audiences, emphasizes a systems approach to police/mental health liaison activities and addresses issues related to the delivery and implementation of police education and training.

  4. The tempo and mode of evolution: body sizes of island mammals.

    PubMed

    Raia, Pasquale; Meiri, Shai

    2011-07-01

    The tempo and mode of body size evolution on islands are believed to be well known. It is thought that body size evolves relatively quickly on islands toward the mammalian modal value, thus generating extreme cases of size evolution and the island rule. Here, we tested both theories in a phylogenetically explicit context, by using two different species-level mammalian phylogenetic hypotheses limited to sister clades dichotomizing into an exclusively insular and an exclusively mainland daughter nodes. Taken as a whole, mammals were found to show a largely punctuational mode of size evolution. We found that, accounting for this, and regardless of the phylogeny used, size evolution on islands is no faster than on the continents. We compared different selection regimes using a set of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models to examine the effects of insularity of the mode of evolution. The models strongly supported clade-specific selection regimes. Under this regime, however, an evolutionary model allowing insular species to evolve differently from their mainland relatives performs worse than a model that ignores insularity as a factor. Thus, insular taxa do not experience statistically different selection from their mainland relatives.

  5. What distinguishes successful from unsuccessful tobacco smoking cessation? Data from a study of young adults (TEMPO)

    PubMed Central

    Khati, Inès; Menvielle, Gwenn; Chollet, Aude; Younès, Nadia; Metadieu, Brigitte; Melchior, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence rates among young people are high in many countries. Although attempts to quit smoking increasingly occur in young adulthood, many former smokers relapse. We compared individuals who successfully quit smoking from those who relapsed on socio-demographic, psychological and health factors. Methods Data come from telephone interviews conducted in 2011 with participants of the TEMPO community-based study (ages 18–37 years, France). To study the likelihood of successful cessation vs. smoking relapse, we restricted the study sample to current or former smokers (n = 600) and conducted multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results 43% of participants were current smokers who never quit for an extended period and, 33% former smokers and 24% current smokers who relapsed after extended cessation. In multivariate analyses female sex, parental status and illegal drug use were associated with both successful and unsuccessful smoking cessation. Factors specifically associated with a low probability of smoking cessation were job strain and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, while occupational grade was associated with smoking relapse. Conclusions Work and family circumstances, co-occurring substance use and psychological difficulties may influence smoking cessation in young adults. These characteristics should be considered by individual and collective interventions aiming to help young smokers quit successfully. PMID:26844137

  6. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in a Child and Adolescent Clinical Outpatient Setting.

    PubMed

    Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle, Santiago; Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Aceña-Díaz, Marta; Petrizan-Aleman, Araitz; Pujals, Elena; Martin-López, Luis M; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Ribas-Fitó, Núria

    2016-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms have largely emerged from investigations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of SCT symptoms in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychiatry. The goal of this research was to study the symptoms of SCT in a clinical child and adolescent sample and to define its features and comorbid conditions. We reviewed 834 clinical records of patients referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and examined SCT symptoms and their relation with sociodemographic data, clinical diagnosis, comorbid conditions, Child Behavior Checklist dimensions, and intelligence quotient. Of the 515 patients (age range, 4 to 17 y, 62.5% male) for whom a fully completed Child Behavior Checklist for Children and Adolescents was available, 20.8% showed high levels of SCT symptoms. SCT symptoms were strongly associated with age, internalizing symptoms, learning disabilities, and ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I). No significant correlations with intelligence quotient were found. We concluded that SCT symptoms are highly prevalent in a clinical sample, and that these symptoms might be related to the difficulties that some individuals have in responding to demands in their environments, such as academic or social demands, as they increase over time. PMID:27648500

  7. TEMPO: a contemporary model for police education and training about mental illness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Terry; Cotton, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing number of interactions between police and people with mental illnesses (PMI), there has been widespread interest in the development of education for police about how best to interact with PMI. This paper reflects the review of current practice in a variety of jurisdictions across Canada as well as in the United States (U.S.), the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Australia; it proposes a comprehensive model of learning based on the literature that addresses not only the content in the narrow sense but also the importance of broader contextual knowledge and understanding in developing effective education and training. Embedded in the principles articulated in the Mental Health Strategy for Canada, the TEMPO (Training and Education about Mental illness for Police Organizations) model is a multilevel learning strategy for Canadian police personnel. Learning objectives and key principles are articulated in order to ensure the model is applicable to a wide range of police agencies and individual jurisdictional needs. In addition to providing a firm basis of factual knowledge for police personnel, the resultant model embraces a human rights/anti-stigma philosophy, provides for a range of education appropriate to diverse police audiences, emphasizes a systems approach to police/mental health liaison activities and addresses issues related to the delivery and implementation of police education and training. PMID:24720915

  8. On the morphology of cellulose nanofibrils obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and mechanical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gamelas, José A F; Pedrosa, Jorge; Lourenço, Ana F; Mutjé, Peré; González, Israel; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Singh, Gurvinder; Ferreira, Paulo J T

    2015-05-01

    The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils production yield increases with the mechanical energy. The effect of mechanical treatment on the yield was confirmed by laser profilometry of air-dried nanocellulose films. However, no significant differences were detected regarding the nanofibrils width as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-dried films. On the other hand, differences in size were found either by laser diffraction spectroscopy or by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the cellulose nanofibrils suspensions as a consequence of the differences in the length distribution of both samples. The nanofibrils length of the more nanofibrillated sample was calculated based on the width measured by AFM and the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by DLS. A length value of ca. 600 nm was estimated. The DLS hydrodynamic diameter, as an equivalent spherical diameter, was used to estimate the nanofibrils length assuming a cylinder with the same volume and with the diameter (width) assessed by AFM. A simple method is thus proposed to evaluate the cellulose nanofibrils length combining microscopy and light scattering methods.

  9. Tempo and Mode of Gene Duplication in Mammalian Ribosomal Protein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gajdosik, Matthew D.; Simon, Amanda; Nelson, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication has been widely recognized as a major driver of evolutionary change and organismal complexity through the generation of multi-gene families. Therefore, understanding the forces that govern the evolution of gene families through the retention or loss of duplicated genes is fundamentally important in our efforts to study genome evolution. Previous work from our lab has shown that ribosomal protein (RP) genes constitute one of the largest classes of conserved duplicated genes in mammals. This result was surprising due to the fact that ribosomal protein genes evolve slowly and transcript levels are very tightly regulated. In our present study, we identified and characterized all RP duplicates in eight mammalian genomes in order to investigate the tempo and mode of ribosomal protein family evolution. We show that a sizable number of duplicates are transcriptionally active and are very highly conserved. Furthermore, we conclude that existing gene duplication models do not readily account for the preservation of a very large number of intact retroduplicated ribosomal protein (RT-RP) genes observed in mammalian genomes. We suggest that selection against dominant-negative mutations may underlie the unexpected retention and conservation of duplicated RP genes, and may shape the fate of newly duplicated genes, regardless of duplication mechanism. PMID:25369106

  10. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes

    PubMed Central

    Near, Thomas J.; Dornburg, Alex; Eytan, Ron I.; Keck, Benjamin P.; Smith, W. Leo; Kuhn, Kristen L.; Moore, Jon A.; Price, Samantha A.; Burbrink, Frank T.; Friedman, Matt; Wainwright, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Spiny-rayed fishes, or acanthomorphs, comprise nearly one-third of all living vertebrates. Despite their dominant role in aquatic ecosystems, the evolutionary history and tempo of acanthomorph diversification is poorly understood. We investigate the pattern of lineage diversification in acanthomorphs by using a well-resolved time-calibrated phylogeny inferred from a nuclear gene supermatrix that includes 520 acanthomorph species and 37 fossil age constraints. This phylogeny provides resolution for what has been classically referred to as the “bush at the top” of the teleost tree, and indicates acanthomorphs originated in the Early Cretaceous. Paleontological evidence suggests acanthomorphs exhibit a pulse of morphological diversification following the end Cretaceous mass extinction; however, the role of this event on the accumulation of living acanthomorph diversity remains unclear. Lineage diversification rates through time exhibit no shifts associated with the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but there is a global decrease in lineage diversification rates 50 Ma that occurs during a period when morphological disparity among fossil acanthomorphs increases sharply. Analysis of clade-specific shifts in diversification rates reveal that the hyperdiversity of living acanthomorphs is highlighted by several rapidly radiating lineages including tunas, gobies, blennies, snailfishes, and Afro-American cichlids. These lineages with high diversification rates are not associated with a single habitat type, such as coral reefs, indicating there is no single explanation for the success of acanthomorphs, as exceptional bouts of diversification have occurred across a wide array of marine and freshwater habitats. PMID:23858462

  11. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-04-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate. PMID:24398883

  12. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes.

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Eytan, Ron I; Keck, Benjamin P; Smith, W Leo; Kuhn, Kristen L; Moore, Jon A; Price, Samantha A; Burbrink, Frank T; Friedman, Matt; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-07-30

    Spiny-rayed fishes, or acanthomorphs, comprise nearly one-third of all living vertebrates. Despite their dominant role in aquatic ecosystems, the evolutionary history and tempo of acanthomorph diversification is poorly understood. We investigate the pattern of lineage diversification in acanthomorphs by using a well-resolved time-calibrated phylogeny inferred from a nuclear gene supermatrix that includes 520 acanthomorph species and 37 fossil age constraints. This phylogeny provides resolution for what has been classically referred to as the "bush at the top" of the teleost tree, and indicates acanthomorphs originated in the Early Cretaceous. Paleontological evidence suggests acanthomorphs exhibit a pulse of morphological diversification following the end Cretaceous mass extinction; however, the role of this event on the accumulation of living acanthomorph diversity remains unclear. Lineage diversification rates through time exhibit no shifts associated with the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but there is a global decrease in lineage diversification rates 50 Ma that occurs during a period when morphological disparity among fossil acanthomorphs increases sharply. Analysis of clade-specific shifts in diversification rates reveal that the hyperdiversity of living acanthomorphs is highlighted by several rapidly radiating lineages including tunas, gobies, blennies, snailfishes, and Afro-American cichlids. These lineages with high diversification rates are not associated with a single habitat type, such as coral reefs, indicating there is no single explanation for the success of acanthomorphs, as exceptional bouts of diversification have occurred across a wide array of marine and freshwater habitats. PMID:23858462

  13. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  14. Evaluation of in vitro activity of two topical products against three organisms isolated from canine referral patients with otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Okwumabua, O; Goodman, F; Elfassy, O

    2000-01-01

    Canine otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma are common problems that are often associated with Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Malassezia pachydermatis. In vitro activity of two topical products against these organisms isolated from canine referral patients were evaluated. Organisms were grown and diluted to a concentration equivalent to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL and exposed to either a 0 or 1/5 dilution of Hexadene Flush with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) or a 1/5 or 1/25 dilution of ResiCHLOR Lotion with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) at time intervals from 1 to 30 minutes. Results showed that all three organisms were killed within 1 minute of contact time at 0 and 1/5 dilution of the flush. The lotion diluted to 1/5 also killed all three organisms. At 1/25 dilution, this lotion killed S. intermedius and P. aeruginosa within 1 minute of contact time, whereas M. pachydermatis was killed after 1 minute. The findings suggest that the two topical products exhibit efficacy against these common skin pathogens in vitro and can be useful in their clinical management.

  15. Metal-free (Boc)2O-mediated C4-selective direct indolation of pyridines using TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Bing; Zhu, Jia-Yi; Kong, Yu-Bo; Bao, Yun-Hong; Chen, Zheng-Wang; Liu, Liang-Xian

    2014-06-28

    Direct metal-free C-4-selective indolation of pyridines is achieved for the first time using TEMPO and (Boc)2O. A variety of substituents on both indoles and pyridines are tolerated to give 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. This finding provides a novel approach for developing metal-free C-H functionalization of pyridines.

  16. Musicians are more consistent: Gestural cross-modal mappings of pitch, loudness and tempo in real-time

    PubMed Central

    Küssner, Mats B.; Tidhar, Dan; Prior, Helen M.; Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli reveal valuable insights into how humans make sense of sound and music. Whereas researchers have investigated cross-modal mappings of sound features varied in isolation within paradigms such as speeded classification and forced-choice matching tasks, investigations of representations of concurrently varied sound features (e.g., pitch, loudness and tempo) with overt gestures—accounting for the intrinsic link between movement and sound—are scant. To explore the role of bodily gestures in cross-modal mappings of auditory stimuli we asked 64 musically trained and untrained participants to represent pure tones—continually sounding and concurrently varied in pitch, loudness and tempo—with gestures while the sound stimuli were played. We hypothesized musical training to lead to more consistent mappings between pitch and height, loudness and distance/height, and tempo and speed of hand movement and muscular energy. Our results corroborate previously reported pitch vs. height (higher pitch leading to higher elevation in space) and tempo vs. speed (increasing tempo leading to increasing speed of hand movement) associations, but also reveal novel findings pertaining to musical training which influenced consistency of pitch mappings, annulling a commonly observed bias for convex (i.e., rising–falling) pitch contours. Moreover, we reveal effects of interactions between musical parameters on cross-modal mappings (e.g., pitch and loudness on speed of hand movement), highlighting the importance of studying auditory stimuli concurrently varied in different musical parameters. Results are discussed in light of cross-modal cognition, with particular emphasis on studies within (embodied) music cognition. Implications for theoretical refinements and potential clinical applications are provided. PMID:25120506

  17. Poly(TEMPO)/Zinc Hybrid-Flow Battery: A Novel, "Green," High Voltage, and Safe Energy Storage System.

    PubMed

    Winsberg, Jan; Janoschka, Tobias; Morgenstern, Sabine; Hagemann, Tino; Muench, Simon; Hauffman, Guillaume; Gohy, Jean-François; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2016-03-16

    The combination of a polymer-based 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO) catholyte and a zinc anode, together with a cost-efficient size-exclusion membrane, builds a new type of semi-organic, "green," hybrid-flow battery, which features a high potential range of up to 2 V, high efficiencies, and a long life time. PMID:26810789

  18. Quality of Early Family Relationships and the Timing and Tempo of Puberty: Effects Depend on Biological Sensitivity to Context

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Deardorff, Julianna; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Guided by evolutionary-developmental theories of biological sensitivity to context and reproductive development, the current research examined the interactive effects of early family environments and psychobiologic reactivity to stress on the subsequent timing and tempo of puberty. As predicted by the theory, among children displaying heightened biological sensitivity to context (i.e., higher stress reactivity), higher quality parent-child relationships forecast slower initial pubertal tempo and later pubertal timing while lower quality parent-child relationships forecast the opposite pattern. No such effects emerged among less context-sensitive children. Whereas sympathetic nervous system reactivity moderated the effects of parent-child relationships on both breast/genital and pubic hair development, adrenocortical activation only moderated the effect on pubic hair development. The current results build on previous research documenting what family contexts predict variation in pubertal timing by demonstrating for whom those contexts matter. In addition, the authors advance a new methodological approach for assessing pubertal tempo using piecewise growth curve analysis. PMID:21262041

  19. In boys with abnormal developmental tempo, maturation of the skeleton and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remains synchronous.

    PubMed

    Flor-Cisneros, Armando; Leschek, Ellen W; Merke, Deborah P; Barnes, Kevin M; Coco, Marilena; Cutler, Gordon B; Baron, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The primary mechanism that initiates puberty is unknown. One possible clue is that pubertal maturation often parallels skeletal maturation. Conditions that delay skeletal maturation also tend to delay the onset of puberty, whereas conditions that accelerate skeletal maturation tend to hasten the onset of puberty. To examine this relationship, we studied boys with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (n = 13) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (n = 22), two conditions that accelerate maturational tempo, and boys with idiopathic short stature (n = 18) in which maturational tempo is sometimes delayed. In all three conditions, the onset of central puberty generally occurred at an abnormal chronological age but a normal bone age. Boys with the greatest skeletal advancement began central puberty at the earliest age, whereas boys with the greatest skeletal delay began puberty at the latest age. Furthermore, the magnitude of the skeletal advancement or delay matched the magnitude of the pubertal advancement or delay. This synchrony between skeletal maturation and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation was observed among patients within each condition and also between conditions. In contrast, the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis did not remain synchronous with other maturational processes including weight, height, or body mass index. We conclude that in boys with abnormal developmental tempo, maturation of the skeleton and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remains synchronous. This synchrony is consistent with the hypothesis that in boys, skeletal maturation influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation.

  20. Quality of early family relationships and the timing and tempo of puberty: effects depend on biological sensitivity to context.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Boyce, W Thomas; Deardorff, Julianna; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-02-01

    Guided by evolutionary-developmental theories of biological sensitivity to context and reproductive development, the current research examined the interactive effects of early family environments and psychobiologic reactivity to stress on the subsequent timing and tempo of puberty. As predicted by the theory, among children displaying heightened biological sensitivity to context (i.e., higher stress reactivity), higher quality parent-child relationships forecast slower initial pubertal tempo and later pubertal timing, whereas lower quality parent-child relationships forecast the opposite pattern. No such effects emerged among less context-sensitive children. Whereas sympathetic nervous system reactivity moderated the effects of parent-child relationships on both breast/genital and pubic hair development, adrenocortical activation only moderated the effect on pubic hair development. The current results build on previous research documenting what family contexts predict variation in pubertal timing by demonstrating for whom those contexts matter. In addition, the authors advance a new methodological approach for assessing pubertal tempo using piecewise growth curve analysis.

  1. Chemoselective Catalytic Oxidation of 1,2-Diols to α-Hydroxy Acids Controlled by TEMPO-ClO2 Charge-Transfer Complex.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Keisuke; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-05-01

    Chemoselective catalytic oxidation from 1,2-diols to α-hydroxy acids in a cat. TEMPO/cat. NaOCl/NaClO2 system has been achieved. The use of a two-phase condition consisting of hydrophobic toluene and water suppresses the concomitant oxidative cleavage. A study of the mechanism suggests that the observed selectivity is derived from the precise solubility control of diols and hydroxy acids as well as the active species of TEMPO. Although the oxoammonium species TEMPO(+)Cl(-) is hydrophilic, the active species dissolves into the organic layer by the formation of the charge-transfer (CT) complex TEMPO-ClO2 under the reaction conditions.

  2. Control of oxidative reactions of hemoglobin in the design of blood substitutes: role of the Vc, NAC, TEMPO and their reductant system.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiulan; Guo, Song; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiang; Qi, Donglai; Yang, Chengmin

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative reactions of hemoglobin (Hb) are still a serious problem for Hb-based blood substitute development. Although varieties of antioxidant strategies have been suggested, this in vitro study examined the ability of the ascorbate, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC), 4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxygen free radicals (TEMPO) and their reductant system in preventing Hb oxidation. The content of ferric Hb is monitored in the process of vitamin C (Vc), NAC, TEMPO and their reductant system. The results suggest that ascorbate is effective in reducing ferryl Hb, and TEMPO with Vc/NAC could obviously shorten the reaction time, but it does not play the role of Met-Hb reductases. It demonstrates that TEMPO did little to recover Hb under oxidative stress.

  3. Recovery after aerobic exercise is manipulated by tempo change in a rhythmic sound pattern, as indicated by autonomic reaction on heart functioning

    PubMed Central

    Wallert, John; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Physical prowess is associated with rapid recovery from exhaustion. Here we examined whether recovery from aerobic exercise could be manipulated with a rhythmic sound pattern that either decreased or increased in tempo. Six men and six women exercised repeatedly for six minutes on a cycle ergometer at 60 percent of their individual maximal oxygen consumption, and then relaxed for six minutes while listening to one of two sound pattern conditions, which seemed to infinitely either decrease or increase in tempo, during which heart and breathing activity was measured. Participants exhibited more high-frequent heart rate variability when listening to decreasing tempo than when listening to increasing tempo, accompanied by a non-significant trend towards lower heart rate. The results show that neuropsychological entrainment to a sound pattern may directly affect the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may facilitate physiological recovery after exercise. Applications using rhythmic entrainment to aid physical recovery are discussed. PMID:25285076

  4. Chemoselective Catalytic Oxidation of 1,2-Diols to α-Hydroxy Acids Controlled by TEMPO-ClO2 Charge-Transfer Complex.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Keisuke; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-05-01

    Chemoselective catalytic oxidation from 1,2-diols to α-hydroxy acids in a cat. TEMPO/cat. NaOCl/NaClO2 system has been achieved. The use of a two-phase condition consisting of hydrophobic toluene and water suppresses the concomitant oxidative cleavage. A study of the mechanism suggests that the observed selectivity is derived from the precise solubility control of diols and hydroxy acids as well as the active species of TEMPO. Although the oxoammonium species TEMPO(+)Cl(-) is hydrophilic, the active species dissolves into the organic layer by the formation of the charge-transfer (CT) complex TEMPO-ClO2 under the reaction conditions. PMID:25886211

  5. Sleep Difficulties are Associated with Parent Report of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Koriakin, Taylor A.; Mahone, E. Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disturbance is considered both a behavioral symptom of and a contributor to functional difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The construct of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) has also been linked to ADHD; however, little is known regarding the effects of sleep specifically on SCT symptoms. This study examined the association between parent-reported sleep disturbance and parent- and teacher-reported SCT, while controlling for the effects of ADHD and mood symptoms. Method Participants included 746 clinically referred children (65% male, age range: 5–18 years) with both parent and teacher ratings assessing symptoms of ADHD, mood symptoms (depression, anxiety), and SCT. Parents/caregivers also rated their child’s sleep problems with regard to 4 core concerns: falling asleep, sleep restlessness, difficulty waking, and breathing difficulties. The SCT scale included three empirically derived subscales: sleepy/sluggish, low initiation/persistence, and daydreamy. Results After accounting for age, medication status, ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety, sleep problems accounted for a small but significant proportion of additional variance in the prediction of parent-reported sleepy/sluggish SCT. Difficulty waking showed the strongest associations with parent-reported SCT. There were no significant relationships found between parent-reported sleep difficulties and teacher-reported SCT. Conclusions Some elements of sluggishness and lethargy inherent to the SCT construct may be associated with sleep difficulties, even after accounting for ADHD and mood symptoms; however, these associations are not consistent across SCT subscales and sleep problem domains. PMID:26468939

  6. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  7. Convergent evolution, superefficient teams and tempo in Old and New World army ants

    PubMed Central

    Franks, N. R.; Sendova-Franks, A. B.; Simmons, J.; Mogie, M.

    1999-01-01

    Swarm raiding army ants, with hundreds of thousands or millions of workers per colony, have evolved convergently in the Old World and New World tropics. Here we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, superefficient foraging teams in Old World army ants and we compare them quantitatively with such teams in New World army ants. Colonies of Dorylus wilverthi in the Old World and Eciton burchelli in the New World retrieve almost identical sizes of prey item and the overall size range of their workers is very similar. However, 98% of D. wilverthi workers are within the size range of the smallest 25% of E. burchelli workers. In E. burchelli larger workers specialize in prey retrieval, whereas in D. wilverthi workers form many more teams than in E. burchelli. Such teams compensate for the relative rarity of larger workers in Dorylus. The proportions of prey items retrieved by teams in Dorylus and Eciton are 39% and 5%, respectively. The percentages of all prey biomass retrieved by teams in Dorylus and Eciton are 64% and 13%, respectively. Working either as single porters or teams, Dorylus carry more per unit ant weight than do Eciton, but Eciton are swifter. However, these different ergonomic factors counterbalance one another, so that performance at the colony level is remarkably, although by no means completely, similar between the Old and New World species. The remaining differences are attributable to adaptations in worker and colony tempo associated with the recovery dynamics of their prey populations. Our comparative analysis provides a unique perspective on worker-level and colony-level adaptations and is a special test of the theory of worker caste distributions.

  8. Dissociation behavior of a bifunctional tempo-active ester reagent for peptide structure analysis by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ihling, Christian; Falvo, Francesco; Kratochvil, Isabel; Sinz, Andrea; Schäfer, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional active ester cross-linking reagent containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) moiety connected to a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate MS analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). The TEMPO-Bz-linker was reacted with all 20 proteinogenic amino acids as well as with model peptides to gain detailed insights into its fragmentation mechanism upon collision activation. The final goal of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate the potential of the TEMPO-Bz-linker for chemical cross-linking studies to derive 3D-structure information of proteins. Our studies were motivated by the well documented instability of the central NO-C bond of TEMPO-Bz reagents upon collision activation. The fragmentation of this specific bond was investigated in respect to charge states and amino acid composition of a large set of precursor ions resulting in the identification of two distinct fragmentation pathways. Molecular ions with highly basic residues are able to keep the charge carriers located, i.e. protons or sodium cations, and consequently decompose via a homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond of the TEMPO-Bz-linker. This leads to the formation of complementary open-shell peptide radical cations, while precursor ions that are protonated at the TEMPO-Bz-linker itself exhibit a charge-driven formation of even-electron product ions upon collision activation. MS(3) product ion experiments provided amino acid sequence information and allowed determining the cross-linking site. Our study fully characterizes the CID behavior of the TEMPO-Bz-linker and demonstrates its potential, but also its limitations for chemical cross-linking applications utilizing the special features of open-shell peptide ions on the basis of selective tandem MS analysis.

  9. Oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups in chitooligomer by a laccase-TEMPO system and physico-chemical characterisation of oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jicheng; Yin, Yunbei; Shen, Zhenghui; Bu, Xin; Zhang, Fangdong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidation of chitooligomer by a laccase-TEMPO system which had not previously been examined. Chitooligomer was treated with laccase and TEMPO in order to evaluate the potential of a laccase-TEMPO system to improve the moisture absorption, moisture retention, and antioxidant abilities of chitooligomer. Chitooligomer was prepared by degradation of high molecular weight chitosan with hydrogen peroxide followed by oxidation using a laccase-TEMPO system. (13)C NMR and carboxylate ion content detection results indicated that the laccase-TEMPO system could selectively oxidise the C6 hydroxyl group of the chitooligomer into carboxyl group; molecular weight distribution changes suggest that the structure of the oxidised product had changed and the molecular size and molecular weight decreased with the molecules in aqueous solution having a compact structure. Oxidation of chitooligomer by a laccase-TEMPO system resulted in a significant improvement in the moisture absorption, moisture retention and antioxidant abilities. The oxidised product has potential application values in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.

  10. Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from external auditory meatus of dogs with or without otitis externa with special reference to Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kenji; Shimizu, Akira; Kawano, Junichi; Uchida, Eiji; Haruna, Akihiro; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2005-03-01

    Staphylococci were isolated from the external auditory meatus in 14 (48.3%) of 29 dogs affected with otitis externa (OE dogs) and 28 (68.3%) of 41 dogs without OE (non-OE dogs). Twenty-two OE isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species, and 42 non-OE isolates were identified as belonging to 13 species. The predominant species found in both OE and non-OE isolates were S. intermedius, and S. epidermidis. Thirty-eight (59.4%) of 64 isolates were resistant to one or more of the 17 antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance to PCG and ABPC was most frequent. S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, a recent etiologic agent of canine OE, was isolated from OE and non-OE dogs. All of the 5 S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates showed typical characteristics. No clear difference in the extracellular enzyme or toxin profiles, nor in the PFGE patterns, was demonstrated between the OE and non-OE isolates of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. A new PCR primer set specific for 16S rDNA was designed to identify strains of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. The amplified fragment was detected in all of the 5 isolates as well as the type strain GA 211 (=JCM 7470) and a reference strain GA 11, but was not detected in any strains of the related species, S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus. The PCR may allow a simple, rapid and precise identification of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, in addition to the standard tube test for free coagulase.

  11. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ≤0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale

  12. Dissociation Behavior of a TEMPO-Active Ester Cross-Linker for Peptide Structure Analysis by Free Radical Initiated Peptide Sequencing (FRIPS) in Negative ESI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Christoph; Ihling, Christian H.; Götze, Michael; Schäfer, Mathias; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We have synthesized a homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linking reagent, containing a TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy) and a benzyl group (Bz), termed TEMPO-Bz-linker, to derive three-dimensional structural information of proteins. The aim for designing this novel cross-linker was to facilitate the mass spectrometric analysis of cross-linked products by free radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS). In an initial study, we had investigated the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-derivatized peptides upon collision activation in (+)-electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) experiments. In addition to the homolytic NO-C bond cleavage FRIPS pathway delivering the desired odd-electron product ions, an alternative heterolytic NO-C bond cleavage, resulting in even-electron product ions mechanism was found to be relevant. The latter fragmentation route clearly depends on the protonation of the TEMPO-Bz-moiety itself, which motivated us to conduct (-)-ESI-MS, CID-MS/MS, and MS3 experiments of TEMPO-Bz-cross-linked peptides to further clarify the fragmentation behavior of TEMPO-Bz-peptide molecular ions. We show that the TEMPO-Bz-linker is highly beneficial for conducting FRIPS in negative ionization mode as the desired homolytic cleavage of the NO-C bond is the major fragmentation pathway. Based on characteristic fragments, the isomeric amino acids leucine and isoleucine could be discriminated. Interestingly, we observed pronounced amino acid side chain losses in cross-linked peptides if the cross-linked peptides contain a high number of acidic amino acids.

  13. Cu(II) /TEMPO-promoted one-pot synthesis of highly substituted pyrimidines from amino acid esters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nini; Xie, Tao; Li, Zhongle; Xie, Zhixiang

    2014-12-22

    A novel, Cu(OAc)2/TEMPO promoted one-step approach for the preparation of fully substituted pyrimidines from readily available amino acid esters has been described. In this reaction, the amino acid esters act as the only N-C sources for the construction of corresponding pyrimidines. The mechanism of this process includes oxidative dehydrogenation, the generation of an imine radical, and a formal [3+3] cycloaddition. This methodology proves to be a high atom-economic and straightforward strategy for the synthesis of pyrimidines and diverse substrates which are substituted by various functional groups have been afforded in moderate to good yield. PMID:25377658

  14. Selective phosphanyl complex trapping using TEMPO. Synthesis and reactivity of P-functional P-nitroxyl phosphane complexes.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, Vitaly; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Grimme, Stefan; Streubel, Rainer

    2014-10-25

    Open-shell phosphanyl complexes (OC)5W{(Me3Si)2HCP(X)} (X = F, H), obtained by one-electron oxidation of lithium phosphanido complexes, were trapped by TEMPO to yield novel thermally labile P-nitroxyl phosphane complexes. First experimental evidence for an open-shell P-F phosphanoxyl complex (OC)5W{(Me3Si)2HCP(O)F}, formed upon thermolysis of corresponding P-nitroxyl derivative, is reported; reaction pathways are also theoretically investigated.

  15. Effect of the addition of two superoxide dismutase analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Acosta, Alexei Santiani; Evangelista, Shirley; Vargas, Shirley Evangelista; Valdivia, Martha; Cuya, Martha Valdivia; Risopatrón, Jennie; González, Jennie Risopatrón; Sánchez, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez

    2013-03-15

    The main objective was to study the effects, on sperm function, of the addition of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation. Twelve alpaca semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and then diluted at a 1:3 ratio in an extender based on skim milk, egg yolk, and fructose. Each semen sample was divided into three equal parts to form the following groups: control, Tempo (1 mM), and Tempol (1 mM). Groups were cooled to 5 °C in 90 minutes (-1 °C in 3 minutes); when samples reached approximately 10 °C, SOD analogues were added to the respective groups. At 5 °C, ethylene glycol (final concentration, 0.1 M) was added to each group. After 30 minutes at 5 °C, samples were loaded in 0.25 mL plastic straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes, and then plunged. Percentages of sperm motility, functional sperm membrane integrity, and viable sperm with intact acrosomes were evaluated before and after freeze-thaw using visual analysis, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and the double-stain trypan blue/giemsa technique, respectively. The Terminal deoxymucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was performed for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the Tempol and Tempo groups than in the control group (mean, 22.1%, 19.7%, and 11.2%, respectively), with similar results for functional sperm membrane integrity. Additionally, DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in the Tempol group (16.7%) than in the control group (38.8%). Viable sperm with intact acrosomes were not affected by the use of SOD analogues. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.58) between DNA fragmentation of alpaca sperm and sperm motility after freeze-thawing, but DNA damage was neither related to functional membrane integrity nor viable sperm with intact acrosomes. We concluded that DNA fragmentation and loss of motility during cryopreservation of

  16. Characterization of starch films impregnated with starch nanoparticles prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoran; Ji, Na; Zhao, Mei; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of adding different contents (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, wt% based on maize starch, dsb) of starch nanoparticles prepared by the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation (TEMPO-SNPs) on the properties of maize starch films. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and texture profile analysis were used to characterize the thermal properties, morphology and structure of the prepared films. As the content of TEMPO-SNPs increased, the water vapor permeability (WVP) of films reduced significantly from 4.21 × 10(-8) to 3.04 × 10(-8) gm(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1). Furthermore, elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films increased as the TEMPO-SNPs content increased. At the TEMPO-SNPs content of 1%, the elongation at break, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the films peaked. SEM showed that the nanocomposite films had smoother surfaces and cross sections with no cracks or visible air pockets.

  17. Abrupt Changes at the Permian/Triassic Boundary: Tempo of Events from High-Resolution Cyclostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Adler, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    the nearby Reppwand outcrop section, the same faunal changes occurs over only 0.8 m or about 8,000 years, close to the limit of time-resolution induced by bioturbation and reworking in these sediments. The sharp negative global carbon-isotope shift took place within less than or equal to 40,000 yr, and the isotope excursions persisted for approximately 480,000 yr into the Early Triassic. The results indicate that the severe marine faunal event that marks the P/Tr boundary was very sudden, perhaps less than the resolution window in the GK-1 core, and suggest a catastrophic cause. The wavelet-analysis approach to high-resolution cyclostratigraphy can be applied to other P/Tr boundary sections, and when combined with precise absolute dating and magnetostratigraphic methods promises a significant increase in resolution in determining the correlation and tempo of the end-Permian extinctions and related events worldwide.

  18. Behavioral effects of exposure to the TEMPO high-power microwave system. Interim report, January-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Klauenberg, B.J.; Merritt, J.H.; Erwin, D.N.

    1988-03-01

    Safety standards for exposure to radiofrequency radiation must be based upon biologic consequences of exposure to such environments. Behavioral-based measures are considered to be the most-sensitive indices of biological effects. Current safety guidelines are based upon average power density and may not be relevant to the high-peak-power, short pulse width microwave radiation produced by newly developed high peak power microwave sources. The effects of exposure to high-peak-power radiation on reflexive responding and motor function in Fischer 344/N rats were assessed by measuring startle and general activity, and disruption of on-going performance of a rotarod task, respectively. The emitter used was the TEMPO repeat pulse axially extracted vircator. Exposure to single pulses resulted in significant startle responses. Exposure to 1 pps for 10 s produced significant alterations in baseline activity and marked disruption of performance of the rotarod task. The apparently greater effect observed in the rotarod task is discussed in relation to the greater workload that task requires. Experiments are currently being conducted to identify the limits of detection and the quality of the sensory/perceptual experience of exposure to the TEMPO radiation.

  19. Control of size and viscoelastic properties of nanofibrillated cellulose from palm tree by varying the TEMPO-mediated oxidation time.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Karima; Dufresne, Alain; Magnin, Albert; Mortha, Gérard; Kaddami, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to control and optimize the preparation of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from the date palm tree by monitoring the oxidation time (degree of oxidation) of the pristine cellulose and the number of cycles through the homogenizer. The oxidation was monitored by TEMPO (1-oxo-2,2,6,6-tétraméthylpipyridine 1-oxyle) mediated oxidation. Evidence of the successful isolation of NFC was given by FE-SEM observation revealing fibrils with a width in the range 20-30nm, depending of the oxidation time. The evolution of the transparency of the aqueous NFC suspension and carboxylic content according to the degree of oxidation and number of cycles were also analyzed by UV-vis transmittance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), conductimetry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A significant NFC length reduction occurred during the TEMPO-mediated oxidation. The rheological properties of NFC suspensions were characterized as function of the oxidation time. Dynamic rheology showed that the aqueous suspension behavior changed from liquid to gel depending on the concentration. The highest concentration studied was 1wt% and the modulus reached 1MPa which was higher than for non-oxidized NFC. An explanation of the gel structure evolution with the oxidation time applied to the NFC (NFC length) was proposed. The gel structure evolves from an entanglement-governed gel structure to an immobilized water molecule-governed one.

  20. Surface adsorption and self-assembly of Cu(II) ions on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2016-02-15

    TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) have shown potential in the bioremediation of metal ions from contaminated water due to their interaction with positively charged metal ions via electrostatic interactions involving surface carboxyl groups. Copper is one of the most common pollutants in industrial effluents and is thus the target metal in the current study. The specific surface adsorption of Cu(II) was similar for TOCNFs with different degrees of functionalization and directly impacted the zeta potential. SEM imaging of the TOCNF after Cu(II) adsorption revealed interesting nanostructured clusters that were attributable to Cu(II) ions first being adsorbed by carboxylate groups on the TOCNF and subsequently being reduced and self-assembled to Cu(0) nanoparticles (NPs) or copper oxide NPs by microprecipitation. TOCNF turned superhydrophilic and resulted in faster water filtration after copper adsorption due to the stronger polarity of the copper ions or the self-assembled Cu(0) NPs creating voids or highly water-permeable channels at the interface between the interconnected TEMPO-oxidized nanofibers. Thus, the adsorption of Cu(II) ions and self-assembly into the Cu NPs on TOCNF favors a faster water purification process and provides a viable route to reuse/recycle TOCNFs studded with Cu nanoparticles as biocidal materials.

  1. Surface adsorption and self-assembly of Cu(II) ions on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Oksman, Kristiina; Mathew, Aji P

    2016-02-15

    TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNFs) have shown potential in the bioremediation of metal ions from contaminated water due to their interaction with positively charged metal ions via electrostatic interactions involving surface carboxyl groups. Copper is one of the most common pollutants in industrial effluents and is thus the target metal in the current study. The specific surface adsorption of Cu(II) was similar for TOCNFs with different degrees of functionalization and directly impacted the zeta potential. SEM imaging of the TOCNF after Cu(II) adsorption revealed interesting nanostructured clusters that were attributable to Cu(II) ions first being adsorbed by carboxylate groups on the TOCNF and subsequently being reduced and self-assembled to Cu(0) nanoparticles (NPs) or copper oxide NPs by microprecipitation. TOCNF turned superhydrophilic and resulted in faster water filtration after copper adsorption due to the stronger polarity of the copper ions or the self-assembled Cu(0) NPs creating voids or highly water-permeable channels at the interface between the interconnected TEMPO-oxidized nanofibers. Thus, the adsorption of Cu(II) ions and self-assembly into the Cu NPs on TOCNF favors a faster water purification process and provides a viable route to reuse/recycle TOCNFs studded with Cu nanoparticles as biocidal materials. PMID:26619127

  2. Synergistic induction of apoptosis and caspase-independent autophagic cell death by a combination of nitroxide Tempo and heat shock in human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Li; Fujiwara, Yoshisada; Kondo, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that heat stress or a superoxide dismutase mimic nitroxide, Tempo, induces apoptosis, while their combination causes nonapoptotic cell death; however, the underlying mechanism for this switch remains unclear. Here we identified for the first time that 10 mM Tempo present during heating at 44°C for 30 min rapidly induced autophagy in U937 leukemic cells in spite of Bax activation and mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization. This co-treatment inhibited the processing of heat-activated procaspases-2, -8, -9 and -3 into active small subunits, leading to the inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis, and instead caused the induction of autophagy. The inactivation of caspases, a key event, could result from oxidation of active-site-CysSH of all caspases by a prooxidant oxo-ammonium cation, an intermediate derived Tempo during dismutation of heat-induced superoxide anion. In addition, the co-treatment caused mitochondrial calcium overloads, the mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization, profound mitochondrial dysfunction, and liberation of Beclin 1 from the Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complex, all of which contributed to induction of autophagy. These autophagic cells underwent propidium iodide-positive necrosis in a delayed fashion, leading to the complete proliferative inhibition. Remarkably, ruthenium red and BAPTA, which interfere with mitochondrial calcium uptake, facilitated autophagic necrotic death. Cyclosporin A, which binds to cyclophilin D, had a similar necrotic effect. 3-Methyladenine facilitated the necrosis of autophagic cells. In contrast, 5 mM Tempo-44°C/10 min or 44°C/30 min induced Bax-mediated MOM permeabilization and caspase-dependent apoptosis more potently than Tempo alone. Thus, Tempo is a unique thermosensitizer to synergistically induce apoptosis and autophagic cell death.

  3. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  4. Theoretical study of absorption of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium cation (TEMPO) on TiO₂(110) rutile surface.

    PubMed

    Nieto-López, Israel; Hernández-García, Luis; Bonilla-Cruz, José; Sanchez, Mario

    2014-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the adsorption of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium cation (TEMPO) onto the TiO₂(110) surface rutile, investigating its bonding nature, electron properties and structural stability. Based on the results obtained with the PBE0/def2-SVP method, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis suggests a bond order for the O--O bond in complexes 5 and 6, of 0.25 and 0.88, respectively. We also described NBOs for the main interactions of the TiO₂-TEMPO complexes.

  5. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) as a green reinforcement for waterborne polyurethane coating (WPU) on wood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong; Wen, Yangbing; An, Xingye; Zhu, Xuhai; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-10-20

    In this work, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) were investigated as a green additive to the waterborne polyurethane (WPU) based coating, for improving its mechanical properties. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and performances of the WPU/TOCNs coating were determined. Results showed that TOCNs had good compatibility to the WPU coating, and significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the coating. The Halpin-Tsai and Ouali models were used to fit for the Young's modulus of the resulting coating, and good agreements were found between the Ouali model and experimental results when the TOCNs content exceeded the critical percolation threshold (0.7vol% or 1.0wt%). It was also found that the pencil hardness of the coating was improved with the addition of TOCNs. However, AFM and pull-off test revealed the negative effects of the TOCNs addition on the surface roughness and adhesion strength of the coating to the wood surface. PMID:27474574

  6. Selective Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran by Sustainable 4-acetamido-TEMPO/Halogen-Mediated Electrooxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Kashparova, Vera P; Klushin, Victor A; Leontyeva, Daria V; Smirnova, Nina V; Chernyshev, Victor M; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-09-20

    A new method was developed for the selective gram-scale synthesis of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), which is an important chemical with a high application potential, via oxidation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by 4-acetylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-AcNH-TEMPO) in a two-phase system consisting of a methylene chloride and aqueous solution containing sodium hydrogen carbonate and potassium iodide. The key feature of this method is the generation of the I2 (co-)oxidant by anodic oxidation of iodide anions during pulse electrolysis. In addition, the electrolyte can be successfully recycled five times while maintaining a 62-65 % yield of DFF. This novel method provides a sustainable pathway for waste-free production of DFF without the use of metal catalysts and expensive oxidants. An advantage of electrooxidation is utilized in the preparation of demanding chemical. PMID:27432749

  7. Superior reinforcement effect of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils in polystyrene matrix: optical, thermal, and mechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Ikeuchi, Tomoyasu; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2012-07-01

    Polystyrene (PS) composites reinforced with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) with various weight ratios were fabricated by casting and vacuum-drying mixtures of PS/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution and TOCN/DMF dispersion. TOCNs of 3 to 4 nm width were dispersed homogeneously at the individual nanofibril level in the PS matrix, such that the TOCN/PS nanocomposite films exhibited high optical transparencies and their tensile strengths, elastic moduli, and thermal dimensional stabilities increased with increasing TOCN content. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the storage modulus of the TOCN/PS films increased significantly with TOCN content above the glass-transition temperature of PS by the formation of an interfibrillar network structure of TOCNs in the PS matrix, based on percolation theory. The outstanding and effective polymer reinforcement by TOCNs results from their high aspect ratio, high crystallinity, and nanodispersibility in the PS matrix.

  8. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) as a green reinforcement for waterborne polyurethane coating (WPU) on wood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong; Wen, Yangbing; An, Xingye; Zhu, Xuhai; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-10-20

    In this work, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs) were investigated as a green additive to the waterborne polyurethane (WPU) based coating, for improving its mechanical properties. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties and performances of the WPU/TOCNs coating were determined. Results showed that TOCNs had good compatibility to the WPU coating, and significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the coating. The Halpin-Tsai and Ouali models were used to fit for the Young's modulus of the resulting coating, and good agreements were found between the Ouali model and experimental results when the TOCNs content exceeded the critical percolation threshold (0.7vol% or 1.0wt%). It was also found that the pencil hardness of the coating was improved with the addition of TOCNs. However, AFM and pull-off test revealed the negative effects of the TOCNs addition on the surface roughness and adhesion strength of the coating to the wood surface.

  9. Effective and mild method for converting 3β-hydroxysteroids to 3-keto steroids via DDQ/TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Pan, Dan; Wu, Aiqun; Shen, Liqun

    2015-04-01

    A mild and efficient oxidation of 3β-hydroxysteroids to the corresponding 3-keto steroids can be carried out at room temperature, using DDQ in the presence of catalytic TEMPO. Oxidation of saturated 3β-hydroxysteroids gave the corresponding ketones in excellent yield. The 5-unsaturated 3β-hydroxysteroids are oxidized selectively to 4-en-3-one or 4,6-diene-3-one derivatives according to the amount of DDQ in reaction. This is a good method for the synthesis of 4,6-diene-3-one from the corresponding 3β-hydroxy-5-ene steroids. Meanwhile, configurations of the oxidation compounds 2a, 2b, 3b, 2c, 2f and 2g were identified by X-ray diffraction. A possible mechanism is presented and discussed.

  10. Copper(I)/ABNO-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation: alleviating steric and electronic constraints of Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems.

    PubMed

    Steves, Janelle E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2013-10-23

    Cu/TEMPO catalyst systems promote efficient aerobic oxidation of sterically unhindered primary alcohols and electronically activated substrates, but they show reduced reactivity with aliphatic and secondary alcohols. Here, we report a catalyst system, consisting of ((MeO)bpy)Cu(I)(OTf) and ABNO ((MeO)bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine; ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl), that mediates aerobic oxidation of all classes of alcohols, including primary and secondary allylic, benzylic, and aliphatic alcohols with nearly equal efficiency. The catalyst exhibits broad functional group compatibility, and most reactions are complete within 1 h at room temperature using ambient air as the source of oxidant. PMID:24128057

  11. Controlling the structure and rheology of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous suspensions for fabricating advanced nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sha; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Liangbing; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard; Zhong, Linxin

    Due to its abundance, low-cost, biocompatibility and renewability, cellulose has become an attractive candidate as a functional material for various advanced applications. A key to novel applications is the control of the structure and rheology of suspensions of fibrous cellulose. Among many different approaches of preparing cellulose suspensions, zinc chloride addition to aqueous suspensions is regarded an effective practice. In this study, effects of ZnCl2 concentration on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOC) nanofiber suspensions have been investigated. Highly-transparent cellulose nanofiber suspension can be rapidly obtained by dissolving TOC in 65 wt.% zinc chloride aqueous solutions at room temperature, whereas a transparent zinc ion cross-linked TOC gel could be obtained with zinc chloride concentration as low as 10 wt. %. The structural and rheological characteristics of TOC/ZnCl2 suspensions have been measured to correlate to the performance of thetransparent and flexible nanocellulose paper subsequently produced via vacuum filtration or wet-casting processes.

  12. Dynamic 3D visual analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2010-04-01

    Maintaining Situational Awareness (SA) is crucial to the success of high tempo operations, such as war fighting and mass casualty events (bioterrorism, natural disasters). Modern computer and software applications attempt to provide command and control manager's situational awareness via the collection, integration, interrogation and display of vast amounts of analytic data in real-time from a multitude of data sources and formats [1]. At what point does the data volume and displays begin to erode the hierarchical distributive intelligence, command and control structure of the operation taking place? In many cases, people tasked with making decisions, have insufficient experience in SA of high tempo operations and become overwhelmed easily as vast amounts of data begin to be displayed in real-time as an operation unfolds. In these situations, where data is plentiful and the relevance of the data changes rapidly, there is a chance for individuals to target fixate on those data sources they are most familiar. If these individuals fall into this type of pitfall, they will exclude other data that might be just as important to the success of the operation. To counter these issues, it is important that the computer and software applications provide a means for prompting its users to take notice of adverse conditions or trends that are critical to the operation. This paper will discuss a new method of displaying data called a Crisis ViewTM, that monitors critical variables that are dynamically changing and allows preset thresholds to be created to prompt the user when decisions need to be made and when adverse or positive trends are detected. The new method will be explained in basic terms, with examples of its attributes and how it can be implemented.

  13. Photophysical Studies on Covalently-linked Naphthalene and TEMPO Free Radical Systems: Observation of a Charge Transfer State in the Ground State.

    PubMed

    Rane, Vinayak; Kundu, Sushma; Das, Ranjan

    2015-09-01

    A series of molecules containing a naphthalene chromophore and a stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) covalently linked by a spacer group of different lengths have been synthesized. In n-hexane solution, their photophysical behavior was studied and compared with a system of freely moving naphthalene and the free radical TEMPO. The linked molecules showed strong quenching of the singlet and triplet states of the naphthalene moiety, compared to when naphthalene and TEMPO were not linked. The quenching efficiency decreased with increasing the length of the spacer group. In addition, new electronic absorption and emission bands, along with the usual bands of the individual moieties, were also seen. These news bands have been attributed to the formation of electron donor-acceptor charge-transfer complexes in the ground state, arising from the interaction between the two moieties in close proximity. The photophysical dynamics of the linked molecules has been rationalized by assuming the existence of two types of population of the linked molecules: folded and extended. The ground state complex formation is proposed to occur only in the folded conformation of the linked molecules. To our knowledge, this is possibly the first example of a ground state charge-transfer complex formation involving a TEMPO free radical and naphthalene.

  14. Copper-TEMPO-catalyzed synthesis of α-ketoamides via tandem sp(3)C-H aerobic oxidation and amination of phenethyl alcohol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengkou; Yang, Zhao; Guo, Shiyu; Zeng, Yu; Zhu, Ning; Li, Xin; Fang, Zheng; Guo, Kai

    2016-09-28

    An efficient copper-TEMPO-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of α-ketoamides from phenethyl alcohol derivatives was developed firstly. Moreover, molecular oxygen in open air was employed as the oxidant with a broad substrate scope, which makes this methodology more practical. Based on some control experiments, a plausible mechanism was proposed. PMID:27548362

  15. TEMPO Monolayers on Si(100) Electrodes: Electrostatic Effects by the Electrolyte and Semiconductor Space-Charge on the Electroactivity of a Persistent Radical.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Vogel, Yan Boris; Noble, Benjamin B; Gonçales, Vinicius R; Darwish, Nadim; Brun, Anton Le; Gooding, J Justin; Wallace, Gordon G; Coote, Michelle L; Ciampi, Simone

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the effect of electrostatic interactions on the electroactivity of a persistent organic free radical. This was achieved by chemisorption of molecules of 4-azido-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperdinyloxy (4-azido-TEMPO) onto monolayer-modified Si(100) electrodes using a two-step chemical procedure to preserve the open-shell state and hence the electroactivity of the nitroxide radical. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the surface electrochemical reaction are investigated experimentally and analyzed with the aid of electrochemical digital simulations and quantum-chemical calculations of a theoretical model of the tethered TEMPO system. Interactions between the electrolyte anions and the TEMPO grafted on highly doped, i.e., metallic, electrodes can be tuned to predictably manipulate the oxidizing power of surface nitroxide/oxoammonium redox couple, hence showing the practical importance of the electrostatics on the electrolyte side of the radical monolayer. Conversely, for monolayers prepared on the poorly doped electrodes, the electrostatic interactions between the tethered TEMPO units and the semiconductor-side, i.e., space-charge, become dominant and result in drastic kinetic changes to the electroactivity of the radical monolayer as well as electrochemical nonidealities that can be explained as an increase in the self-interaction "a" parameter that leads to the Frumkin isotherm. PMID:27373457

  16. TEMPO Monolayers on Si(100) Electrodes: Electrostatic Effects by the Electrolyte and Semiconductor Space-Charge on the Electroactivity of a Persistent Radical.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Vogel, Yan Boris; Noble, Benjamin B; Gonçales, Vinicius R; Darwish, Nadim; Brun, Anton Le; Gooding, J Justin; Wallace, Gordon G; Coote, Michelle L; Ciampi, Simone

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the effect of electrostatic interactions on the electroactivity of a persistent organic free radical. This was achieved by chemisorption of molecules of 4-azido-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperdinyloxy (4-azido-TEMPO) onto monolayer-modified Si(100) electrodes using a two-step chemical procedure to preserve the open-shell state and hence the electroactivity of the nitroxide radical. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the surface electrochemical reaction are investigated experimentally and analyzed with the aid of electrochemical digital simulations and quantum-chemical calculations of a theoretical model of the tethered TEMPO system. Interactions between the electrolyte anions and the TEMPO grafted on highly doped, i.e., metallic, electrodes can be tuned to predictably manipulate the oxidizing power of surface nitroxide/oxoammonium redox couple, hence showing the practical importance of the electrostatics on the electrolyte side of the radical monolayer. Conversely, for monolayers prepared on the poorly doped electrodes, the electrostatic interactions between the tethered TEMPO units and the semiconductor-side, i.e., space-charge, become dominant and result in drastic kinetic changes to the electroactivity of the radical monolayer as well as electrochemical nonidealities that can be explained as an increase in the self-interaction "a" parameter that leads to the Frumkin isotherm.

  17. Cellulose nanofibrils prepared from softwood cellulose by TEMPO/NaClO/NaClO₂ systems in water at pH 4.8 or 6.8.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Catalytic oxidation of softwood cellulose using NaClO and either 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-H-TEMPO) or 4-acetamido-TEMPO (4-AcNH-TEMPO) was applied with NaClO(2) used as a primary oxidant in an aqueous buffer at pH 4.8 or 6.8. When the 4-AcNH-TEMPO-mediated oxidation was applied to softwood cellulose in water at pH 4.8 and 40 °C, the carboxylate content rose to ∼1.3 mmol/g after reaction for 48 h and the DP(v) value was more than 1100. This 4-AcNH-TEMPO-oxidized softwood cellulose was mostly converted to individual nanofibrils by mechanical disintegration in water, with uniform widths of 3-4 nm and lengths greater than 1 μm.

  18. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields.

  19. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields. PMID:26016854

  20. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  1. Tempo-Spatial Variations of Ambient Ozone-Mortality Associations in the USA: Results from the NMMAPS Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zeng, Weilin; Lin, Hualiang; Rutherford, Shannon; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Qian, Zhengmin; Feng, Baixiang; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the health effects of ambient ozone have been widely assessed, their tempo-spatial variations remain unclear. We selected 20 communities (ten each from southern and northern USA) based on the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) dataset. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the season-specific association between each 10 ppb (lag0-2 day average) increment in daily 8 h maximum ozone concentration and mortality in every community. The results showed that in the southern communities, a 10 ppb increment in ozone was linked to an increment of mortality of -0.07%, -0.17%, 0.40% and 0.27% in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. For the northern communities, the excess risks (ERs) were 0.74%, 1.21%, 0.52% and -0.65% in the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons, respectively. City-specific ozone-related mortality effects were positively related with latitude, but negatively related with seasonal average temperature in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. However, a reverse relationship was found in the winter. We concluded that there were different seasonal patterns of ozone effects on mortality between southern and northern US communities. Latitude and seasonal average temperature were identified as modifiers of the ambient ozone-related mortality risks.

  2. Early emotional and behavioral difficulties and adult educational attainment: an 18-year follow-up of the TEMPO study.

    PubMed

    Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (< vs. ≥ high school degree), accounting for participants' age, sex, juvenile academic difficulties, and family income. High levels of childhood (but not adolescent) internalizing and externalizing symptoms were associated with low educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.

  3. Influences on the onset and tempo of puberty in human beings and implications for adolescent psychological development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne; Styne, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Historical records reveal a secular trend toward earlier onset of puberty in both males and females, often attributed to improvements in nutrition and health status. The trend stabilized during the mid 20th century in many countries, but recent studies describe a recurrence of a decrease in age of pubertal onset. There appears to be an associated change in pubertal tempo in girls, such that girls who enter puberty earlier have a longer duration of puberty. Puberty is influenced by genetic factors but since these effects cannot change dramatically over the past century, environmental effects, including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and perinatal conditions offer alternative etiologies. Observations that the secular trends in puberty in girls parallel the obesity epidemic provide another plausible explanation. Early puberty has implications for poor behavioral and psychosocial outcomes as well as health later in life. Irrespective of the underlying cause of the ongoing trend toward early puberty, experts in the field have debated whether these trends should lead clinicians to reconsider a lower age of normal puberty, or whether such a new definition will mask a pathologic etiology.

  4. Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Ciesielski, Heather A; Rood, Jennifer E; Froehlich, Tanya E; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning scientific literature examining the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct, very little is known about the clinical presentation of SCT. In clinical cases where SCT is suspected, it is critical to carefully assess not only for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but also for other comorbidities that may account for the SCT-related behaviors, especially internalizing symptoms and sleep problems. The current case study provides a clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl, offering a real-life portrait of SCT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies (e.g. depression, anxiety), and potentially related domains of functioning (e.g. sleep, executive functioning [EF]). "Jessica" was described by herself, parents, and teacher as being much slower than her peers in completing schoolwork, despite standardized testing showing Jessica to have above average intelligence and academic achievement. Jessica's parents completed rating scales indicating high levels of SCT symptoms and daytime sleepiness, as well as mildly elevated EF deficits. More research is needed to determine how to best conceptualize, assess, and treat SCT, and Jessica's case underscores the importance of further work in this area. PMID:25326531

  5. Tempo-Spatial Variations of Ambient Ozone-Mortality Associations in the USA: Results from the NMMAPS Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zeng, Weilin; Lin, Hualiang; Rutherford, Shannon; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Qian, Zhengmin; Feng, Baixiang; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the health effects of ambient ozone have been widely assessed, their tempo-spatial variations remain unclear. We selected 20 communities (ten each from southern and northern USA) based on the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) dataset. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the season-specific association between each 10 ppb (lag0-2 day average) increment in daily 8 h maximum ozone concentration and mortality in every community. The results showed that in the southern communities, a 10 ppb increment in ozone was linked to an increment of mortality of -0.07%, -0.17%, 0.40% and 0.27% in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. For the northern communities, the excess risks (ERs) were 0.74%, 1.21%, 0.52% and -0.65% in the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons, respectively. City-specific ozone-related mortality effects were positively related with latitude, but negatively related with seasonal average temperature in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. However, a reverse relationship was found in the winter. We concluded that there were different seasonal patterns of ozone effects on mortality between southern and northern US communities. Latitude and seasonal average temperature were identified as modifiers of the ambient ozone-related mortality risks. PMID:27571094

  6. Preparation of zwitterionically charged nanocrystals by surface TEMPO-mediated oxidation and partial deacetylation of α-chitin.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Hori, Taishi; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-20

    Zwitterionic nanocrystals were prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation, partial deacetylation, and subsequent mechanical disintegration of α-chitin. The pH dependence of the morphology, transparency, and viscosity of the nanocrystals were evaluated. After those reactions, the carboxylate and amino group contents of the chitin derivative were 0.45 and 1.26 mmol/g, respectively. After mechanical treatment, the water dispersion consisted of nanocrystals approximately 250 nm long and 10nm thick. Under acidic and basic conditions, the water dispersions were highly transparent. On the other hand, under neutral conditions, the dispersion was turbid due to the ionic interaction between the cationic and anionic groups on the nanocrystal surface. Although the surface zwitterionic nanocrystals collected from acidic and basic dispersion were randomly oriented due to electrostatic repulsions, nanocrystals formed aggregates in neutral water due to the cationic and anionic interaction between them. Nanocrystals in neutral water had higher viscosity than those in acidic and basic water, since ionic interaction caused nanocrystal networks to form in water.

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation in the food web of Three Gorges Reservoir (China): Tempo-spatial patterns and effect of reservoir management.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Qiong; Yuan, Gailing; He, Xugang; Xie, Ping

    2015-09-15

    Tempo-spatial patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and tropho-dynamics, and the potential for a reservoir effect were evaluated in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) from 2011 to 2012, using total mercury concentrations (THg) and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of food web components (seston, aquatic invertebrates and fish). Hg concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and fish indicated a significant temporal trend associated with regular seasonal water-level manipulation. This includes water level lowering to allow for storage of water during the wet season (summer); a decrease of water levels from September to June providing a setting for flood storage. Hg concentrations in organisms were the highest after flooding. Higher Hg concentrations in fish were observed at the location farthest from the dam. Hg concentrations in water and sediment were correlated. Compared with the reservoirs of United States and Canada, TGR had lower trophic magnification factors (0.046-0.066), that are explained primarily by organic carbon concentrations in sediment, and the effect of "growth dilution". Based on comparison before and after the impoundment of TGR, THg concentration in biota did not display an obvious long-term reservoir effect due to (i) short time since inundation, (ii) regular water discharge associated with water-level regulation, and/or (iii) low organic matter content in the sediment.

  8. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling 'Darwinian' and 'Spencerian' evolutionary approaches in anthropology.

    PubMed

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2011-04-12

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of 'Spencerian' cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader 'Darwinian' framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification.

  9. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above.

  10. Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Ciesielski, Heather A; Rood, Jennifer E; Froehlich, Tanya E; Garner, Annie A; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning scientific literature examining the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct, very little is known about the clinical presentation of SCT. In clinical cases where SCT is suspected, it is critical to carefully assess not only for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but also for other comorbidities that may account for the SCT-related behaviors, especially internalizing symptoms and sleep problems. The current case study provides a clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl, offering a real-life portrait of SCT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies (e.g. depression, anxiety), and potentially related domains of functioning (e.g. sleep, executive functioning [EF]). "Jessica" was described by herself, parents, and teacher as being much slower than her peers in completing schoolwork, despite standardized testing showing Jessica to have above average intelligence and academic achievement. Jessica's parents completed rating scales indicating high levels of SCT symptoms and daytime sleepiness, as well as mildly elevated EF deficits. More research is needed to determine how to best conceptualize, assess, and treat SCT, and Jessica's case underscores the importance of further work in this area.

  11. Tempo-Spatial Variations of Ambient Ozone-Mortality Associations in the USA: Results from the NMMAPS Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zeng, Weilin; Lin, Hualiang; Rutherford, Shannon; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Qian, Zhengmin; Feng, Baixiang; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the health effects of ambient ozone have been widely assessed, their tempo-spatial variations remain unclear. We selected 20 communities (ten each from southern and northern USA) based on the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) dataset. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the season-specific association between each 10 ppb (lag0-2 day average) increment in daily 8 h maximum ozone concentration and mortality in every community. The results showed that in the southern communities, a 10 ppb increment in ozone was linked to an increment of mortality of −0.07%, −0.17%, 0.40% and 0.27% in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. For the northern communities, the excess risks (ERs) were 0.74%, 1.21%, 0.52% and −0.65% in the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons, respectively. City-specific ozone-related mortality effects were positively related with latitude, but negatively related with seasonal average temperature in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. However, a reverse relationship was found in the winter. We concluded that there were different seasonal patterns of ozone effects on mortality between southern and northern US communities. Latitude and seasonal average temperature were identified as modifiers of the ambient ozone-related mortality risks. PMID:27571094

  12. Mercury bioaccumulation in the food web of Three Gorges Reservoir (China): Tempo-spatial patterns and effect of reservoir management.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Qiong; Yuan, Gailing; He, Xugang; Xie, Ping

    2015-09-15

    Tempo-spatial patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and tropho-dynamics, and the potential for a reservoir effect were evaluated in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) from 2011 to 2012, using total mercury concentrations (THg) and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of food web components (seston, aquatic invertebrates and fish). Hg concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and fish indicated a significant temporal trend associated with regular seasonal water-level manipulation. This includes water level lowering to allow for storage of water during the wet season (summer); a decrease of water levels from September to June providing a setting for flood storage. Hg concentrations in organisms were the highest after flooding. Higher Hg concentrations in fish were observed at the location farthest from the dam. Hg concentrations in water and sediment were correlated. Compared with the reservoirs of United States and Canada, TGR had lower trophic magnification factors (0.046-0.066), that are explained primarily by organic carbon concentrations in sediment, and the effect of "growth dilution". Based on comparison before and after the impoundment of TGR, THg concentration in biota did not display an obvious long-term reservoir effect due to (i) short time since inundation, (ii) regular water discharge associated with water-level regulation, and/or (iii) low organic matter content in the sediment. PMID:25958367

  13. Hydroxy- and silyloxy-substituted TEMPO derivatives for the living free-radical polymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate: synthesis, kinetics, and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Christoph Alexander; Studer, Armido

    2003-12-31

    The synthesis of new 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) styryl derivatives as mediators for the living free-radical polymerization is described. Two of the alpha-methyl groups at the 2- and 6-position of the parent TEMPO styryl alkoxyamine have been replaced by hydroxymethyl and silyloxymethyl groups. To further increase the steric hindrance around the alkoxyamine oxygen atom, the remaining two methyl groups have been substituted with larger ethyl groups. Styrene polymerizations using hydroxy-substituted TEMPO derivatives are fast, but are not well-controlled. As previously shown for other OH-substituted alkoxyamines, intramolecular H-bonding leads to an acceleration of the C-O bond homolysis and, hence, to an acceleration of the polymerization process. However, the OH groups also increase the alkoxyamine decomposition rate constant. The kinetics of the C-O bond homolysis have been determined using EPR spectroscopy. Decomposition studies have been conducted with the aid of 1H NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to the OH-substituted alkoxyamines, highly hindered silyloxy-substituted TEMPO alkoxyamines turned out to be excellent mediator/initiators for the controlled styrene polymerization. Polystyrene with M(n) of up to 80 000 g/mol and narrow polydispersities (PDI) has been prepared using the new alkoxyamines. Reactions have been conducted at 105 degrees C; however, even at 90 degrees C controlled but slow polymerizations can be achieved. Furthermore, and more importantly, poly(n-butyl acrylates) with narrow PDIs (<1.15) have been prepared at 105 degrees C with the new alkoxyamines. Controlled acrylate polymerization can be conducted at temperatures as low as 90 degrees C. The silylated alkoxyamines presented belong to the most efficient initiator/mediators for the controlled acrylate polymerization known to date. The effect of the addition of free nitroxide on the acrylate polymerization is discussed. Moreover, the synthesis of diblock copolymers with narrow

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  15. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD Inattention as Predictors of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Impairment Domains: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determine SCT's and ADHD-IN's unique longitudinal relationships with psychopathology, academic impairment, and social impairment over the 1- and 2-year intervals (i.e., first to third grade, second to third grade). For 1- and 2-year intervals using both mothers' and fathers' ratings, higher levels of SCT uniquely predicted higher levels of anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment whereas higher levels of ADHD-IN uniquely predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment. For 1- and 2-year intervals across different primary and secondary teachers (i.e., first/second and third grade ratings were provided by different teachers), higher scores on ADHD-IN uniquely predicted poorer outcomes across domains whereas higher scores on SCT uniquely predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD for both intervals in addition to higher levels of depression (for primary teachers only), academic impairment (for 1-year interval only), and peer rejection (2-year interval only for primary teachers). Overall, SCT was significantly associated with important outcomes independent of ADHD-IN over 1- and 2-year intervals and across four different raters. This study provides further evidence for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN in home and school settings.

  16. Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiran; Behm, Mårten; Leijonmarck, Simon; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2016-07-20

    Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 μm. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 °C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes. PMID:27362635

  17. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  18. The effect of Bosentan on exercise capacity in Fontan patients; rationale and design for the TEMPO study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Palliative treatment with the Fontan procedure has greatly improved survival for children with functionally univentricular heart. Since Fontan performed the first successful operation, the procedure has evolved and is now performed as Total Cavo-Pulmonary Connection (TCPC). An increasing prevalence and longer life expectancy of TCPC patients have raised new challenges. The survivors are often suffering complications such as arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, thromboembolic events, neuropsychological deficit, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced exercise capacity. Several causes for the reduced exercise capacity may be present e.g. impaired function of the single ventricle, valve dysfunction and chronotropic impairment, and perhaps also increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, plasma endothelin-1 has been shown to correlate with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk of failing Fontan circulation. This has raised the question of the role for pulmonary vasodilation therapy, especially endothelin receptor antagonist in the management of TCPC patients. Methods/Design The TEMPO trial aims to investigate whether Bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, can be administered safely and improve exercise capacity in TCPC patients. The trial design is randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. Bosentan/placebo is administered for 14 weeks with control visits every four weeks. The primary endpoint is change in maximal oxygen consumption as assessed on bicycle ergometer test. Secondary endpoints include changes in pulmonary blood flow during exercise test, pro brain natriuretic peptide and quality of life. Discussion We hypothesize that treatment with Bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, can be administered safely and improve exercise capacity in TCPC patients. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01292551 PMID:23663658

  19. Autonomic Effects of Music in Health and Crohn's Disease: The Impact of Isochronicity, Emotional Valence, and Tempo

    PubMed Central

    Krabs, Roland Uwe; Enk, Ronny; Teich, Niels; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d) whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction). Methods To address these issues, three experiments were conducted, with a total of n = 138 healthy subjects and n = 19 CD patients. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded while participants listened to joyful pleasant music, isochronous tones, and unpleasant control stimuli. Results Compared to silence, both pleasant music and unpleasant control stimuli elicited an increase in HR and a decrease in a variety of HRV parameters. Surprisingly, similar ANS effects were elicited by isochronous tones (i.e., simply by a tactus). ANS effects did not differ between pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, and different tempi of the music did not entrain ANS activity. Finally, music-evoked ANS effects did not differ between healthy individuals and CD patients. Conclusions The isochronous pulse of music (i.e., the tactus) is a major factor of music-evoked ANS effects. These ANS effects are characterized by increased sympathetic activity. The emotional valence of a musical piece contributes surprisingly little to the ANS activity changes evoked by that piece. PMID:25955253

  20. Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiran; Behm, Mårten; Leijonmarck, Simon; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2016-07-20

    Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 μm. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 °C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

  1. Change Your Tempo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2009-01-01

    It seems as though everyone has an overcrowded work schedule these days, and music teachers are no exception. There are some blessed souls for whom it all comes easily. They finish what they need to when they need to, or much earlier than it is required. Their work schedules are impeccably prepped, and they have time for dozens of other…

  2. X-ray structures of precursors of styrylpyridine-derivatives used to obtain 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamido-TEMPO: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Percino, María Judith; Sánchez, Ana Laura; Chapela, Víctor Manuel; Cerón, Margarita; Castro, María Eugenia

    2015-04-02

    The synthesis and characterization of the precursor isomers trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (I), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-4-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (II), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (III) and (E)-4-(2-(pydridin-4-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (IV) are reported. These compounds were prepared in order to obtain trans-4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO (V). Compounds I and II were obtained by using a Knoevenagel reaction in the absence of a condensing agent and solvent. Oxidation of the aldehyde group using the Jones reagent afforded the corresponding acid forms III and IV. A condensation reaction with 4-amino-TEMPO using oxalyl chloride/DMF/CH2Cl2 provided the 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO. Single crystals of compounds I, II and III were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound I belongs to space group P2(1)/c, a = 12.6674(19) Å, b = 7.2173(11) Å, c = 11.5877(14) Å, b = 97.203(13)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 4, whereas compound II was in the space group P2(1), with a = 3.85728(9) Å, b = 10.62375(19) Å, c = 12.8625(2) Å, b = 91.722 (2)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 2. Compound III crystallized as single colorless needle crystals, belonging to the monoclinic system with space group P2(1), with Z = 2, with a = 3.89359(7) Å, b = 17.7014(3) Å, c = 8.04530(12) Å, b = 94.4030 (16)°. All compounds were completely characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, EI-MS and UV-Vis.

  3. X-ray structures of precursors of styrylpyridine-derivatives used to obtain 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamido-TEMPO: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Percino, María Judith; Sánchez, Ana Laura; Chapela, Víctor Manuel; Cerón, Margarita; Castro, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the precursor isomers trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (I), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-4-yl)vinylbenzaldehyde (II), trans-4-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (III) and (E)-4-(2-(pydridin-4-yl)vinylbenzoic acid (IV) are reported. These compounds were prepared in order to obtain trans-4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO (V). Compounds I and II were obtained by using a Knoevenagel reaction in the absence of a condensing agent and solvent. Oxidation of the aldehyde group using the Jones reagent afforded the corresponding acid forms III and IV. A condensation reaction with 4-amino-TEMPO using oxalyl chloride/DMF/CH2Cl2 provided the 4-((E)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)vinyl)benzamide-TEMPO. Single crystals of compounds I, II and III were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound I belongs to space group P2(1)/c, a = 12.6674(19) Å, b = 7.2173(11) Å, c = 11.5877(14) Å, b = 97.203(13)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 4, whereas compound II was in the space group P2(1), with a = 3.85728(9) Å, b = 10.62375(19) Å, c = 12.8625(2) Å, b = 91.722 (2)° and the asymmetric unit was Z = 2. Compound III crystallized as single colorless needle crystals, belonging to the monoclinic system with space group P2(1), with Z = 2, with a = 3.89359(7) Å, b = 17.7014(3) Å, c = 8.04530(12) Å, b = 94.4030 (16)°. All compounds were completely characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR, EI-MS and UV-Vis. PMID:25849803

  4. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  5. TEMPO/viologen electrochemical heterojunction for diffusion-controlled redox mediation: a highly rectifying bilayer-sandwiched device based on cross-reaction at the interface between dissimilar redox polymers.

    PubMed

    Tokue, Hiroshi; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-26

    A couple of totally reversible redox-active molecules, which are different in redox potentials, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and viologen (V(2+)), were employed to give rise to a rectified redox conduction effect. Single-layer and bilayer devices were fabricated using polymers containing these sites as pendant groups per repeating unit. The devices were obtained by sandwiching the redox polymer layer(s) with indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and Pt foil electrodes. Electrochemical measurements of the single-layer device composed of polynorbornene-bearing TEMPO (PTNB) exhibited a diffusion-limited current-voltage response based on the TEMPO(+)/TEMPO exchange reaction, which was almost equivalent to a redox gradient through the PTNB layer depending upon the thickness. The bilayer device gave rise to the current rectification because of the thermodynamically favored cross-reaction between TEMPO(+) and V(+) at the polymer/polymer interface. A current-voltage response obtained for the bilayer device demonstrated a two-step diffusion-limited current behavior as a result of the concurrent V(2+)/V(+) and V(+)/V(0) exchange reactions according to the voltage and suggested that the charge transport process through the device was most likely to be rate-determined by a redox gradient in the polymer layer. Current collection experiments revealed a charge transport balance throughout the device, as a result of the electrochemical stability and robustness of the polymers in both redox states.

  6. Development of an LC-MS method for ultra trace-level determination of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxl (TEMPO), a potential genotoxic impurity within active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Justin; Cohen, Ryan D; Tian, Ye; Boulineau, Fabien

    2015-10-10

    TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) is a stable free radical which has been widely used for various research and industrial applications, including the manufacture of many active pharmaceutical ingredients. TEMPO has been identified as a potential genotoxic impurity resulting in the need for analytical methodology to accurately determine its level at several orders of magnitude less than typical impurity quantitation limits. TEMPO can undergo disproportionation to form both oxidized and reduced TEMPO, making individual determination unreliable. To overcome this challenge, all TEMPO related species were converted to the reduced form through reduction with sodium ascorbate. Given the ultra-trace (0.5 ppm) level requirements and the lack of UV response in the reduced form, a single quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) was utilized. In order to implement a highly sensitive MS method in a GMP environment, several approaches were employed to optimize accuracy and robustness including: internal standard correction for drift elimination, six-level standard addition to reduce matrix effects, and weighted linear regression to cover a broad analytical range. The method was fully validated according to ICH guidelines. The method is specific, linear, accurate, precise, and robust within a range of 0.5-100 ppm.

  7. Improvement of the Thermal Stability of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils by Heat-Induced Conversion of Ionic Bonds to Amide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Bras, Julien; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Improving thermal stability of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) is a major challenge for the development and preparation of new nanocomposites. However, thermal degradation of TOCNs occurs at 220 °C. The present study reports a simple way to improve thermal stability of TOCNs by the heat-induced conversion of ionic bonds to amide bonds. Coupling amine-terminated polyethylene glycol to the TOCNs is performed through ionic bond formation. Films are produced from the dispersions by the casting method. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirm conversion of ionic bonds to amide bonds for the modified TOCN samples after heating. As a result, improvement of TOCNs' thermal stability by up to 90 °C is successfully achieved.

  8. Improvement of the Thermal Stability of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils by Heat-Induced Conversion of Ionic Bonds to Amide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Bras, Julien; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Improving thermal stability of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) is a major challenge for the development and preparation of new nanocomposites. However, thermal degradation of TOCNs occurs at 220 °C. The present study reports a simple way to improve thermal stability of TOCNs by the heat-induced conversion of ionic bonds to amide bonds. Coupling amine-terminated polyethylene glycol to the TOCNs is performed through ionic bond formation. Films are produced from the dispersions by the casting method. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirm conversion of ionic bonds to amide bonds for the modified TOCN samples after heating. As a result, improvement of TOCNs' thermal stability by up to 90 °C is successfully achieved. PMID:27184669

  9. Effect of interfibrillar PVA bridging on water stability and mechanical properties of TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibril films.

    PubMed

    Hakalahti, Minna; Salminen, Arto; Seppälä, Jukka; Tammelin, Tekla; Hänninen, Tuomas

    2015-08-01

    TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibrils (TCNF) were covalently bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to render water stable films. Pure TCNF films and TCNF-PVA films in dry state showed similar humidity dependent behavior in the elastic region. However, in wet films PVA had a significant effect on stability and mechanical characteristics of the films. When soaked in water, pure TCNF films exhibited strong swelling behavior and poor wet strength, whereas covalently bridged TCNF-PVA composite films remained intact and could easily be handled even after 24h of soaking. Wet tensile strength of the films was considerably enhanced with only 10 wt% PVA addition. At 25% PVA concentration wet tensile strengths were decreased and films were more yielding. This behavior is attributed to the ability of PVA to reinforce and plasticize TCNF-based films. The developed approach is a simple and straightforward method to produce TCNF films that are stable in wet conditions.

  10. Stem Hydraulic Conductivity depends on the Pressure at Which It Is Measured and How This Dependence Can Be Used to Assess the Tempo of Bubble Pressurization in Recently Cavitated Vessels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Jinyu; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation of water in xylem vessels followed by embolism formation has been authenticated for more than 40 years. Embolism formation involves the gradual buildup of bubble pressure (air) to atmospheric pressure as demanded by Henry's law of equilibrium between gaseous and liquid phases. However, the tempo of pressure increase has not been quantified. In this report, we show that the rate of pressurization of embolized vessels is controlled by both fast and slow kinetics, where both tempos are controlled by diffusion but over different spatial scales. The fast tempo involves a localized diffusion from endogenous sources: over a distance of about 0.05 mm from water-filled wood to the nearest embolized vessels; this process, in theory, should take <2 min. The slow tempo involves diffusion of air from exogenous sources (outside the stem). The latter diffusion process is slower because of the increased distance of diffusion of up to 4 mm. Radial diffusion models and experimental measurements both confirm that the average time constant is >17 h, with complete equilibrium requiring 1 to 2 d. The implications of these timescales for the standard methods of measuring percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity are discussed in theory and deserve more research in future.

  11. Organic Radical Contrast Agents Based on Polyacetylenes Containing 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl (TEMPO): Targeted Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Optical Bimodal Imaging of Folate Receptor Expressing HeLa Tumors in Vitro and in Vivo(a).

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixia; Yan, Chenggong; Cui, Danting; Yan, Yichen; Liu, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Tan, Xiangliang; Lu, Xiaodan; Xu, Jun; Xu, Yikai; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Nitroxides have great potential as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for tumor detection. Polyacetylenes(PAs) containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine oxyl (TEMPO) and poly(ethylene glycol) were synthesized via metathesis polymerization of the corresponding substituted acetylenes to be used for targeted bimodal MRI /optical imaging of tumors. The poly(ethylene glycol) in the polyacetylenes enables covalent conjugation of carboxyl fluorescein and folic acid (FA) with hydroxyl groups to develop targeted multifunctional organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs). In vitro studies confirm the excellent binding specificity and subsequent enhanced cellular internalization of the targeted ORCAs (PA-TEMPO-FI-FA) without cytotoxicity. In vivo T1-weighted MRI demonstrates the active tumor targeting ability of PA-TEMPO-FI-FA to generate specific contrast enhancement in mice bearing HeLa tumors. Moreover, longitudinal optical imaging displays high tumor accumulation after 1 h post-injection of PA-TEMPO-FI-FA. These results indicate that multifunctional ORCAs may provide a tumor-targeted delivery platform for further molecular imaging guided cancer therapy.

  12. Stem Hydraulic Conductivity depends on the Pressure at Which It Is Measured and How This Dependence Can Be Used to Assess the Tempo of Bubble Pressurization in Recently Cavitated Vessels1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyu; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation of water in xylem vessels followed by embolism formation has been authenticated for more than 40 years. Embolism formation involves the gradual buildup of bubble pressure (air) to atmospheric pressure as demanded by Henry’s law of equilibrium between gaseous and liquid phases. However, the tempo of pressure increase has not been quantified. In this report, we show that the rate of pressurization of embolized vessels is controlled by both fast and slow kinetics, where both tempos are controlled by diffusion but over different spatial scales. The fast tempo involves a localized diffusion from endogenous sources: over a distance of about 0.05 mm from water-filled wood to the nearest embolized vessels; this process, in theory, should take <2 min. The slow tempo involves diffusion of air from exogenous sources (outside the stem). The latter diffusion process is slower because of the increased distance of diffusion of up to 4 mm. Radial diffusion models and experimental measurements both confirm that the average time constant is >17 h, with complete equilibrium requiring 1 to 2 d. The implications of these timescales for the standard methods of measuring percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity are discussed in theory and deserve more research in future. PMID:26468516

  13. [Otitis externa in tropical diving and swimming].

    PubMed

    Haider, T; Stanek, G

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the microflora of the external auditory canal should help to clarify the frequent acute diffuse external otitis which may occur in recreational scuba-divers and swimmers during a stay in the tropics. We found that colonisation with facultatively pathogenic microorganisms increased after exposure. Apart from this contamination, indirect factors such as the tropical climate and intensive exposure to water may play an important role in the aetiology of the external otitis. For individual preventive measures, topical application of paraffin-oil before, and an aqueous solution of alcohol and acetic acid after exposure are recommended.

  14. Tempo-spatially resolved cellular dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus transacting activator of transcription (Tat) peptide-modified nanocargos in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Yang, Qiaoyu; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs could not actively target the cell nuclei, which is contrary to previous observations based on fixed cell results. More importantly, the inheritance of TGNPs to the daughter cells through mitosis was found to be the major route to metabolize TGNPs by HeLa cells. These understandings on the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocargos in living cells would provide deep insight on how to improve and controllably manipulate their translocation efficiency for targeted drug delivery.Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs

  15. Synthesis, X-Ray Structure, Magnetic Properties, and a Study of Intra/Intermolecular Radical-Radical Interactions of a Triradical TEMPO Compound.

    PubMed

    Lloveras, Vega; Badetti, Elena; Wurst, Klaus; Vidal-Gancedo, José

    2015-10-26

    A novel triradical compound with a P=S core and three branches functionalized with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radicals is synthesized and characterized by IR, (1) H NMR, (31) P NMR, and EPR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and its chemical structure is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The triradical shows neither spin exchange interactions between its radical units nor detectable dipolar interactions. This is consistent with the separation between the radical units found in its X-ray diffraction structure, and discounts the existence of intramolecular interactions. This conclusion is confirmed by an EPR concentration study. The concentration at which intermolecular interactions start to appear is determined (5×10(-3)  m) and this concentration should be taken into account as a higher concentration limit when studies on intramolecular radical-radical interactions in polyradicals with similar structure are required. SQUID magnetometry analysis of the compound shows antiferromagnetic interactions between the spin carriers of different molecules; that is, antiferromagnetic intermolecular interactions.

  16. A novel adsorbent TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils modified with PEI: Preparation, characterization, and application for Cu(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zang, Guo-Long; Shi, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of a novel adsorbent based on cellulose nanofibrils by first TEMPO mediated oxidation and then PEI grafting (TOCN-PEI) for heavy metal removal. FTIR results demonstrated the successful introduction of the adsorption functional groups (carboxyl and amino groups), and the elemental analysis and acid base titration were used to quantify the contents of these introduced groups. The kinetics curve suited the pseudo-second-order model better and the equilibrium data well fitted the Langmuir model, with the maximum Cu(II) uptake of 52.32mgg(-1). Kinetic study showed that the PEI grafting increased the initial adsorption rate of the TOCN-PEI compared with the adsorbents without PEI. Thermodynamic study was carried out through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurement and the binding reaction was found to be exothermic and driven by enthalpy change. The adsorption process by TOCN-PEI was pH dependent, and decreasing pH would lead to desorption of Cu(II) ions, thus make the reuse of the absorbent more convenient through adsorption-desorption cycles.

  17. A novel adsorbent TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils modified with PEI: Preparation, characterization, and application for Cu(II) removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Zang, Guo-Long; Shi, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of a novel adsorbent based on cellulose nanofibrils by first TEMPO mediated oxidation and then PEI grafting (TOCN-PEI) for heavy metal removal. FTIR results demonstrated the successful introduction of the adsorption functional groups (carboxyl and amino groups), and the elemental analysis and acid base titration were used to quantify the contents of these introduced groups. The kinetics curve suited the pseudo-second-order model better and the equilibrium data well fitted the Langmuir model, with the maximum Cu(II) uptake of 52.32mgg(-1). Kinetic study showed that the PEI grafting increased the initial adsorption rate of the TOCN-PEI compared with the adsorbents without PEI. Thermodynamic study was carried out through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurement and the binding reaction was found to be exothermic and driven by enthalpy change. The adsorption process by TOCN-PEI was pH dependent, and decreasing pH would lead to desorption of Cu(II) ions, thus make the reuse of the absorbent more convenient through adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:27208612

  18. iHeartLift: a closed loop system with bio-feedback that uses music tempo variability to improve heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thomas C T; Chen, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    "Musica delenit bestiam feram" translates into "Music soothes the savage beast". There is a hidden truth in this ancient quip passed down from generations. Besides soothing the heart, it also incites the heart to a healthier level of heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper, an approach to use and test music and biofeedback to increase the heart rate variability for people facing daily stress is discussed. By determining the music tempo variability (MTV) of a piece of music and current heart rate variability, iHeartLift is able to compare the 2 trends and locate a musical piece that is suited to increase the user's heart rate variability to a healthier level. With biofeedback, the 2 trends are continuously compared in real-time and the musical piece is changed in accordance with the current comparisons. A study was conducted and it was generally found that HRV can be uplifted by music regardless of language and meaning of musical lyrics but with limitations to musical genre.

  19. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling ‘Darwinian’ and ‘Spencerian’ evolutionary approaches in anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Traditional investigations of the evolution of human social and political institutions trace their ancestry back to nineteenth century social scientists such as Herbert Spencer, and have concentrated on the increase in socio-political complexity over time. More recent studies of cultural evolution have been explicitly informed by Darwinian evolutionary theory and focus on the transmission of cultural traits between individuals. These two approaches to investigating cultural change are often seen as incompatible. However, we argue that many of the defining features and assumptions of ‘Spencerian’ cultural evolutionary theory represent testable hypotheses that can and should be tackled within a broader ‘Darwinian’ framework. In this paper we apply phylogenetic comparative techniques to data from Austronesian-speaking societies of Island South-East Asia and the Pacific to test hypotheses about the mode and tempo of human socio-political evolution. We find support for three ideas often associated with Spencerian cultural evolutionary theory: (i) political organization has evolved through a regular sequence of forms, (ii) increases in hierarchical political complexity have been more common than decreases, and (iii) political organization has co-evolved with the wider presence of hereditary social stratification. PMID:21357233

  20. Chiral tetranuclear and dinuclear copper(ii) complexes for TEMPO-mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols: are four metal centres better than two?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqi; Proni, Gloria; Zhao, Sherry; Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Neuburger, Markus; Zampese, Jennifer A

    2014-08-28

    The one-pot reaction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, (R)-2-aminoglycinol and Cu(OAc)2·2H2O in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio in the presence of triethylamine led to the isolation of X-ray quality crystals of the chiral complex (R)- in high yield. The single crystal structure of (R)- reveals a tetranuclear copper(ii) complex that contains a {Cu4(μ-O)2(μ3-O)2N4O4} core. A reaction using (1S,2R)-2-amino-1,2-diphenylethanol as precursor under the same conditions generated the chiral complex (S,R)-; its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography and was found to contain a {Cu2(μ-O)2N2O2} core. Both (R)- and (S,R)- have been used for catalytic aerobic oxidation of benzylic alcohols in combination with the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl) radical. (R)- selectively catalyses the conversion of various aromatic primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with high yields (99%) and TONs (770) in the air, while (S,R)- exhibits less promising catalytic performance under the same reaction conditions. The role of the cluster structures in (R)- and (S,R)- in controlling the reactivity towards aerobic oxidation reactions is discussed. PMID:24986135

  1. TEMPO-mediated oxidized winter melon-based carbonaceous aerogel as an ultralight 3D support for enhanced photodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Gangling; Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-10-14

    Natural biomass based carbonaceous aerogels are becoming promising lightweight, biodegradable matrices to supersede traditional support materials in realizing future sustainable photochemistry and environmental protection. Herein, flower-like BiOBr loaded onto an ultralight TEMPO-mediated oxidized carbonaceous aerogel (BOB@OWMCA) support was successfully prepared using the edible winter melon as source material via a simple solvothermal method. The three-dimensional sponge-like OWMCA with surface functionalization displayed an ultralow density (17.7 mg cm(-3)) and large special surface area (30.6 m(2) g(-1)). The BiOBr was homogeneously anchored on the surface of the hierarchical porous OWMCA and the material exhibited synergetic properties of the BiOBr photocatalyst and OWMCA support to strengthen its photodegradation capacity. The results indicated that the as-prepared BOB@OWMCA composite demonstrated an outstanding adsorption and photodegradation capacity for organic pollutants (rhodamine B) under visible light irradiation. Of importance here, the BOB@OWMCA composite showed a prominent advantage for easy collection and separation from the aqueous system, making it a promising candidate as a robust visible light responsive photocatalyst for a range of applications. PMID:26344492

  2. iHeartLift: a closed loop system with bio-feedback that uses music tempo variability to improve heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thomas C T; Chen, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    "Musica delenit bestiam feram" translates into "Music soothes the savage beast". There is a hidden truth in this ancient quip passed down from generations. Besides soothing the heart, it also incites the heart to a healthier level of heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper, an approach to use and test music and biofeedback to increase the heart rate variability for people facing daily stress is discussed. By determining the music tempo variability (MTV) of a piece of music and current heart rate variability, iHeartLift is able to compare the 2 trends and locate a musical piece that is suited to increase the user's heart rate variability to a healthier level. With biofeedback, the 2 trends are continuously compared in real-time and the musical piece is changed in accordance with the current comparisons. A study was conducted and it was generally found that HRV can be uplifted by music regardless of language and meaning of musical lyrics but with limitations to musical genre. PMID:22254526

  3. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered.

  4. TEMPO-mediated oxidized winter melon-based carbonaceous aerogel as an ultralight 3D support for enhanced photodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Gangling; Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2015-10-14

    Natural biomass based carbonaceous aerogels are becoming promising lightweight, biodegradable matrices to supersede traditional support materials in realizing future sustainable photochemistry and environmental protection. Herein, flower-like BiOBr loaded onto an ultralight TEMPO-mediated oxidized carbonaceous aerogel (BOB@OWMCA) support was successfully prepared using the edible winter melon as source material via a simple solvothermal method. The three-dimensional sponge-like OWMCA with surface functionalization displayed an ultralow density (17.7 mg cm(-3)) and large special surface area (30.6 m(2) g(-1)). The BiOBr was homogeneously anchored on the surface of the hierarchical porous OWMCA and the material exhibited synergetic properties of the BiOBr photocatalyst and OWMCA support to strengthen its photodegradation capacity. The results indicated that the as-prepared BOB@OWMCA composite demonstrated an outstanding adsorption and photodegradation capacity for organic pollutants (rhodamine B) under visible light irradiation. Of importance here, the BOB@OWMCA composite showed a prominent advantage for easy collection and separation from the aqueous system, making it a promising candidate as a robust visible light responsive photocatalyst for a range of applications.

  5. Studies on the Tempo of Bubble Formation in Recently Cavitated Vessels: A Model to Predict the Pressure of Air Bubbles1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963

  6. La Causa Chicana. The Movement for Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangold, Margaret M., Ed.

    The intent of this book is to present information about Chicanos to social workers and members of other helping professions so they may become involved in the Mexican Americans' movement to obtain first-class citizenship. Articles reflect the perspectives of persons working in various settings, geographical regions, and disciplines. Some of the…

  7. Sluggish cognitive tempo in children referred to a pediatric Sleep Disorders Center: Examining possible overlap with sleep problems and associations with impairment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Garner, Annie A; Byars, Kelly C

    2016-06-01

    Research supports the distinctness of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) (e.g., mental confusion and slowed behavior/thinking) from other psychopathologies. However, the relation between SCT and sleep functioning has not been adequately studied. We examined the association between SCT and sleep functioning in 325 children (62% male) ages 6-10 years referred to a pulmonary-based, accredited Sleep Disorders Center. Correlations between caregiver ratings of SCT, other psychopathologies (i.e., inattention/hyperactivity, oppositionality, depression, anxiety), sleep functioning (both behavioral and organic symptoms), as well as sleep disorder diagnoses, were examined. Unique effects of SCT and other psychopathologies on sleep problem severity controlling for child demographics were assessed using regressions. Regression analyses were also conducted to examine the unique effects of SCT on impairment (i.e., academic difficulties, parenting stress, and other psychopathologies) controlling for child demographics, sleep problem severity, and other psychopathology symptoms. SCT was weakly to moderately correlated with most measures of sleep (rs = .07-.39) and moderately to strongly correlated with measures of daytime sleepiness (rs = .33 and .53). In the regression analyses, SCT was uniquely associated with greater sleep functioning severity and impairment in academic functioning. SCT was also uniquely associated with higher levels of depression and inattention/hyperactivity, but not anxiety, and negatively associated with oppositionality. Finally, SCT symptoms were uniquely associated with greater parent-child dysfunctional interaction. Findings demonstrate that SCT is related to, but not redundant with, sleep problems and daytime sleepiness specifically. Further, SCT remained associated with several domains of functional impairment in sleep-disordered children after controlling for clinically-relevant variables, highlighting the potential value in assessing SCT symptoms in

  8. Sluggish cognitive tempo in children referred to a pediatric Sleep Disorders Center: Examining possible overlap with sleep problems and associations with impairment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Garner, Annie A; Byars, Kelly C

    2016-06-01

    Research supports the distinctness of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) (e.g., mental confusion and slowed behavior/thinking) from other psychopathologies. However, the relation between SCT and sleep functioning has not been adequately studied. We examined the association between SCT and sleep functioning in 325 children (62% male) ages 6-10 years referred to a pulmonary-based, accredited Sleep Disorders Center. Correlations between caregiver ratings of SCT, other psychopathologies (i.e., inattention/hyperactivity, oppositionality, depression, anxiety), sleep functioning (both behavioral and organic symptoms), as well as sleep disorder diagnoses, were examined. Unique effects of SCT and other psychopathologies on sleep problem severity controlling for child demographics were assessed using regressions. Regression analyses were also conducted to examine the unique effects of SCT on impairment (i.e., academic difficulties, parenting stress, and other psychopathologies) controlling for child demographics, sleep problem severity, and other psychopathology symptoms. SCT was weakly to moderately correlated with most measures of sleep (rs = .07-.39) and moderately to strongly correlated with measures of daytime sleepiness (rs = .33 and .53). In the regression analyses, SCT was uniquely associated with greater sleep functioning severity and impairment in academic functioning. SCT was also uniquely associated with higher levels of depression and inattention/hyperactivity, but not anxiety, and negatively associated with oppositionality. Finally, SCT symptoms were uniquely associated with greater parent-child dysfunctional interaction. Findings demonstrate that SCT is related to, but not redundant with, sleep problems and daytime sleepiness specifically. Further, SCT remained associated with several domains of functional impairment in sleep-disordered children after controlling for clinically-relevant variables, highlighting the potential value in assessing SCT symptoms in

  9. Tempo-spatial analysis of vision-related acupoint specificity in the occipital lobe using fMRI: an ICA study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Minghao; Qin, Wei; Sun, Jinbo; Liu, Peng; Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jixin; Zhou, Guangyu; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie

    2012-02-01

    Functional acupoint specificity is one of the most debated topics in acupuncture neuroimaging research. Conventional studies investigating vision-related acupoint specificity empirically assume that acupuncture-induced hemodynamic response can be defined a priori and thus concentrate on distinguishing the spatial variations of response patterns across acupoints in the occipital lobe. However, evidence suggests that acupuncture-invoked BOLD signal changes are independent of a priori time shape. Additionally, temporal profiles reflect how a stimulus corresponds with the brain, implying the hemodynamic coherence induced by stimulation. Therefore, temporal information carried in acupuncture-related neural activity may be more crucial to specificity issues. This paper initiates the detection into tempo-spatial dimension and the goal of this study is to detect functional acupoint specificity by uniquely comparing the temporal activities of the occipital lobe among vision-related acupoints (VRA) and a non-acupoint (NAP). We utilized the independent component analysis (ICA) to extract temporal patterns of occipital response by stimulating a VRA, i.e. GB37, and a NAP. As an improvement over previous ones, another VRA, i.e., BL60 was employed to consolidate our findings. Results showed that although all groups showed V1 activity in the occipital lobe, dissociable temporal activities in this region categorized GB37 and NAP (r=0.05, p=0.64). This finding was replicable with regard to BL60 and NAP (r=-0.03, p=0.77). Intriguingly, stimulation at two VRAs induced highly correlated temporal activities (p<0.0001). This study adds positive evidence to the issue of vision-related acupoint specificity. The utilization of ICA and consideration of temporal dynamics may shed light on future studies.

  10. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Conception et calibration d'un sonoreacteur pour l'oxydation de la cellulose par le systeme TEMPO/NaOCl/NaBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquin, Michel

    Avec le contexte economique actuel dans le domaine des pates et papiers au Canada, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits mis en marche. La fermeture de plus de 20 usines depuis 2005, une baisse du PIB de l'industrie de 1,4 milliard CAD entre 1999--2008, une baisse de la demande de 2,4 %, une diminution du prix de la pate de 20,9 % depuis juillet 2009. La delocalisation du secteur vers l'Asie et l'hemisphere sud sont autant de raisons pour laquelle l'industrie se doit d'etre a l'avant plan de nouvelle technologie a base de fibre de bois. Pour augmenter leur rentabilite, l'industrie se doit de diversifier ses produits dans d'autres secteurs que le simple fabricant de papier impression-ecriture. Sa diversification passe par l'elaboration de nouveaux papiers a valeur ajoutee (papier conducteur, papier bioactif, etc.), par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour la production d'energie, par l'utilisation de la biomasse forestiere pour l'elaboration d'une plateforme de chimie verte, par l'utilisation de la lignine pour le developpement de polymeres et par l'utilisation de la fibre cellulosique pour la fabrication de nanomateriaux. La fabrication de nanofibrille de cellulose peut devenir un des produits qui servira a diversifier la production des usines de pates et papiers. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose possedent des proprietes mecaniques et chimiques exceptionnelles. Les nanofibrilles de cellulose sont fabriquees a partir d'une oxydation selective de la pate kraft de feuillu avec le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr. L'oxydation selective de l'alcool primaire en C6 du monomere de glucose sous forme de carboxylates engendre une modification chimique de la cellulose qui accroit l'hydrophilicite des fibrilles. Suite a cette oxydation, nous devons effectuer une desintegration mecanique de la fibre kraft de feuillu oxydee pour separer les fibrilles. Le processus d'oxydation de la fibre par le systeme TEMPO-NaOCl-NaBr et sa defibrillation par la suite engendre une

  12. [Age-related trends in spatio-temporal structure of simple graphic movements performed in a cyclic manner at a maximal tempo. Part I. Tempo increase is accounted for by a reduction in the number of submovements in a movement cycle].

    PubMed

    Kurganskiĭ, A V; Kurganskaia, M E

    2011-01-01

    Right-handed human subjects of 4 different ages (5-6, 8-9, 11-12 yo. and adult subjects) performed simple graphical movements in a cyclic manner with maximal possible tempo. The movements differed with respect to their coordination and serial complexity and were performed by each hand while holding the stylus either by the fingers or the fist. It was found that cycle duration considerably decreased with age from the age of 5 to adulthood and the amount of the age-related gain in the performance rate depended on which hand (right vs. left) and/or grip (fingers vs. fist) was used to perform a movement. The rate of successive submovements neither changed substantially with age nor showed any lateral asymmetry however it did depend on the movement being performed and the grip being used. The results show that the age-related trend in the cyclic movements can almost entirely be accounted for by a reduction in the number of submovements in a cycle. The results are discussed in the view of the hypothesis that considers submovements to be the building blocks of a graphical movement. PMID:21469352

  13. Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  14. TEMPO-Assisted Free Radical-Initiated Peptide Sequencing Mass Spectrometry (FRIPS MS) in Q-TOF and Orbitrap Mass Spectrometers: Single-Step Peptide Backbone Dissociations in Positive Ion Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Inae; Lee, Sun Young; Hwangbo, Song; Kang, Dukjin; Lee, Hookeun; Kim, Hugh I.; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Han Bin

    2016-09-01

    The present study demonstrates that one-step peptide backbone fragmentations can be achieved using the TEMPO [2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl)]-assisted free radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry in a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer and a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument in positive ion mode, in contrast to two-step peptide fragmentation in an ion-trap mass spectrometer (reference Anal. Chem. 85, 7044-7051 (30)). In the hybrid Q-TOF and Q-Exactive instruments, higher collisional energies can be applied to the target peptides, compared with the low collisional energies applied by the ion-trap instrument. The higher energy deposition and the additional multiple collisions in the collision cell in both instruments appear to result in one-step peptide backbone dissociations in positive ion mode. This new finding clearly demonstrates that the TEMPO-assisted FRIPS approach is a very useful tool in peptide mass spectrometry research.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic behaviour of four coordination compounds constructed with a phosphinic amide-TEMPO radical and [M(hfac)2] (M = Cu(II), Co(II) and Mn(II)).

    PubMed

    Reis, Samira G; Del Águila-Sánchez, Miguel A; Guedes, Guilherme P; Ferreira, Glaucio B; Novak, Miguel A; Speziali, Nivaldo L; López-Ortiz, Fernando; Vaz, Maria G F

    2014-10-21

    In the present work we describe the synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of four coordination compounds obtained by assembling a new phosphinic amide containing the TEMPO moiety, 1-piperidinyloxy-4-[(diphenylphosphinyl)amino]-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl radical (dppnTEMPO), with [M(hfac)2] building blocks (M = Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II)). The crystal structures of the coordination compounds revealed the usefulness of the functionalized radical to provide discrete or extended architectures. In the copper compound () the ligand is coordinated through the oxygen atom of the NP[double bond, length as m-dash]O linkage to the metal, which exists in a square pyramidal or octahedral geometry. For the cobalt and manganese complexes (), both the phosphinic amide and the nitroxide oxygen atoms are involved in the coordination to the metal leading to one dimensional systems. In the cobalt complex () an interesting spin topology in the zig-zag chain was obtained due to the oxygen atom of the phosphinic amide group being μ2 coordinated to two cobalt(ii) ions. The magnetic behaviour of the coordination compounds shows overall antiferromagnetic interactions involving the metal ion and the organic radical. DFT calculations were performed in order to assign the main path for the magnetic interactions. PMID:25177845

  16. Método numérico das diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo aplicado a ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. C.; Kintopp, J. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.

    2003-08-01

    Ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico têm sido objeto de intenso estudo nas últimas décadas pelo fato de apresentarem papel importante em muitas áreas de pesquisa na astrofísica. Particularmente são importantes no mecanismo de aquecimento da coroa solar; em ventos estelares; em jatos galácticos e extragalácticos; em discos protoestelares, etc. A formulação para diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo (FDTD), aplicada a plasma magnetizado é desenvolvida para estudo das propriedades de ondas Alfvén em três dimensões (3D-FDTD). O método é aplicado inicialmente a um plasma homogêneo e isotérmico imerso em uma região com campo magnético externo B0, que sofre uma pequena perturbação. Uma vez gerada a onda, esta perturbação é retirada e, então analisamos a evolução temporal das ondas, bem como a forma de seu amortecimento.

  17. Dynamics of 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N nitroxide-propylene glycol system studied by ESR and ESE in liquid and glassy state in temperature range 10-295 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslar, Janina; Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Lijewski, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    ESR spectra and electron spin relaxation of nitroxide radical in 4-oxo-TEMPO-d16-15N in propylene glycol were studied at X-band in the temperature range 10-295 K. The spin-lattice relaxation in the liquid viscous state determined from the resonance line shape is governed by three mechanisms occurring during isotropic molecular reorientations. In the glassy state below 200 K the spin-lattice relaxation, phase relaxation and electron spin echo envelope modulations (ESEEM) were studied by pulse spin echo technique using 2-pulse and 3-pulse induced signals. Electron spin-lattice relaxation is governed by a single non-phonon relaxation process produced by localized oscillators of energy 76 cm-1. Electron spin dephasing is dominated by a molecular motion producing a resonance-type peak in the temperature dependence of the dephasing rate around 120 K. The origin of the peak is discussed and a simple method for the peak shape analysis is proposed, which gives the activation energy of a thermally activated motion Ea = 7.8 kJ/mol and correlation time τ0 = 10-8 s. The spin echo amplitude is strongly modulated and FT spectrum contains a doublet of lines centered around the 2D nuclei Zeeman frequency. The splitting into the doublet is discussed as due to a weak hyperfine coupling of nitroxide unpaired electron with deuterium of reorienting CD3 groups.

  18. A survey of mycotic otitis externa of dogs in Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, F M; Martins, H M; Martins, M L

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and thirteen dogs of different breeds and with different clinical forms of external otitis were mycologically and bacteriologically examined. Forty six of those dogs showed abnormal cerumen with a high yeasts contamination. These yeasts belong to four species: Malassezia pachydermatis (80.4%), Cryptococcus laurentii (13.1%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%) and Trichosporon cutaneum (2.1%). All strains, excepting C. laurentii were highly lipolytic. Most of the clinical cases associated with those yeasts were chronic, with hyperkeratosis and lichenification, and most of them were relapsed otitis (91.3%). The most affected dogs were a pendulous ears breeding (65.7%) and males (86.8%). Some dogs had other cutaneous disorders (seborrhoeic dermatitis, pemphigus). In vitro tests, using seven different antifungal drugs were systematically performed. All strains revealed to be 5-fluorocytosine-resistant and 32% of them were also resistant to nystatin. One M. pachydermatis isolated was resistant to all of the tested antifungal drugs. PMID:18473540

  19. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype. PMID:11329471

  20. Ruprecht 44 y la estructura espiral externa de la Galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Solivella, G. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; De Laurenti, M. A.

    We present first results of a photometric study UBVI CCD; complemented with MK spectral classification and 2MASS data; focusing on the region of the open cluster Ruprecht 44. This cluster is in an area of very low interstellar absorption; through which it is possible examine in the optical range the spiral structure outside the solar circle. Precise distances determination of blue stars in the field of this cluster enable analyze; with other data recently obtained; the structure of great design in the third galactic quadrant. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Cesar Chavez and La Causa: Books for Children and Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza de Cortes, Oralia

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates biographies of Cesar Chavez for children and teenagers and provides descriptions of recent books on the children of migrant farm workers. The books, mostly published in the 1990s, cover Chavez's rise as a farm worker activist and include several new works that address the social history of Chavez and the farm workers' struggle. (GR)

  2. Technique for Evaluating Multiple Probability Occurrences /TEMPO/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    Technique is described for adjustment of engineering response information by broadening the application of statistical subjective stimuli theory. The study is specifically concerned with a mathematical evaluation of the expected probability of relative occurrence which can be identified by comparison rating techniques.

  3. The shape and tempo of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, S. J.; Atkinson, Q. D.; Meade, A.; Gray, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    There are approximately 7000 languages spoken in the world today. This diversity reflects the legacy of thousands of years of cultural evolution. How far back we can trace this history depends largely on the rate at which the different components of language evolve. Rates of lexical evolution are widely thought to impose an upper limit of 6000–10 000 years on reliably identifying language relationships. In contrast, it has been argued that certain structural elements of language are much more stable. Just as biologists use highly conserved genes to uncover the deepest branches in the tree of life, highly stable linguistic features hold the promise of identifying deep relationships between the world's languages. Here, we present the first global network of languages based on this typological information. We evaluate the relative evolutionary rates of both typological and lexical features in the Austronesian and Indo-European language families. The first indications are that typological features evolve at similar rates to basic vocabulary but their evolution is substantially less tree-like. Our results suggest that, while rates of vocabulary change are correlated between the two language families, the rates of evolution of typological features and structural subtypes show no consistent relationship across families. PMID:20375050

  4. Tempo and mode in human evolution.

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, H M

    1994-01-01

    The quickening pace of paleontological discovery is matched by rapid developments in geochronology. These new data show that the pattern of morphological change in the hominid lineage was mosaic. Adaptations essential to bipedalism appeared early, but some locomotor features changed much later. Relative to the highly derived postcrania of the earliest hominids, the craniodental complex was quite primitive (i.e., like the reconstructed last common ancestor with the African great apes). The pattern of craniodental change among successively younger species of Hominidae implies extensive parallel evolution between at least two lineages in features related to mastication. Relative brain size increased slightly among successively younger species of Australopithecus, expanded significantly with the appearance of Homo, but within early Homo remained at about half the size of Homo sapiens for almost a million years. Many apparent trends in human evolution may actually be due to the accumulation of relatively rapid shifts in successive species. PMID:8041697

  5. Tempo of gulf activity brightens outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, R. )

    1989-12-01

    Operators, mainly on the basis of oil and natural gas price expectations, plan to steadily boost their exploration and development work in the Gulf of Mexico. The increase in activity, however, isn't yet reflected in the gulf's rig count. An active rig tally shows the October average to be the second lowest for all the Octobers in the 1980s. Only during October 1986 were there fewer rigs working in the gulf during that month this decade. On an annual basis, however, the monthly active rig count in 1989 is higher than in 1986 and 1987, but short of 1988's average and less than one half the level recorded inn the peak year of 1981. The author discusses signs that activity is rebounding.

  6. Evaluating Cognitive Tempo in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to the alleged changes in the ways the so-called "digital generation" communicates and learns. Most of the commentary has been based on anecdotes, observations and opinions. The lack of empirical evidence in this matter suggests that it may be time to begin the process of gathering data to…

  7. The shape and tempo of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, S J; Atkinson, Q D; Meade, A; Gray, R D

    2010-08-22

    There are approximately 7000 languages spoken in the world today. This diversity reflects the legacy of thousands of years of cultural evolution. How far back we can trace this history depends largely on the rate at which the different components of language evolve. Rates of lexical evolution are widely thought to impose an upper limit of 6000-10,000 years on reliably identifying language relationships. In contrast, it has been argued that certain structural elements of language are much more stable. Just as biologists use highly conserved genes to uncover the deepest branches in the tree of life, highly stable linguistic features hold the promise of identifying deep relationships between the world's languages. Here, we present the first global network of languages based on this typological information. We evaluate the relative evolutionary rates of both typological and lexical features in the Austronesian and Indo-European language families. The first indications are that typological features evolve at similar rates to basic vocabulary but their evolution is substantially less tree-like. Our results suggest that, while rates of vocabulary change are correlated between the two language families, the rates of evolution of typological features and structural subtypes show no consistent relationship across families.

  8. Action observation: mirroring across our spontaneous movement tempo

    PubMed Central

    Avanzino, Laura; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Perasso, Luisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2015-01-01

    During action observation (AO), the activity of the “mirror system” is influenced by the viewer’s expertise in the observed action. A question that remains open is whether the temporal aspects of the subjective motor repertoire can influence the “mirror system” activation. PMID:25989029

  9. Proterozoic and early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    In rocks of late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age (ca. 1700-1000 million years ago), probable eukaryotic microfossils are widespread and well preserved, but assemblage and global diversities are low and turnover is slow. Near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary (1000 million years ago), red, green, and chromophytic algae diversified; molecular phylogenies suggest that this was part of a broader radiation of "higher" eukaryotic phyla. Observed diversity levels for protistan microfossils increased significantly at this time, as did turnover rates. Coincident with the Cambrian radiation of marine invertebrates, protistan microfossils again doubled in diversity and rates of turnover increased by an order of magnitude. Evidently, the Cambrian diversification of animals strongly influenced evolutionary rates, within clades already present in marine communities, implying an important role for ecology in fueling a Cambrian explosion that extends across kingdoms.

  10. Tempo of Argentinian oil and gas industry quickens

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1988-08-01

    Exploration and production programs that the Argentinian Government has set in motion are making the country, which will host the next World Petroleum Congress, a more active and visible member of the international oil industry. A high, but possibly diminishing, inflation rate of about 15%/month, external financial debt, and the depressed price of oil are still drags on progress. But there are positive factors at work too. The government has recognized that it is in the country's self interest to entice technologically experienced foreign oil companies to search for and exploit its probably abundant oil and gas resources. The government's primary objective is to add enough output to its some 430,000 b/d production to eliminate crude oil imports. A good start on this will be made early next year when the country's first offshore field begins production.

  11. U.S. gas processing consolidates while world tempo increases

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Consolidation characterized US gas processing in 1995, while plants in Canada, Western Europe, Middle East, and Asia displayed growth in capacities and NGL production. The US and Canada continued to lead the rest of the world in capacity, throughput, and NGL production, although by smaller margins. A rash of consolidations underway in the US among gatherers and processors, shrunk capacity by more than 1.8 bcfd ({minus}2.6%) and production by nearly 950,000 gpd ({minus}1.3%). US capacity stood at slightly more than 69 bcfd as of Jan. 1, 1996; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 48.4 bcfd; and NGL production exceeded 74,550 gpd. Canada saw its gas-processing capacity increase last year by more than 2.3 bcfd (6.3%) led by a handful of major expansions at large Alberta scavenger plants that straddle major gas export pipelines to the US. Gas-processing capacity in Canada as of Jan. 1 was nearly 39 bcfd; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 30.5 bcfd; NGL production fell to slightly more than 43,000 gpd. This paper discusses these trends in the US and Canada, and briefly world wide.

  12. The Tempo of Magmatic Processes From Zoning Patterns in Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, F.; Chakraborty, S.

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the accomplishments of igneous petrology and geochemistry in identifying the main processes and variables responsible for magma generation and differentiation, we still lack an understanding of the timescales of these processes. The temporal information is crucial for quantifying the rates of many geological processes on different scales - from the thermal and mass fluxes between the mantle and the crust to the relationship between replenishment rates of magma reservoirs of active volcanoes and the frequency of their eruptions. The two main classes of methods for obtaining this temporal information are those based on radioactive decay of U and Th (either using bulk rocks or in-situ, spatially resolved analyses of minerals) and those based on modelling the compositional zonation preserved in minerals using Fick's law of diffusion. In this presentation we will concentrate on the information on duration of processes that can be obtained from modelling the chemical zoning patterns of minerals. Several case studies based on our own work and data from the literature reveal that coupling of a hierarchy of timescales, like the different sized gears of a mechanical clockwork, underlies the evolution of a magmatic system. For example, transport times from the mantle to the surface, as obtained from mantle xenoliths and isolated crystals indicate times of a few hours to a few months based on H and Fe-Mg zoning profiles in olivine. Such short times are comparable to those obtained for bubble nucleation and degassing obtained from H profiles in volcanic glass. Examples from subduction-related volcanoes show that time scales of silicic-silicic and mafic-silicic magma mixing can be on the order of a few months to a few decades based on data from multiple elements and minerals. Durations of a few years have been obtained for assimilation of the continental crust by ascending basalts based on zoning of multiple elements in olivine. Significantly longer timescales have been proposed for the gap between mafic magma intrusion, silicic pluton remobilization and eruption (in the range of hundreds to thousand of years) or for magmatic fractionation and development of zoned large silicic reservoirs (hundreds of thousands of years) mainly based of zoning of elements in feldspars. At this point of time the available information indicates that: (1) the time periods of a month to up to a few decades for magma mixing (i.e. gap between intrusion and eruption) overlap with those from deformation cycles of volcanic edifices. This opens the possibility of relating a given process at depth to surface geodetic or volcanic degassing measurements for hazard monitoring. (2) The time scales of many significant magmatic processes are shorter than about a hundred years and are thus difficult to resolve using radioactive isotopes. Further work is necessary to establish if is it is possible to associate a given process with a particular timescale and to clarify the relationship between timescales and sizes of systems.

  13. Tempo and mode of regulatory evolution in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Coolon, Joseph D; McManus, C Joel; Stevenson, Kraig R; Graveley, Brenton R; Wittkopp, Patricia J

    2014-05-01

    Genetic changes affecting gene expression contribute to phenotypic divergence; thus, understanding how regulatory networks controlling gene expression change over time is critical for understanding evolution. Prior studies of expression differences within and between species have identified properties of regulatory divergence, but technical and biological differences among these studies make it difficult to assess the generality of these properties or to understand how regulatory changes accumulate with divergence time. Here, we address these issues by comparing gene expression among strains and species of Drosophila with a range of divergence times and use F1 hybrids to examine inheritance patterns and disentangle cis- and trans-regulatory changes. We find that the fixation of compensatory changes has caused the regulation of gene expression to diverge more rapidly than gene expression itself. Specifically, we observed that the proportion of genes with evidence of cis-regulatory divergence has increased more rapidly with divergence time than the proportion of genes with evidence of expression differences. Surprisingly, the amount of expression divergence explained by cis-regulatory changes did not increase steadily with divergence time, as was previously proposed. Rather, one species (Drosophila sechellia) showed an excess of cis-regulatory divergence that we argue most likely resulted from positive selection in this lineage. Taken together, this work reveals not only the rate at which gene expression evolves, but also the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for this evolution.

  14. Tempo and mode of regulatory evolution in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Coolon, Joseph D.; McManus, C. Joel; Stevenson, Kraig R.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Wittkopp, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic changes affecting gene expression contribute to phenotypic divergence; thus, understanding how regulatory networks controlling gene expression change over time is critical for understanding evolution. Prior studies of expression differences within and between species have identified properties of regulatory divergence, but technical and biological differences among these studies make it difficult to assess the generality of these properties or to understand how regulatory changes accumulate with divergence time. Here, we address these issues by comparing gene expression among strains and species of Drosophila with a range of divergence times and use F1 hybrids to examine inheritance patterns and disentangle cis- and trans-regulatory changes. We find that the fixation of compensatory changes has caused the regulation of gene expression to diverge more rapidly than gene expression itself. Specifically, we observed that the proportion of genes with evidence of cis-regulatory divergence has increased more rapidly with divergence time than the proportion of genes with evidence of expression differences. Surprisingly, the amount of expression divergence explained by cis-regulatory changes did not increase steadily with divergence time, as was previously proposed. Rather, one species (Drosophila sechellia) showed an excess of cis-regulatory divergence that we argue most likely resulted from positive selection in this lineage. Taken together, this work reveals not only the rate at which gene expression evolves, but also the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for this evolution. PMID:24567308

  15. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages. Our results may indicate a recurrent event in invasive earthworms within their ancestral distribution areas in the Western Palearctic.

  16. Proterozoic and early Cambrian protists: evidence for accelerating evolutionary tempo.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H

    1994-07-19

    In rocks of late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age (ca. 1700-1000 million years ago), probable eukaryotic microfossils are widespread and well preserved, but assemblage and global diversities are low and turnover is slow. Near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary (1000 million years ago), red, green, and chromophytic algae diversified; molecular phylogenies suggest that this was part of a broader radiation of "higher" eukaryotic phyla. Observed diversity levels for protistan microfossils increased significantly at this time, as did turnover rates. Coincident with the Cambrian radiation of marine invertebrates, protistan microfossils again doubled in diversity and rates of turnover increased by an order of magnitude. Evidently, the Cambrian diversification of animals strongly influenced evolutionary rates, within clades already present in marine communities, implying an important role for ecology in fueling a Cambrian explosion that extends across kingdoms.

  17. Commentary: tempo of evolutionary change in ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Collins, James P

    2015-04-01

    As ecology and evolutionary biology developed during the 20th century one thing that frustrated an integration of research programs in these areas was the assumption that ecological and evolutionary processes operated on very different time scales. In 1961 the ecologist Lawrence Slobodkin reflected this assumption in his distinction between "evolutionary time" and "ecological time." This commentary reflects on the four papers in this Special Section that advance our understanding of the history of research at the intersection of phenotypes, genotypes, ecology, and evolution using plants as study organisms. Early in the 20th century at least some researchers, especially in agricultural systems, were already using observations and experiments to show how natural selection could operate over relatively short time periods and small spatial scales. These four studies offer a more nuanced view of the history of our understanding of the rate of phenotypic change via natural selection and the use of experiments to study evolutionary change. They illuminate the route that has led to the current presumption that in many cases ecological and evolutionary processes may indeed operate on similar, not dissimilar, time scales. PMID:25708203

  18. [Local treatment of non-suppurative otitis externa. A double-blind randomized study].

    PubMed

    Vinther, B; Gustavsen, K M

    1993-12-20

    A comparison between a plain steroid lotion and a steroid lotion with an additional keratolytic and antiseptic was conducted in order to assess the value, if any, of additives in the treatment of dry external otitis. Sixty patients with dry external otitis were treated with either a plain steroid lotion or a steroid lotion with additives. Assessments were made prior to and after one week of treatment regarding erythema, oedema, secretion, itching, pain and spontaneously reported side-effects. No significant differences in efficacy were observed between the treatments. Statistically significant differences in favour of the plain steroid lotion were found with regard to reduction of erythema and occurrence of spontaneously reported side-effects. These findings invalidate the demands of additives to steroid lotions in the treatment of dry external otitis.

  19. [Idiopathic Frey's syndrome under the appearance of a recurrent otitis externa].

    PubMed

    Santa Cruz Ruiz, S; Muñoz Herrera, A; Santa Cruz Ruiz, P; Gil Melcon, M; Batuecas Caletrio, A

    2005-02-01

    Frey syndrome has been observed especially in patients who have undergone a parotidectomy operation, but also in zoster herpes, in parotiditis, condilea fractures, obstetric traumatisms with forceps and in surgery of the meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle. It also appears without previous surgery, like in our case. In these circumstances it is believed that a clinical neuritis, primary or secondary to a neighbouring inflammation may cause the start of this disorder. Several treatments have been suggested which highlights the difficulty of them. The most effective one is the intradermic injection of botulinum toxin type A. Its use in Frey's syndrome was initiated by Drobik and Laskawi in 1995. Since then the references to its use are numerous. Nevertheless, it is a treatment which has been introduced very few times in our country. PMID:15782648

  20. Protease activities of Candida spp. isolated from otitis externa: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Arsović, N A; Banko, A V; Dimitrijević, M V; Djordjević, V Z; Milovanović, J P; Arsenijević, V A

    2009-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the ear predominantly caused by Candida and Aspergillus spp. The possible virulence factors of Candida spp. are enzymes, such as proteases, phospholipases, phosphatases and esterase. According to our knowledge, protease production in Candida strains isolated from patients with otomycosis has not been investigated. The present study was aimed at determining in vitro protease activity in 8 strains of Candida spp. (C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii and C. albicans) isolated from children with otomycosis. A majority of isolated strains 7/8 (87.5%) were protease positive. The protease activity ranged from Pz 0.61 to 0.78. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the contribution of protease production to Candida virulence associated with otomycosis.

  1. Evaluating synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Jerzsele, Ákos; Pásztiné-Gere, Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25-64 mg/L and 0.25-32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031-8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.

  2. Fotometría superficial de galaxias de tipo temprano en las regiones externas del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Cellone, S. A.

    We present surface photometry of 30 early-type galaxies in the Antlia clus- ter, and analyze their color-magnitude and surface brightness - luminosity relations. The photometric relations are consistent, in the range correspond- ing to low luminosities, with those obtained in previous papers for galaxies lying in the central Antlia region. The projected spatial distribution con- firms the elongated structure followed by other Antlia galaxies as well as globular clusters, in the direction that connects the more massive galaxies. In addition, surface brightness profiles have been measured for a sub-sample using the task ELLIPSE within IRAF. We are currently fitting Sérsic models to these profiles, in order to quantify the morphology of the studied galax- ies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Análisis de las causas de las variaciones fotométricas de estrellas jóvenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovos, F. V.; Gómez, M. N.; Ahumada, J. A.; Petrucci, R. P.; Jofré, E.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of the photometric variations produced by transits of planetary embryos and cold spots in weak-emission T Tauri stars (ages of million years). For the proto-planets we adopt radii of 1, 2, and 3 R. The spots have angular radii of 12, 18, and 30, and temperatures of 500, 900, and 1400 K less than that of the stellar surface. Although the adopted model is very simple, it allows us to infer that proto-planets with radii R would produce transits deeper or similar to minima due to cold spots with radii 18. Proto-planets with radii 1 R would originate transits shallower than the variations produced by spots. However, the brightness profile is different for both effects.

  4. [Rabdomiosarcoma primario de corazón como causa de síncope recurrente en el adulto].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, Julio Alexander; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Hurtado-Gomez, Gabriel Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Primary or secondary neoplasms can affect the heart. Secondary are more common. However, primary neoplasms are relevant because is a group with diverse genesis, behavior, treatment and clinical manifestations. We present a case of a 45 year-old woman, with recurrent syncope started 1 year before her first consult. She had palpitations and chest pain. Echocardiography identified a left atrium mass of 2.1x1.8 cm. Endomyocardial biopsy document a primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the heart. The patient dies after a overall-survival of 22 months. This case presented had a good study of its symptoms with an accurate diagnosis and early treatment, which provided prolonged survival of this rare and aggressive neoplasm.

  5. "Compromising "La Causa"?": The Ford Foundation and Chicano Intellectual Nationalism in the Creation of Chicano History, 1963-1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Victoria-Maria; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1970s the first large cohorts of Chicano PhD scholars entered academia, often hired into faculty positions at newly created Chicano departments or centers. The academic identities of the first Chicano PhD scholars were firmly grounded in "Chicanismo," a term which emphasizes ethnic nationalism, political and economic equity, and…

  6. Tempo-Spatial Impact of the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake on Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    We investigate in this study the impact of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake on Eastern China, and particularly focus on postseismic relaxation processes. We first invert for postseismic slip on the fault plane based on the GPS measurements of GEONET in Japan. Then, we use a layered rheological model to theoretically investigate the deep viscoelastic relaxation process. The Tohoku-Oki mainshock produced significant strain changes in Eastern China, dominantly east-west-oriented extension with a level close to or higher than the tectonic strain rates at the east border of China. The strain due to the postseismic stress relaxations has similar patterns as those produced by the mainshock, but with smaller magnitudes. The Tohoku-Oki earthquake impacts Eastern China for decades, but dominantly in the first 2-3 years after the mainshock and caused an apparent displacements and decrease of seismicity rate in Northeast China. For a long-term of 100 years, the Tohoku-Oki earthquake produces about 10 % of the tectonic strain rates in Eastern China, due to viscoelastic relaxation at the deep depth.

  7. Task Structure and Cognitive Tempo Influence on Organizational Memory in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sola, Janet; Phye, Gary D.

    Forty reflective and 40 impulsive children were assigned to one of four treatment conditions. The learning task employed a list of 25 familiar objects, five instances from each of five categories. The four treatments were Randomized-No Instructions, Randomized-Instructed, Blocked-No Instructions, and Blocked-Instructed. Results support earlier…

  8. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Richard E.; Betancur-R., Ricardo; Li, Chenhong; Arratia, Gloria; Ortí, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a full sample of all bony fishes. Here we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic study on a broad taxonomic sample of 61 actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages (with a chondrichthyan outgroup) using a molecular data set of 21 independent loci. These data yielded a resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for extant Osteichthyes, including 1) reciprocally monophyletic Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii, as currently understood, with polypteriforms as the first diverging lineage within Actinopterygii; 2) a monophyletic group containing gars and bowfin (= Holostei) as sister group to teleosts; and 3) the earliest diverging lineage among teleosts being Elopomorpha, rather than Osteoglossomorpha. Relaxed-clock dating analysis employing a set of 24 newly applied fossil calibrations reveals divergence times that are more consistent with paleontological estimates than previous studies. Establishing a new phylogenetic pattern with accurate divergence dates for bony fishes illustrates several areas where the fossil record is incomplete and provides critical new insights on diversification of this important vertebrate group. PMID:23788273

  9. Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…

  10. Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment.

    PubMed

    Tenaillon, Olivier; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Ribeck, Noah; Deatherage, Daniel E; Blanchard, Jeffrey L; Dasgupta, Aurko; Wu, Gabriel C; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Médigue, Claudine; Schneider, Dominique; Lenski, Richard E

    2016-08-11

    Adaptation by natural selection depends on the rates, effects and interactions of many mutations, making it difficult to determine what proportion of mutations in an evolving lineage are beneficial. Here we analysed 264 complete genomes from 12 Escherichia coli populations to characterize their dynamics over 50,000 generations. The populations that retained the ancestral mutation rate support a model in which most fixed mutations are beneficial, the fraction of beneficial mutations declines as fitness rises, and neutral mutations accumulate at a constant rate. We also compared these populations to mutation-accumulation lines evolved under a bottlenecking regime that minimizes selection. Nonsynonymous mutations, intergenic mutations, insertions and deletions are overrepresented in the long-term populations, further supporting the inference that most mutations that reached high frequency were favoured by selection. These results illuminate the shifting balance of forces that govern genome evolution in populations adapting to a new environment. PMID:27479321

  11. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous mesoporous silica using TEMPO-functionalized amphiphilic templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wilke; Doerenkamp, Carsten; Zeng, Zhaoyang; de Oliveira, Marcos; Niehaus, Oliver; Pöttgen, Rainer; Studer, Armido; Eckert, Hellmut

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on amorphous mesoporous silica containing organized nitroxide radicals within its mesopores have been prepared using the micellar self-assembly of TEOS solutions containing the nitroxide functionalized amphiphile (4-(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammonium)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-N-oxyl-iodide) (CAT-16). This template has been used both in its pure form and in various mixtures with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The samples have been characterized by chemical analysis, N2 sorption studies, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and various spectroscopic methods. While electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra indicate that the strength of the intermolecular spin-spin interactions can be controlled via the CAT-16/CTAB ratio, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggest that these interactions are too weak to facilitate cooperative magnetism.

  12. Tempo-spatial characteristics of sub-daily temperature trends in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuyu; Parker, David; Ren, Guoyu; Dunn, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of sub-daily temperature change in mainland China was analysed for the period from 1973 to 2011 using a 3-hourly dataset based on 408 stations. The increase in surface air temperature was more significant by night between 1973 and 1992, with the fastest upward trend around local midnight being about 0.27 °C/decade, while it was more significant by day between 1992 and 2011, with the fastest upward trend being about 0.46 °C/decade in mid-late morning. The season with rapid temperature increase also shifted from winter in 1973-1992 (the largest increase happened near midnight in December, 0.75 °C/decade) to spring in 1992-2011 (the largest increase happened at in the early afternoon in March, 0.82 °C/decade). The change in the spatial distributions of the sub-daily temperature trends shows that Northeast China warmed more significantly in 1973-1992 than elsewhere, but it cooled in 1992-2011, when Southwest China was the new focus of temperature increase whereas it had previously been cooling. A preliminary analysis of the possible causes implies that changes in solar radiation, cloud cover, aerosols and the observational environments near the stations might have contributed to these observed temperature changes.

  13. Contrasting Modes and Tempos of Venom Expression Evolution in Two Snake Species

    PubMed Central

    Margres, Mark J.; McGivern, James J.; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P.; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species. PMID:25387465

  14. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods. PMID:27348001

  15. Mechanisms and tempo of evolution in the African Guineo-Congolian rainforest.

    PubMed Central

    Plana, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how and when African rainforest diversity arose, presenting evidence from both plant and animal studies. Preliminary investigations show that these African forests are an assemblage of species of varying age. Phylogenetic evidence, from both African rainforest angiosperms and vertebrates, suggest a Tertiary origin for the major lineages in some of these groups. In groups where savannah species are well represented and rainforest species are a minority, the latter appear to be relics of a Mid-Tertiary rainforest. By contrast, species that are primarily adapted to rainforest have arisen in the past 10 Myr with the main morphological innovations dating from the Late Miocene, and Quaternary speciation dominating in large, morphologically homogeneous groups. The small number of species-level phylogenies for African rainforest plants hinders a more incisive and detailed study into the historical assembly of these continental forests. PMID:15519974

  16. SO2 and NO2 over major urban regions of India: a tempo-spatial perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.

    2012-12-01

    Demographic projections show that by the year 2025, 16 of the world's 29 megacities will be located in Asia, many of which have very basic problems in terms of air quality. Apart from being home to a burgeoning population, these regions of the globe are also major players in atmospheric chemistry as a result of myriad emission patterns combined with intense photochemistry. Like most of these Asian megacities, fast-paced development in some of the Indian cities has ramifications in increased emissions from industrial and transport sectors. These emissions release sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in addition to several pollutants, into the ambient air and have the potential to impact the chemistry and radiative balance on a regional scale. Surface measurements of these two criteria pollutants by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India during 2005-2010 from 13 urban locations in India have been analyzed to get an insight into their temporal and spatial variability. Stations are chosen to represent the entire Indian region: Indo-Gangetic plain or 'IGP' (Jalandhar, Delhi, Kanpur, Durgapur, Kolkata, Guwahati), western India (Jodhpur, Ahmedabad, Surat), central India (Nagpur, Hyderabad) and southern India (Chennai, Trivandrum). The monthly averaged surface level SO2 and NO2 have also been compared with monthly columnar averages of these gases as detected by the Ozone monitoring Instrument (OMI) over these station grids. Mean SO2 concentrations are found to be the highest for Surat (7.5 ppbv), located in a highly industrialized region. Elevated levels of NO2, observed for Durgapur and Kolkata (31 ppbv each), are close to the 24-hour 'National Ambient Air Quality' standard (30 ppbv). The surface concentrations for both SO2 and NO2 concentrations are found to be the highest during winter. Columnar SO2 over many stations show a maximum during summer monsoon. For most IGP stations, columnar NO2 values are elevated during winter. Wavelet analyses revealed an annual periodicity in surface data for SO2 and NO2. Identifiable seasonality is found for NO2 (surface and column) over several stations using X-12-ARIMA monthly seasonal adjustment method. The ratios for different seasonal pairs vary between 0.6 to 2.0 for both SO2 and NO2 at the surface level. The winter to post-monsoon ratios are highest for columnar SO2 and minimum for columnar NO2. Significant correlations between SO2 and NO2 at surface are obtained for cities in industrial corridors viz. Surat and Durgapur, due to emissions from industries and power plants. For most of the stations analyzed, NO2 and CO (co-emitted with NO2 during combustion) columns show good correlation indicating anthropogenic influences. Statistically significant correlations between columnar-NO2 and surface-NO2 obtained for Delhi and Kolkata along with very low SO2 to NO2 ratios (<=0.2) indicate emissions from transport sector as major contributors to the ambient air over these regions. The findings are important and useful in the context of regional climate change occurring from anthropogenic emissions as well as from the perspective of emission inventories. These combined impacts of emissions, meteorology and transport on the air quality over this part of Asia would be explored in detail during the presentation.

  17. THE TEMPO AND MODE OF GOPHER MOUND PRODUCTION IN A TALLGRASS PRAIRIE REMNANT. (R825796)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Tempo and mode of antibat ultrasound production and sonar jamming in the diverse hawkmoth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    The bat–moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built a comprehensive behavioral dataset of hawkmoth hearing and ultrasonic reply to sonar attack using high-throughput field assays. Nearly half of the species tested (57 of 124 species) produced ultrasound to tactile stimulation or playback of bat echolocation attack. To test the function of ultrasound, we pitted big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against hawkmoths over multiple nights and show that hawkmoths jam bat sonar. Ultrasound production was immediately and consistently effective at thwarting attack and bats regularly performed catching behavior without capturing moths. We also constructed a fossil-calibrated, multigene phylogeny to study the evolutionary history and divergence times of these antibat strategies across the entire family. We show that ultrasound production arose in multiple groups, starting in the late Oligocene (∼26 Ma) after the emergence of insectivorous bats. Sonar jamming and bat-detecting ears arose twice, independently, in the Miocene (18–14 Ma) either from earless hawkmoths that produced ultrasound in response to physical contact only, or from species that did not respond to touch or bat echolocation attack. PMID:25941377

  19. Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Diabroticina beetles (genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica)

    PubMed Central

    Eben, Astrid; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adaptive radiation is an aspect of evolutionary biology encompassing microevolution and macroevolution, for explaining the principles of lineage divergence. There are intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that can be postulated to explain that adaptive radiation has taken place in specific lineages. The Diabroticina beetles are a prominent example of differential diversity that could be examined in detail to explain the diverse paradigms of adaptive radiation. Macroevolutionary analyses must present the differential diversity patterns in a chronological framework. The current study reviews the processes that shaped the differential diversity of some Diabroticina lineages (i.e. genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica). These diversity patterns and the putative processes that produced them are discussed within a statistically reliable estimate of time. This was achieved by performing phylogenetic and coalescent analyses for 44 species of chrysomelid beetles. The data set encompassed a total of 2,718 nucleotide positions from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Pharmacophagy, host plant coevolution, competitive exclusion, and geomorphological complexity are discussed as putative factors that might have influenced the observed diversity patterns. The coalescent analysis concluded that the main radiation within Diabroticina beetles occurred between middle Oligocene and middle Miocene. Therefore, the radiation observed in these beetles is not recent (i.e. post-Panamanian uplift, 4 Mya). Only a few speciation events in the genus Diabrotica might be the result of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. PMID:24163585

  20. Tempo and mode of antibat ultrasound production and sonar jamming in the diverse hawkmoth radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-05-19

    The bat-moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built a comprehensive behavioral dataset of hawkmoth hearing and ultrasonic reply to sonar attack using high-throughput field assays. Nearly half of the species tested (57 of 124 species) produced ultrasound to tactile stimulation or playback of bat echolocation attack. To test the function of ultrasound, we pitted big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against hawkmoths over multiple nights and show that hawkmoths jam bat sonar. Ultrasound production was immediately and consistently effective at thwarting attack and bats regularly performed catching behavior without capturing moths. We also constructed a fossil-calibrated, multigene phylogeny to study the evolutionary history and divergence times of these antibat strategies across the entire family. We show that ultrasound production arose in multiple groups, starting in the late Oligocene (∼ 26 Ma) after the emergence of insectivorous bats. Sonar jamming and bat-detecting ears arose twice, independently, in the Miocene (18-14 Ma) either from earless hawkmoths that produced ultrasound in response to physical contact only, or from species that did not respond to touch or bat echolocation attack.

  1. The tempo and modes of evolution of reproductive isolation in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, T; Gourbière, S

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is an essential ingredient of speciation, and much has been learned in recent years about the evolution of reproductive isolation and the genetics of reproductive barriers in animals and plants. Fungi have been neglected on these aspects, despite being tractable model eukaryotes. Here, we used a model fitting approach to look at the importance of different barriers to gene flow to explain the decrease of reproductive compatibility with genetic distance in fungi. We found support for the occurrence of reinforcement in the presyngamy compatibility among basidiomycetes. In contrast, no evidence for reinforcement was detected in ascomycetes, concurring with the idea that host/habitat adaptation in this group can pleiotropically cause reproductive isolation. We found no evidence of a snowballing accumulation of postsyngamic reproductive incompatibilities in either ascomycetes or the complex of anther smut fungi. Together with previous studies, our results suggest that ecologically based barriers to gene flow and karyotypic differences may have an important role in hybrid inviability and sterility in fungi. Interestingly, hybrid sterility appeared to evolve faster than hybrid inviability in fungi. PMID:22669076

  2. What are mycoplasmas - The relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrand, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1985-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  3. What are mycoplasmas: the relationship of tempo and mode in bacterial evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.; Stackebrandt, E.; Ludwig, W.

    1984-01-01

    In phenotype the mycoplasmas are very different from ordinary bacteria. However, genotypically (i.e., phylogenetically) they are not. On the basis of ribosomal RNA homologies the mycoplasmas belong with the clostridia, and indeed have specific clostridial relatives. Mycoplasmas are, however, unlike almost all other bacteria in the evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs. These RNAs contain relatively few of the highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences characteristic of normal eubacterial ribosomal RNAs. This is interpreted to be a reflection of an elevated mutation rate in mycoplasma lines of descent. A general consequence of this would be that the variation associated with a mycoplasma population is augmented both in number and kind, which in turn would lead to an unusual evolutionary course, one unique in all respects. Mycoplasmas, then, are actually tachytelic bacteria. The unusual evolutionary characteristics of their ribosomal RNAs are the imprints of their rapid evolution.

  4. Tempo and mode of antibat ultrasound production and sonar jamming in the diverse hawkmoth radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-05-19

    The bat-moth arms race has existed for over 60 million y, with moths evolving ultrasonically sensitive ears and ultrasound-producing organs to combat bat predation. The evolution of these defenses has never been thoroughly examined because of limitations in simultaneously conducting behavioral and phylogenetic analyses across an entire group. Hawkmoths include >1,500 species worldwide, some of which produce ultrasound using genital stridulatory structures. However, the function and evolution of this behavior remain largely unknown. We built a comprehensive behavioral dataset of hawkmoth hearing and ultrasonic reply to sonar attack using high-throughput field assays. Nearly half of the species tested (57 of 124 species) produced ultrasound to tactile stimulation or playback of bat echolocation attack. To test the function of ultrasound, we pitted big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) against hawkmoths over multiple nights and show that hawkmoths jam bat sonar. Ultrasound production was immediately and consistently effective at thwarting attack and bats regularly performed catching behavior without capturing moths. We also constructed a fossil-calibrated, multigene phylogeny to study the evolutionary history and divergence times of these antibat strategies across the entire family. We show that ultrasound production arose in multiple groups, starting in the late Oligocene (∼ 26 Ma) after the emergence of insectivorous bats. Sonar jamming and bat-detecting ears arose twice, independently, in the Miocene (18-14 Ma) either from earless hawkmoths that produced ultrasound in response to physical contact only, or from species that did not respond to touch or bat echolocation attack. PMID:25941377

  5. Group Progress of Community Elderly as Measured by Tape Recordings, Group Tempo and Group Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Marcella Bakur; Weinstock, Comilda S.

    1979-01-01

    Geriatric outpatients were involved in a group resocialization program. Comparison is made between experimental groups whose leader used group intervention techniques, and groups where leader played a nonintervention role. Experimental group members showed changes toward more active problem-solving approaches, while group members remained fixed at…

  6. Tempo and mode of spliceosomal intron evolution in actin of foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Flakowski, Jérôme; Bolivar, Ignacio; Fahrni, José; Pawlowski, Jan

    2006-07-01

    Spliceosomal introns are present in almost all eukaryotic genes, yet little is known about their origin and turnover in the majority of eukaryotic phyla. There is no agreement whether most introns are ancestral and have been lost in some lineage or have been gained recently. We addressed this question by analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of introns in actins of foraminifera, a group of testate protists whose exceptionally rich fossil record permits the calibration of molecular phylogenies to date intron origins. We identified 24 introns dispersed along the sequence of two foraminiferan actin paralogues and actin deviating proteins, an unconventional type of fast-evolving actin found in some foraminifera. Comparison of intron positions indicates that 20 of 24 introns are specific to foraminifera. Four introns shared between foraminifera and other eukaryotes were interpreted as parallel gains because they have been found only in single species belonging to phylogenetically distinctive lineages. Moreover, additional recent intron gain due to the transfer between the actin paralogues was observed in two cultured species. Based on a relaxed molecular clock timescale, we conclude that intron gains in actin took place throughout the evolution of foraminifera, with the oldest introns inserted between 550 and 500 million years ago and the youngest ones acquired less than 100 million years ago.

  7. Modes, tempo, and spatial variability of Cenozoic cratonic denudation: The West African example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    long-term erosion of tropical shields is crucial to constraining the role of lateritic regolith covers as prominent sinks and sources of CO2 and sediments in the context of long-term Cenozoic climate change. It is also a key to understanding long-term landform evolution processes operating over most of the continental surface and their control onto the sediment routing system. We study the surface evolution of West Africa over three erosion periods (~ 45-24, ~ 24-11 and ~ 11-0 Ma) recorded by relicts of three subcontinental-scale lateritic paleolandsurfaces whose age is bracketed by 39Ar/40Ar dating of lateritic K-Mn oxides. Denudation depths and rates compiled from 380 field stations show that despite heterogeneities confined to early-inherited reliefs, the subregion underwent low and homogeneous denudation (~ 2-20 m Ma-1) over most of its surface whatever the considered time interval. This homogeneity is further documented by a worldwide compilation of cratonic denudation rates, over long-term, intermediate and modern Cenozoic time scales (100-107 yr). These results allow defining a steady state cratonic denudation regime that is weathering-limited, i.e., controlled by the thickness of the (lateritic) regolith available for stripping. Steady state cratonic denudation regimes are enabled by maintained compartmentalization of the base levels between river knick points controlled by relief inheritance. Under such regimes, lowering of base levels and their fossilization are primarily imposed by long-term eustatic sea level fall and climate rather than by epeirogeny. The expression of steady state cratonic denudation regimes in clastic sedimentary fluxes remains to be investigated.

  8. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods. PMID:27348001

  9. How high is Hispanic/Mexican fertility in the united states? Immigration and tempo considerations.

    PubMed

    Parrado, Emilio A

    2011-08-01

    In this article, I demonstrate that the apparently much higher fertility of Hispanic/Mexican women in the United States is almost exclusively the product of period estimates obtained for immigrant women and that period measures of immigrant fertility suffer from three serious sources of bias that together significantly overstate fertility levels: difficulties in estimating the size of immigrant groups; the tendency for migration to occur at a particular stage in life; and, most importantly, the tendency for women to have a birth soon after migration. When these sources of bias are taken into consideration, the fertility of native Hispanic/Mexican women is very close to replacement level. In addition, the completed fertility of immigrant women in the United States is dramatically lower than the level obtained from period calculations. Findings are consistent with classical theories of immigrant assimilation but are a striking departure from the patterns found in previous studies and published statistics. The main implication is that without a significant change in immigration levels, current projections based on the premise of high Hispanic fertility are likely to considerably exaggerate Hispanic population growth, its impact on the ethno-racial profile of the country, and its potential to counteract population aging. PMID:21695573

  10. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    PubMed

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species.

  11. Auditory Discrimination of Anisochrony: Influence of the Tempo and Musical Backgrounds of Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrle, N.; Samson, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the influence of several factors, physical and human, on anisochrony's thresholds measured with an adaptive two alternative forced choice paradigm. The effect of the number and duration of sounds on anisochrony discrimination was tested in the first experiment as well as potential interactions between each of these factors and…

  12. High Tempo Knowledge Collaboration in Wikipedia's Coverage of Breaking News Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    When major news breaks in our hyper-connected society, we increasingly turn to an encyclopedia for the latest information. Wikipedia's coverage of breaking news events attracts unique levels of attention; the articles with the most page views, edits, and contributors in any given month since 2003 are related to current events. Extant…

  13. Evidence for Tempo-Specific Timing in Music Using a Web-Based Experimental Setup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honing, Henkjan

    2006-01-01

    Perceptual invariance has been studied and found in several domains of cognition, including those of speech, motor behavior, and object motion. It has also been the topic of several studies in music perception. However, the existing perceptual studies present rather inconclusive evidence with regard to the perceptual invariance of expressive…

  14. Institutions and the transition to adulthood: Implications for fertility tempo in low-fertility settings

    PubMed Central

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    The number of countries experiencing very low fertility has been rising in recent years, garnering increasing academic, political and media attention. There is now widespread academic agreement that the postponement of fertility is a major contributing factor in the very low levels of fertility that have occurred, and yet most policy discussions have been devoted to increasing the numbers of children women have. We discuss factors in three institutions—the educational system, the labour market and the housing market—that may inadvertently have led to childbearing postponement. We highlight important components of the timing of childbearing, including its changing place within the transition to adulthood across countries and the significance of the demands of childbearing versus childrearing. Using illustrations from Europe, North America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, we argue that the following all lead to younger childbearing: 1) an open education system whereby it is relatively easy to return to school after having dropped out for a while; 2) a shorter, smoother, easier school-to-work transition; 3) easier re-entry into the labour market after having taken time out for childrearing or any other reason; 4) greater capability of integrating childrearing into a career; 5) easier ability to obtain a mortgage with a moderately small down payment, moderately low interest rate and a long time period over which to repay the loan; and 6) easier ability to rent a dwelling unit at an affordable price. Conversely, reversing any or all of these factors would lead, other things being equal, to postponement of childbearing. PMID:20622992

  15. Tempo and Mode of the Evolution of Venom and Poison in Tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Arbuckle, Kevin

    2016-06-23

    Toxic weaponry in the form of venom and poison has evolved in most groups of animals, including all four major lineages of tetrapods. Moreover, the evolution of such traits has been linked to several key aspects of the biology of toxic animals including life-history and diversification. Despite this, attempts to investigate the macroevolutionary patterns underlying such weaponry are lacking. In this study we analyse patterns of venom and poison evolution across reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and birds using a suite of phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that each major lineage has a characteristic pattern of trait evolution, but mammals and reptiles evolve under a surprisingly similar regime, whilst that of amphibians appears to be particularly distinct and highly contrasting compared to other groups. Our results also suggest that the mechanism of toxin acquisition may be an important distinction in such evolutionary patterns; the evolution of biosynthesis is far less dynamic than that of sequestration of toxins from the diet. Finally, contrary to the situation in amphibians, other tetrapod groups show an association between the evolution of toxic weaponry and higher diversification rates. Taken together, our study provides the first broad-scale analysis of macroevolutionary patterns of venom and poison throughout tetrapods.

  16. THE COLORADO PLATEAU CORING PROJECT: THE TIMESCALE AND TEMPO OF BIOTIC CHANGE OF THE EARLY MESOZOIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Kent, D. V.; Mundil, R.; Irmis, R.; Geissman, J. W.; Martz, J.; Parker, W.

    2009-12-01

    The proposed Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional coring project designed to recover continuous core through mostly continental strata spanning ~100 million years of the Triassic and Jurassic. Its principal purpose is to tie the incredibly rich faunas, floras, and environmental record of this interval to a rigorously developed timescale and thus to biotic, environmental, and tectonic events at a global-scale. The overall strategy involves 3 long cores (~1000 m) and 2 shorter cores (300-500 m) intended to recover the full expression of the critical early Mesozoic transitions in clear superposition. The cores would span from the base of the Moenkopi to the top of the Morrison formations with sufficient overlap to splice the sections together without gaps and assess lateral facies variations, thickness changes, and stratigraphic completeness. The initial phase of the CPCP, currently under review, is a ~500 m core at Petrified Forest National Park (PFNP) that will recover virtually the entire pre-Owl Rock Mb. of the Late Triassic age Chinle and underlying Early-Middle Triassic age Moenkopi formations. Despite excellent outcrop and a long and distinguished history of study, striking ambiguities exist in local correlation, the temporal duration and resolution of biotic events, global correlations, and the paleolatitudinal position of the region that prevent tests of major competing climatic, biotic, and tectonic hypotheses of global significance. For example, correlations of existing paleomagnetic polarity data for the Chinle of PFNP (1) with the Newark basin astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity timescale are consistent with new U-Pb dates from reworked volcanics in the Chinle, and result in three sets of implied hypotheses. First, most or all of the Chinle Fm. is Norian and younger in age (< ~ 220 Ma). Second, the supposed Carnian-Norian boundary in the Chinle is actually a late middle Norian extinction that may coincide with the 215.5 Ma Manicouagan impact (2). Third, tetrapod faunas of tropical Pangea (i.e., Colorado Plateau) were radically different than those from contemporary higher latitudes despite the apparent geographic contiguity. These hypotheses cannot be directly tested, however, because the outcrop data are fraught with numerous intrinsic ambiguities. Unambiguous testing of these ideas requires continuous coring, which promises to fundamentally change the certainty and specificity of addressing questions relating the rich surface record from the Chinle and Moenkopi to Earth system processes. 1, Steiner, M., Lucas, S.G., J.G.R. B, 105(11):25791; 2, Ramezani, J. et al., 2005, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69(10):321 Suppl.

  17. Tempo and mode of the multiple origins of salinity tolerance in a water beetle lineage.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Abellán, Pedro; Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the most important drivers of the distribution, abundance and diversity of organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of saline tolerance have been mainly centred on marine and terrestrial organisms, while lineages inhabiting inland waters remain largely unexplored. This is despite the fact that these systems include a much broader range of salinities, going from freshwater to more than six times the salinity of the sea (i.e. >200 g/L). Here, we study the pattern and timing of the evolution of the tolerance to salinity in an inland aquatic lineage of water beetles (Enochrus species of the subgenus Lumetus, family Hydrophilidae), with the general aim of understanding the mechanisms by which it was achieved. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny built from five mitochondrial and two nuclear genes and information about the salinity tolerance and geographical distribution of the species, we found that salinity tolerance appeared multiple times associated with periods of global aridification. We found evidence of some accelerated transitions from freshwater directly to high salinities, as reconstructed with extant lineages. This, together with the strong positive correlation found between salinity tolerance and aridity of the habitats in which species are found, suggests that tolerance to salinity may be based on a co-opted mechanism developed originally for drought resistance.

  18. Timing, tempo and paleoenvironmental influence of Deccan volcanism relative to the KT extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, Thierry; Keller, Gerta; Schoene, Blair; Khadri, Syed

    2015-04-01

    Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r (Chenet et al., 2008). Moreover, U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that the main Phase 2 began 250 ka before the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction, suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship (Blair et al., 2015). In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct consequence of volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions, palynoflora are dominated by gymnosperms and angiosperms (Samant and Mohabey, 2005). Shortly after the onset of Deccan phase-2, this floral association was decimated as indicated by a sharp decrease in pollen and spores coupled with the appearance of fungi, which mark increasing stress conditions apparently as a direct result of volcanic activity. The inter-trappean sediments corresponding to the Phases 2 and 3 are characterized by the highest alteration CIA index values suggesting increased acid rains due to SO2 emissions. Closer to the eruption center, the lava flows are generally separated by red weathered horizons known as red boles, marking a quiescent period between two basalt flows. Red boles consist mainly of red silty clays characterized by concentrations of immobile elements such as Al and Fe3+ ions, which provide indirect evidence of a primitive form of paleo-laterite that probably developed during the short periods of weathering between eruptions. There are at least 15 thick red bole layers in C29r below the KT boundary, and all were deposited in phase-2 volcanic eruptions that occurred over a time span of about 250 ky. These short duration exposures are reflected in the mineralogical and geochemical data that indicate rapid weathering (high CIA) but arid conditions. The arid conditions can be explained by acid rain, which accelerated the weathering process. These observations indicate that Deccan volcanism played a key role in increasing atmospheric CO2 and SO2 levels that resulted in global warming and acidified oceans, thus increasing biotic stress that predisposed faunas to eventual extinction at the KTB.

  19. Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Deere, Kerry A; Slater, Graham J; Begg, Colleen; Begg, Keith; Grassman, Lon; Lucherini, Mauro; Veron, Geraldine; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation, the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity from a common ancestor, is a central concept in evolutionary biology and characterizes the evolutionary histories of many groups of organisms. One such group is the Mustelidae, the most species-rich family within the mammalian order Carnivora, encompassing 59 species classified into 22 genera. Extant mustelids display extensive ecomorphological diversity, with different lineages having evolved into an array of adaptive zones, from fossorial badgers to semi-aquatic otters. Mustelids are also widely distributed, with multiple genera found on different continents. As with other groups that have undergone adaptive radiation, resolving the phylogenetic history of mustelids presents a number of challenges because ecomorphological convergence may potentially confound morphologically based phylogenetic inferences, and because adaptive radiations often include one or more periods of rapid cladogenesis that require a large amount of data to resolve. Results We constructed a nearly complete generic-level phylogeny of the Mustelidae using a data matrix comprising 22 gene segments (~12,000 base pairs) analyzed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We show that mustelids are consistently resolved with high nodal support into four major clades and three monotypic lineages. Using Bayesian dating techniques, we provide evidence that mustelids underwent two bursts of diversification that coincide with major paleoenvironmental and biotic changes that occurred during the Neogene and correspond with similar bursts of cladogenesis in other vertebrate groups. Biogeographical analyses indicate that most of the extant diversity of mustelids originated in Eurasia and mustelids have colonized Africa, North America and South America on multiple occasions. Conclusion Combined with information from the fossil record, our phylogenetic and dating analyses suggest that mustelid diversification may have been spurred by a combination of faunal turnover events and diversification at lower trophic levels, ultimately caused by climatically driven environmental changes. Our biogeographic analyses show Eurasia as the center of origin of mustelid diversity and that mustelids in Africa, North America and South America have been assembled over time largely via dispersal, which has important implications for understanding the ecology of mustelid communities. PMID:18275614

  20. Tempo and mode of the multiple origins of salinity tolerance in a water beetle lineage.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Abellán, Pedro; Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the most important drivers of the distribution, abundance and diversity of organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of saline tolerance have been mainly centred on marine and terrestrial organisms, while lineages inhabiting inland waters remain largely unexplored. This is despite the fact that these systems include a much broader range of salinities, going from freshwater to more than six times the salinity of the sea (i.e. >200 g/L). Here, we study the pattern and timing of the evolution of the tolerance to salinity in an inland aquatic lineage of water beetles (Enochrus species of the subgenus Lumetus, family Hydrophilidae), with the general aim of understanding the mechanisms by which it was achieved. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny built from five mitochondrial and two nuclear genes and information about the salinity tolerance and geographical distribution of the species, we found that salinity tolerance appeared multiple times associated with periods of global aridification. We found evidence of some accelerated transitions from freshwater directly to high salinities, as reconstructed with extant lineages. This, together with the strong positive correlation found between salinity tolerance and aridity of the habitats in which species are found, suggests that tolerance to salinity may be based on a co-opted mechanism developed originally for drought resistance. PMID:24372998