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Sample records for causap csar pedrocchi

  1. Slant plane CSAR processing using Householder transform.

    PubMed

    Burki, Jehanzeb; Barnes, Christopher F

    2008-10-01

    Fourier analysis-based focusing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected during circular flight path is a recent advancement in SAR signal processing. This paper uses the Householder transform to obtain a ground plane circular SAR (CSAR) signal phase history from the slant plane CSAR phase history by inverting the linear shift-varying system model, thereby circumventing the need for explicitly computing a pseudo-inverse. The Householder transform has recently been shown to have improved error bounds and stability as an underdetermined and ill-conditioned system solver, and the Householder transform is computationally efficient.

  2. Application of the docking program SOL for CSAR benchmark.

    PubMed

    Sulimov, Alexey V; Kutov, Danil C; Oferkin, Igor V; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2013-08-26

    This paper is devoted to results obtained by the docking program SOL and the post-processing program DISCORE at the CSAR benchmark. SOL and DISCORE programs are described. SOL is the original docking program developed on the basis of the genetic algorithm, MMFF94 force field, rigid protein, precalculated energy grid including desolvation in the frame of simplified GB model, vdW, and electrostatic interactions and taking into account the ligand internal strain energy. An important SOL feature is the single- or multi-processor performance for up to hundreds of CPUs. DISCORE improves the binding energy scoring by the local energy optimization of the ligand docked pose and a simple linear regression on the base of available experimental data. The docking program SOL has demonstrated a good ability for correct ligand positioning in the active sites of the tested proteins in most cases of CSAR exercises. SOL and DISCORE have not demonstrated very exciting results on the protein-ligand binding free energy estimation. Nevertheless, for some target proteins, SOL and DISCORE were among the first in prediction of inhibition activity. Ways to improve SOL and DISCORE are discussed.

  3. Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR): Time to Find a Real Fix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, Rhode Island AD-A264 393 COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE (CSAR): Time to find a real fix by Russell M. Ziegler CDR USN A paper...SEARCH AND RESCUE (CSAR): TIME TO FIND A REAL FIX (U) 12. PSONAL AUTuOACn) CDR Russell M. Ziegler, USN 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 11b IECVRD~4. DATE OF POT(77U...17COSATi 00(5E 14.- iulAfCT TERMS (COMnbi* 00 1OWe1w it~w WOM d ngd by bWk 6Y60dA FIELD GR OUPR COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE (CSAR): TIME TO FIND A REAL FIX

  4. FMCW CSAR Doppler shifting correction and the layover phenomenon analysising at a new received signal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Depeng; Qu, Yi; Xie, Yuehui

    2016-10-01

    Because of go-stop mode not applying to FMCW CSAR (frequency modulated continuous wave circular synthetic aperture radar), received signal include Doppler shifting result from the radar fly in one period, which have a bad effect on the quality of imaging in wide-field FMCW CSAR. However the compensation functions of liner SAR are not suitable for CSAR. To solve the problem, the paper rebuild a received mode and elicit the Doppler shifting. At the same time, based on the model, the paper analysis the layover phenomenon while obtaining two-dimensional (2D) representations of 3D large scenes due to the wide-field FMCW CSAR and simulate the phenomenon. By the simulation, the effect of the layover can be expressed clearly.

  5. Copernicus Sentinel-1 Satellite And C-SAR Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetti, Aniceto; Rostan, Friedhelm; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Bruno, Claudio; Bauleo, Antonio; Catalano, Toni; Cotogni, Marco; Galvagni, Luigi; Pietropaolo, Andrea; Taini, Giacomo; Venditti, Paolo; Huchler, Markus; Torres, Ramon; Lokaas, Svein; Bibby, David

    2013-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel-1 Earth Radar Observatory, a mission funded by the European Union and developed by ESA, is a constellation of two C-band radar satellites. The satellites have been conceived to be a continuous and reliable source of C-band SAR imagery for operational applications such as mapping of global landmasses, coastal zones and monitoring of shipping routes. The Sentinel-1 satellites are built by an industrial consortium led by Thales Alenia Space Italia as Prime Contractor and with Astrium GmbH as SAR Instrument Contractor. The paper describes the general satellite architecture, the spacecraft subsystems, AIT flow and the satellite key performances. It provides also an overview on the C-SAR Instrument, its development status and pre- launch SAR performance prediction.

  6. CSAR 2014: A Benchmark Exercise Using Unpublished Data from Pharma.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Heather A; Smith, Richard D; Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Ahmed, Aqeel; Convery, Maire A; Somers, Donald O; Kranz, Michael; Elkins, Patricia A; Cui, Guanglei; Peishoff, Catherine E; Lambert, Millard H; Dunbar, James B

    2016-06-27

    The 2014 CSAR Benchmark Exercise was the last community-wide exercise that was conducted by the group at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. For this event, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) donated unpublished crystal structures and affinity data from in-house projects. Three targets were used: tRNA (m1G37) methyltransferase (TrmD), Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), and Factor Xa (FXa). A particularly strong feature of the GSK data is its large size, which lends greater statistical significance to comparisons between different methods. In Phase 1 of the CSAR 2014 Exercise, participants were given several protein-ligand complexes and asked to identify the one near-native pose from among 200 decoys provided by CSAR. Though decoys were requested by the community, we found that they complicated our analysis. We could not discern whether poor predictions were failures of the chosen method or an incompatibility between the participant's method and the setup protocol we used. This problem is inherent to decoys, and we strongly advise against their use. In Phase 2, participants had to dock and rank/score a set of small molecules given only the SMILES strings of the ligands and a protein structure with a different ligand bound. Overall, docking was a success for most participants, much better in Phase 2 than in Phase 1. However, scoring was a greater challenge. No particular approach to docking and scoring had an edge, and successful methods included empirical, knowledge-based, machine-learning, shape-fitting, and even those with solvation and entropy terms. Several groups were successful in ranking TrmD and/or SYK, but ranking FXa ligands was intractable for all participants. Methods that were able to dock well across all submitted systems include MDock,1 Glide-XP,2 PLANTS,3 Wilma,4 Gold,5 SMINA,6 Glide-XP2/PELE,7 FlexX,8 and MedusaDock.9 In fact, the submission based on Glide-XP2/PELE7 cross-docked all ligands to many crystal structures, and it was particularly impressive to see

  7. Lessons Learned in Empirical Scoring with smina from the CSAR 2011 Benchmarking Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Baumgartner, Matthew P.; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a general methodology for designing an empirical scoring function and provide smina, a version of AutoDock Vina specially optimized to support high-throughput scoring and user-specified custom scoring functions. Using our general method, the unique capabilities of smina, a set of default interaction terms from AutoDock Vina, and the CSAR (Community Structure-Activity Resource) 2010 dataset, we created a custom scoring function and evaluated it in the context of the CSAR 2011 benchmarking exercise. We find that our custom scoring function does a better job sampling low RMSD poses when crossdocking compared to the default AutoDock Vina scoring function. The design and application of our method and scoring function reveal several insights into possible improvements and the remaining challenges when scoring and ranking putative ligands. PMID:23379370

  8. Lessons learned in empirical scoring with smina from the CSAR 2011 benchmarking exercise.

    PubMed

    Koes, David Ryan; Baumgartner, Matthew P; Camacho, Carlos J

    2013-08-26

    We describe a general methodology for designing an empirical scoring function and provide smina, a version of AutoDock Vina specially optimized to support high-throughput scoring and user-specified custom scoring functions. Using our general method, the unique capabilities of smina, a set of default interaction terms from AutoDock Vina, and the CSAR (Community Structure-Activity Resource) 2010 data set, we created a custom scoring function and evaluated it in the context of the CSAR 2011 benchmarking exercise. We find that our custom scoring function does a better job sampling low RMSD poses when crossdocking compared to the default AutoDock Vina scoring function. The design and application of our method and scoring function reveal several insights into possible improvements and the remaining challenges when scoring and ranking putative ligands.

  9. Post-approval appending of CSARs to drug package inserts: an analysis of the types of adverse reactions and time to addition.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norio; Ishiguro, Chieko; Matsuda, Tsutomu

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze clinically significant adverse reactions (CSARs) added to drug package inserts after approval and to investigate the time to these post-approval additions as an indicator of safety-related regulatory actions. Drugs containing new active ingredients that had been approved in Japan from April 2001 to December 2010 were analyzed. We examined CSARs that had been reported in the first version of the package inserts and subsequent additions through notifications from Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare until the end of 2011. Relative risks (RRs) for post-approval addition of CSARs were calculated for various categories of disorders. The median lengths of time to post-approval addition of CSARs were compared. A total of 238 drugs were examined. Of the 2487 CSARs associated with these drugs, 737 had been added after approval. The analysis revealed a higher likelihood for post-approval addition of CSARs for "Hepatobiliary disorders" (RR: 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.68), "Gastrointestinal disorders" (RR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.10-1.66), and "Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders" (RR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.11-2.07). In contrast, "Cardiac disorders" showed reduced likelihood in comparison with other disorders. For the time until post-approval addition of CSARs, "Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders" showed the longest durations, with a median of 3020 days. Our quantitative analysis suggests that some CSARs were added more frequently to package inserts after approval and that time to post-approval additions of CSARs varied with the types of adverse drug reactions. These results can support the coherent implementation of pharmacovigilance activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Implementation of a segmentation method for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images based on CSAR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haijun; Houkes, Zweitze

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, a segmentation method for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images based on the Circular Symmetri Auto-Regressive (CSAR) model is presented. The image sequences assumed to be acquired by a video camera (RGB-CCD system) from an aeroplane, which moves linearly over the scene. The objects in the scenes being considered in this paper, are agricultural fields. The classes of agricultural fields to be distinguished are determined by the type of crop, e.g. potatoes sugar beet, wheat, etc. In order to recognize and classify these fields from aerial sequence of images, a reliable segmentatio is required. Here texture features are used for segmentation. The implementation of segmentation for agricultural fields in aerial sequences of images is based on CSAR model in texture analysis. By comparing the estimated parameters of CSAR model from different area in an image, the characteristics and the class of a texture may be determined. The paper describes the segmentation method and its evaluation through experiments. Based on segmentation results, classification for surface texture of vegetation from aerial sequences of images is realized.

  11. CSAR scoring challenge reveals the need for new concepts in estimating protein-ligand binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Fedor N; Zeifman, Alexey A; Stroganov, Oleg V; Stroylov, Viktor S; Kulkov, Val; Chilov, Ghermes G

    2011-09-26

    The dG prediction accuracy by the Lead Finder docking software on the CSAR test set was characterized by R(2)=0.62 and rmsd=1.93 kcal/mol, and the method of preparation of the full-atom structures of the test set did not significantly affect the resulting accuracy of predictions. The primary factors determining the correlation between the predicted and experimental values were the van der Waals interactions and solvation effects. Those two factors alone accounted for R(2)=0.50. The other factors that affected the accuracy of predictions, listed in the order of decreasing importance, were the change of ligand's internal energy upon binding with protein, the electrostatic interactions, and the hydrogen bonds. It appears that those latter factors contributed to the independence of the prediction results from the method of full-atom structure preparation. Then, we turned our attention to the other factors that could potentially improve the scoring function in order to raise the accuracy of the dG prediction. It turned out that the ligand-centric factors, including Mw, cLogP, PSA, etc. or protein-centric factors, such as the functional class of protein, did not improve the prediction accuracy. Following that, we explored if the weak molecular interactions such as X-H...Ar, X-H...Hal, CO...Hal, C-H...X, stacking and π-cationic interactions (where X is N or O), that are generally of interest to the medicinal chemists despite their lack of proper molecular mechanical parametrization, could improve dG prediction. Our analysis revealed that out of these new interactions only CO...Hal is statistically significant for dG predictions using Lead FInder scoring function. Accounting for the CO...Hal interaction resulted in the reduction of the rmsd from 2.19 to 0.69 kcal/mol for the corresponding structures. The other weak interaction factors were not statistically significant and therefore irrelevant to the accuracy of dG prediction. On the basis of our findings from our

  12. Combined Approach of Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer for Protein-Ligand Binding Prediction in CSAR 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-06-27

    The Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) benchmark exercise provides a unique opportunity for researchers to objectively evaluate the performance of protein-ligand docking methods. Patch-Surfer and PL-PatchSurfer, molecular surface-based methods for predicting binding ligands of proteins developed in our group, were tested on both CSAR 2013 and 2014 benchmark exercises in combination with an empirical scoring function-based method, AutoDock, while we only participated in CSAR 2013 using Patch-Surfer. The prediction results for Phase 1 task in CSAR 2013 showed that Patch-Surfer was able to rank all the four designed binding proteins within top ranks, outperforming AutoDock Vina. In Phase 2 of 2013, PL-PatchSurfer correctly selected the correct ligand pose for two target proteins. PL-PatchSurfer performed reasonably well in ranking ligands according to their binding affinity and in selecting near-native ligand poses in 2013 Phase 3 and 2014 Phase 1, respectively, although AutoDock Vina showed better performance. Lastly, in the 2014 Phase 2 exercise, the PL-PatchSurfer scores computed for ligands to target protein pairs correlated well with their pIC50 values, which was better or comparable to results by other participants. Overall, our methods showed fairly good performance in CSAR 2013 and 2014. Unique characteristics of the methods are discussed in comparison with AutoDock.

  13. Incorporating specificity into optimization: evaluation of SPA using CSAR 2014 and CASF 2013 benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Scoring functions of protein-ligand interactions are widely used in computationally docking software and structure-based drug discovery. Accurate prediction of the binding energy between the protein and the ligand is the main task of the scoring function. The accuracy of a scoring function is normally evaluated by testing it on the benchmarks of protein-ligand complexes. In this work, we report the evaluation analysis of an improved version of scoring function SPecificity and Affinity (SPA). By testing on two independent benchmarks Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) 2014 and Comparative Assessment of Scoring Functions (CASF) 2013, the assessment shows that SPA is relatively more accurate than other compared scoring functions in predicting the interactions between the protein and the ligand. We conclude that the inclusion of the specificity in the optimization can effectively suppress the competitive state on the funnel-like binding energy landscape, and make SPA more accurate in identifying the "native" conformation and scoring the binding decoys. The evaluation of SPA highlights the importance of binding specificity in improving the accuracy of the scoring functions.

  14. Incorporating specificity into optimization: evaluation of SPA using CSAR 2014 and CASF 2013 benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Scoring functions of protein-ligand interactions are widely used in computationally docking software and structure-based drug discovery. Accurate prediction of the binding energy between the protein and the ligand is the main task of the scoring function. The accuracy of a scoring function is normally evaluated by testing it on the benchmarks of protein-ligand complexes. In this work, we report the evaluation analysis of an improved version of scoring function SPecificity and Affinity (SPA). By testing on two independent benchmarks Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) 2014 and Comparative Assessment of Scoring Functions (CASF) 2013, the assessment shows that SPA is relatively more accurate than other compared scoring functions in predicting the interactions between the protein and the ligand. We conclude that the inclusion of the specificity in the optimization can effectively suppress the competitive state on the funnel-like binding energy landscape, and make SPA more accurate in identifying the "native" conformation and scoring the binding decoys. The evaluation of SPA highlights the importance of binding specificity in improving the accuracy of the scoring functions.

  15. A 3D Reconstruction Strategy of Vehicle Outline Based on Single-Pass Single-Polarization CSAR Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leping; An, Daoxiang; Huang, Xiaotao; Zhou, Zhimin

    2017-08-14

    In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming and time-expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape. Besides, the proposed strategy just needs the single-pass single-polarization CSAR data to perform vehicle's 3D reconstruction, which makes the processing much more economic and efficient. First, an analysis of the distribution of attributed scattering centers from vehicle facet model is presented. And the analysis results show that a smooth and continuous basic outline of vehicle could be extracted from the peak curve of a noncoherent processing image. Second, the 3D location of vehicle roofline is inferred from layover with empirical insets of the basic outline. At last, the basic line and roofline of the vehicle are used to estimate vehicle's 3D information and constitute vehicle's 3D outline. The simulated and measured data processing results prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed strategy. .

  16. Role of excited state photoionization in the 852.1 nm Cs laser pumped by Cs-Ar photoassociation

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, J. D.; Houlahan, T. J. Jr.; Eden, J. G.; Gallagher, J. E.; Perram, G. P.; Carroll, D. L.; Palla, A. D.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    2013-03-18

    Photoionization of Cs (6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms during the operation of a Cs D{sub 2} line (852.1 nm: 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{yields}6s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) laser, pumped by free{yields}free transitions of thermal Cs-Ar ground state pairs, has been investigated experimentally and computationally. Photoexcitation of Cs vapor/Ar mixtures through the blue satellite of the D{sub 2} transition (peaking at 836.7 nm) selectively populates the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} upper laser level by the dissociation of the CsAr excited complex. Comparison of laser output energy data, for instantaneous pump powers up to 3 MW, with the predictions of a numerical model sets an upper bound of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -26} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1} on the Cs (6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) two photon ionization cross-section at 836.7 nm which corresponds to a single photon cross-section of 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2} for a peak pump intensity of 3 MW cm{sup -2}.

  17. Integrated imaging experiment with C-SAR and other geological image data across the Nelson Front, Northern Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, G. S. K.; Won, J. S.; Moon, W. M.; Slaney, V. R.; Graham, D. F.; Lowman, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from the integration of geophysical and geological data sets using Bayesian statistical analysis with the purpose of mapping the Churchill-Superior Boundary zone. In the Wabowden area the contribution of each rock type to the aeromagnetic anomaly is judged by convolving the aeromagnetic anomaly value with the average magnetic susceptibility. The 'a posteriori' probabilities of significant patterns in the new data are then computed. The highest 'a posteriori' probability occurs along a narrow corridor whose trend coincides remarkably with the location of the Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone. In the Wekusko Lake area, C-SAR and TM data were integrated using an image analysis system. Here the emphasis is on mapping of geological structures.

  18. Study of the new CSAR62 positive tone electron-beam resist at 40 keV electron energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andok, R.; Bencurova, A.; Vutova, K.; Koleva, E.; Nemec, P.; Hrkut, P.; Kostic, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2016-03-01

    One of the few "top-down" methods for nano-device fabrication is the electron-beam lithography, which allows flexible patterning of various structures with a nanoscale resolution down to less than 10 nm. Thinner, more etching durable, and more sensitive e-beam resists are required for the better control, linearity, and uniformity of critical dimensions of structures for nano-device fabrication. Within the last decade, researchers have made significant efforts to improve the resolution of the nanoscale e-beam lithography. The resist material properties are an important factor governing the resolution. Only the e-beam resist ZEP 520 of the Japanese manufacturer ZEON is characterized by relatively good properties and thus meets most users' expectations. This paper deals with the investigation and simulation of the characteristics of the new less-expensive AR-P 6200 (CSAR 62) positive e-beam resist (available since May 2013, manufactured by Allresist GmbH company).

  19. Integrated imaging experiment with C-SAR and other geological image data across the Nelson Front, Northern Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, G. S. K.; Won, J. S.; Moon, W. M.; Slaney, V. R.; Graham, D. F.; Lowman, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from the integration of geophysical and geological data sets using Bayesian statistical analysis with the purpose of mapping the Churchill-Superior Boundary zone. In the Wabowden area the contribution of each rock type to the aeromagnetic anomaly is judged by convolving the aeromagnetic anomaly value with the average magnetic susceptibility. The 'a posteriori' probabilities of significant patterns in the new data are then computed. The highest 'a posteriori' probability occurs along a narrow corridor whose trend coincides remarkably with the location of the Churchill-Superior Boundary Zone. In the Wekusko Lake area, C-SAR and TM data were integrated using an image analysis system. Here the emphasis is on mapping of geological structures.

  20. Iterative Knowledge-Based Scoring Functions Derived from Rigid and Flexible Decoy Structures: Evaluation with the 2013 and 2014 CSAR Benchmarks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chengfei; Grinter, Sam Z; Merideth, Benjamin Ryan; Ma, Zhiwei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we developed two iterative knowledge-based scoring functions, ITScore_pdbbind(rigid) and ITScore_pdbbind(flex), using rigid decoy structures and flexible decoy structures, respectively, that were generated from the protein-ligand complexes in the refined set of PDBbind 2012. These two scoring functions were evaluated using the 2013 and 2014 CSAR benchmarks. The results were compared with the results of two other scoring functions, the Vina scoring function and ITScore, the scoring function that we previously developed from rigid decoy structures for a smaller set of protein-ligand complexes. A graph-based method was developed to evaluate the root-mean-square deviation between two conformations of the same ligand with different atom names and orders due to different file preparations, and the program is freely available. Our study showed that the two new scoring functions developed from the larger training set yielded significantly improved performance in binding mode predictions. For binding affinity predictions, all four scoring functions showed protein-dependent performance. We suggest the development of protein-family-dependent scoring functions for accurate binding affinity prediction.

  1. Jobs CSAR Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Snowe, Olympia J. [R-ME

    2009-04-02

    Senate - 04/02/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. CSAR-eXit: The Future of Air Force Combat Search and Rescue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    lines is high. At the same time the DoD must remain a trusted steward of the nation’s talent and treasure. It is our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and...1 Dec 1946 – 8 Jul 1952 The last line of the Air Force Vision states, “We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the...aircrew prior to their capture would have significantly changed the political calculus . I am not suggesting that a recovery would have been AU/ACSC

  3. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.

    1994-12-05

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions.

  4. Environmental Assessmen: Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Training Maneuvers Davis-Monthan AFB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-22

    graded and developed land. DMAFB lies within the biotic region known as the Sonoran Desert. This region is uniquely characterized by an unreliable...and uneven hi seasonal rainfall pattern, separated by periods of spring and fall drought and short-duration freezing temperatures. The Sonoran ...Arizona Upland. The Lower Colorado River Valley subdivision is the driest of the Sonoran subdivisions because of the combination of high temperature

  5. A Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Role for the CV-22: It’s Coming, Get Ready

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    the bombing campaign began. AFSOC MH-53s had been in Jacobabad, Pakistan since September 22. (Lambeth 2005, 69) 70 (Lambeth 2005, 111) 71 (naval...accessed March 19,2008). Rye, Scott. IIRed Wolves and Fire Hawks HCS-4 and HCS-S.II Wings olGold, Spring 2003. Schogol, Jeff. 1I0sprey Might be

  6. CSAR 79-034 ADDENDUM 2, storing the man-basket in the process cell in 236-Z Building, Plutonium Finishing Plant/Plutonium Reclamation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.

    1994-10-25

    The man-basket is stored in the Plutonium Reclamation Facility canyon area and this addendum reports on a technical evaluation for the storage inside the canyon to ensure consistency with the requirements of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, WHC-CM-4-29.

  7. CSAR (Combat, Search and Rescue) Aide: Design Requirements for a Combat Search and Rescue Decision Support System for Joint Rescue Coordination Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    basically left out of the loop. In command post exercises (CPXs), there are no aircrews. Consequently, the objective is the training and/or evaluation of...understanding of the user. Adaptive design is the most likely way to get operations research out of the hip pocket of the three- and four- star ...review of last few functions • choose help level, have hot key for help, • layered help: l»what to do now or options; 2=more detail on what user

  8. Stresses and Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computerized Structural Analysis and Research Corporation (CSAR) flagship product is CSA/NASTRAN, a Finite Element Analysis program for structural, thermal, aeroelastic and acoustic analysis. CSAR's first products were software products for performing structural optimization in conjuction wtih MSC/NASTRAN. In 1984, CSAR released the first version of CSA/NASTRAN, then merely an enhanced version of COSMIC NASTRAN. In 1988, CSAR purchased the source code outright and released the first "independent" version of CSA/NASTRAN.

  9. Breast tumor detection using UWB circular-SAR tomographic microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, Daniel; Boulanger, Pierre; Kordzadeh, Atefeh; Rambabu, Karumudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of detecting tumors in human breast using ultra-wideband (UWB) circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). CSAR is a subset of SAR which is a radar imaging technique using a circular data acquisition pattern. Tomographic image reconstruction is done using a time domain global back projection technique adapted to CSAR. Experiments are conducted on a breast phantoms made of pork fat emulating normal and cancerous conditions. Preliminary experimental results show that microwave imaging of a breast phantom using UWB-CSAR is a simple and low-cost method, efficiently capable of detecting the presence of tumors.

  10. Analysis of U.S. Military Helicopter Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Navy. These helicopters are normally onboard cruisers, frigates, and destroyers. 18 The HH-60H and the SH - 60F are utilized onboard the aircraft...rescue (CSAR) and naval special warfare support. The primary mission of the SH - 60F is to detect, classify, and destroy hostile submarines by using ASW...CSAR and naval special warfare support are the secondary missions of the SH - 60F . Both helicopter types can also perform other missions such as

  11. Force Structure: Better Information Needed to Support Air Force A-10 and Other Future Divestment Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    fiscal constraints and a strategy-based, portfolio -wide review of alternatives. Air Force budget guidance for fiscal year 2015 stated that it...anticipated levels, the Air Force examined its entire portfolio and concluded, among other things, that the benefits of divesting the A-10...the ability of rescue groups to conduct CSAR in volatile environments. Figure 9 provides an example of a CSAR mission and the Sandy roles

  12. Angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotension II in the rostral ventrolateral medulla modulate the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Min; Shi, Zhen; Gao, Juan; Han, Ying; Yuan, Ning; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2010-04-01

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays a pivotal role in regulating sympathetic vasomotor activity. The cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to the enhanced sympathetic outflow in chronic heart failure and hypertension. The aim of the present study was to determine whether angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM modulate the CSAR and sympathetic activity. Bilateral sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy were carried out in anesthetized rats. The CSAR was evaluated as the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) response to epicardial application of capsaicin. The effects of bilateral microinjection of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan or the Mas receptor antagonist D: -alanine-Ang-(1-7) (A-779) into the RVLM were determined. Either Ang II or Ang-(1-7) enhanced the CSAR as well as increased RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with losartan but not the A-779 abolished the effects of Ang II, while A-779 but not the losartan eliminated the effects of Ang-(1-7). The RVLM microinjection of losartan alone had no direct effect on the CSAR, RSNA, and MAP, but A-779 alone attenuated the CSAR and decreased RSNA and MAP. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) is as effective as Ang II in sensitizing the CSAR and increasing sympathetic outflow. In contrast to Ang II, the effects of Ang-(1-7) are not mediated by AT(1) receptors but by Mas receptors. Mas receptors, but not the AT(1) receptors, in the RVLM are involved in the tonic control of the CSAR.

  13. Automated large-scale file preparation, docking, and scoring: Evaluation of ITScore and STScore using the 2012 Community Structure-Activity Resource Benchmark

    PubMed Central

    Grinter, Sam Z.; Yan, Chengfei; Huang, Sheng-You; Jiang, Lin; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use the recently released 2012 Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) Dataset to evaluate two knowledge-based scoring functions, ITScore and STScore, and a simple force-field-based potential (VDWScore). The CSAR Dataset contains 757 compounds, most with known affinities, and 57 crystal structures. With the help of the script files for docking preparation, we use the full CSAR Dataset to evaluate the performances of the scoring functions on binding affinity prediction and active/inactive compound discrimination. The CSAR subset that includes crystal structures is used as well, to evaluate the performances of the scoring functions on binding mode and affinity predictions. Within this structure subset, we investigate the importance of accurate ligand and protein conformational sampling and find that the binding affinity predictions are less sensitive to non-native ligand and protein conformations than the binding mode predictions. We also find the full CSAR Dataset to be more challenging in making binding mode predictions than the subset with structures. The script files used for preparing the CSAR Dataset for docking, including scripts for canonicalization of the ligand atoms, are offered freely to the academic community. PMID:23656179

  14. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide in paraventricular nucleus mediates sympathetic activation and enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Gao, Qing; Gan, Xian-Bing; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Gao, Xing-Ya

    2011-12-01

    An enhancement of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension. Angiotensin II in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) augments the CSAR and increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The present study aimed to determine whether endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the PVN mediated the enhanced CSAR, sympathetic activity and the effects of angiotensin II in the PVN in renovascular hypertension induced by the two-kidney, one-clip method (2K1C) in rats. At the end of the fourth week, the rats underwent sino-aortic and vagal denervation under general anaesthesia with urethane and α-chloralose. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. The CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA response to epicardial application of bradykinin. Microinjection of polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT), an analogue of endogenous catalase, into the PVN decreased the RSNA and MAP and abolished the CSAR in both sham-operated and 2K1C rats. Microinjection into the PVN of the catalase inhibitor, aminotriazole, increased the RSNA and MAP and enhanced the CSAR. The effects of PEG-CAT or aminotriazole were greater in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated animals. The effects of angiotensin II in the PVN were abolished by pretreatment with PEG-CAT in both sham-operated and 2K1C rats; however, aminotriazole failed to potentiate the effects of angiotensin II. The catalase activity was decreased but the H(2)O(2) levels were increased in the PVN of 2K1C rats. These results indicate that endogenous H(2)O(2) in the PVN not only mediates the enhanced sympathetic activity and CSAR, but also the effects of angiotensin II in the PVN in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide in Paraventricular Nucleus Enhances Sympathetic Activity and Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex in Chronic Heart Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xian-Bing; Liu, Tong-Yan; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, increased mean arterial pressure (MAP). This study was designed to determine the roles of H2S in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in modulating sympathetic activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) in chronic heart failure (CHF). Methodology/Principal Findings CHF was induced by left descending coronary artery ligation in rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and MAP were recorded under anesthesia. CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. PVN microinjection of low doses of a H2S donor, GYY4137 (0.01 and 0.1 nmol), had no significant effects on RSNA, MAP and CSAR. High doses of GYY4137 (1, 2 and 4 nmol) increased baseline RSNA, MAP and heart rate (HR), and enhanced CSAR. The effects were greater in CHF rats than sham-operated rats. A cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) inhibitor, hydroxylamine (HA) in PVN had no significant effect on the RSNA, MAP and CSAR. CBS activity and H2S level in the PVN were decreased in CHF rats. No significant difference in CBS level in PVN was found between sham-operated rats and CHF rats. Stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferents with capsaicin decreased CBS activity and H2S level in the PVN in both sham-operated rats and CHF rats. Conclusions Exogenous H2S in PVN increases RSNA, MAP and HR, and enhances CSAR. The effects are greater in CHF rats than those in sham-operated rats. Endogenous H2S in PVN is not responsible for the sympathetic activation and enhanced CSAR in CHF rats. PMID:23166827

  16. Does Composition Medium Affect the Psychometric Properties of Scores on an Exercise Designed to Assess Written Medical Communication Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, John R.; McKinley, Danette W.; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected…

  17. Systems Analysis of Alternative Architectures for Riverine Warfare in 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    capability of the SH - 60F , and incorporates many of the ballistic tolerance attributes of the Army UH-60, which are ideally suited for the CSAR...http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/ sh -60.htm]. 147 The Library of Congress Thomas, Navy Aircraft. MH-60 Multi-mission Helicopter. Retrieved on

  18. Three-dimensional point spread function characterization of a radially displaced scatterer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Uttam K.; Temple, Michael A.; Minardi, Michael J.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2007-04-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems utilizing a circular aperture for target recognition, it is important to know how a target's point spread function (PSF) behaves as a function of various radar functional parameters and target positional changes that may occur during data collection. The purpose of this research is characterizing the three dimensional (3D) point spread function (3D PSF) behavior of a radially displaced point scatterer for circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). For an automatic target recognition (ATR) systems requiring target identification with a high degree of confidence, CSAR processing represents a viable alternative given it can produce images with resolution less than a wavelength. With very large CSAR apertures (90°r or more) three dimensional imaging is possible with a single phase center and a single pass. Using a backprojection image formation process, point target PSF responses are generated at various target locations at a given radar bandwidth, depression angle and full 360°r CSAR apertures. Consistent with previous studies, the 3D PSF for a point target located at the image center is cone shaped and serves as the basis for comparing and characterizing the 3D PSFs for radially displaced scatterers. For radially displaced point target, simulated results show 3D PSF response is asymmetric and tends to become an elliptic shape.

  19. Investigating Gender-Related Construct-Irrelevant Components of Scores on the Written Assessment Exercise of a High-Stakes Certification Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, John R.; McKinley, Danette W.

    2005-01-01

    The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The patient note (PN) exercise is specifically used to assess a candidate's ability to summarize and synthesize the data collected in a simulated…

  20. Cardiac sympathetic afferent denervation attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves cardiovascular dysfunction in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Jun; Wang, Wei; Cornish, Kurtis G; Rozanski, George J; Zucker, Irving H

    2014-10-01

    The enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to the exaggerated sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (CHF). Increased sympathoexcitation is positively related to mortality in patients with CHF. However, the potential beneficial effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac and autonomic function in CHF have not been previously explored. Here, we determined the effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. To delete the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor-expressing CSAR afferents selectively, epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (50 μg/mL), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was performed during myocardium infarction surgery in rats. This procedure largely abolished the enhanced CSAR, prevented the exaggerated renal and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and improved baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Most importantly, we found that epicardial application of resiniferatoxin largely prevented the elevated left ventricle end-diastolic pressure, lung edema, and cardiac hypertrophy, partially reduced left ventricular dimensions in the failing heart, and increased cardiac contractile reserve in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with isoproterenol in CHF rats. Molecular evidence showed that resiniferatoxin attenuated cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis and reduced expression of fibrotic markers and transforming growth factor-β receptor I in CHF rats. Pressure-volume loop analysis showed that resiniferatoxin reduced the end-diastolic pressure volume relationships in CHF rats, indicating improved cardiac compliance. In summary, cardiac sympathetic afferent deletion exhibits protective effects against deleterious cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. These data suggest a potential new paradigm and therapeutic potential in the management of CHF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. A Second Quorum-Sensing System Regulates Cell Surface Properties but Not Phenazine Antibiotic Production in Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongge; Pierson, Leland S.

    2001-01-01

    The root-associated biological control bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 produces a range of exoproducts, including protease and phenazines. Phenazine antibiotic biosynthesis by phzXYFABCD is regulated in part by the PhzR-PhzI quorum-sensing system. Mutants defective in phzR or phzI produce very low levels of phenazines but wild-type levels of exoprotease. In the present study, a second genomic region of strain 30-84 was identified that, when present in trans, increased β-galactosidase activity in a genomic phzB::lacZ reporter and partially restored phenazine production to a phzR mutant. Sequence analysis identified two adjacent genes, csaR and csaI, that encode members of the LuxR-LuxI family of regulatory proteins. No putative promoter region is present upstream of the csaI start codon and no lux box-like element was found in either the csaR promoter or the 30-bp intergenic region between csaR and csaI. Both the PhzR-PhzI and CsaR-CsaI systems are regulated by the GacS-GacA two-component regulatory system. In contrast to the multicopy effects of csaR and csaI in trans, a genomic csaR mutant (30-84R2) and a csaI mutant (30-84I2) did not exhibit altered phenazine production in vitro or in situ, indicating that the CsaR-CsaI system is not involved in phenazine regulation in strain 30-84. Both mutants also produced wild-type levels of protease. However, disruption of both csaI and phzI or both csaR and phzR eliminated both phenazine and protease production completely. Thus, the two quorum-sensing systems do not interact for phenazine regulation but do interact for protease regulation. Additionally, the CsaI N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal was not recognized by the phenazine AHL reporter 30-84I/Z but was recognized by the AHL reporters Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136(pCF240). Inactivation of csaR resulted in a smooth mucoid colony phenotype and formation of cell aggregates in broth, suggesting that CsaR is involved in

  2. General Interoperability Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    D , is initiated immediately. As with the CAS package, the CSAR effort is unfamiliar with the target area and must rely on quick planning using...environments. It is within these synthetic environments2 that defence organisations have found some relief from the fiscal constraints imposed over...elsewhere on nework – Player station simply responds to graphics commands – Centralised Mainframe or ‘Terminal-server’ architecture. Terminal Server ESD

  3. Evolution of Rescue: Personnel Recovery for a New Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    seven CSAR missions were launched, resulting in three saves (the third was Wolf 01, an F-16, whose pilot ejected over the Persian Gulf and was rescued... spider routes” that would allow them to operate inside Serb airspace and save precious minutes of flight planning.57 The helicopters requested... traits characteristic of Irregular Warfare.103 Another important outcome of the 2005 QDR process was the directive to create an Irregular Warfare

  4. Rescuing Downed Aircrews: The Value of Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Warning and Control System C2 command and control CAS close air support CDF cumulative density function CSAR combat search and rescue FROG free...destroying Iraqi FROG (free rocket over ground) missile batteries. The aircraft was hit by a missile while engaging enemy forces and crashed into the...members were soon captured. 8. January 18, 1991, USMC OV-10: The aircraft was flying in Kuwait searching for targets, such as Iraqi artillery and FROG

  5. Simulation of FREE→FREE Absorption Spectra and the Calculation of Interaction Potentials for Alkali-Rare Gas Atom Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. Darby; Spinka, Thomas M.; Readle, Jason. D.; Eden, J. Gary

    2013-06-01

    We have simulated free→free (X^2Σ^+_{1/2}→B^2Σ^+_{1/2}) absorption spectra for alkali-rare gas pairs. By comparing simulation results with experimental data, we have been able to iteratively determine the form for the B^2Σ^+_{1/2} interaction potential for the system for a range in internuclear separation of 1.5-20 Å. Simulation methods will be presented, as will our results pertaining to Cs-Ar.

  6. Unconventional Assisted Recovery (UAR): Historical Case Study Analysis and Quantitative Feasibility Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    of recovery forces on stand -by in friendly territory, only six of these pilots were recovered by conventional combat search and rescue (CSAR). The...the end of the conflict. After the conclusion of the Gulf War, special operations forces (SOF) planners began to consider the impact of high -threat...study and field test UAR were much more pessimistic about feasibility and survivability than were the planners. My initial research led to the

  7. Army Attack Aviation Returning to the Close Fight: Impact of the MOUT Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have a CSAR plan for more than one aircraft. The Somalis were beginning to break apart the American plan. In spite of a heroic defense, the Somali mob ...technologically advanced force (Russian military) faced, and were defeated by, a small, relatively primitive, irregular force of Chechen rebels. The U.S...revolt of their own. On 6 September 1991 the new Chechen regime declared its independence from Russia.132 This agitation led to a brutal civil war with

  8. Benign Weather Modification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The first Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) attempt, scheduled for 6 September 1995, was canceled due to unsatisfactory launch site weather for the ...Such an RPV could clear the fog and search for the downed airman at the same time. To increase the odds of finding the airmen, several RPVs could fly...COBLE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIRPOWER STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION

  9. Reduced nitric oxide in the rostral ventrolateral medulla enhances cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-Qing; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2004-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) on the central integration of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) in normal rats and in rats with coronary ligation-induced chronic heart failure (CHF). Under alpha-chloralose and urethane anesthesia, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded at baseline and during elicitation of the CSAR evoked by electrical stimulation of the cardiac afferent sympathetic nerves in sino-aortic denervated and cervical vagotomized rats. A cannula was inserted into the left RVLM for microinjection of NO synthase inhibitor, S-methyl-L-thiocitruline (MeTC) or NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). The CSAR was tested by electrical stimulation (5, 10, 20 and 30 Hz at 10 V for 1 ms) of the afferent cardiac sympathetic nerves. It was observed that (1) the responses of RSNA to stimulation were enhanced in rats with CHF; (2) MeTC (80 nmol) potentiated the responses of RSNA to stimulation in sham rats but not in rats with CHF; (3) SNAP (50 nmol) depressed the enhanced RSNA response to stimulation in CHF rats but had no effect in sham rats; and (4) MeTC increased the baseline RSNA and MAP only in sham rats, but SNAP inhibited the baseline RSNA and MAP in both sham and CHF rats. These results indicate that reductance of NO in the RVLM is involved in the augmentation of CSAR in CHF rats.

  10. Direct Solar Irradiance measurements with a Cryogenic Solar Absolute Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Winkler, Rainer; Graber, Florian; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Fox, Nigel; Li, Vivian; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-02-01

    The World Radiometric Reference (WRR) is an artefact based reference for Direct Solar Irradiance (DSI) measurements. The WRR is realized by a group of electrical substitution radiometers, the World Standard Group (WSG). In recent years, a relative difference of about -0.3% between the International System of Units (SI) scale and the WRR scale was observed with the SI scale being lower. The Cryogenic Solar Absolute Radiometer (CSAR) aims for i) providing direct traceability of DSI measurements to the SI system, ii) reducing the overall uncertainty of DSI measurements towards 0.01% and for iii) replacing the WSG in future. The latest SI-WRR intercomparisons performed with CSAR revealed a relative difference of -0.29% ± 0.064% (k = 1) between the SI and the WRR scale, a result that agrees well with previous findings. The uncertainty of corrections for the window transmittance results currently in the largest contribution to the total uncertainty for the CSAR measurements. The formal transition from the WRR to the SI-scale for DSI measurements is currently being discussed in the WMO/CIMO Task Team on Radiation References.

  11. Self-correcting quantum memory with a boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Adrian; Wootton, James R.; Röthlisberger, Beat; Loss, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional toric-code Hamiltonian with effective long-range interactions between its anyonic excitations induced by coupling the toric code to external fields. It has been shown that such interactions allow an arbitrary increase in the lifetime of the stored quantum information by making L, the linear size of the memory, larger [Chesi , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.022305 82, 022305 (2010)]. We show that for these systems the choice of boundary conditions (open boundaries as opposed to periodic boundary conditions) is not a mere technicality; the influence of anyons produced at the boundaries becomes in fact dominant for large enough L. This influence can be either beneficial or detrimental. In particular, we study an effective Hamiltonian proposed by Pedrocchi [Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.83.115415 83, 115415 (2011)] that describes repulsion between anyons and anyon holes. For this system, we find a lifetime of the stored quantum information that grows exponentially in L2 for both periodic and open boundary conditions, although the exponent in the latter case is found to be less favorable. However, L is upper bounded through the breakdown of the perturbative treatment of the underlying Hamiltonian.

  12. Physical states and finite-size effects in Kitaev's honeycomb model: Bond disorder, spin excitations, and NMR line shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschocke, Fabian; Vojta, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Kitaev's compass model on the honeycomb lattice realizes a spin liquid whose emergent excitations are dispersive Majorana fermions and static Z2 gauge fluxes. We discuss the proper selection of physical states for finite-size simulations in the Majorana representation, based on a recent paper by F. L. Pedrocchi, S. Chesi, and D. Loss [Phys. Rev. B 84, 165414 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.165414]. Certain physical observables acquire large finite-size effects, in particular if the ground state is not fermion-free, which we prove to generally apply to the system in the gapless phase and with periodic boundary conditions. To illustrate our findings, we compute the static and dynamic spin susceptibilities for finite-size systems. Specifically, we consider random-bond disorder (which preserves the solubility of the model), calculate the distribution of local flux gaps, and extract the NMR line shape. We also predict a transition to a random-flux state with increasing disorder.

  13. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  14. A new approach for fast security scanning with millimetre-waves: SARGATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Stefan A.; Hägelen, Manfred; Ender, Joachim; Hantscher, Sebastian; Essen, Helmut

    2011-05-01

    Measuring many people within a short time is still a great challenge to scanners in security related areas, e.g. airports or stations. A new approach for fast and high resolution scanning is presented, based on the so called "circular synthetic aperture radar" (CSAR), applied to a walkway. Due to the circular movement, each of the receiving antennas creates a circular synthetic aperture itself. By reconstructing the complex valued SAR-images for each receiver channel, the ability to perform interferometric SAR-Analysis of a tested person is given. The screened persons do not have to stand still, thus, a measurement in a passenger flow is possible.

  15. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  16. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches.

  18. Towards a physical interpretation of substituent effect: Quantum chemical interpretation of Hammett substituent constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varaksin, Konstantin S.; Szatylowicz, Halina; Krygowski, Tadeusz M.

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative description of substituent effects is of a great importance especially in organic chemistry and QSAR-type treatments. The proposed approaches: substituent effect stabilization energy (SESE) and charge of the substituent active region (cSAR) provide substituent effect characteristics, physically independent of the Hammett's substituent constants, σ. To document abilities of these descriptors the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method is employed to examine changes in properties of a reaction center Y (Y = COOH or COO- groups) and a transmitting moiety (benzene ring) due to substituent effects in a series of meta- and para-X-substituted benzoic acid and benzoate anion derivatives (X = NMe2, NH2, OH, OMe, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3, CN, CHO, COMe, CONH2, COOH, NO2, NO). The transmitting moiety is described by aromaticity indices HOMA and NICS(1). Furthermore, an advantage of the cSAR characteristic is the ability to use it to describe both electron donating/accepting properties of a substituent as well as a reaction center. It allows demonstration of the reverse substituent effects of COOH and COO- groups on substituent X.

  19. Support vector regression scoring of receptor-ligand complexes for rank-ordering and virtual screening of chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Li, Liwei; Wang, Bo; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-09-26

    The community structure-activity resource (CSAR) data sets are used to develop and test a support vector machine-based scoring function in regression mode (SVR). Two scoring functions (SVR-KB and SVR-EP) are derived with the objective of reproducing the trend of the experimental binding affinities provided within the two CSAR data sets. The features used to train SVR-KB are knowledge-based pairwise potentials, while SVR-EP is based on physicochemical properties. SVR-KB and SVR-EP were compared to seven other widely used scoring functions, including Glide, X-score, GoldScore, ChemScore, Vina, Dock, and PMF. Results showed that SVR-KB trained with features obtained from three-dimensional complexes of the PDBbind data set outperformed all other scoring functions, including best performing X-score, by nearly 0.1 using three correlation coefficients, namely Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall. It was interesting that higher performance in rank ordering did not translate into greater enrichment in virtual screening assessed using the 40 targets of the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). To remedy this situation, a variant of SVR-KB (SVR-KBD) was developed by following a target-specific tailoring strategy that we had previously employed to derive SVM-SP. SVR-KBD showed a much higher enrichment, outperforming all other scoring functions tested, and was comparable in performance to our previously derived scoring function SVM-SP.

  20. Support Vector Regression Scoring of Receptor-Ligand Complexes for Rank-Ordering and Virtual Screening of Chemical Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liwei; Wang, Bo; Meroueh, Samy O.

    2011-01-01

    The Community Structure-Activity Resource (CSAR) datasets are used develop and test a Support Vector Machine-based scoring function in regression mode (SVR). Two scoring functions (SVR-KB and SVR-EP) are derived with the objective of reproducing the trend of the experimental binding affinities provided within the two CSAR datasets. The features used to train SVR-KB are knowledge-based pairwise potentials, while SVR-EP is based on physico-chemical properties. SVR-KB and SVR-EP were compared to seven other widely-used scoring functions, including Glide, X-score, GoldScore, ChemScore, Vina, Dock and PMF. Results showed that SVR-KB trained with features obtained from three-dimensional complexes of the PDBbind dataset outperformed all other scoring functions including best performing X-score, by nearly 0.1 using three correlation coefficients, namely Pearson, Spearman and Kendall. It was interesting that higher performance in rank-ordering did not translate into greater enrichment in virtual screening assessed using the 40 targets of the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). To remedy this situation, a variant of SVR-KB (SVR-KBD) was developed by following a target-specific tailoring strategy that we had previously employed to derive SVM-SP. SVR-KBD showed much higher enrichment outperforming all other scoring functions tested, and was comparable in performance to our previously-derived scoring function SVM-SP. PMID:21728360

  1. Airborne SAR on circular trajectories to reduce layover and shadow effects of urban scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, Stephan; Sommer, Rainer; Pohl, Nils; Stilla, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) can provide a full aspect coverage on interesting scenes in one run. Over the city of Karlsruhe a Ka-band dataset was generated in CSAR mode. The data was focused using subapertures in a step of 1.5°, each SAR image representing the scene from a slightly different aspect. The potential of non-coherent fusion of full aspect coverage to reveal small targets was demonstrated. By a manual selection of the viewing angle, parking cars next to high buildings could be revealed and a full view on selected targets with reduced shadow and overlay effects was shown. We studied the effect of varying aspects on the focused image pixels and developed a first metric to automatically select the best viewing angle to a local scene. Areas containing ground information like grass or asphalt and which are not hidden between high objects could be identified and used to deliver a good aspect view on neighboring areas which suffer from shadowing effects.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Pycnogenol® on Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Günel, Ceren; Demirci, Buket; Eryılmaz, Aylin; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Meteoğlu, İbrahim; Ömürlü, İmran Kurt; Başal, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background The supplement Pycnogenol® (PYC) has been used for the treatment of several chronic diseases including allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the in vivo effects on allergic inflammation have not been identified to date. Aims To investigate the treatment results of PYC on allergic inflammation in a rat model of allergic rhinitis. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Allergic rhinitis was stimulated in 42 rats by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal challenge with Ovalbumin. The animals were divided into six subgroups: healthy controls, AR group, AR group treated with corticosteroid (dexamethasone 1 mg/kg; CS+AR), healthy rats group that were given only PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10), AR group treated with PYC of 3mg/kg (PYC3+AR), and AR group treated with PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10+AR). Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (Ig-E) levels of serum were measured. Histopathological changes in nasal mucosa and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β were evaluated. Results The levels of the IL-4 were significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR, PYC10+AR and CS+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.006). The production of the IFN-γ was significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.013, p=0.001). The administration of PYC to allergic rats suppressed the elevated IL-10 production, especially in the PYC3+AR group (p=0.006). Mucosal edema was significantly decreased respectively after treatment at dose 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg PYC (both, p<0.001). The mucosal expression of TNF-α has significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups (p=0.005, p<0.001), while the IL-1β expression significantly decreased in the CS+AR, PYC3+AR, and PYC10+AR groups (p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.001). Conclusion PYC has multiple suppressive effects on allergic response. Thus, PYC may be used as a supplementary agent in allergic response

  3. Sentinel-1 Instrument Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Torres, Ramon; Geudtner, Dirk; Brown, Michael; Deghaye, Patrick; Navas-Traver, Ignacio; Ostergaard, Allan; Rommen, Bjorn; Floury, Nicolas; Davidson, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 (S-1) C-band SAR constellation will provide continuous all-weather day/night global coverage, with six days exact repetition time (near daily coverage over Europe and Canada) and with radar data delivery within 3 to 24 hours. These features open new possibilities for operational maritime services. The Sentinel-1 space segment has been designed and is being built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. It is expected that Sentinel-1A be launched in 2013. This paper will provide an overview of the Sentinel-1 system, the status and characteristics of the technical implementation. The key elements of the system supporting the maritime user community will be highlighted.

  4. Future Directions in Tactical Vertical Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    UH -60A/L UH -60M (Divest) UH - 60L Hunter Warrior Shadow Raven FY 2025 and Beyond ATTACK/ RECON UH -60M/HH-60M 2025 Timeframe • AH64...Transport Assault Heavy Lift Mine CM SOF Ultraheavy Lift SERVICE ARMY USMC ARMY USMC USN USCG USAF ARMY USMC USN AH-1W UH -1Y CH/MH-47 D/F/G MH-53E OH-58D...KW) MH/AH-6J UH -72A CH-53K MV-22B CV-22B CVLSP* Mine CM CSAR CH-53E AH-1Z MH-60S MH-60R UH -60M MH-60T * Not Program of

  5. [Structural analyses of unknown red dyes detected in dried strawberry].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Sadamasu, Yuki; Suzuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Yasukazu; Togawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Junichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    We examined two unknown red dyes (designated as red dyes "A" and "B") from a dried strawberry package with a label that indicated the presence of food red No. 40 (R40). Red dye "A" was identified as trisodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonate (CSA-R) by HPLC, UV-VIS spectra and MS spectra. This compound is one of the four reported subsidiary colors of R40. Detailed analyses of red dye "B" by MS and NMR demonstrated that its structure was disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(2'-methoxy-5'-methyl-4'-sulfonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenesulfonate. Red dye "B" is a structural isomer of R40, that has not been reported previously. Our results suggest that the two minor red dyes were subsidiary colors contained in R40, which had been added to the dried strawberries.

  6. Blood brain barrier impairment is associated with cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuronal damage in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, A; Atzori, C; Romito, A; Vai, D; Audagnotto, S; Stella, M L; Montrucchio, C; Imperiale, D; Di Perri, G; Bonora, S

    2016-02-01

    Blood brain barrier impairment occurs early in the course of infection by HIV and it may persist in a subset of patients despite effective antiretroviral treatment. We tested the hypothesis that HIV-positive patients with dysfunctional blood brain barrier may have altered biomarkers of neuronal damage. In adult HIV-positive highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-treated patients (without central nervous system infections and undergoing lumbar punctures for clinical reasons) cerebrospinal fluid albumin to serum ratios (CSAR), total tau, phosphorylated tau, 1-42 beta amyloid, and neopterin were measured. In 101 adult patients, cerebrospinal fluid-to-serum albumin ratios were 4.8 (3.7-6.1) with 12 patients (11.9%) presenting age-defined impaired blood brain barrier. A significant correlation was observed between CSAR and total tau (p = 0.005), phosphorylated tau (p = 0.008), and 1-42 beta amyloid (p = 0.040). Patients with impaired blood brain barrier showed significantly higher total tau (201.6 vs. 87.3 pg/mL, p = 0.010), phosphorylated tau (35.3 vs. 32.1 ng/mL, p = 0.035), and 1-42 beta amyloid (1134 vs. 830 pg/mL, p = 0.045). Despite effective antiretroviral treatment, blood brain barrier impairment persists in some HIV-positive patients: it is associated with markers of neuronal damage and it was not associated with CSF neopterin concentrations.

  7. Full-aspect 3D target reconstruction of interferometric circular SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun; Bao, Qian; Hou, Liying; Yu, Lingjuan; Hong, Wen

    2016-10-01

    Circular SAR has several attractive features, such as full-aspect observation, high resolution, and 3D target reconstruction capability, thus it has important potential in fine feature description of typical targets. However, the 3D reconstruction capability relies on the scattering persistence of the target. For target with a highly directive scattering property, the resolution in the direction perpendicular to the instantaneous slant plane is very low compared to the range and azimuth resolutions, and the 3D structure of target can hardly be obtained. In this paper, an Interferometric Circular SAR (InCSAR) method is proposed to reconstruct the full-aspect 3D structure of typical targets. InCSAR uses two sensors with a small incident angle difference to collect data in a circular trajectory. The method proposed in this paper calculates the interferometric phase difference (IPD) of the image pair at equally spaced height slices, and mask the original image with an IPD threshold. The main principle is that when a scatterer is imaged at a wrong height, the image pair has an offset, which results in a nonzero IPD, and only when the scatterer is correctly imaged at its true height, the IPD is near zero. The IPD threshold is used to retain scatterers that is correctly imaged at the right height, and meanwhile eliminate scatterers that is imaged at a wrong height, thus the 3D target structure can be retrieved. The proposed method is validated by real data processing, both the data collected in the microwave chamber and the GOTCHA airborne data.

  8. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-d-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. PMID:25637549

  9. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2015-05-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure.

  10. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  11. Multiple use of an IR missile approach warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaetzer, Ingo

    2003-09-01

    PIMAWS (Passive IR Missile Approach Warning System) is an Advanced Technology Demonstrator (ATD) for a Passive IR Missile Approach Warning System for use on all flying platforms. The ATD is under development under a contract to the German MoD. First the presentation about PIMAWS will cover the basic design principles to understand, how the system is working (based on real-time signal- and image-processing algorithms): Requirements for passive missile warning. Solution between high repetition rate and sensitivity. PIMAWS design-principles. Status of the Advanced Technology Demonstrator. Image processing algorithms. False alarm reduction. Results of ground based and airborne trials. Video scenes from life firings against the sensor. Integration into Defensive Aids Systems. System Performance. The second part will show, how PIMAWS can be used as a collision avoidance sensor aboard a flying platform: Extended SW function for collision avoidance. Algorithm. Video scenes. The third part will cover the use as a pointable IR staring camera, as an airborne surveillance sensor for SAR and CSAR applications. Video scenes. The end will show different possibilities of the integration into flying platforms.

  12. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Michael T.

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, open source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.

  13. A New Scoring Function for Molecular Docking Based on AutoDock and AutoDock Vina.

    PubMed

    Tanchuk, Vsevolod Yu; Tanin, Volodymyr O; Vovk, Andriy I; Poda, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Molecular docking of small molecules in the protein binding sites is the most widely used computational technique in modern structure-based drug discovery. Although accurate prediction of binding modes of small molecules can be achieved in most cases, estimation of their binding affinities remains mediocre at best. As an attempt to improve the correlation between the inhibitory constants, pKi, and scoring, we created a new, hybrid scoring function. The new function is a linear combination of the terms of the scoring functions of AutoDock and AutoDock Vina. It was trained on 2,412 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBbind database (www.pdbbind.org.cn, version 2012) and validated on a set of 313 complexes released in the 2013 version as a test set. The new function was included in a modified version of AutoDock. The hybrid scoring function showed a statistically significant improvement in both training and test sets in terms of correlation with and root mean square and mean absolute errors in prediction of pKi values. It was also tested on the CSAR 2014 Benchmark Exercise dataset (team T) and produced reasonably good results.

  14. Three-dimensional landing zone ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, James; Goodrich, Shawn; Burns, H. N.

    2016-05-01

    Three-Dimensional Landing Zone (3D-LZ) refers to a series of Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) programs to develop high-resolution, imaging ladar to address helicopter approach and landing in degraded visual environments with emphasis on brownout; cable warning and obstacle avoidance; and controlled flight into terrain. Initial efforts adapted ladar systems built for munition seekers, and success led to a the 3D-LZ Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) , a 27-month program to develop and demonstrate a ladar subsystem that could be housed with the AN/AAQ-29 FLIR turret flown on US Air Force Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Following the JCTD flight demonstration, further development focused on reducing size, weight, and power while continuing to refine the real-time geo-referencing, dust rejection, obstacle and cable avoidance, and Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning (HTAWS) capability demonstrated under the JCTD. This paper summarizes significant ladar technology development milestones to date, individual LADAR technologies within 3D-LZ, and results of the flight testing.

  15. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-07-28

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5).

  16. [Detection and analysis of symbiotic bacteria, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)].

    PubMed

    Chai, Huan-Na; Wu, Hai-Yan; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2013-12-01

    In this study, 23S rDNA from Arsenophonus and wsp gene from Wolbachia were amplified by PCR method using specific primers to study their symbiosis in Chilo suppressalis from 20 locations of China. The results indicated that Arsenophonus and Wolbachia infection rates differed widely in C. suppressalis populations. The infection rates of Arsenophonus ranged from 5.0% to 50.0% in five geographical populations from Harbin, Huishui, Jilin, Nanyang, and Yangzhou. Wolbachia ranged from 25.0% to 40.0% in three geographical populations from Hanzhong, Nanning, and Yangzhou. Their symbiosis was not observed in C. suppressalis of other locations. The sequences of 23S rDNA gene which named csArs were exactly the same in the five populations. However, the sequences of wsp from the three strains of Wolbachia showed wChisup1 belonged to supergroup A, wChisup5 and wChisup6 belonged to supergroup B. The results showed the strains of Arsenophonus from C. suppressalis of the five different locations were identical, whereas the strains of Wolbachia were phylogenetically diverse. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that 23S rDNA and wsp sequences found in C. suppressalis were exactly the same with or very closely related to relevant sequences in other species.

  17. Variable expression of activation-linked surface antigens on human mast cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Valent, P; Schernthaner, G H; Sperr, W R; Fritsch, G; Agis, H; Willheim, M; Bühring, H J; Orfao, A; Escribano, L

    2001-02-01

    Mast cells (MC) are multipotent effector cells of the immune system. They contain an array of biologically active mediator substances in their granules. MC also express a number of functionally important cell surface antigens, including stem cell factor receptor (SCFR=kit=CD117), high affinity IgER (FcepsilonRI), or CSaR (CD88). Respective ligands can induce or promote degranulation, migration, or cytokine production. Other integral surface molecules can mediate adhesion or cell aggregation. Recent data suggest that a number of critical molecules are variably expressed on the surface of human MC. In fact, depending on the environment (organ), stage of cell maturation, type of disease, and other factors, MC express variable amounts of activation-linked antigens (CD25, CD63, CD69, CD88), cell recognition molecules (CD2, CD11, CD18, CD50, CD54), or cytokine receptors. At present, however, little is known about the mechanisms and regulation of expression of such antigens. The present article gives an overview of MC phenotypes in health and disease, and attempts to provide explanations for the phenotypic variability of MC.

  18. Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Michael T.

    2013-12-02

    This particular consortium implementation of the software integration infrastructure will, in large part, refactor portions of the Rocstar multiphysics infrastructure. Development of this infrastructure originated at the University of Illinois DOE ASCI Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets (CSAR) to support the center's massively parallel multiphysics simulation application, Rocstar, and has continued at IllinoisRocstar, a small company formed near the end of the University-based program. IllinoisRocstar is now licensing these new developments as free, open source, in hopes to help improve their own and others' access to infrastructure which can be readily utilized in developing coupled or composite software systems; with particular attention to more rapid production and utilization of multiphysics applications in the HPC environment. There are two major pieces to the consortium implementation, the Application Component Toolkit (ACT), and the Multiphysics Application Coupling Toolkit (MPACT). The current development focus is the ACT, which is (will be) the substrate for MPACT. The ACT itself is built up from the components described in the technical approach. In particular, the ACT has the following major components: 1.The Component Object Manager (COM): The COM package provides encapsulation of user applications, and their data. COM also provides the inter-component function call mechanism. 2.The System Integration Manager (SIM): The SIM package provides constructs and mechanisms for orchestrating composite systems of multiply integrated pieces.

  19. M.Y.S.P.A.C.E. : Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckay, M.; Arvedson, J. P.; Arvedson, P.

    2014-12-01

    M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. (Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events) is an international collaboration of high school students engaged in self-selected research projects on the local impact of global environmental issues. Students work with their own, trained, Teacher Leaders at their school sites using both locally generated and satellite-based remote-sensing data with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Teams from each school meet at the annual Satellites & Education Conference to discover global trends in their collective data and present their findings. Students learn and practice techniques of scientific investigation; methods of data processing, analysis and interpretation; leadership; and effective communication. They work with NOAA and NASA scientists and engineers, experience university campus life, and can apply for special internships at selected university research centers such as the Center for Energy and Sustainability (CE&S), the Center for Spatial Analysis and Remote Sensing (CSARS), and graduate research opportunities in Geosciences and Environment. The M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. Program is an initiative of the Satellites & Education Conference, which is produced by the non-profit Satellite Educators Association. It is administered from the campus of California State University, Los Angeles. NOAA, NASA, and the NOAA-CREST West grant support the program. It is aligned with NOAA goals of building excitement about careers in science, math, engineering and technology.

  20. Comparative study of DPAL and XPAL systems and selection principal of parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Han, Gaoce; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model based on common pump structure is proposed to analyze the laser output characteristics of DPAL (Diode pumped alkali vapor laser) and XPAL (Exciplex pumped alkali laser) in this paper. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency approaching 80% can be achieved for continuous-wave four- and five-XPAL systems with broadband pumping which is several times of pumped linewidth for DPAL. Operation parameters including pumped intensity, temperature, cell' s length, mixed gas concentration, pumped linewidth and output mirror reflectivity are analyzed for DPAL and XPAL systems basing on the kinetic model. The result shows a better performance in Cs-Ar XPAL laser with requirements of relatively high Ar concentration, high pumped intensity and high temperature. Comparatively, for Cs-DPAL laser, lower temperature and lower pumped intensity should be acquired. In addition, the predictions of selection principal of temperature and cell's length are also presented. The conception of the equivalent "alkali areal density" is proposed in this paper. It is defined as the product of the alkali density and cell's length. The result shows that the output characteristics of DPAL (or XPAL) system with the same alkali areal density but different temperatures turn out to be equal. It is the areal density that reflects the potential of DPAL or XPAL systems directly. A more detailed analysis of similar influences of cavity parameters with the same areal density is also presented. The detailed results of continuous-wave DPAL and XPAL performances as a function of pumped laser linewidth and mixed gas pressure are presented along with an analysis of influences of output coupler.

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Wind and Wave Retrieval from Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weizeng; Sheng, Yexin; Sun, Jian

    2017-07-25

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0.5 m to 3 m. In this study, winds were retrieved using the geophysical model function (GMF) together with the polarization ratio (PR) model and waves were retrieved using a new empirical algorithm based on SAR cutoff wavelength in satellite flight direction, herein called CSAR_WAVE. Validation against buoy measurements shows a 1.4/1.9 m/s root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed and a 24/23% scatter index (SI) of SWH for VV/HH polarization. In addition, wind and wave retrieval results from 166 GF-3 images were compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis winds, as well as the SWH from the WaveWatch-III model, respectively. Comparisons show a 2.0 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 36% SI of SWH for VV-polarization and a 2.2 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 37% SI of SWH for HH-polarization. Our work gives a preliminary assessment of the wind and wave retrieval results from GF-3 SAR images for the first time and will provide guidance for marine applications of GF-3 SAR.

  2. Rice identification at the early stage of the rice growth season with single fine quad Radarsat-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Pengbin; Shen, Kejian; Pei, Zhiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether rice identification and acreage estimation accuracy at the early stage of the rice growth season using single fine quad Radarsat-2 images could meet the demand of rice monitoring. The Leizhou site (20°52'N, 110°05'E) is located in Guangdong Province in southern China and is dominated by rice paddies. There was a lack of optical data acquisitions during certain years. There are two rice growth seasons per year. Multitemporal Radarsat-2 products were acquired in the early rice growth season of 2014. First, multi-temporal backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters based on H/A/Alpha and Yamaguchi polarimetric decomposition theories were extracted and analyzed to distinguish between rice paddies and other typical land cover types, which could help select the optimal rice growth stage and image characteristics for early season classification. Second, an object-oriented technique was applied to time series backscattering coefficient images (HH, HV, VH, VV), H/A/Alpha images (Entropy, Anistropy and Alpha) and Yamaguchi images (volume, double-bounce, surface and helix). Based on the segmentation images, the supervised Bayes, KNN, SVM and Decision tree classifier were used to identify rice. The results indicated that in flat area, 1) Backscatter images and Yamaguchi images were better than H/A/Alpha images in the rice identification application, and 2) At the early rice growth season, the 0430-Yamaguchi image combined with the objectoriented decision tree algorithm were capable of delivering highly accurate maps of rice (0.9236), while the 0524- backscatter image combined with the object-oriented decision tree algorithm could acquire the highest classification accuracy (0.9278) at the end of the rice growth season. Jointing stage is considered to be appropriate for rice identification at the early season. The study demonstrated that it was possible to identify rice at the early season with single quad C-SAR

  3. D3R grand challenge 2015: Evaluation of protein-ligand pose and affinity predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathiaka, Symon; Liu, Shuai; Chiu, Michael; Yang, Huanwang; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Kang, You Na; Delproposto, Jim; Kubish, Ginger; Dunbar, James B.; Carlson, Heather A.; Burley, Stephen K.; Walters, W. Patrick; Amaro, Rommie E.; Feher, Victoria A.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    The Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) ran Grand Challenge 2015 between September 2015 and February 2016. Two targets served as the framework to test community docking and scoring methods: (1) HSP90, donated by AbbVie and the Community Structure Activity Resource (CSAR), and (2) MAP4K4, donated by Genentech. The challenges for both target datasets were conducted in two stages, with the first stage testing pose predictions and the capacity to rank compounds by affinity with minimal structural data; and the second stage testing methods for ranking compounds with knowledge of at least a subset of the ligand-protein poses. An additional sub-challenge provided small groups of chemically similar HSP90 compounds amenable to alchemical calculations of relative binding free energy. Unlike previous blinded Challenges, we did not provide cognate receptors or receptors prepared with hydrogens and likewise did not require a specified crystal structure to be used for pose or affinity prediction in Stage 1. Given the freedom to select from over 200 crystal structures of HSP90 in the PDB, participants employed workflows that tested not only core docking and scoring technologies, but also methods for addressing water-mediated ligand-protein interactions, binding pocket flexibility, and the optimal selection of protein structures for use in docking calculations. Nearly 40 participating groups submitted over 350 prediction sets for Grand Challenge 2015. This overview describes the datasets and the organization of the challenge components, summarizes the results across all submitted predictions, and considers broad conclusions that may be drawn from this collaborative community endeavor.

  4. Theoretical model and simulations for a cw exciplex pumped alkali laser.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Xiaochuan

    2015-12-14

    The Exciplex Pumped Alkali Laser (XPAL) system, which is similar to DPAL (Diode Pumped Alkali vapor Laser), has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapor, Ar, with and without ethane. Unlike DPAL, it uses the broadband absorption blue satellite of the alkali D2 line, created by naturally occuring collision pairs. For example, Cs-Ar collision pairs have an absorption width which is as wide as the one of commercial semiconductor diode lasers. A continuous wave XPAL four-level theoretical model is presented in this paper. More factors are considered, such as the spectral dependence of pumped laser absorption for broadband pumping and the longitudinal population variation. Some intra-cavity details, such as longitudinal distributions of pumped laser and alkali laser, can also be solved well. The predictions of optical-to-optical efficiency as a function of temperature and pumped laser intensity are presented. The model predicts that there is an optimum value of temperature or pumped laser intensity. The analysis of the influence of cell length on optical-to-optical efficiency shows that a better performance can be achieved when using longer cell. The prediction of influence of Ar concentration and reflectivity of output coupler shows that higher optical-to-optical efficiency could be achieved if lower reflectivity of output coupler and higher Ar concentration are used. The optical-to-optical efficiency as high as 84% achieved by optimizing configuration with the pumped intensity of 5 × 10⁷ W/cm² presented shows that broadband pumped four-level XPAL system has a potential of high optical-to-optical efficiency.

  5. Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    HAYDEL, SHELLEY E.; REMENIH, CHRISTINE M.; WILLIAMS, LYNDA B.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives The capacity to properly address the worldwide incidence of infectious diseases lies in the ability to detect, prevent, and effectively treat these infections. Therefore, identifying and analyzing inhibitory agents are worthwhile endeavors in an era when few new classes of effective antimicrobials have been developed. The use of geological nanomaterials to heal skin infections has been evident since the earliest recorded history, and specific clay minerals may prove valuable in the treatment of bacterial diseases, including infections for which there are no effective antibiotics, such as Buruli ulcer and multi-drug resistant infections. Methods We have subjected two iron-rich clay minerals, which have previously been used to treat Buruli ulcer patients, to broth culture testing of antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant pathogenic bacteria to assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as therapeutic agents. Results One specific mineral, CsAg02, demonstrated bactericidal activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium marinum and a combined bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant S. aureus (PRSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Mycobacterium smegmatis, while another mineral with similar structure and bulk crystal chemistry, CsAr02, had no effect on or enhanced bacterial growth. The <0.2 μm fraction of CsAg02 and CsAg02 heated to 200°C or 550°C retained bactericidal activity, while cation-exchanged CsAg02 and CsAg02 heated to 900°C no longer killed E. coli. Conclusions Our results indicate that specific mineral products have intrinsic, heat-stable antibacterial properties, which could provide an inexpensive treatment against numerous human bacterial infections. PMID:18070832

  6. An Ammonia Spectral Map of the L1495-B218 Filaments in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. I. Physical Properties of Filaments and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy L.; Goldsmith, Paul; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Kirk, Jason M.; Schmalzl, Markus; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Friesen, Rachel; Langston, Glen; Masters, Joe; Garwood, Robert W.

    2015-06-01

    We present deep NH3 observations of the L1495-B218 filaments in the Taurus molecular cloud covering over a 3° angular range using the K-band focal plane array on the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending over 8 pc. We observed NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) with a spectral resolution of 0.038 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 31″. Most of the ammonia peaks coincide with intensity peaks in dust continuum maps at 350 and 500 μm. We deduced physical properties by fitting a model to the observed spectra. We find gas kinetic temperatures of 8-15 K, velocity dispersions of 0.05-0.25 km s-1, and NH3 column densities of 5 × 1012 to 1 × 1014 cm-2. The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithms, identifies a total of 55 NH3 structures, including 39 leaves and 16 branches. The masses of the NH3 sources range from 0.05 to 9.5 {{M}⊙ }. The masses of NH3 leaves are mostly smaller than their corresponding virial mass estimated from their internal and gravitational energies, which suggests that these leaves are gravitationally unbound structures. Nine out of 39 NH3 leaves are gravitationally bound, and seven out of nine gravitationally bound NH3 leaves are associated with star formation. We also found that 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure confined. Our data suggest that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and undergo collapse to form a protostar.

  7. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Sulfonamido-based [11C-Carbonyl]-Carbamates and Ureas for Imaging Monoacylglycerol Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Mori, Wakana; Cheng, Ran; Yui, Joji; Hatori, Akiko; Ma, Longle; Zhang, Yiding; Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Shimoda, Yoko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Xie, Lin; Nagai, Yuji; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Vasdev, Neil; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Liang, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a 33 kDa member of the serine hydrolase superfamily that preferentially degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to arachidonic acid in the endocannabinoid system. Inhibition of MAGL is not only of interest for probing the cannabinoid pathway but also as a therapeutic and diagnostic target for neuroinflammation. Limited attempts have been made to image MAGL in vivo and a suitable PET ligand for this target has yet to be identified and is urgently sought to guide small molecule drug development in this pathway. Herein we synthesized and evaluated the physiochemical properties of an array of eleven sulfonamido-based carbamates and ureas with a series of terminal aryl moieties, linkers and leaving groups. The most potent compounds were a novel MAGL inhibitor, N-((1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carbonyl)piperidin-4-yl) methyl)-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (TZPU; IC50 = 35.9 nM), and the known inhibitor 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl 4-(((4-chlorophenyl)sulfonamido) methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (SAR127303; IC50 = 39.3 nM), which were also shown to be selective for MAGL over fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and cannabinoid receptors (CB1 & CB2). Both of these compounds were radiolabeled with carbon-11 via [11C]COCl2, followed by comprehensive ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo PET imaging studies in normal rats to determine their brain permeability, specificity, clearance and metabolism. Whereas TZPU did not show adequate specificity to warrant further evaluation, [11C]SAR127303 was advanced for preliminary PET neuroimaging studies in nonhuman primate. The tracer showed good brain permeability (ca. 1 SUV) and heterogeneous regional brain distribution which is consistent with the distribution of MAGL. PMID:27279908

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Wind and Wave Retrieval from Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) launched by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) has operated at C-band since September 2016. To date, we have collected 16/42 images in vertical-vertical (VV)/horizontal-horizontal (HH) polarization, covering the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) around U.S. western coastal waters. Wind speeds from NDBC in situ buoys are up to 15 m/s and buoy-measured significant wave height (SWH) has ranged from 0.5 m to 3 m. In this study, winds were retrieved using the geophysical model function (GMF) together with the polarization ratio (PR) model and waves were retrieved using a new empirical algorithm based on SAR cutoff wavelength in satellite flight direction, herein called CSAR_WAVE. Validation against buoy measurements shows a 1.4/1.9 m/s root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed and a 24/23% scatter index (SI) of SWH for VV/HH polarization. In addition, wind and wave retrieval results from 166 GF-3 images were compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) re-analysis winds, as well as the SWH from the WaveWatch-III model, respectively. Comparisons show a 2.0 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 36% SI of SWH for VV-polarization and a 2.2 m/s RMSE for wind speed with a 37% SI of SWH for HH-polarization. Our work gives a preliminary assessment of the wind and wave retrieval results from GF-3 SAR images for the first time and will provide guidance for marine applications of GF-3 SAR. PMID:28757571

  9. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  10. istar: A Web Platform for Large-Scale Protein-Ligand Docking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J.; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  11. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  12. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  13. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and dynamical stability of filaments and dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin

    We present deep NH3 and CCS maps of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending over 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2), CCS NJ = 12-01, and HC7N J = 21-20 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31''. The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar. We find that the L1495A, B213E, and B216 regions have strong CCS emission and the B211 and B218 regions have weak CCS emission. Analysis of CCS emission with NH3 (1,1) and dust continuum emission shows that CCS is not a good tracer for starless core evolution. On the other hand, CCS appears to trace recently accreted gas in L1495A and L1521D. We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores and filaments. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores and take the effect of radiation fields. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere. We also find the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation to be considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For regions in the inner Galaxy and near OB associations, the critical

  14. Theoretical Cross Sections of the Inelastic Fine Structure Transition M((2)P1/2) + Ng ↔ M((2)P3/2) + Ng for M = K, Rb, and Cs and Ng = He, Ne, and Ar.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Charlton D; Weeks, David E

    2017-05-11

    Scattering matrix elements of the inelastic fine structure transition M((2)P1/2) + Ng ↔ M((2)P3/2) + Ng are computed using the channel packet method (CPM) for alkali-metal atoms M = K, Rb, and Cs, as they collide with noble-gas atoms Ng = He, Ne, and Ar. The calculations are performed within the block Born-Oppenheimer approximation where excited state VA(2)Π1/2(R), VA(2)Π3/2(R), and VB(2)Σ1/2(R) adiabatic potential energy surfaces are used together with a Hund's case (c) basis to construct a 6 × 6 diabatic representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. Matrix elements of the angular kinetic energy of the nuclei incorporate Coriolis coupling and, together with the diabatic representation of the electronic Hamiltonian, yield a 6 × 6 effective potential energy matrix. This matrix is diagonal in the asymptotic limit of large internuclear separation with eigenvalues that correlate to the (2)Pj alkali atomic energy levels. Scattering matrix elements are computed using the CPM by preparing reactant and product wave packets on the effective potential energy surfaces that correspond to the excited (2)Pj alkali states of interest. The reactant wave packet is then propagated forward in time using the split operator method together with a unitary transformation between the adiabatic and diabatic representations. The Fourier transformation of the correlation function between the evolving reactant wave packet and stationary product wave packet yields state-to-state scattering matrix elements as a function of energy for a particular choice of total angular momentum J. Calculations are performed for energies that range from 0.0 to 0.01 hartree and values of J that start with a minimum of J = 0.5 for all M + Ng pairs up to a maximum that ranges from J = 450.5 for KAr to J = 100.5 for CsAr. A sum over J together with an average over energy is used to compute thermally averaged cross sections for a temperature range of T = 0-400 K.

  15. Space-based observatories providing key data for climate change applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their

  16. Sentinel-1 backscatter sensitivity to vegetation dynamics at the field scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Eder, Alexander; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Cao, Senmao; Naeimi, Vahid; Oismueller, Markus; Strauss, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation monitoring is pivotal to improve our understanding of the role vegetation dynamics play in the global carbon-, energy- and hydrological cycle. And with the increasing stress on food supply due to the growing world populating and changing climate, vegetation monitoring is of great importance in agricultural areas. By closely tracking crop conditions, droughts and subsequent crop losses could be mitigated. Sensors operating in the microwave domain are sensitive to several surface characteristics, including soil moisture and vegetation. Hence, spaceborne microwave remote sensing provides the means to monitor vegetation and soil conditions on different scales, ranging from field scale to global scale. However, it also presents a challenge since multiple combinations of soil and vegetation characteristics can lead to a similar measurement. Copernicus Sentinel-1 (S-1) is a series of two satellites, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) , which carry C-band Synthetic Aperture Radars. The C-SAR sensors provide VV, HH, VH and HV backscatter at a 5 m by 20 m spatial resolution. The temporal revisit time of the two satellites is 3-6 days. With their unique capacity for temporally dense and spatially detailed data, the S-1 satellite series provides for the first time the chance to investigate vegetation dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolution. The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity of Sentinel-1 backscatter to vegetation dynamics. The study is performed in the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), which is a 66 hectare large catchment located in Petzenkirchen, Austria. In the HOAL several vegetation parameters were measured during the course of the growing season (2016) at the overpass time of S-1a. Vegetation height was obtained ten times for the whole catchment, using georeferenced photos made by a motorized paraglider and a Land Surface Model. In addition, vegetation water content, Leaf Area Index and soil moisture were measured in

  17. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.

    2009-04-01

    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is