Science.gov

Sample records for causation market transition

  1. Cumulative causation, market transition, and emigration from China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2008-11-01

    This article reports findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian Province to the United States. Using the ethnosurvey approach developed in the Mexican Migration Project, the authors conducted surveys in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities in New York City. Hypotheses are derived from the international migration literature and the market transition debate. The results are generally consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration; however, geographical location creates some differences in migration patterns to the United States. In China as in Mexico, the existence of migration networks increases the propensity of migration for others in the community. In contrast to the Mexican case, among Chinese immigrants, having a previously migrated household member increases the propensity of other household members to migrate only after the debt for previous migration is paid off. In step with market transition theory, the authors also find that political power influences the migration experience from the coastal Fujian Province.

  2. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  3. Causatives and Transitivity in L2 English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether Spanish- and Turkish-speaking learners of English discover the semantic and syntactic constraints on the causative/inchoative alternation in the absence of overt morphological clues. Results of a picture judgment task show that second language learners do discover these properties and that overall verbs appear to cluster in…

  4. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  5. Narratives about Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie

    2014-01-01

    In European Union policy, Denmark is often referred to as a model country in terms of its flexicurity model and provision of financial support and access to education and training during periods of unemployment, i.e. during transitional phases in a working life. However, in the research on flexicurity and its implications for labour market…

  6. Essays on Neighborhood Transition and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents new evidence on neighborhood transition and its impact on housing markets using a novel micro-level dataset on housing transactions. It focuses on three issues: the neighborhood effect, housing discrimination, and stable integration. The first essay examines the relationship between increased minority composition and…

  7. Essays on Neighborhood Transition and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents new evidence on neighborhood transition and its impact on housing markets using a novel micro-level dataset on housing transactions. It focuses on three issues: the neighborhood effect, housing discrimination, and stable integration. The first essay examines the relationship between increased minority composition and…

  8. Three essays on price dynamics and causations among energy markets and macroeconomic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung Wook

    This dissertation examines three important issues in energy markets: price dynamics, information flow, and structural change. We discuss each issue in detail, building empirical time series models, analyzing the results, and interpreting the findings. First, we examine the contemporaneous interdependencies and information flows among crude oil, natural gas, and electricity prices in the United States (US) through the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) for contemporaneous causal structures and Bernanke factorization for price dynamic processes. Test results show that the DAG from residuals of out-of-sample-forecast is consistent with the DAG from residuals of within-sample-fit. The result supports innovation accounting analysis based on DAGs using residuals of out-of-sample-forecast. Second, we look at the effects of the federal fund rate and/or WTI crude oil price shock on US macroeconomic and financial indicators by using a Factor Augmented Vector Autoregression (FAVAR) model and a graphical model without any deductive assumption. The results show that, in contemporaneous time, the federal fund rate shock is exogenous as the identifying assumption in the Vector Autoregression (VAR) framework of the monetary shock transmission mechanism, whereas the WTI crude oil price return is not exogenous. Third, we examine price dynamics and contemporaneous causality among the price returns of WTI crude oil, gasoline, corn, and the S&P 500. We look for structural break points and then build an econometric model to find the consistent sub-periods having stable parameters in a given VAR framework and to explain recent movements and interdependency among returns. We found strong evidence of two structural breaks and contemporaneous causal relationships among the residuals, but also significant differences between contemporaneous causal structures for each sub-period.

  9. Transit marketing in Pennsylvania: a handbook of effective transit-marketing aids (revised edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The report provides an overview of the range of marketing approaches that can be used by smaller transit systems. The majority of the techniques described deal with providing user information (such as time-tables, maps, and transit-education programs), and promotion and advertising (such as newspapers and radio advertising, press releases, and billboards). The document does include some information on fares, service planning and development, public relations, and promotional campaigns. Each technique is illustrated with one or more examples from within Pennsylvania. The document should be of particular interest to transit managers of smaller properties and their marketing staffs.

  10. Handbook: Using market segmentation to increase transit ridership. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore-Yalch, R.

    1998-12-31

    This handbook will be of interest to transit managers, marketing professionals, planners, and others interested in the potential implementation of market segmentation strategies to increase transit ridership. This handbook provides an overview of market segmentation--what it is and why it is relevant to public transit agencies. It serves as an introduction for managers to the basic concepts and approaches of market segmentation and provides steps and procedures for marketers or market researchers who have the responsibility for implementing a market segmentation program. The handbook places special emphasis on issues that must be addressed when using market segmentation, procedures and terminology that one may encounter in connection with segmentation, problems likely to arise in implementing segmentation studies, ways to encourage the use of market segmentation at transit agencies, and methods to translate segmentation findings into strategy.

  11. Representing Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics model, which is based on L. Talmy's (1988) theory of force dynamics, characterizes causation as a pattern of forces and a position vector. In contrast to counterfactual and probabilistic models, the dynamics model naturally distinguishes between different cause-related concepts and explains the induction of causal relationships from…

  12. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  13. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  14. Transit Economy Market Challenge and University Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiulis, Algirdas Vaclovas

    2003-01-01

    In an ever-changing labour market, university tries to make efforts to estimate the free labour market demands for university graduates. The strength of Engineering Education lies in the range and depth of fundamental knowledge the students acquire during their studies, but the abilities like: taking risk, taking initiative, teamwork,…

  15. Teaching Marketing in a Transition Economy: Some Personal Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the challenges faced when delivering a marketing course to international students in general, the challenges are compounded when the students have little interest in the subject and the students are located in a country in transition. This study examines the experiences of the author in teaching marketing theory to first-year…

  16. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  17. Developing Graduate Marketing Programs for Economies in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadraba, Petr G.; O'Keefe, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the authors' experiences in introducing marketing concepts to students involved in the transition from planned to market economies. It addresses critical issues involved in the translation of these concepts within languages that often have no words that are synonymous with these terms. The authors discuss methods…

  18. The carbon-consuming home: residential markets and energy transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Home heating and lighting markets have played crucial and underappreciated roles in driving energy transitions. When historians have studied the adoption of fossil fuels, they have often privileged industrial actors, markets, and technologies. My analysis of the factors that stimulated the adoption of anthracite coal and petroleum during the nineteenth century reveals that homes shaped how, when, and why Americans began to use fossil fuel energy. Moreover, a brief survey of other fossil fuel transitions shows that heating and lighting markets have been critical drivers in other times and places. Reassessing the historical patterns of energy transitions offers a revised understanding of the past for historians and suggests a new set of options for policymakers seeking to encourage the use of renewable energy in the future.

  19. Learning about the Importance of Education for Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; De Botton, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the importance given by individuals to the process of education in labour market transitions and how they manage to overcome obstacles to achieve their goals. Many of the stories in the Spanish research were transformative and innovative despite the context of high levels of unemployment in Spain due to the global economic…

  20. Job Search, Search Intensity, and Labor Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemen, Hans G.

    2005-01-01

    Job searches by both the unemployed and employed jobseekers are studied through an empirical structural job search model using a choice variable of search intensity. The resulting influence of search intensity on the labor market transitions is analyzed to give the estimation results of the search and the impact of the benefit level on the search…

  1. Model of Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The study, upon which this special issue focuses, used narrative interviews to investigate how learning can support workers' transitions in the labour market in five European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Spain). The five countries were chosen to represent very different contexts in the way learning can support career and labour…

  2. Equilibrium transition from centralization to competitive market: Stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, V.; Slastnikov, A.

    1994-12-31

    The paper deals with modelling changes of economic mechanism. Unlike most of the dynamic equilibrium models, both producers and consumers in our model act under budget restrictions. We associate different principles of budgets forming with different economic mechanisms and state a problem of transition from one economic mechanism to another. We focus on the following two mechanisms. The first one assumes the presence of Central Planning Board ({open_quotes}the State{close_quotes}) and may identify with centralized (state controlled) economy. Under the second mechanism, the role of the State is eliminated and its distributive functions are moved to the Market. In the framework of dynamic equilibrium theory we pro pose a model of gradual transition from economy with centralized budgets regulation to market economy. It is assumed that information about possible change of economic mechanism affects essentially on behavior of agents. Duration of transition period is regarded as a random variable. We study conditions when such transition allows firms to adapt their plans to future markets and guarantees the existence of equilibrium paths. The case of Shock (instantaneous transition), which may bring bankruptcy, jump of prices and deficit, is also discussed.

  3. North American oriented strand board markets, arbitrage activity, and market price dynamics: A smooth transition approach

    Treesearch

    Barry Goodwin; Matthew Holt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2011-01-01

    Price dynamics for North American oriented strand board markets are examined. The role of transactions costs are explored vis-à-vis the law of one price. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating time-varying smooth transition autoregressions (TV-STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity and structural change are important...

  4. Partial information, market efficiency, and anomalous continuous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Zheng, Wenzhi; Huang, Jiping

    2014-04-01

    It is a common belief in economics and social science that if there is more information available for agents to gather in a human system, the system can become more efficient. The belief can be easily understood according to the well-known efficient market hypothesis. In this work, we attempt to challenge this belief by investigating a complex adaptive system, which is modeled by a market-directed resource-allocation game with a directed random network. We conduct a series of controlled human experiments in the laboratory to show the reliability of the model design. As a result, we find that even under a small information concentration, the system can still almost reach the optimal (balanced) state. Furthermore, the ensemble average of the system’s fluctuation level goes through a continuous phase transition. This behavior means that in the second phase if too much information is shared among agents, the system’s stability will be harmed instead, which differs from the belief mentioned above. Also, at the transition point, the ensemble fluctuations of the fluctuation level remain at a low value. This phenomenon is in contrast to the textbook knowledge about continuous phase transitions in traditional physical systems, namely, fluctuations will rise abnormally around a transition point since the correlation length becomes infinite. Thus, this work is of potential value to a variety of fields, such as physics, economics, complexity science, and artificial intelligence.

  5. Evolution of the Serbian pharmaceutical market alongside socioeconomic transition.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Djordjevic, Natasa; Jurisevic, Milena; Jankovic, Slobodan

    2015-06-01

    South-eastern European socioeconomic transition followed by extensive health systems reforms has completely changed the pharmaceuticals market landscape in the region. Serbia, as the largest Western Balkans market, may serve as an example of such changes. Descriptive trend analysis of national-level dispensing of medicines in Serbia 2004-2012 was performed. Total public health expenditure in Serbia increased sharply in less than a decade (€1,175,158,679 to €1,847,971,776); public spending on pharmaceuticals doubled (€339,279,304 to €742,013,976). Market growth was primarily driven by statins, novel platelet aggregation inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and combined preparations indicated in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pharmaceutical market of Serbia has undergone thorough and complete transformation from within. Serious crisis of medicine supply sustainability is currently shaking Balkan health systems due to increasing public debt worsened by global recession. More responsible reimbursement policy rooted in cost-effectiveness principle is needed in years to come.

  6. Using trading strategies to detect phase transitions in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forró, Z.; Woodard, R.; Sornette, D.

    2015-04-01

    We show that the log-periodic power law singularity model (LPPLS), a mathematical embodiment of positive feedbacks between agents and of their hierarchical dynamical organization, has a significant predictive power in financial markets. We find that LPPLS-based strategies significantly outperform the randomized ones and that they are robust with respect to a large selection of assets and time periods. The dynamics of prices thus markedly deviate from randomness in certain pockets of predictability that can be associated with bubble market regimes. Our hybrid approach, marrying finance with the trading strategies, and critical phenomena with LPPLS, demonstrates that targeting information related to phase transitions enables the forecast of financial bubbles and crashes punctuating the dynamics of prices.

  7. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    PubMed

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  8. [On the origin of Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of the plague: A concept of population-genetic macroevolution in transitive environment].

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    An ecological scenario is proposed for the origin of causative agent of the plague (the bacterium Yersenia pestis) from the clone of pseudotuberculous microbe of the first serotype Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1b. Disclosed are the conditions of gradual intrusion of psychrophile saprozoonosis ancestor into the blood of the primary host, Mongolian tarbagan marmot Marmota sibirica. As an inductor of speciation acted the Sartan cooling that occurred in the end of late Pleistocene under conditions of arid ultra-continental climate in Central Asia. Soil freezing down to the level of hibernating chambers in marmot burrows initiated the transition of marmot flea, Oropsylla silantiewi, larvae to optional hemophagy on the mucous coat inside the mouth cavity of sleeping marmots. In its turn, this promoted the conditions of mass traumatic intrusion of Y pseudotuberculosis into marmots bloodstream from faecal particles getting in their mouth cavity in course of building up a plug in a burrow for hibernating. In marmot populations, the selection of bacteria underwent under conditions of heterothermy with repeated changes of hibernating marmots body temperature within the range of 5-37 degrees C (torpor-euthermy). During the warm season, when pseudotuberculous microbes are totally eliminated from the bloodstream of healthy marmots with body temperature about 37 degrees C, bacteria could survive in fleas' digestive tract in the form of biofilm developing in proventriculus as a so called blockage. Final isolation between ancestral and daughter species was helped by the development of intrapopulation antagonism related with the beginning of full-scale synthesis of bacteriocin pesticin. Population-genetic processes in the "marmot-flea" system have led to a macroevolutionary event, that is, to passage of bacteria in a new ecological niche and adaptive zone that are principally different from those of the ancestor. All the present intraspecies forms of Y. pestis that appeared due to

  9. Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.

    2010-08-01

    Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched

  10. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  11. Causation in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, M; Weed, D

    2001-01-01

    Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the

  12. Prediction, Coupling, and Causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, G.; May, R. M.; Ye, H.; Deyle, E. R.; Perretti, C. T.; Hsieh, C.; Munch, S. B.; Fogarty, M. J.; Stuart, S. A.; Sugihara, P.

    2012-12-01

    Although correlation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish causation, it remains deeply ingrained in our heuristic thinking. With increasing recognition that nonlinear dynamics are ubiquitous, and that relationships among variables will depend on system state, the use of correlation to infer causation becomes more difficult. Here we examine a criterion that identifies time series variables as causally related if they interact as part of the same dynamic system. We directly deduce the operative network of realized dynamic linkages from information embedded in time series, rather than using a proxy for the network of interactions such as diet overlap. Our approach, based on nonlinear state space reconstruction, addresses Berkeley's 301-year correlation vs. causation dilemma and identifies basic problems when the current solution, Granger causality, is applied to nonlinear ecosystems. This criterion applies even in highly nonlinear cases and provides a conceptual framework for studying coupling and catastrophic change in nature.

  13. Probabilistic Causation without Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.

    The failure of Hume's "constant conjunction" to describe apparently causal relations in science and everyday life has led to various "probabilistic" theories of causation of which the study by P. C. Suppes (1970) is an important example. A formal model that was developed for the analysis of comparative agricultural experiments…

  14. Genes and causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2008-09-13

    Relating genotypes to phenotypes is problematic not only owing to the extreme complexity of the interactions between genes, proteins and high-level physiological functions but also because the paradigms for genetic causality in biological systems are seriously confused. This paper examines some of the misconceptions, starting with the changing definitions of a gene, from the cause of phenotype characters to the stretches of DNA. I then assess whether the 'digital' nature of DNA sequences guarantees primacy in causation compared to non-DNA inheritance, whether it is meaningful or useful to refer to genetic programs, and the role of high-level (downward) causation. The metaphors that served us well during the molecular biological phase of recent decades have limited or even misleading impacts in the multilevel world of systems biology. New paradigms are needed if we are to succeed in unravelling multifactorial genetic causation at higher levels of physiological function and so to explain the phenomena that genetics was originally about. Because it can solve the 'genetic differential effect problem', modelling of biological function has an essential role to play in unravelling genetic causation.

  15. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  16. The Impact of Learning on Women's Labour Market Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasler, Simone R.

    2014-01-01

    Women play an increasingly important role in the labour market and as wage earners. Moreover, in many countries, young women have outperformed men in terms of educational attainment and qualification. Still, women's human capital investment does not pay off as it does for men as they are still significantly disadvantaged on the labour market.…

  17. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  18. Vocational Education and Training and Transitions into the Labour Market of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching, Helga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to shed light on the following questions: to what extent are labour market policy measures accessible for women and men with ID (intellectual disabilities)? What is the reality of transition to employment for this target group? What is the success rate of women and men with ID accessing labour market policy measures…

  19. Work Units and Income Inequality: The Effect of Market Transition in Urban China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaogang

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of the transition from a state socialist economy to a market-oriented economy on personal income inequality in urban China. Examines returns to human capital (educational attainment and work experience) in low-profit state firms, high-profit state firms, and market firms. (Contains 54 references.) (Author/SV)

  20. Navigating Difficult Waters: Learning for Career and Labour Market Transitions. Research Paper No 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses how learning supports labour market transitions and career changes of adult workers across five countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and Italy). To make the most of career and labour market opportunities, individuals have to rely on their own resources and their agency but also know how to navigate the institutional…

  1. The Transition from Higher Education to the Labour Market: International Perspectives and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlert, Holger, Ed.; Cordier, Heidi, Ed.

    This book examines the transition from higher education to the labor market in 10 countries. Although the individual papers do not follow a rigid standard format, they all consider the following issues: (1) how the labor market for graduates is organized; (2) how vocational orientation is achieved in degree courses in individual countries; and (3)…

  2. Graded Causation and Defaults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    in philosophy and the law in part because of its connection with issues of moral and legal responsibility (see for example, Moore [2009] for a...viewpoints in the flower-watering example described in the introduction: (a) Beebee [2004] and Moore [2009], for example, argue against the existence...relevant sense) of his death. Moore [2009] uses this type of case to argue that our ordinary notion of actual causation is graded, rather than all-or

  3. [The formative causation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis of formative causation proposed by Rupert Sheldrake in 1981, affirms that morphogenetic fields play a causal role in the development and maintenance of the forms of systems at all levels of complexity and that nature is governed by habits. All animals and plants draw upon and contribute to the collective memory of their species. The author suggested that memory is inherent in nature and it is transmitted by a process called morphic resonance and works through fields called morphic fields. The hypothesis of formative causation accounts for the repetition of forms but does not explain how the first example of any given form originally came into being. Despite the advances in molecular biology, morphogenesis continues to elude a molecular explanation and seems to depend on morphogenetic fields. The hypothesis of formative causation interprets many physical and biological phenomena in a way radically different than those proposed by existing theories. According to this hypothesis the conscious self can be thought of as interacting with morphic fields in order to be connected with the external environment and with the state of the body in consciously controlled activity.

  4. A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…

  5. Probability of causation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Probability of causation (PC) is sometimes viewed as a great improvement by those persons who are not happy with the present rulings of courts in radiation cases. The author does not share that hope and expects that PC will not play a significant role in these issues for at least the next decade. If it is ever adopted in a legislative compensation scheme, it will be used in a way that is unlikely to please most scientists. Consequently, PC is a false hope for radiation scientists, and its best contribution may well lie in some of the spin-off effects, such as an influence on medical practice.

  6. Labor Market Outcomes and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and…

  7. Improving energy efficiency: Strategies for supporting sustained market evolution in developing and transitioning countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a framework for considering market-oriented strategies for improving energy efficiency that recognize the conditions of developing and transitioning countries, and the need to strengthen the effectiveness of market forces in delivering greater energy efficiency. It discusses policies that build markets in general, such as economic and energy pricing reforms that encourage competition and increase incentives for market actors to improve the efficiency of their energy use, and measures that reduce the barriers to energy efficiency in specific markets such that improvement evolves in a dynamic, lasting manner. The report emphasizes how different policies and measures support one another and can create a synergy in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In addressing this topic, it draws on the experience with market transformation energy efficiency programs in the US and other industrialized countries.

  8. Physics and Causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfeld, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The paper makes a case for there being causation in the form of causal properties or causal structures in the domain of fundamental physics. That case is built in the first place on an interpretation of quantum theory in terms of state reductions so that there really are both entangled states and classical properties, GRW being the most elaborate physical proposal for such an interpretation. I then argue that the interpretation that goes back to Everett can also be read in a causal manner, the splitting of the world being conceivable as a causal process. Finally, I mention that the way in which general relativity theory conceives the metrical field opens up the way for a causal conception of the metrical properties as well.

  9. Obstacle detectors for automated transit vehicles: A technoeconomic and market analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockerby, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search was conducted to identify the technical and economic characteristics of both NASA and nonNASA obstacle detectors. The findings, along with market information were compiled and analyzed for consideration by DOT and NASA in decisions about any future automated transit vehicle obstacle detector research, development, or applications project. Currently available obstacle detectors and systems under development are identified by type (sonic, capacitance, infrared/optical, guided radar, and probe contact) and compared with the three NASA devices selected as possible improvements or solutions to the problems in existing obstacle detection systems. Cost analyses and market forecasts individually for the AGT and AMTV markets are included.

  10. Symmetry/anti-symmetry phase transitions in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Soriano, Angel; Cisneros, Myriam; Suarez, Rodolfo

    2003-05-01

    Daily records of international crude oil prices are studied by means of a Zipf-type analysis. By using simple up-down information on price fluctuations, we have observed phase transitions between symmetric states, where occurrence of up and down fluctuations are almost equal, to anti-symmetric states, where there is a significant imbalance between up and down occurrences. Symmetric phase provides a time-scale domain for risk-neutral transactions. On the other hand, anti-symmetric phase can be exploited by speculators and consumers to accommodate contracts that take advantage of the spread between up and down occurrences.

  11. The Early School Leavers: Initial Survey. Report and Summary Report. Youth Transition into the Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain, William H.; Sharpe, Dennis B.

    The study of Youth Transition into the Labour Market (YTLM) began several years ago in the spring of 1987. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of approximately 9000 Level III high school students in Newfoundland and Labrador at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  12. 47 CFR 27.1234 - Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminating existing operations in transitioned markets. 27.1234 Section 27.1234 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational...

  13. Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood. Discussion Paper No. 1319-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes labor market behaviors of young adults, their changing patterns among two cohorts that are twenty years apart, and their associations with transitions to adulthood as measured by living with parents, being married, or cohabiting. We analyze these issues using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of he National Longitudinal…

  14. Labor Market Experiences and Transitions to Adulthood. Discussion Paper No. 1319-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes labor market behaviors of young adults, their changing patterns among two cohorts that are twenty years apart, and their associations with transitions to adulthood as measured by living with parents, being married, or cohabiting. We analyze these issues using data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of he National Longitudinal…

  15. Supporting Business Students' Transition into Higher Education: The Case of Marketing Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah; Wason, Hilary; Southall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a student-centred learning and teaching approach, "Marketing Downloads", designed to support students in transition into Higher Education. The move from secondary to tertiary education can be stressful for students and it impacts on their academic performance, their social life and general sense of well-being.…

  16. Supporting Business Students' Transition into Higher Education: The Case of Marketing Downloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah; Wason, Hilary; Southall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a student-centred learning and teaching approach, "Marketing Downloads", designed to support students in transition into Higher Education. The move from secondary to tertiary education can be stressful for students and it impacts on their academic performance, their social life and general sense of well-being.…

  17. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. The Class of '89: Initial Survey of Level III (Grade 12) High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    The Transition of Youth into the Labour Market is a developmental study of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year,…

  18. Contrasting Causatives: A Minimalist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubino Blanco, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the mechanisms behind the linguistic expression of causation in English, Hiaki (Uto-Aztecan) and Spanish. Pylkkanen's (2002, 2008) analysis of causatives as dependent on the parameterization of the functional head v[subscript CAUSE] is chosen as a point of departure. The studies conducted in this dissertation confirm…

  19. Contrasting Causatives: A Minimalist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubino Blanco, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the mechanisms behind the linguistic expression of causation in English, Hiaki (Uto-Aztecan) and Spanish. Pylkkanen's (2002, 2008) analysis of causatives as dependent on the parameterization of the functional head v[subscript CAUSE] is chosen as a point of departure. The studies conducted in this dissertation confirm…

  20. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    's nutrition transition. The carbonated soft drink market is the most highly concentrated and likely to be most harmful to population nutrition. The grocery retail sector is, in terms of increasing market concentration and thus market power, likely to be the most important driver of ongoing food systems change and ultra-processed food sales in the region. Given it's rapid growth, the food service sector will also contribute significantly to ongoing dietary change.

  1. Exogenous and endogenous market crashes as phase transitions in complex financial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for exogenous and endogenous shocks in complex financial systems. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This remains true even in the midst of transitory exogenous and endogenous shocks. Changes in market regime (bearish to bullish and bullish to bearish) can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. The resulting models refine the empirical analysis in a number of previous papers.

  2. Facility and market factors affecting transitions from nursing home to community.

    PubMed

    Arling, Greg; Abrahamson, Kathleen A; Cooke, Valerie; Kane, Robert L; Lewis, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Research into nursing home transitions has given limited attention to the facility or community contexts. To identify facility and market factors affecting transitions of nursing home residents back to the community. Multilevel models were used to estimate effects of facility and market factors on facility-level community discharge rates after controlling for resident demographic, health, and functional conditions. Facility discharge rates were adjusted using Empirical Bayes estimation. Annual cohort of first-time admissions (N=24,648) to 378 Minnesota nursing facilities in 75 nursing home markets from July 2005 to June 2006. Community discharge within 90 days of admission; facility occupancy, payer mix, ownership, case-mix acuity, size, admissions from hospitals, nurse staffing level, and proportion of admissions preferring or having support to return to the community; and nursing market population size, average occupancy, market concentration, and availability of home and community-based services. Rates of community discharge (Empirical Bayes residual) were highest in facilities with more residents preferring community discharge, more Medicare days, higher nurse staffing levels, and higher occupancy. In addition, facilities had higher community discharge rates if they were located in markets with a greater ratio of home and community-based services recipients to nursing home residents and with larger populations. State Medicaid programs should undertake system-level interventions that encourage nursing facilities to reduce unused bed capacity, balance the mix of payers, invest in nurse staffing, and take other steps to promote community discharges. In addition, states should increase home and community-based services, particularly in markets with low community discharge rates.

  3. [Young rehabilitants in vocational training at the transition to the labour market].

    PubMed

    Reims, N; Gruber, S

    2014-12-01

    This study tackles the question, whether and to what extent labour market integration is achieved by young rehabilitants participating in an apprenticeship provided by the Federal Employment Agency. In order to identify salient determinants for the entry into as well as the sustainability of fi rst employment, event history analyses are applied. After a relatively short period, first integrated rehabilitants mostly fi nd unsubsidized employment. The entry into employment is determined by factors similar to those influencing the labour market transition of young adults without disabilities: higher educational achievements, a successfully completed apprenticeship at best within an establishment, high regional mobility and good structural conditions favour labour market integration. Furthermore, physically disabled graduates and those with shorter unemployment and sickness periods stay longer in fi rst employment than graduates showing other disabilities and those with longer periods in unemployment and sickness.

  4. Health implications of transition from a planned to a free-market economy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Baillie, K

    2008-03-01

    China and the Former Soviet Union have both undergone substantial political and economic change in recent years as they began the transition from planned to more liberal market economies. The approaches to market liberalization in Russia (privatization in the minimum time) and China (gradual liberalization of prices and slow withdrawal of agricultural subsidies) were quite different. This paper examines some of the health implications associated with these changes, particularly in relation to the increasing burden of diet-related chronic diseases. The changing patterns of tobacco and alcohol use, increase in sedentary lifestyles and increased consumption of non-traditional, energy-dense processed foods, high in salt, fat and sugar are examined, as are the strategies used by foreign direct investors in these emerging markets to ensure market penetration, to gain a fuller understanding of how children and adults' choices of food are being influenced as a result of these socioeconomic changes. Some of the threats and opportunities facing Chinese and foreign food producers in these new conditions are assessed. It is suggested that to ensure successful prevention of future diet-related chronic diseases in such rapidly changing conditions, there needs to be a move beyond reliance solely on health education programmes and individual or local community-based interventions. A series of strategies involving multiple stakeholders should be considered as options for intervention.

  5. Transition from Exponential to Power Law Income Distributions in a Chaotic Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Lostao, Carmen; Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    Economy is demanding new models, able to understand and predict the evolution of markets. To this respect, Econophysics offers models of markets as complex systems, that try to comprehend macro-, system-wide states of the economy from the interaction of many agents at micro-level. One of these models is the gas-like model for trading markets. This tries to predict money distributions in closed economies and quite simply, obtains the ones observed in real economies. However, it reveals technical hitches to explain the power law distribution, observed in individuals with high incomes. In this work, nonlinear dynamics is introduced in the gas-like model in an effort to overcomes these flaws. A particular chaotic dynamics is used to break the pairing symmetry of agents (i, j) ⇔ (j, i). The results demonstrate that a "chaotic gas-like model" can reproduce the Exponential and Power law distributions observed in real economies. Moreover, it controls the transition between them. This may give some insight of the micro-level causes that originate unfair distributions of money in a global society. Ultimately, the chaotic model makes obvious the inherent instability of asymmetric scenarios, where sinks of wealth appear and doom the market to extreme inequality.

  6. Risk, Causation, Mediation, and Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumsta, Robert; Rutter, Michael; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout this monograph, there has been frequent reference to levels of risk, inference of causation, testing for mediating variables, and the need to consider possible moderating influences. In this chapter, the authors review what is meant by these concepts, and then seek to pull together the findings from the English and Romanian Adoptee…

  7. Children's rights and the MDGs: the right to health within Vietnam's transition towards a market economy.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Christian Salazar

    2006-01-01

    In Vietnam, the transition towards a market-based economy has contributed greatly to poverty reduction, but there are also signs of rising inequalities. This article discusses the consequences of internal and external economic liberalization on children's right to health. It describes how the right of the child to adequate health care is fulfilled in Vietnam and analyzes challenges health policy-makers face during the transition. Policy options are recommended, including increased public expenditures on health, introduction of health insurance, development of culturally sensitive health care programs for ethnic minority children and women, and negotiation of conditions for World Trade Organization (WTO) accession that do not jeopardize Vietnam's successes in implementation of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs).

  8. Causative Errors with Unaccusative Verbs in L2 Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether intermediate Turkish-speaking and English-speaking learners of Spanish know which unaccusative verbs alternate in transitivity and which ones do not, and whether they find causative errors natural with intransitive verbs. Results confirm similar findings to those reported in English interlanguage and first-language acquisition…

  9. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems.

  10. Social marketing as a tool to improve behavioral health services for underserved populations in transition countries.

    PubMed

    Szydlowski, Steven J; Chattopadhyay, Satya P; Babela, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Human development efforts continue to change the world and improve quality of life for humans. Without the struggle and drive to contemplate new ideas to improve society, the global community would be in a constant state of oppression. Although cultures and norms change as international boundaries are crossed, the universal goal is to improve standards of living to include behavioral health services for underserved populations. In recent times, pioneers and community groups have used social marketing as an instrument to change public perceptions and behaviors within societies. These efforts have transformed nations in the acceptance and understanding of community health and rehabilitation, education, service, and human rights. This article examines the justification for utilization of the concepts and tools of social marketing to bring about proactive behavior modification among segments of underserved populations. A section of this article provides an overview of the basics of social marketing for the benefit of makers of health policy in transition countries. Finally, the case of 2 underserved population segments in the Republic of Slovakia, a new member of the European Union (former socialist block member), is examined for possible implementation.

  11. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Stacey L.; Barnes, Michael C.; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  12. Causation and disease: effect of technology on postulates of causation.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the technical developments in microbiology that led to the discovery of new infectious agents and the effect of these discoveries on establishing proof of causation. In bacteriology, these advances included the light microscope, bacterial stains, bacterial cultures, and the methods used to isolate clones. In virology, they involved the use of filters to separate viruses from bacteria, the electron microscope, the use of laboratory animals, embryonated eggs, tissue cultures to identify or grow the agent, and the recent development of molecular techniques to detect the presence of antigen in tissues. In immunology, they were based on the discovery of antibodies and of the immune response. PMID:1814063

  13. Transition from coherence to bistability in a model of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2001-04-01

    We present a model describing the competition between information transmission and decision making in financial markets. The solution of this simple model is recalled, and possible variations discussed. It is shown numerically that despite its simplicity, it can mimic a size effect comparable to a crash localized in time. Two extensions of this model are presented that allow to simulate the demand process. One of these extensions has a coherent stable equilibrium and is self-organized, while the other has a bistable equilibrium, with a spontaneous segregation of the population of agents. A new model is introduced to generate a transition between those two equilibriums. We show that the coherent state is dominant up to an equal mixing of the two extensions. We focus our attention on the microscopic structure of the investment rate, which is the main parameter of the original model. A constant investment rate seems to be a very good approximation.

  14. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988. Part 4. Marketing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smerk, G.M.; Henriksson, L.; McDaniel, K.; Perreault, P.; Stark, S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations--covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  15. Annual Transitions between Labour Market States for Young Australians. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Marks, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Much analysis of youth transitions focuses on the first year after education, or outcomes at a specific age. Such work looks, for example, at the effect of education on the likelihood of being employed or unemployed. This study takes a different angle by considering the effect of education on the persistence of labour market outcomes. For example,…

  16. Youth Transition into the Labour Market. Six Months after High School: Class of '89 Follow-Up Survey One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.; Spain, William H.

    This developmental study focused on the process of youth as they make the difficult transition into the labor market of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project consists of two parallel yet interrelated studies, one focusing on the full cohort of over 9000 Level III high school students at the end of the 1988-89 school year, and a second, which…

  17. Children and the Transition to the Market Economy: Safety Nets and Social Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Ed.; Sipos, Sandor, Ed.

    Organized in two parts, this book explores methods for incorporating concern for human needs into economic policies in eastern and central European countries that are making the transition to a market economy. Part I of the book considers economic reform, social policy, and child welfare in central and eastern Europe as a whole. Topics include:…

  18. The Transition from University to the Labour Market for IT Graduates in the City of Cluj-Napoca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana; Brad, Alexandru; Cristea, Daniela; Pop, Otilia Alexandra; Radu, Adina; Sicoe, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is deeply concerned with how education responds to the needs of society. The purpose of this article is to analyze the transition from the University education to the labour market for the IT specialists in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In order to achieve this, a survey was conducted among the recent graduates in the IT…

  19. Labour Market Problems and Psychological Well-Being: A Panel Study of Canadian Youth in Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; Krahn, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Four-year panel survey data were used to examine the effects of well-being on school-to-work transition of Canadian youth. Such labor market problems as unemployment and underemployment had small, significant negative effects on self-esteem, depression, and powerlessness for high school graduates but not college graduates. Effects of education…

  20. Public transit 1997: Planning, management, marketing and new technology. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Partial Contents: Transit Service Design and Operation Practices in Western European Countries; Understanding Differences in Public Transit: Comparison of Boston and Toronto; Influence of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority on Population and Employment Location; Integrated Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Transit and Land-Use Coordination Policies; Transit Friendliness Factor: Approach to Quantifying Transit Access Environment in a Transportation Planning Model; Pedestrian Access to Transit: Model of Walk Trips and Their Design and Urban Form Determinants Around Bay Area Rapid Transit Stations; Parking Supply Policy and Transit Use: Case Study of Atlanta, Georgia; Mobility Analysis of Transit Systems; Research on Customer Requirements for Transit Service Design and Delivery.

  1. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  2. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  3. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  4. Socio-technical transition as a co-evolutionary process: Innovation and the role of niche markets in the transition to motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, Alicia K.

    2008-10-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse emissions from personal transportation will require a transition to an alternative technology regime based on renewable energy sources. Two bodies of research, the quasi-evolutionary (QE) model and the multi-level perspective (MLP) assert that processes within niches play a fundamental role in such transitions. This research asks whether the description of transitions based on this niche hypothesis and its underlying assumptions is consistent with the historical U.S. transition to motor vehicles at the beginning of the 20th century. Unique to this dissertation is the combination of the perspective of the entrepreneur with co-evolutionary approaches to socio-technical transitions. This approach is augmented with concepts from the industry life-cycle model and with a taxonomy of mechanisms of learning. Using this analytic framework, I examine specifically the role of entrepreneurial behavior and processes within and among firms in the co-evolution of technologies and institutions during the transition to motor vehicles. I find that niche markets played an important role in the development of the technology, institutions, and the industry. However, I also find that the diffusion of the automobile is not consistent with the niche hypothesis in the following ways: (1) product improvements and cost reductions were not realized in niche markets, but were achieved simultaneously with diffusion into mass markets; (2) in addition to learning-by-doing and learning-by-interacting with users, knowledge spillovers and interacting with suppliers were critical in this process; (3) cost reductions were not automatic results of expanding markets, but rather arose from the strategies of entrepreneurs based on personal perspectives and values. This finding supports the use of a behavioral approach with a micro-focus in the analysis of socio-technical change. I also find that the emergence and diffusion of the motor vehicle can only be understood by

  5. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  6. Markets

    Treesearch

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  7. Temporal condensation and dynamic λ-transition within the complex network: an application to real-life market evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiliński, Mateusz; Szewczak, Bartłomiej; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Struzik, Zbigniew R.

    2015-02-01

    We fill a void in merging empirical and phenomenological characterisation of the dynamical phase transitions in complex networks by identifying and thoroughly characterising a triple sequence of such transitions on a real-life financial market. We extract and interpret the empirical, numerical, and analytical evidences for the existence of these dynamical phase transitions, by considering the medium size Frankfurt stock exchange (FSE), as a typical example of a financial market. By using the canonical object for the graph theory, i.e. the minimal spanning tree (MST) network, we observe: (i) the (initial) dynamical phase transition from equilibrium to non-equilibrium nucleation phase of the MST network, occurring at some critical time. Coalescence of edges on the FSE's transient leader (defined by its largest degree) is observed within the nucleation phase; (ii) subsequent acceleration of the process of nucleation and the emergence of the condensation phase (the second dynamical phase transition), forming a logarithmically diverging temporal λ-peak of the leader's degree at the second critical time; (iii) the third dynamical fragmentation phase transition (after passing the second critical time), where the λ-peak logarithmically relaxes over three quarters of the year, resulting in a few loosely connected sub-graphs. This λ-peak (comparable to that of the specific heat vs. temperature forming during the equilibrium continuous phase transition from the normal fluid I 4He to the superfluid II 4He) is considered as a prominent result of a non-equilibrium superstar-like superhub or a dragon-king's abrupt evolution over about two and a half year of market evolution. We capture and meticulously characterise a remarkable phenomenon in which a peripheral company becomes progressively promoted to become the dragon-king strongly dominating the complex network over an exceptionally long period of time containing the crash. Detailed analysis of the complete trio of the

  8. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  9. Job-Transitions in the Administrative Labor Market in Higher Education: Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolansky, Bettie M.

    The question of whether the market for administrators is segmented by institutional types (i.e., region, affiliation, size, mission, and resource level) was investigated. One facet of the research was the applicability of segmentation theory to the occupational labor market for college managers. Principal data were provided by career histories of…

  10. Russian Youth in the Transition Period toward the Free Market Economy--1990-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitriyev, Gregory

    This paper examines the changes in aspirations and mentality of young people in Russia as to their expectations of what the market system can bring into their life. The study was done in Moscow and in Khabarovsk (Far East). Surveys of 11th-graders were conducted to gain their perspectives about the term "market" and what the future holds…

  11. A Theoretical Model of Segmented Youth Labor Markets and the School to Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrooman, John

    Recurring evidence that workers with similar skills do not necessarily earn the same wages led to the formulation of an alternative to the conventional market theory, namely, the segmented market theory. This theory posits that certain skills are distributed not among prospective employees but among jobs, in relation to the technology of those…

  12. Self-organization and phase transition in financial markets with multiple choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Huang, Ping; Qiu, Tian; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Market confidence is essential for successful investing. By incorporating multi-market into the evolutionary minority game, we investigate the effects of investor beliefs on the evolution of collective behaviors and asset prices. It is found that the roles of market confidence are closely related to whether or not there exists another market. When there exists another investment opportunity, different market confidence may lead to the same price fluctuations and the same investment attainment. There are two feedback effects. Being overly optimistic about a particular asset makes an investor become insensitive to losses. A delayed strategy adjustment leads to a decline in wealth and one's runaway from the market. The withdrawal of the agents results in the optimization of the strategy distributions and an increase in wealth. Being overly pessimistic about a particular asset makes an investor over-sensitive to losses. One's too frequent strategy adjustment leads to a decline in wealth. The withdrawal of the agents results in the improvement of the market environment and an increase in wealth.

  13. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  14. Top-down causation and social structures.

    PubMed

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2012-02-06

    Top-down causation has been implicit in many sociological accounts of social structure and its influence on social events, but the social sciences have struggled to provide a coherent account of top-down causation itself. This paper summarizes a critical realist view of causation and emergence, shows how it supports a plausible account of top-down causation and then applies this account to the social world. The argument is illustrated by an examination of the concept of a norm circle, a kind of social entity that, it is argued, is causally responsible for the influence of normative social institutions. Nevertheless, social entities are structured rather differently from ordinary material ones, with the result that the compositional level structure of reality implicit in the concept of top-down causation has some limitations in the social world. The paper closes by considering what might be involved in examining how top-down causation can be shown to be at work in the social domain.

  15. Top-down causation and social structures

    PubMed Central

    Elder-Vass, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Top-down causation has been implicit in many sociological accounts of social structure and its influence on social events, but the social sciences have struggled to provide a coherent account of top-down causation itself. This paper summarizes a critical realist view of causation and emergence, shows how it supports a plausible account of top-down causation and then applies this account to the social world. The argument is illustrated by an examination of the concept of a norm circle, a kind of social entity that, it is argued, is causally responsible for the influence of normative social institutions. Nevertheless, social entities are structured rather differently from ordinary material ones, with the result that the compositional level structure of reality implicit in the concept of top-down causation has some limitations in the social world. The paper closes by considering what might be involved in examining how top-down causation can be shown to be at work in the social domain. PMID:23386963

  16. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Jeanne L.; Choike, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical observations are made about some continuous curves, called transitions, encountered in well-known experiences. The transition parabola, the transition spiral, and the sidestep maneuver are presented. (MNS)

  17. Market transition, educational disparities, and family strategies in rural China: new evidence on gender stratification and development.

    PubMed

    Hannum, Emily

    2005-05-01

    Two theoretical perspectives have dominated debates about the impact of development on gender stratification: modernization theory, which argues that gender inequalities decline with economic growth, and the "women in development" perspective, which argues that development may initially widen gender gaps. Analyzing cross-sectional surveys and time-series data from China, this article indicates the relevance of both perspectives: while girls' educational opportunities were clearly more responsive than boys' to better household economic circumstances, the era of market transition in the late 1970s and early 1980s failed to accelerate and, in fact, may have temporarily slowed progress toward gender equity.

  18. Transition to market economy promotes individualistic values: Analysing changes in frequencies of Russian words from 1980 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Velichkovsky, Boris B; Solovyev, Valery D; Bochkarev, Vladimir V; Ishkineeva, Farida F

    2017-01-11

    Google Books Ngram was used to assess changes in frequency of usage in words corresponding to collectivistic and individualistic values in Russia during the time of economic changes. It was found that in many domains transition to market economy was associated with a rise in the use of words corresponding to individualistic values and a decrease in the use of words associated with collectivistic values. In several cases, words corresponding to collectivistic terms were used more often than words corresponding to individualistic values. The results suggest that economic changes lead to a change in values structure, but that individualistic and collectivistic values can co-exist because of the transitional sate of the Russian society. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  20. The transition to fully competitive bulk power markets: Federal regulatory developments in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Portasik, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, traditional electric utilities have become increasingly dependent upon enhanced competitive conditions in the bulk power market to improve efficiency and secure {open_quotes}least-cost{close_quotes} generation for their franchise and wholesale customers. The industry`s growing reliance on competitive wholesale markets both presaged and overtook the new legislation reflected in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). This article describes the new environment, as revealed in recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) decisions, and discusses its impact on the services and rates of affected utilities.

  1. [Chapter 4. Transitions in pharmaceutical market, production and sales in Japan (1980-2010)].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the writers reviewed in detail the pharmaceutical market and the shifts in manufacturing and sales including the trade balance in Japan over a thirty-year period from 1980 to 2010. From the 1980s to the 1990s, many innovative pharmaceutical products were developed and launched in the Japanese market. During the same period, some Japanese companies managed to develop their first internationally marketable drugs, which were antibiotics and effective remedies for the digestive and circulatory organs. During this period, Japanese pharmaceutical companies were also able to launch some of blockbuster drugs. For two decades, the pharmaceutical market grew rapidly. For this reason, it can be called "The Growth Period for Pharmaceutical Products" in Japan. After that period, drug development and sales slowed down due to a lack of expertise in genetic engineering and biotechnologies. This situation caused a large deficit in the trade balance for Japanese pharmaceutical products. However, with regard to the trade balance (including technical royalties) for pharmaceutical product technologies, Japan remains in the black even today.

  2. The Role of Flexible Work in the Transition from Higher Education into the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Try, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Norwegian Graduate Survey from 1985 to 1999, the study investigates Norwegian graduate students' entry into the labour market. The study finds that more than half of the employed graduates enter the work force via a flexible job, that is either a temporary or a part-time job, and the proportion has increased during the period.…

  3. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  4. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs.

    PubMed

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-10-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21,834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6 degrees C to 23.3 degrees C to a range of 23.4 degrees C to 26.1degreesC, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2 degrees C to 28.9 degrees C to 29.0 degrees C to 30.5 degrees C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1degreesC over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir.

  5. Association between in-transit loss, internal trailer temperature, and distance traveled by Ontario market hogs

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Charles; Dewey, Catherine E.; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An observational study was conducted from July to October 2004 to determine the association between in-transit losses of swine and internal trailer temperature after controlling for loading density, trip distance, herd size, and random trip effect. A convenience sample of 3 trucking companies was used to collect temperature, relative humidity, and global positioning data for 104 trips that delivered 21 834 pigs from 371 producers to Ontario abattoirs. The association between in-transit loss and trailer temperature was determined using the 90th percentiles of internal temperature for each trip. Average loading density was 0.36 m2/100 kg pig (range 0.28 to 0.50 m2/100 kg pig). Average in-transit loss was 0.12%; however, 94% of producers experienced no losses. As the 90th percentile of internal trailer temperature increased from a range of 8.6°C to 23.3°C to a range of 23.4°C to 26.1°C, average in-transit loss ratio increased approximately 3-fold, with an additional 2-fold increase as the range increased from 26.2°C to 28.9°C to 29.0°C to 30.5°C. As the 90th percentile of temperature increased by 1°C over the full range of temperatures in this study, in-transit loss was expected to increase 1.26 times. The in-transit loss was expected to decrease 0.81 times for each 50-km increase in distance traveled between the farm and the abattoir. PMID:19086369

  6. Multiple Causation in Language Contact Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brian D.

    Analysis of a specific language change--the loss of the Balkan infinitive--demonstrates the inadequacy of either a language-internal or a language-contact explanation in accounting for the change. A composite explanation, in which the infinitive-loss process is explained through multiple causation, seems more appropriate. Whithin the language,…

  7. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  8. Agentive Causatives in Romance: Accessibility versus Passivization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    All modern Romance languages except Rumanian have a class of causative + infinitive construction in which the infinitive subject surfaces as an agentive. This article investigates the question of how agentivization of the infinitive subject is to be handled in these languages. (DS)

  9. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  10. The Impact of Degree Programme Educational Capital on the Transition of Graduates to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to empirically verify the impact of educational capital on the success or failure of higher education graduates' transitions. The paper uses the example of geography graduates in Poland who took part in a nationwide survey in 2012, six months after their graduation. This allowed the author to collect detailed data on the…

  11. Economies in Transition: Command to Market. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Curt; Dick, Robert; Prager, Jeffrey; Stivers, Nolan; Ware, Judith; Burke, Francis; Keay, Thomas; Rothweiler, Deborah; Tepe, Henry; Suiter, Mary, Ed.; McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

    The materials in this publication were developed by nine high school teachers from St. Louis, Missouri, and a U.S. economic educator after they attended a program in Kharkiv, Ukraine, to learn about the difficulties of economic transition in that country. This book is designed to provide lessons about basic economic reform issues facing the…

  12. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  13. The Impact of Degree Programme Educational Capital on the Transition of Graduates to the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to empirically verify the impact of educational capital on the success or failure of higher education graduates' transitions. The paper uses the example of geography graduates in Poland who took part in a nationwide survey in 2012, six months after their graduation. This allowed the author to collect detailed data on the…

  14. Tracing the transition path between optimal strategies combinations within a competitive market of innovative industrial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In several cases, a competitive market can be simulated by a game, where each company/opponent is referred to as a player. In order to accommodate the fact that each player (alone or with alliances) is working against some others' interest, the rather conservative maximin criterion is frequently used for selecting the strategy or the combination of strategies that yield the best of the worst possible outcomes for each one of the players. Under this criterion, an optimal solution is obtained when neither player finds it beneficial to alter his strategy, which means that an equilibrium has been achieved, giving also the value of the game. If conditions change as regards a player, e.g., because of either achieving an unexpected successful result in developing an innovative industrial product or obtaining higher liquidity permitting him to increase advertisement in order to acquire a larger market share, then a new equilibrium is reached. The identification of the path between the old and the new equilibrium points may prove to be valuable for investigating the robustness of the solution by means of sensitivity analysis, since uncertainty plays a critical role in this situation, where evaluation of the payoff matrix is usually based on experts' estimates. In this work, the development of a standard methodology (including 16 activity stages and 7 decision nodes) for tracing this path is presented while a numerical implementation follows to prove its functionality.

  15. Niche markets and evidence assessment in transition: a critical review of proposed drug reforms.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Shannon G; Lemmens, Trudo

    2014-01-01

    In response to rising demands and treatment costs, and the need to achieve better value for money in the face of tight fiscal constraints, both the National Health Service and the public drug reimbursement system are undergoing important reforms. Concurrently, the pharmaceutical sector itself is also alleged to be experiencing significant changes, perhaps most notably, a decline of the blockbuster model of drug development and a growing focus on niche market products. As pharmaceutical development strategies evolve and the resulting drug products become more complex, regulatory and policy responses must be able to evolve along with them. We explore how in numerous jurisdictions, including the UK, proposals for 'adaptive licensing' on the regulatory side and 'performance-based risk sharing agreements' on the funding side are shifting the focus of drug regulation and reimbursement towards more incremental access to new therapies and more post-market evidence generation. However, serious questions remain about how such reforms can be successfully implemented and whether they can balance demands for earlier access to promising new therapies with the need for robust evidence on safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Transitions in the labor market after cancer: a comparison of self-employed workers and salaried staff.

    PubMed

    Tison, Aurélia; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Sansonetti, Caroline; Blatier, Jean-François; Paraponaris, Alain

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the labor market mobility of a population of cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis differed compared to the French general population by focusing on the differences between self-employed workers and salaried staff. Coarsened exact matching was implemented to reduce the sampling bias introduced by the comparison of individuals from two different surveys. Then, labor market mobility was analyzed by estimating transition probability matrices from 2010 to 2012 under the framework of a continuous-time Markov technique and by estimating a two-step model. Salaried employees and self-employed workers from the general population were more likely to remain employed 2 years after 2010 compared to salaried employees and self-employed workers who survived cancer. There was no major difference between salaried and self-employed workers surviving cancer in terms of job retention. French workers surviving cancer face the same difficulties that were observed in the National Cancer Survey of 2004: unemployment and inactivity caused by the diagnosis of cancer. Among cancer survivors, self-employed workers do not seem to be particularly more affected by inactivity than salaried staff. However, unemployment insurance is not compulsory for them, contrary to salaried staff. In this regard, self-employed workers might be a more vulnerable group.

  17. Clubfoot in Malawi: local theories of causation.

    PubMed

    Bedford, K Juliet A; Chidothi, Paul; Sakala, Harris; Cashman, John; Lavy, Chris

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines local theories of the causation of clubfoot expressed by the guardians of children undergoing treatment at clinics run by the Malawi National Clubfoot Programme (MNCP). Core data was collected and analysed using qualitative methodologies of critical medical anthropology. Sixty detailed case studies were completed, each based on an extended open-ended interview with patient guardians. Five main theories of causation were put forward: God; the devil; witchcraft or curses; biological reasons; and inherited condition. Each was elaborated in a variety of ways. There is growing international recognition of the importance of examining the relationship between culture and disability. This study is the first attempt to do so for clubfoot in Malawi. It provides a platform on which to build future qualitative research that can be harnessed by the MNCP and similar initiatives to develop their knowledge base and service provision, both in Malawi and the wider African context.

  18. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition…

  19. Active causation and the origin of meaning.

    PubMed

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-02-01

    Purpose and meaning are necessary concepts for understanding mind and culture, but appear to be absent from the physical world and are not part of the explanatory framework of the natural sciences. Understanding how meaning (in the broad sense of the term) could arise from a physical world has proven to be a tough problem. The basic scheme of Darwinian evolution produces adaptations that only represent apparent ("as if") goals and meaning. Here I use evolutionary models to show that a slight, evolvable extension of the basic scheme is sufficient to produce genuine goals. The extension, targeted modulation of mutation rate, is known to be generally present in biological cells and gives rise to two phenomena that are absent from the non-living world: intrinsic meaning and the ability to initiate goal-directed chains of causation (active causation). The extended scheme accomplishes this by utilizing randomness modulated by a feedback loop that is itself regulated by evolutionary pressure. The mechanism can be extended to behavioural variability as well and thus shows how freedom of behaviour is possible. A further extension to communication suggests that the active exchange of intrinsic meaning between organisms may be the origin of consciousness, which in combination with active causation can provide a physical basis for the phenomenon of free will.

  20. Laws, causation and dynamics at different levels.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-02-06

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (§2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (§§3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasizing how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro', which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  1. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    PubMed Central

    Boudellioua, Imane; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants. PMID:28414800

  2. Laws, causation and dynamics at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (§2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (§§3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different ‘levels’. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that ‘ride free’ of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasizing how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed ‘micro’ and ‘macro’, which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation. PMID:23386965

  3. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US.

  4. Family Life Course Transitions and Rural Household Economy During China’s Market Reform

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, FEINIAN; KORINEK, KIM

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration. PMID:21308566

  5. Family life course transitions and rural household economy during China's market reform.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feinian; Korinek, Kim

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration.

  6. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  7. Do Geography Degree Programmes Facilitate a Smooth Transition to the Job Market? Reflections of Working and Job-Seeking Graduates in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of a survey conducted among Polish geography graduates. They were asked questions about the relevance of their degree to their transition from university studies to the job market. The research project revealed that less than half of them found a job. Out of working graduates, one in five geographers worked in an area…

  8. Education and Labour Market Transitions in Young Adulthood. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaienks, Danielle; Gluszynski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is filled with major life events and pursuing higher education is one of the most common transitions. It is also the time when many young adults enter the labour market, move out of their parents' household and begin family formation. These significant events affect each other and impact the rest of their lives. Given the…

  9. Do Geography Degree Programmes Facilitate a Smooth Transition to the Job Market? Reflections of Working and Job-Seeking Graduates in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of a survey conducted among Polish geography graduates. They were asked questions about the relevance of their degree to their transition from university studies to the job market. The research project revealed that less than half of them found a job. Out of working graduates, one in five geographers worked in an area…

  10. Education and Labour Market Transitions in Young Adulthood. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaienks, Danielle; Gluszynski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is filled with major life events and pursuing higher education is one of the most common transitions. It is also the time when many young adults enter the labour market, move out of their parents' household and begin family formation. These significant events affect each other and impact the rest of their lives. Given the…

  11. Ectromelia virus: the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Esteban, David J; Buller, R Mark L

    2005-10-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus whose natural host is the mouse; it is related closely to Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and Monkeypox virus, the cause of an emerging zoonosis. The recent sequencing of its genome, along with an effective animal model, makes ECTV an attractive model for the study of poxvirus pathogenesis, antiviral and vaccine testing and viral immune and inflammatory responses. This review discusses the pathogenesis of mousepox, modulation of the immune response by the virus and the cytokine and cellular components of the skin and systemic immune system that are critical to recovery from infection.

  12. Causation, causal perception, and conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Twardy, Charles R; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the perception of causation via the ability to detect conservation violations in simple events. We showed that observers were sensitive to energy conservation violations in free-fall events. Furthermore, observers were sensitive to gradually perturbed energy dynamics in such events. However, they were more sensitive to the effect of decreasing gravity than to that of increasing gravity. Displays with decreasing gravity were the only displays in which the energy profile was dominated by (apparent) potential energy, leading to an asymmetric trajectory.

  13. Events in the Grammar of Direct and Indirect Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiato, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the differences between two widespread types of causative constructions: the so called lexical causative as in Gianna opened the door or the corresponding Italian sentence Gianna ha aperto la porta, and the periphrastic causative, as in the Italian Gianna ha fatto aprire la porta (Gianna had the door opened/made the door…

  14. Events in the Grammar of Direct and Indirect Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiato, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the differences between two widespread types of causative constructions: the so called lexical causative as in Gianna opened the door or the corresponding Italian sentence Gianna ha aperto la porta, and the periphrastic causative, as in the Italian Gianna ha fatto aprire la porta (Gianna had the door opened/made the door…

  15. Precaution, uncertainty and causation in environmental decisions.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Paolo F; Rice, Dave; Ziagos, John; Cox, Louis A

    2003-04-01

    What measures of uncertainty and what causal analysis can improve the management of potentially severe, irreversible or dreaded environmental outcomes? Environmental choices show that policies intended to be precautionary (such as adding MTBE to petrol) can cause unanticipated harm (by mobilizing benzene, a known leukemogen, in the ground water). Many environmental law principles set the boundaries of what should be done but do not provide an operational construct to answer this question. Those principles, ranging from the precautionary principle to protecting human health from a significant risk of material health impairment, do not explain how to make environmental management choices when incomplete, inconsistent and complex scientific evidence characterizes potentially adverse environmental outcomes. Rather, they pass the task to lower jurisdictions such as agencies or authorities. To achieve the goals of the principle, those who draft it must deal with scientific casual conjectures, partial knowledge and variable data. In this paper we specifically deal with the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the European Union's (EU) explanation of consistency and on the examination of scientific developments relevant to variability and uncertain data and causation. Managing hazards under the precautionary principle requires inductive, empirical methods of assessment. However, acting on a scientific conjecture can also be socially unfair, costly, and detrimental when applied to complex environmental choices. We describe a constructive framework rationally to meet the command of the precautionary principle using alternative measures of uncertainty and recent statistical methods of causal analysis. These measures and methods can bridge the gap between conjectured future irreversible or severe harm and scant scientific evidence, thus leading to more confident and resilient social choices. We review two sets of measures and computational systems to deal with uncertainty

  16. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    ESMAILI GOURABI, Hamed; BIDABADI, Elham; CHERAGHALIPOUR, Fatemeh; AARABI, Yasaman; SALAMAT, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months), 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3%) occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls). Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%). All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection. PMID:24665278

  17. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  18. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  19. A neural network model of causative actions

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to “do” anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the “causative actions” circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in “functional” actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  20. Top-down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ellis, George F R

    2012-02-06

    Both bottom-up and top-down causation occur in the hierarchy of structure and causation. A key feature is multiple realizability of higher level functions, and consequent existence of equivalence classes of lower level variables that correspond to the same higher level state. Five essentially different classes of top-down influence can be identified, and their existence demonstrated by many real-world examples. They are: algorithmic top-down causation; top-down causation via non-adaptive information control, top-down causation via adaptive selection, top-down causation via adaptive information control and intelligent top-down causation (the effect of the human mind on the physical world). Through the mind, abstract entities such as mathematical structures have causal power. The causal slack enabling top-down action to take place lies in the structuring of the system so as to attain higher level functions; in the way the nature of lower level elements is changed by context, and in micro-indeterminism combined with adaptive selection. Understanding top-down causation can have important effects on society. Two cases will be mentioned: medical/healthcare issues, and education-in particular, teaching reading and writing. In both cases, an ongoing battle between bottom-up and top-down approaches has important consequences for society.

  1. Top-down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, George F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Both bottom-up and top-down causation occur in the hierarchy of structure and causation. A key feature is multiple realizability of higher level functions, and consequent existence of equivalence classes of lower level variables that correspond to the same higher level state. Five essentially different classes of top-down influence can be identified, and their existence demonstrated by many real-world examples. They are: algorithmic top-down causation; top-down causation via non-adaptive information control, top-down causation via adaptive selection, top-down causation via adaptive information control and intelligent top-down causation (the effect of the human mind on the physical world). Through the mind, abstract entities such as mathematical structures have causal power. The causal slack enabling top-down action to take place lies in the structuring of the system so as to attain higher level functions; in the way the nature of lower level elements is changed by context, and in micro-indeterminism combined with adaptive selection. Understanding top-down causation can have important effects on society. Two cases will be mentioned: medical/healthcare issues, and education—in particular, teaching reading and writing. In both cases, an ongoing battle between bottom-up and top-down approaches has important consequences for society. PMID:23386967

  2. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  3. Modality and Causation in Serbian Dative Anticausatives: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I provide a principled, unified account of modality and causation in Serbian dative anticausatives using a typological, cognitive approach. This analysis is set within a larger claim that the causative and modal meanings crosslinguistically arise in the same morphosyntactic environments, indicating a shared conceptual base…

  4. Health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation: evidence of causation.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, G R; Newhouse, M T

    1986-01-01

    Studies of health effects of urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) were critically reviewed by means of accepted rules for evidence of causation. Three categories of health effects were examined: reported symptoms, primarily of the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract disease and cancer. Most of the studies purporting to demonstrate health effects of UFFI failed to meet minimal methodologic criteria for evidence of causation. Evidence from the adequate studies provides little support for the hypothesis of a causative role of UFFI in health problems. PMID:3512066

  5. What causes health inequality? A systematic review on the relative importance of social causation and health selection.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Hannes; Pakpahan, Eduwin; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2015-12-01

    The social gradient in health is one of the most reliable findings in public health research. The two competing hypotheses that try to explain this gradient are known as the social causation and the health selection hypothesis. There is currently no synthesis of the results of studies that test both hypotheses. We provide a systematic review of the literature that has addressed both the health selection and social causation hypotheses between 1994 and 2013 using seven databases following PRISMA rules. The search strategy resulted in 2952 studies, of which, we included 34 in the review. The synthesis of these studies suggests that there is no general preference for either of the hypotheses (12 studies for social causation, 10 for health selection). However, both a narrative synthesis as well as meta-regression results show that studies using indicators for socio-economic status (SES) that are closely related to the labor market find equal support for health selection and social causation, whereas indicators of SES like education and income yield results that are in favor of the social causation hypothesis. High standards in statistical modeling were associated with more support for health selection. The review highlights the fact that the causal mechanisms behind health inequalities are dependent on whether or not the dimension being analyzed closely reflects labor market success. Additionally, further research should strive to improve the statistical modeling of causality, as this might influence the conclusions drawn regarding the relative importance of health selection and social causation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Megaloblastic anaemia: prevalence and causative factors.

    PubMed

    Khanduri, Uma; Sharma, Archna

    2007-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia is not uncommon in India, but data are insufficient regarding its prevalence, and causative and precipitating factors. We did a prospective study to document such data for patients of megaloblastic anaemia. All patients presenting to our hospital over a period of 6 months with a haemoglobin < 10 g/dl and/or mean corpuscular volume > 95 fL and blood film findings consistent with megaloblastosis were included in the study. Demographic data, diet, drug intake, previous blood transfusion and presenting symptoms were recorded. Clinical findings were obtained from medical records of patients. Complete blood counts, blood film examination, reticulocyte count and cobalamin and folate assays were done. Results of liver function tests and bone marrow slides were available for review. Megaloblastic anaemia was diagnosed in 175 patients with anaemia. Assays were done on 120 patients (55 were lost to follow up) and results showed cobalamin deficiency in 78 patients (65%), combined cobalamin and folate deficiency in 20 patients (12%) and pure folate deficiency in 8 patients (6%). Fifteen per cent of patients had normal or high values of both vitamins, having received blood or haematinics before the diagnosis was established. The peak incidence of megaloblastic anaemia was in the age group of 10-30 years (48%), with female preponderance (71%). The predominant symptoms were fatigue, anorexia and gastritis, low grade fever, shortness of breath, palpitations and mild jaundice. Twenty-five per cent of patients were on acid-suppressing medication and 15% had previous transfusion for anaemia. Eighty-seven per cent of patients with cobalamin deficiency and 75% with folate deficiency were lactovegetarians. In the combined deficiency cohort, 71% were vegetarians and 29% were occasional non-vegetarians. Physical findings were pallor (85%), glossitis (29%), mild icterus (25%) and hyperpigmentation (18%). Abnormal haematological findings were mean corpuscular volume 77

  7. Do beliefs about causation influence attitudes to mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; OLLEY, BENJAMIN OLADAPO; OLUSOLA, EPHRAIM-OLUWANUGA; KOLA, LOLA

    2006-01-01

    Studies indicate that stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness are rampant in the community worldwide. It is unclear whether views about the causation of mental disorders identify persons with more negative attitudes. Using data collected as part of a community study of knowledge of and attitudes to mental illness in Nigeria, we examined the relationships between views about causation and attitudes. Persons holding exclusively biopsychosocial views of causation were not different from those holding exclusively religious-magical views in regard to socio-demographic attributes, and the two groups were not very dissimilar when general knowledge of the nature of mental illness was compared. However, religious-magical views of causation were more associated with negative and stigmatizing attitudes to the mentally ill. Findings demonstrate the challenge of developing and delivering an educational program to change public attitudes to mental illness. PMID:16946952

  8. A computable expression of closure to efficient causation.

    PubMed

    Mossio, Matteo; Longo, Giuseppe; Stewart, John

    2009-04-07

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical expression of closure to efficient causation in terms of lambda-calculus; we argue that this opens up the perspective of developing principled computer simulations of systems closed to efficient causation in an appropriate programming language. An important implication of our formulation is that, by exhibiting an expression in lambda-calculus, which is a paradigmatic formalism for computability and programming, we show that there are no conceptual or principled problems in realizing a computer simulation or model of closure to efficient causation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the question whether closure to efficient causation captures all relevant properties of living systems. We suggest that it might not be the case, and that more complex definitions could indeed create crucial some obstacles to computability.

  9. Reverse Causation and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, John G.

    2006-10-01

    In the first part of the paper we present the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, a method of viewing the formalism of quantum mechanics that provides a way of visualizing quantum events and experiments. In the second part, we present an EPR gedankenexperiment that appears to lead to observer-level reverse causation. A transactional analysis of the experiment is presented. It easily accounts for the reported observations but does not reveal any barriers to its modification for reverse causation.

  10. On the dynamic dependence and asymmetric co-movement between the US and Central and Eastern European transition markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubaker, Heni; Raza, Syed Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the time-varying and asymmetric co-movement of CEE equity markets with the US stock markets around the subprime crisis and the resulting global financial crisis. The econometric approach adopted is based on recent development of time-varying copulas. For that, we propose a new class of time-varying copulas that allows for long memory behavior in both marginal and joint distributions. Our empirical approach relies on the flexibility and usefulness of bivariate copulas that allow to model not only the dynamic co-movement through time but also to account for any extreme interaction, nonlinearity and asymmetry in the co-movement patterns. The time-varying dependence structure can be also modeled conditionally on the economic policy uncertainty index of the crisis country. Empirical results show strong evidence of co-movement between the US and CEE equity markets and find that the co-movement exhibits large time-variations and asymmetry in the tails of the return distributions.

  11. Identification of causative organism in cardiac implantable electronic device infections.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Masato; Goya, Masahiko; Nagashima, Michio; Hiroshima, Kenichi; Yamada, Takashi; An, Yoshimori; Hayashi, Kentaro; Makihara, Yu; Ohe, Masatsugu; Ichihashi, Kei; Ohtsuka, Morimasa; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Ando, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    The causative organism in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is usually diagnosed with the cultures from blood, removed leads, and/or infected pocket material. The cultured organism, however, is sometimes different among these samples. Two hundred sixty patients with CIED infection, who underwent lead extraction between April 2005 and December 2014, were analyzed. More than two blood culture sets, all the extracted leads, and swab culture of the pocket were sent to the laboratory for culture. Among the patients all of whose microbiological examinations were available, we analyzed the causative organism defined as the species detected in at least two different sites. All the culture results were available in the 208 patients, showing 69 systemic infections (including 30 cases of infectious endocarditis) and 139 local infections. Blood culture, lead culture, and swab culture were positive in 57 (27%), 169 (81%), and 152 (73%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus [37% including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (12%)] and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 36%) were the most common causative organism, followed by non-staphylococci (23%), and poly-microbial infection (4%). The detection of S. aureus from pocket or removed leads rendered higher predictive value of a causative organism than that of CoNS. The detection of Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria indicated that it was most likely a causative organism. Gram-positive bacteria excluding Staphylococcus, such as Corynebacterium spp., tended to coexist as a benign organism. The causative organism is mostly S. aureus and CoNS. Detection of S. aureus or Gram-negative bacteria means that it is more likely a causative organism. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers.

    PubMed

    Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-05-13

    Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.51). Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the transformation of unstable labour market

  13. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers

    PubMed Central

    Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. Methods A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. Results After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10–0.51). Conclusion Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the

  14. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism.

    PubMed

    Love, Alan C

    2012-02-06

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified 'levels' of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily 'local' and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended-many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry.

  15. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Love, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified ‘levels’ of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily ‘local’ and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended—many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  16. Scaling analysis of time series of daily prices from stock markets of transitional economies in the Western Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvan, Darko; Stratimirović, Djordje; Blesić, Suzana; Miljković, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we have analyzed scaling properties of time series of stock market indices (SMIs) of developing economies of Western Balkans, and have compared the results we have obtained with the results from more developed economies. We have used three different techniques of data analysis to obtain and verify our findings: detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, detrended moving average (DMA) method, and wavelet transformation (WT) analysis. We have found scaling behavior in all SMI data sets that we have analyzed. The scaling of our SMI series changes from long-range correlated to slightly anti-correlated behavior with the change in growth or maturity of the economy the stock market is embedded in. We also report the presence of effects of potential periodic-like influences on the SMI data that we have analyzed. One such influence is visible in all our SMI series, and appears at a period Tp ≈ 90 days. We propose that the existence of various periodic-like influences on SMI data may partially explain the observed difference in types of correlated behavior of corresponding scaling functions.

  17. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  18. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of ‘biological relativity’ and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined. PMID:23386960

  19. Causation of severe and fatal accidents in the manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan C; Onieva, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the manufacturing sector in Andalusia, Spain, to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions. Official accident investigation reports are analyzed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes of each of the different possible groups of causes. We found evidence of a differential causation between slight and nonslight accidents. We have also found significant differences in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident. These results can be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes of each accident mechanism. We have also done research on the associations of certain latent causes with specific active (immediate) causes. These relationships show how organizational and safety management can contribute to the prevention of active failures.

  20. An Investigation of the Spanish Causatives: "Hacer Ver, Hacer Creer, Hacer Pensar, Hacer Saber."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    Presents study which shows that although these causatives have same surface structure as productive causative constructions they differ in several ways, e.g., unlike other productive causatives their meaning changes when "que" subjunctive is substituted for the infinitive, and they function like lexical causatives which involve agent-patient, not…

  1. An Investigation of the Spanish Causatives: "Hacer Ver, Hacer Creer, Hacer Pensar, Hacer Saber."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Lee H.

    1981-01-01

    Presents study which shows that although these causatives have same surface structure as productive causative constructions they differ in several ways, e.g., unlike other productive causatives their meaning changes when "que" subjunctive is substituted for the infinitive, and they function like lexical causatives which involve agent-patient, not…

  2. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients.

    PubMed

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D; Mezuk, Briana R; Avula, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D.; Mezuk, Briana R.; Avula, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Methods Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Revised. Results The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Conclusions Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. PMID:26568376

  4. Graphical Models for Causation, and the Identification Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    This article (which is mainly expository) sets up graphical models for causation, having a bit less than the usual complement of hypothetical counterfactuals. Assuming the invariance of error distributions may be essential for causal inference, but the errors themselves need not be invariant. Graphs can be interpreted using conditional…

  5. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue.

    PubMed

    Dohrenwend, B P; Levav, I; Shrout, P E; Schwartz, S; Naveh, G; Link, B G; Skodol, A E; Stueve, A

    1992-02-21

    Are inverse relations between psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic status due more to social causation (adversity and stress) or social selection (downward mobility of genetically predisposed)? This classical epidemiological issue is tested by focusing on ethnic status in relation to socioeconomic status. Ethnic status cannot be an effect of disorder because it is present at birth whereas socioeconomic status depends on educational and occupational attainment. A birth cohort sample of 4914 young, Israel-born adults of European and North African background was selected from the country's population register, screened, and diagnosed by psychiatrists. Results indicate that social selection may be more important for schizophrenia and that social causation may be more important for depression in women and for antisocial personality and substance use disorders in men.

  6. The Perfect Storm: Preterm Birth, Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms, and Autism Causation.

    PubMed

    Erdei, Carmina; Dammann, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    A unifying model of autism causation remains elusive, and thus well-designed explanatory models are needed to develop appropriate therapeutic and preventive interventions. This essay argues that autism is not a static disorder, but rather an ongoing process. We discuss the link between preterm birth and autism and briefly review the evidence supporting the link between immune system characteristics and both prematurity and autism. We then propose a causation process model of autism etiology and pathogenesis, in which both neurodevelopment and ongoing/prolonged neuroinflammation are necessary pathogenetic component mechanisms. We suggest that an existing model of sufficient cause and component causes can be interpreted as a mechanistic view of etiology and pathogenesis and can serve as an explanatory model for autism causal pathways.

  7. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Temeles, E J; Pan, I L; Brennan, J L; Horwitt, J N

    2000-07-21

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causes of animal sexual dimorphism are rare. Here we present evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in the bill morphology of a hummingbird, the purple-throated carib. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of two Heliconia species whose flowers correspond to the bills of either males or females. Each sex feeds most quickly at the flower species approximating its bill dimensions, which supports the hypothesis that floral specialization has driven the evolution of bill dimorphism. Further evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism was provided by a geographic replacement of one Heliconia species by the other and the subsequent development of a floral dimorphism, with one floral morph matching the bills of males and the other of females.

  8. Emergence, hierarchy and top-down causation in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir

    2012-02-06

    The concept of emergence and the related notion of 'downward causation' have arisen in numerous branches of science, and have also been extensively discussed in philosophy. Here, I examine emergence and downward causation in relation to evolutionary biology. I focus on the old, but ongoing discussion in evolutionary biology over the 'levels of selection' question: which level(s) of the biological hierarchy natural selection acts at, e.g. the gene, individual, group or species level? The concept of emergence has arisen in the levels-of-selection literature as a putative way of distinguishing between 'true' selection at a higher level from cases where selection acts solely at the lower level but has effects that percolate up the biological hierarchy, generating the appearance of higher level selection. At first blush, this problem seems to share a common structure with debates about emergence in other areas, but closer examination shows that it turns on issues that are sui generis to biology.

  9. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  10. Thermal pillow: an unusual causative agent of erythema ab igne.

    PubMed

    Turan, Enver; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Uçmak, Derya; Çelik, Özgür İlhan

    2013-01-01

    Erythema ab igne (EAI), also known as "toasted skin syndrome" or "heatinduced circumscribed dermal melanosis", presents with pigmented reticular skin lesions with telangiectasias due to prolonged thermal radiation exposure. This article describes a 16-year-old male patient with EAI due to the use of a thermal pillow, and discusses a potential causative agent of EAI. The potential hazards of misusing new technological equipment and the importance of consumer education are also discussed.

  11. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation Third, what are the uncertainties involved Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation

  12. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept? Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation? Third, what are the uncertainties involved? Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach? And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation?

  13. Retro-causation, Minimum Contradictions and Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Menas; Nassikas, Athanassios A.

    2011-11-01

    Retro-causation has been experimentally verified by Bem and proposed by Kafatos in the form of space-time non-locality in the quantum framework. Every theory includes, beyond its specific axioms, the principles of logical communication (logical language), through which it is defined. This communication obeys the Aristotelian logic (Classical Logic), the Leibniz Sufficient Reason Principle, and a hidden axiom, which basically states that there is anterior-posterior relationship everywhere in communication. By means of a theorem discussed here, it can be proved that the communication mentioned implies contradictory statements, which can only be transcended through silence, i.e. the absence of any statements. Moreover, the breaking of silence is meaningful through the claim for minimum contradictions, which implies the existence of both a logical and an illogical dimension; contradictions refer to causality, implying its opposite, namely retro-causation, and the anterior posterior axiom, implying space-time non-locality. The purpose of this paper is to outline a framework accounting for retro-causation, through both purely theoretical and reality based points of view.

  14. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana natural areas.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management.

  15. Changing patterns of social variation in stature in Poland: effects of transition from a command economy to the free-market system?

    PubMed

    Bielicki, T; Szklarska, A; Kozieł, S; Ulijaszek, S J

    2005-07-01

    2001, after the abrupt transition from a command to a free-market economy in the early 1990s.

  16. Predictive models of carpal tunnel syndrome causation among VDT operators.

    PubMed

    Matias, A C; Salvendy, G; Kuczek, T

    1998-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a cumulative trauma disorder of the hand and wrist, is one of the most common disabling injuries experienced by video-display terminal (VDT) operators. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically based operational quantitative predictive model of the risk of work-related CTS among VDT operators. A total of 100 female VDT operators, who performed a variety of office functions, were studied at a major midwestern university. Data were collected on job exposure, anthropometry and posture factors using questionnaires, direct observation and video-recording. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed to develop the operational models. The results of the study indicated the following: (1) percentage of workday working with a VDT was the most significant factor and accounted for 60% of the variance explaining the causation of musculoskeletal discomforts associated with CTS; (2) discriminant function with six variables (i.e. work duration, trunk incline, wrist extension, wrist ulnar deviation, overall anthropometric measure, weighted anthropometric measure) correctly classified 73% of the CTS group and 72% of the non-CTS group; (3) using the logistic regression model, the probabilities associated with changes in the predictive variables as affecting CTS risk are presented such that increasing the daily work duration from 1 h to 4 h increases the probability of CTS risk from 0.45 to 0.92. The results of the study suggest that the main causation of CTS is job design, the secondary (and lesser cause) is posture associated with the workplace design and the least contributing factor to CTS causation is the individual's anthropometric make-up.

  17. Endocrine-active chemicals in mammary cancer causation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sarah; Betancourt, Angela M; Wang, Jun; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2012-04-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals alter or mimic physiological hormones. These compounds are reported to originate from a wide variety of sources, and recent studies have shown widespread human exposure to several of these compounds. Given the role of the sex steroid hormone, estradiol, in human breast cancer causation, endocrine-active chemicals which interfere with estrogen signaling constitute one potential factor contributing to the high incidence of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine several common endocrine-active chemicals and their respective roles in breast cancer causation or prevention. The plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), the by-product of organic combustion, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the soy component, genistein, and the red grape phytoalexin, resveratrol, have some degree of structural similarities to each other and estradiol. However, despite these structural similarities, the in vitro and in vivo properties of each of these chemicals vary greatly in terms of breast cancer causation and prevention. Early life exposure to BPA and DES increases rodent susceptibility to chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis, presumably through retardation of normal mammary gland maturation and/or disrupting the ratio of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland. On the other hand, early exposures to genistein and resveratrol protect rodents against chemically induced and spontaneous mammary cancers. This is reported to occur through the ability of genistein and resveratrol to accelerate mammary gland maturation. Interestingly, TCDD, which is the most structurally dissimilar to the above chemicals and functions as an anti-estrogen, also increases chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis through retardation of mammary gland maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors'. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Chemistry of mycolactones, the causative toxins of Buruli ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a severe and devastating skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, yet it is one of the most neglected diseases. The causative toxin, referred to as mycolactone A/B, was isolated and characterized as a polyketide-derived macrolide in 1999. The current status of the mycolactone chemistry is described, highlighting the stereochemistry assignment of mycolactone A/B; total synthesis; the structure determination of mycolactone congeners from the human pathogen M. ulcerans, the frog pathogen Mycobacterium liflandii, and the fish pathogen Mycobacterium marinum; the structural diversity in the mycolactone class of natural products; the highly sensitive detection/structure-analysis of mycolactones; and some biological activity. PMID:21383136

  19. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology.

    PubMed

    Alessi, G

    1992-11-01

    B. F. Skinner saw behavior as a product of three levels of evolution. J. R. Kantor and Gregory Bateson noted similar relations. This article describes and applies basic evolutionary concepts to each level: (a) phylogenic, (b) ontogenic, and (c) cultural evolution. Each level is analyzed in terms of (a) units of selection, (b) variety of units required for the selection process, (c) selection pressures, (d) interactions among levels, and (e) implications for understanding and predicting behavior. Distinguishing between models of proximate and ultimate causation, as in biology, may help clarify research problems posed by, and facilitate better communication among, psychologists.

  20. Use of cancer incidence data in identification of cancer causation.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cancer incidence data in identification of cancer causation. Selective descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies were reviewed. These examples were taken primarily from Denmark, where the possibilities for epidemiological research are good due to the existence of many exposure and disease registers. Descriptive studies are still needed for a better understanding of cancer. Analytical studies of individual risk factors today often show relative risks of only 1.5 to 2, and these are difficult to translate into preventive recommendations. Epidemiology still remains the best available tool for identification of risk factors. PMID:8781397

  1. Downward causation by information control in micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Luc; Calkins, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of functional equivalence classes and information control in living systems are useful to characterize downward (or top-down) causation by feedback information control in synthetic biology. Herein, we re-analyse published experiments of microbiology and synthetic biology that demonstrate the existence of several classes of functional equivalence in microbial organisms. Classes of functional equivalence from the bacterial operating system, which processes and controls the information encoded in the genome, can readily be interpreted as strong evidence, if not demonstration, of top-down causation (TDC) by information control. The proposed biological framework reveals how this type of causality is put in action in the cellular operating system. Considerations on TDC by information control and adaptive selection can be useful for synthetic biology by delineating the irreducible set of properties that characterizes living systems. Through a ‘retro-synthetic’ biology approach, these considerations could contribute to identifying the constraints behind the emergence of molecular complexity during the evolution of an ancient RNA/peptide world into a modern DNA/RNA/protein world. In conclusion, we propose TDCs by information control and adaptive selection as the two types of downward causality absolutely necessary for life. PMID:23386958

  2. Why are educated adults slim-Causation or selection?

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2014-03-01

    More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks self-reported BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29). Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained. Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection.

  3. Communities, self-causation and the natural lottery.

    PubMed

    Loewy, E H

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various notions of community, and of the 'natural lottery' as well as investigating the role that 'self-causation' plays in communal obligations. In examining community, two opposing views are juxtaposed: (1) the view that community consists merely of persons united by duties of refraining from harm one to another, resulting in autonomy based justice which makes freedom an absolute condition of mortality; and (2) a broader view which sees the concept of community as entailing obligations of beneficence, resulting in beneficence based justice and which, therefore, sees freedom as a value to be cautiously traded with other values. In examining the 'natural lottery' in the light of community, the various consequences of viewing the lottery in various ways and the impact that our view of community has on these consequences, is explored. A third option, the option that the 'natural lottery' as the cause of illness and health is a shaky concept, is offered. Self-causation of illness and its linkage to concepts of community and of the 'natural lottery' is then briefly examined. It is concluded that (1) community implies a social contract which, in order to be conceived in the first place, necessitates more than a minimalist ethic: to come about, a degree of beneficence inspiring trust is presupposed; (2) conceiving community narrowly is neither what we ordinarily do when we think of the term nor, for that matter, workable in our world.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada, with whom we conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and then employed a thematic analysis that drew on concepts from life course theory to explore the mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. The participants' narratives identified processes corresponding to causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug-seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID and suggest the importance of multidimensional support to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage.

  5. Pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories: the role of catastrophic events

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lindsey; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    People affected by substance use disorders often experience sub-optimal employment outcomes. The role of drug use in processes that produce and entrench labour market precarity among people who inject drugs (PWID) have not, however, been fully described. We recruited 22 PWID from ongoing prospective cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada and conducted semi-structured retrospective interviews and employed a thematic analysis that draws on concepts from life course theory to explore mechanisms and pathways linking drug use and labour market trajectories. Narratives identified processes corresponding to: causation, whereby suboptimal employment outcomes led to harmful drug use; direct selection, where impairment, health complications or drug seeking activities selected individuals out of employment; and indirect selection, where external factors, such as catastrophic events, marked the initiation or intensification of substance use concurrent with sudden changes in capacities for employment. Catastrophic events linking negative transitions in both drug use and labour market trajectories were of primary importance, demarcating critical initiation and transitional events in individual risk trajectories. These results challenge conventional assumptions about the primacy of drug use in determining employment outcomes among PWID, and suggest the importance of multi-dimensional supports to mitigate the initiation, accumulation and entrenchment of labour market and drug-related disadvantage. PMID:26358407

  6. Cumulative causation and selectivity in labour market oriented migration caused by imperfect information.

    PubMed

    Maier, G

    1985-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the implications of job search models for migration. In contrast to earlier models, the model described here does not assume perfect information about the wage offer distribution. "In this model information about the wage offer distribution is imperfect and accumulated through the search process. When based on this search model, the migration model is largely enriched and also more realistic. Strategies, which are suboptimal or even absurd with perfect information about the wage offer distribution, such as purchase of information, can be preferable in a migration model, when imperfect information is assumed." The author suggests that the model can explain many phenomena utilized in the argumentation of polarization theory. Consideration is also given to selectivity with respect to age, educational status, and risk preference, as well as the cumulative effects caused by past migration flows and the size of regions. (summary in FRE, GER)

  7. Marketing Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    must transition from a Navy concept to a joint product. NCW advocates can effect this transition by using basic business principles to market NCW...They can tailor a solid mix of product, price, place, and promotion to target and win over operational commanders. This is the first and vital step to successfully introduce NCW as the way of the future.

  8. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  9. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  10. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  11. Causation and the origin of life. Metabolism or replication first?

    PubMed

    Pross, Addy

    2004-06-01

    The conceptual gulf that separates the 'metabolism first' and 'replication first' mechanisms for the emergence of life continues to cloud the origin of life debate. In the present paper we analyze this aspect of the origin of life problem and offer arguments in favor of the 'replication first' school. Utilizing Wicken's two-tier approach to causation we argue that a causal connection between replication and metabolism can only be demonstrated if replication would have preceded metabolism. In conjunction with existing empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning, our analysis concludes that there is no substantive evidence for a 'metabolism first' mechanism for life's emergence, while a coherent case can be made for the 'replication first' group of mechanisms. The analysis reaffirms our conviction that life is an extreme expression of kinetic control, and that the emergence of metabolic pathways can be understood by considering life as a manifestation of 'replicative chemistry'.

  12. Causative factors for suicide attempts by overdose in epileptics.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M F; Lanska, D J; Manon-Espaillat, R; Burnstine, T H

    1989-10-01

    We investigated possible causative factors for the high epileptic suicide rate by reviewing the cases of 22 patients with idiopathic epilepsy found among 711 patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt by overdose. Suicide attempts occurred with increased seizure activity in one epileptic; otherwise, no relationships were found with seizure-related variables. When matched by age, sex, and race with 44 nonepileptic controls from the same population, the epileptics had more borderline personality disorders with multiple impulsive suicide attempts (45.5% vs 13.6%), more psychotic disturbances, including command hallucinations (31.8% vs 9.1%), fewer adjustment disorders (18.2% vs 45.5%), and a comparable frequency of depression (13.6% vs 25%). We conclude that suicide attempts in epileptics are primarily associated with interictal psychopathologic factors, such as borderline personality disorder and psychosis, rather than with specific psychosocial stressors, seizure variables, or anticonvulsant medications.

  13. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-04-15

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  14. Causation entropy from symbolic representations of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Lord, Warren M.; Sun, Jie; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-04-01

    Identification of causal structures and quantification of direct information flows in complex systems is a challenging yet important task, with practical applications in many fields. Data generated by dynamical processes or large-scale systems are often symbolized, either because of the finite resolution of the measurement apparatus, or because of the need of statistical estimation. By algorithmic application of causation entropy, we investigated the effects of symbolization on important concepts such as Markov order and causal structure of the tent map. We uncovered that these quantities depend nonmonotonically and, most of all, sensitively on the choice of symbolization. Indeed, we show that Markov order and causal structure do not necessarily converge to their original analog counterparts as the resolution of the partitioning becomes finer.

  15. Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alfred S.

    1976-01-01

    The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:782050

  16. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  17. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  18. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered.

  19. Prosthetic mammoplasty sensitivity syndrome: a case for causation.

    PubMed

    Audino, S A; Maharaj, S V M

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of patients experiencing adverse health effects following prosthetic mammoplasty has suffered from a lack of an acknowledgment of a causal relationship to their breast prosthetic devices. Case reports and case series showing an association between adverse health effects and breast implants have been routinely dismissed as anecdotal, and epidemiological studies have been considered necessary to prove causality. We show that epidemiological research is not necessary for establishing a causal relationship, and one properly documented case can be, in fact, all that is needed to show causation. Presently in the peer-reviewed literature there exists a substantial scientifically sound body of data showing an association between breast implants and adverse health effects. Ample evidence has shown that exposure to the five common types of breast implants outlined, i.e., silicone gel filled, saline filled, double lumen, polyurethane coated, and cohesive silicone, has caused adverse health effects in humans. Prosthetic mammoplasty sensitivity syndrome (PMSS) is the proposed term to describe the disease processes documented in the literature that has a causal relationship to breast implants.

  20. Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Matthew T. G.; Titball, Richard W.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M.; Atkins, Timothy; Crossman, Lisa C.; Pitt, Tyrone; Churcher, Carol; Mungall, Karen; Bentley, Stephen D.; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Bason, Nathalie; Beacham, Ifor R.; Brooks, Karen; Brown, Katherine A.; Brown, Nat F.; Challis, Greg L.; Cherevach, Inna; Chillingworth, Tracy; Cronin, Ann; Crossett, Ben; Davis, Paul; DeShazer, David; Feltwell, Theresa; Fraser, Audrey; Hance, Zahra; Hauser, Heidi; Holroyd, Simon; Jagels, Kay; Keith, Karen E.; Maddison, Mark; Moule, Sharon; Price, Claire; Quail, Michael A.; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Rutherford, Kim; Sanders, Mandy; Simmonds, Mark; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Stevens, Kim; Tumapa, Sarinna; Vesaratchavest, Monkgol; Whitehead, Sally; Yeats, Corin; Barrell, Bart G.; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Parkhill, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a recognized biothreat agent and the causative agent of melioidosis. This Gram-negative bacterium exists as a soil saprophyte in melioidosis-endemic areas of the world and accounts for 20% of community-acquired septicaemias in northeastern Thailand where half of those affected die. Here we report the complete genome of B. pseudomallei, which is composed of two chromosomes of 4.07 megabase pairs and 3.17 megabase pairs, showing significant functional partitioning of genes between them. The large chromosome encodes many of the core functions associated with central metabolism and cell growth, whereas the small chromosome carries more accessory functions associated with adaptation and survival in different niches. Genomic comparisons with closely and more distantly related bacteria revealed a greater level of gene order conservation and a greater number of orthologous genes on the large chromosome, suggesting that the two replicons have distinct evolutionary origins. A striking feature of the genome was the presence of 16 genomic islands (GIs) that together made up 6.1% of the genome. Further analysis revealed these islands to be variably present in a collection of invasive and soil isolates but entirely absent from the clonally related organism B. mallei. We propose that variable horizontal gene acquisition by B. pseudomallei is an important feature of recent genetic evolution and that this has resulted in a genetically diverse pathogenic species. PMID:15377794

  1. Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Holden, Matthew T G; Titball, Richard W; Peacock, Sharon J; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M; Atkins, Timothy; Crossman, Lisa C; Pitt, Tyrone; Churcher, Carol; Mungall, Karen; Bentley, Stephen D; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Thomson, Nicholas R; Bason, Nathalie; Beacham, Ifor R; Brooks, Karen; Brown, Katherine A; Brown, Nat F; Challis, Greg L; Cherevach, Inna; Chillingworth, Tracy; Cronin, Ann; Crossett, Ben; Davis, Paul; DeShazer, David; Feltwell, Theresa; Fraser, Audrey; Hance, Zahra; Hauser, Heidi; Holroyd, Simon; Jagels, Kay; Keith, Karen E; Maddison, Mark; Moule, Sharon; Price, Claire; Quail, Michael A; Rabbinowitsch, Ester; Rutherford, Kim; Sanders, Mandy; Simmonds, Mark; Songsivilai, Sirirurg; Stevens, Kim; Tumapa, Sarinna; Vesaratchavest, Monkgol; Whitehead, Sally; Yeats, Corin; Barrell, Bart G; Oyston, Petra C F; Parkhill, Julian

    2004-09-28

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a recognized biothreat agent and the causative agent of melioidosis. This Gram-negative bacterium exists as a soil saprophyte in melioidosis-endemic areas of the world and accounts for 20% of community-acquired septicaemias in northeastern Thailand where half of those affected die. Here we report the complete genome of B. pseudomallei, which is composed of two chromosomes of 4.07 megabase pairs and 3.17 megabase pairs, showing significant functional partitioning of genes between them. The large chromosome encodes many of the core functions associated with central metabolism and cell growth, whereas the small chromosome carries more accessory functions associated with adaptation and survival in different niches. Genomic comparisons with closely and more distantly related bacteria revealed a greater level of gene order conservation and a greater number of orthologous genes on the large chromosome, suggesting that the two replicons have distinct evolutionary origins. A striking feature of the genome was the presence of 16 genomic islands (GIs) that together made up 6.1% of the genome. Further analysis revealed these islands to be variably present in a collection of invasive and soil isolates but entirely absent from the clonally related organism B. mallei. We propose that variable horizontal gene acquisition by B. pseudomallei is an important feature of recent genetic evolution and that this has resulted in a genetically diverse pathogenic species.

  2. Survival tactics for managing the hospital marketing effort.

    PubMed

    Schaupp, D L; Ponzurick, T G; Schaupp, F W

    1994-01-01

    Hospital marketing is an intricate and complex process. Especially difficult is the transition the hospital marketer must make from designing marketing strategies to implementing those strategies. This transition usually causes the marketer to call upon a different set of skills. These skills involve managing the personnel needed to implement the designed marketing strategy. Unfortunately, little in the way of formal training is provided the marketer for developing these management skills. Therefore, the authors have comprised a series of tactical procedures designed to assist the hospital marketer to survive this transition. Using these tactics for decision-making guidelines may help to improve the management of the hospital's marketing effort.

  3. Entropy and Information Transmission in Causation and Retrocausation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moddel, Garret

    2006-10-01

    Although experimental evidence for retrocausation exists, there are clearly subtleties to the phenomenon. The bilking paradox, in which one intervenes to eliminate a subsequent cause after a preceding effect has occurred, appears on the surface to show that retrocausation is logically impossible. In a previous paper, the second law of thermodynamics was invoked to show that the entropy in each process of a psi interaction (presentience, telepathy, remote perception, and psychokinesis) cannot decrease, prohibiting psi processes in which signals condense from background fluctuations. Here it is shown, perhaps contrary to one's intuition, that reversible processes cannot be influenced through retrocausation, but irreversible processes can. The increase in thermodynamic entropy in irreversible processes — which are generally described by Newtonian mechanics but not Lagrangian dynamics and Hamilton's Principle — is required for causation. Thermodynamically reversible processes cannot be causal and hence also cannot be retrocausal. The role of entropy in psi interactions is extended by using the bilking paradox to consider information transmission in retroactive psychokinesis (PK). PK efficiency, ηPK, is defined. A prediction of the analysis is that ηPK ⩽ H/H0, where H is the information uncertainty or entropy in the retro-PK agent's knowledge of the event that is to be influenced retrocausally. The information entropy can provide the necessary ingredient for non-reversibility, and hence retrocausation. Noise and bandwidth limitations in the communication to the agent of the outcome of the event increase the maximum PK efficiency. Avoidance of the bilking paradox does not bar a subject from using the premonition of an event to prevent it from occurring. The necessity for large information entropy, which is the expected value of the surprisal, is likely to be essential for any successful PK process, not just retro-PK processes. Hence uncertainty in the

  4. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative Agents and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome. PMID:25284877

  5. Mycetoma in iran: causative agents and geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-09-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome.

  6. Inter-Generational Views of Delinquency Causation: A Consideration in Program Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterman, Nicholas A.; Durbin, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Studied similarities and differences in views of 69 high school students and their parents regarding delinquency causation. Found beliefs of two groups to be similar; both groups regarded variety of causative factors to be relatively unimportant. Certain factors (parental indifference) were considered relatively important by parents; certain…

  7. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  8. The Role of Selected Health Problems in the Causation of Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Maurice J.

    1982-01-01

    Considers sociological theories of delinquency causation in order to attempt to integrate research from the fields of optometry, audiology, neurology, and pediatric medicine into the mainstream of sociological theories of delinquency causation. Found strong and consistent relationships between the presence of these health problems and delinquency.…

  9. Time, space and form: Necessary for causation in health, disease and intervention?

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas; Kerry, Roger

    2016-06-01

    Sir Austin Bradford Hill's 'aspects of causation' represent some of the most influential thoughts on the subject of proximate causation in health and disease. Hill compiled a list of features that, when present and known, indicate an increasing likelihood that exposure to a factor causes-or contributes to the causation of-a disease. The items of Hill's list were not labelled 'criteria', as this would have inferred every item being necessary for causation. Hence, criteria that are necessary for causation in health, disease and intervention processes, whether known, knowable, or not, remain undetermined and deserve exploration. To move beyond this position, this paper aims to explore factors that are necessary in the constitution of causative relationships between health, disease processes, and intervention. To this end, disease is viewed as a causative pathway through the often overlapping stages of aetiology, pathology and patho-physiology. Intervention is viewed as a second, independent causative pathway, capable of causing changes in health for benefit or harm. For the natural course of a disease pathway to change, we argue that intervention must not only occupy the same time and space, but must also share a common form; the point at which the two pathways converge and interact. This improved conceptualisation may be used to facilitate the interpretation of clinical observations and inform future research, particularly enabling predictions of the mechanistic relationship between health, disease and intervention.

  10. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    DOE PAGES

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; ...

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly,more » our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.« less

  11. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly, our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.

  12. Dual pricing algorithm in ISO markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Richard P.; Castillo, Anya; Eldridge, Brent; Hytowitz, Robin Broder

    2016-10-10

    The challenge to create efficient market clearing prices in centralized day-ahead electricity markets arises from inherent non-convexities in unit commitment problems. When this aspect is ignored, marginal prices may result in economic losses to market participants who are part of the welfare maximizing solution. In this essay, we present an axiomatic approach to efficient prices and cost allocation for a revenue neutral and non-confiscatory day-ahead market. Current cost allocation practices do not adequately attribute costs based on transparent cost causation criteria. Instead we propose an ex post multi-part pricing scheme, which we refer to as the Dual Pricing Algorithm. Lastly, our approach can be incorporated into current dayahead markets without altering the market equilibrium.

  13. Evolutionary financial market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.

    2000-12-01

    We study computer simulations of two financial market models, the second a simplified model of the first. The first is a model of the self-organized formation and breakup of crowds of traders, motivated by the dynamics of competitive evolving systems which shows interesting self-organized critical (SOC)-type behaviour without any fine tuning of control parameters. This SOC-type avalanching and stasis appear as realistic volatility clustering in the price returns time series. The market becomes highly ordered at ‘crashes’ but gradually loses this order through randomization during the intervening stasis periods. The second model is a model of stocks interacting through a competitive evolutionary dynamic in a common stock exchange. This model shows a self-organized ‘market-confidence’. When this is high the market is stable but when it gets low the market may become highly volatile. Volatile bursts rapidly increase the market confidence again. This model shows a phase transition as temperature parameter is varied. The price returns time series in the transition region is very realistic power-law truncated Levy distribution with clustered volatility and volatility superdiffusion. This model also shows generally positive stock cross-correlations as is observed in real markets. This model may shed some light on why such phenomena are observed.

  14. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  15. A compendium of causative agents of occupational asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective is to provide an evidence-based compendium of allergenic and irritant agents that are known to cause occupational asthma in order to improve diagnostics and disease management. Methods Two previously published reviews from our group utilized database searches to identify studies which were then rated according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) grading system. The evidence level for each causative agent or worksite was graded using the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) three-star system. Results Approximately 3,000 relevant papers were identified, which covered 372 different causes of allergic and 184 different causes of irritant occupational asthma. The highest level achieved using the SIGN grading system was 2++, indicating a high quality study with a very low risk of confounding or bias and a high probability of a causal relationship. Using the modified RCGP three-star grading system, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent or worksite ('***') was found for exposure to laboratory animals. Associations with moderate evidence level (‘**’) were obtained for a) the allergenic agents or worksites: alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae, various enzymes from Bacillus subtilis, papain, bakeries, western red cedar, latex, psyllium, storage mites, rat, carmine, egg proteins, Atlantic salmon, fishmeal, Norway lobster, prawn, snow crab, seafood, trout and turbot, reactive dyes, b) the irritant agents or worksites: benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, 1,2- anhydride [trimellitic anhydride], chlorine, cobalt, cement, environmental tobacco smoke, grain, welding fumes, construction work, swine confinement, World Trade Center disaster 2001, and c) agents or worksites causing allergic as well as irritant occupational asthma, included farming, poultry confinement, various isocyanates and platinum salts. A low evidence level (RCGP) was obtained for 84 agents or worksites (42 from each group

  16. Transit pricing and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pickerell, D.H.; Abkowitz, M.; Tozzi, J.; McCord, M.R.; Cheng, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The 9 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Federal operating assistance for urban mass transit; a decade of experience; transit route characteristics and headway-based reliability control; day-of-week and part-of-month variation in bus ridership; job satisfaction and transit operator recognition programs; results of a survey of muni operators; bus marketing costs: the experience of 18 section 15 reporters from 1981 to 1983; prospects for differential transit pricing in the United States; an initial analysis of total factor productivity for public-transit coordination of transportation resources: the Georgia experience; absenteeism, accidents, and attrition: part-time versus full-time bus drivers.

  17. Communication impacting financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  18. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  19. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  20. Firm-Specific Marketing Capital and Job Satisfaction of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tho D.; Nguyen, Trang T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the resource-based view of the firm, this study aims to examine antecedents and outcomes of firm-specific marketing capital pool invested by marketers in a transition market, Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 528 marketers in Ho Chi Minh City was surveyed to test the theoretical model. Structural equation…

  1. Market reform and universal coverage: avoid market failure.

    PubMed

    Enthoven, A

    1993-02-01

    Determining the marketing mix for hospitals, especially those in transition, will require critical analysis to guard against market failure. Managed competition requires careful planning and awareness of pricing components in a free-market situation. Alain Enthoven, writing for the Jackson Hole Group, proposes establishment of a new national system of sponsor organizations--Health Insurance Purchasing Cooperatives--to function as a collective purchasing agent on behalf of small employers and individuals.

  2. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…

  3. Conducting a Labor Market Trend Analysis: Process and Results. Working Paper 85-3. COMPETE: Community-Based Model for Public-School Exit and Transition to Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; Easterday, Joseph R.

    The purpose of Project COMPETE is to use previous research and exemplary practices to develop and validate a model and training sequence to assist retarded youth to make the transition from school to employment in the most competitive environment possible. This project working paper describes the process of using existing information sources to…

  4. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…

  5. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  6. Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

    2002-01-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether

  7. Stepping towards causation in studies of neighborhood and environmental effects: how twin research can overcome problems of selection and reverse causation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Glen E; Mills, Brianna; Strachan, Eric; Hurvitz, Philip; Huang, Ruizhu; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Turkheimer, Eric

    2014-05-01

    No causal evidence is available to translate associations between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes into beneficial changes to built environments. Observed associations may be causal or result from uncontrolled confounds related to family upbringing. Twin designs can help neighborhood effects studies overcome selection and reverse causation problems in specifying causal mechanisms. Beyond quantifying genetic effects (i.e., heritability coefficients), we provide examples of innovative measures and analytic methods that use twins as quasi-experimental controls for confounding by environmental effects. We conclude that collaboration among investigators from multiple fields can move the field forward by designing studies that step toward causation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurodynamics of mind: the arrow illusion of conscious intentionality as downward causation.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Cornejo, Carlos; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2010-06-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, the reissue of the notion of emergence and downward causation has been used as an interlevel model of mind-brain interactions from different perspectives. Within this perspective, intentionality has been interpreted as global to local determination (downward causation) on the neurophysiological level. Consciousness would act as the large-scale, global activity of the system that governs or constrains local interactions of neurons. This argument seems to solve several difficulties with regard to descriptions of consciousness on a neurophysiological and mental level. Nevertheless, the inconsistencies of this argument are shown, and a contextual and pragmatic explanation of the downward causation of consciousness is given.

  9. Australian tort law reform: statutory principles of causation and the common law.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2004-05-01

    By mid-2004, Parliaments in each Australian jurisdiction will either complete or will be in the process of partial codification of the law of torts. The reforms, including those to the law of negligence, are extensive. This article focuses on codification of the law of causation as an element of the cause of action in negligence. It examines the background to "tort reform", as the process has been labelled, and discusses the common law paradigm of negligence and various approaches to causation. It then analyses and compares the causation provisions in each jurisdiction.

  10. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  11. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2015-08-21

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.

  12. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi, the Causative Agent of Lyme Disease, Forms Drug-Tolerant Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bijaya; Brown, Autumn V.; Matluck, Nicole E.; Hu, Linden T.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which affects an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States. When treated early, the disease usually resolves, but when left untreated, it can result in symptoms such as arthritis and encephalopathy. Treatment of the late-stage disease may require multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Given that antibiotic resistance has not been observed for B. burgdorferi, the reason for the recalcitrance of late-stage disease to antibiotics is unclear. In other chronic infections, the presence of drug-tolerant persisters has been linked to recalcitrance of the disease. In this study, we examined the ability of B. burgdorferi to form persisters. Killing growing cultures of B. burgdorferi with antibiotics used to treat the disease was distinctly biphasic, with a small subpopulation of surviving cells. Upon regrowth, these cells formed a new subpopulation of antibiotic-tolerant cells, indicating that these are persisters rather than resistant mutants. The level of persisters increased sharply as the culture transitioned from the exponential to stationary phase. Combinations of antibiotics did not improve killing. Daptomycin, a membrane-active bactericidal antibiotic, killed stationary-phase cells but not persisters. Mitomycin C, an anticancer agent that forms adducts with DNA, killed persisters and eradicated growing and stationary cultures of B. burgdorferi. Finally, we examined the ability of pulse dosing an antibiotic to eliminate persisters. After addition of ceftriaxone, the antibiotic was washed away, surviving persisters were allowed to resuscitate, and the antibiotic was added again. Four pulse doses of ceftriaxone killed persisters, eradicating all live bacteria in the culture. PMID:26014929

  14. Global Map of Growth-Regulated Gene Expression in Burkholderia pseudomallei, the Causative Agent of Melioidosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Fiona; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Harding, Sarah V.; Sim, Siew Hoon; Chua, Hui Hoon; Lin, Chi Ho; Han, Xu; Karuturi, R. Krishna M.; Sung, Ken; Yu, Kun; Chen, Wei; Atkins, Timothy P.; Titball, Richard W.; Tan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Many microbial pathogens express specific virulence traits at distinct growth phases. To understand the molecular pathways linking bacterial growth to pathogenicity, we have characterized the growth transcriptome of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. Using a fine-scale sampling approach, we found approximately 17% of all B. pseudomallei genes displaying regulated expression during growth in rich medium, occurring as broad waves of functionally coherent gene expression tightly associated with distinct growth phases and transition points. We observed regulation of virulence genes across all growth phases and identified serC as a potentially new virulence factor by virtue of its coexpression with other early-phase virulence genes. serC-disrupted B. pseudomallei strains were serine auxotrophs and in mouse infection assays exhibited a dramatic attenuation of virulence compared to wild-type B. pseudomallei. Immunization of mice with serC-disrupted B. pseudomallei also conferred protection against subsequent challenges with different wild-type B. pseudomallei strains. At a genomic level, early-phase genes were preferentially localized on chromosome 1, while stationary-phase genes were significantly biased towards chromosome 2. We detected a significant level of chromosomally clustered gene expression, allowing us to predict ∼100 potential operons in the B. pseudomallei genome. We computationally and experimentally validated these operons by showing that genes in these regions are preferentially transcribed in the same 5′→3′ direction, possess significantly shorter intergenic lengths than the overall genome, and are expressed as a common mRNA transcript. The availability of this transcriptome map provides an important resource for understanding the transcriptional architecture of B. pseudomallei. PMID:16997946

  15. Alternate theories of causation in abusive head trauma: what the science tells us.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Carole

    2014-12-01

    When cases of suspected abusive head trauma are adjudicated in courts of law, several alternative theories of causation are frequently presented. This paper reviews common theories and examines their scientific basis.

  16. "Isn't the Trigger the Thing that Sets the Rest of It on Fire?" Causation Maps: Emphasising Chronology in Causation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Analogies for teaching about causation abound. Rick Rogers is alert, however, to the risks inherent in drawing on everyday ideas to explain historical processes. What most often gets lost is the importance of the chronological dimension; both the length of time during which some contributory causes may have been present, and the ways in which they…

  17. "Isn't the Trigger the Thing that Sets the Rest of It on Fire?" Causation Maps: Emphasising Chronology in Causation Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Analogies for teaching about causation abound. Rick Rogers is alert, however, to the risks inherent in drawing on everyday ideas to explain historical processes. What most often gets lost is the importance of the chronological dimension; both the length of time during which some contributory causes may have been present, and the ways in which they…

  18. Utility of multiplex PCR in detecting the causative pathogens for pediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Yoshihiro; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2011-08-17

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a life-threatening complication, and the primary cause of FN is considered to be microbial infection. Therefore, prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial. Clinicians usually prescribe antimicrobial therapy on the basis of presumptive and empirical data. This is because the causative pathogen for FN in blood culture (BC) analysis is detected several days after sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has been used for detecting the causative bacteria of infections. Here, we examined whether multiplex PCR is useful for detecting the causative pathogens for FN patients. We extracted DNA from the patients' whole blood and performed multiplex PCR. In total, 128 samples of 40 patients clinically diagnosed with FN were used in this study. Multiplex PCR analysis revealed the causative pathogen in 3 patients with FN; the DNA fragments amplified were those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2 cases and Psedomonas putida in 1 case. These patients could be started on appropriate antimicrobial therapy a few hours after sampling. However, the DNA fragment of the causative pathogen could not be amplified by PCR in 2 patients, although BC analysis did detect the causative bacteria. Thus, we conclude that multiplex PCR is serviceable in case of FN because of its rapidness. However, BC is also indispensable to treating FN owing to its high sensitivity.

  19. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  20. Nonwork and off-peak trips by transit, walk and bicycle modes: An understanding of existing and potential markets. Final report, 1 August 1996--28 February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Soeoet, S.; Sen, A.; Yang, D.; Dirks, L.; Sternberg, T.

    1999-03-01

    The study identifies the characteristics of neighborhoods that contribute to off-peak transit, walk or bike use. The emphasis is on off-peak and nonwork trips and how to promote modes other than the automobile. By producing thirty maps illustrating socioeconomic and travel behavior patterns in the Chicago area, the potential for stabilizing and then increasing the utilization of these modes is examined. Substantial amounts of data were processed and reported. For example, off-peak trips, accounting for 48% of daily travel, are shorter than trips during the peak (in miles and minutes) for travel by both public transit and by private vehicle. Regionally, walking trips vary from 42% of all trips made by Chicago CBD residents (mainly to shop and work), 17% in the rest of the city and less than 5% in suburban Chicago. Bicycle ownership is related to the number of vehicles in the household, household income, household size and distance from the Chicago CBD. These data and field observations of three case-study neighborhoods revealed that differences in modes used are related to the land-use patterns and the socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population. While areas with low automobile ownership rates might suggest walking and bicycling, these nonmotorized modes are more common in affluent neighborhoods with a large number of nearby commercial and recreational destinations.

  1. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  2. Demystifying Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    To market their institutions effectively, college advancement professionals need to understand that marketing encompasses several specific activities and begins with the customer's needs, not the institution's. The administrator must know the institution thoroughly before developing a marketing plan and be able to develop and adapt marketing…

  3. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  4. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  5. Clinical manifestations of pneumonia according to the causative organism in patients in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Kyu; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Sang-Min

    2015-11-01

    Whether the causative organism influences the clinical course of pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU) is controversial. We assessed the clinical manifestations and prognosis of pneumonia according to the causative pathogens in patients in a medical ICU. A retrospective observational study was performed in a medical ICU. Among 242 patients who were admitted to the ICU, 103 who were treated for pneumonia were analyzed. The causative pathogen was identified in 50 patients (49.0%); 22 patients (21.6%) had multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The distribution of causative micro-organisms was Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Pseudomonas species (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (12%). No significant difference in ICU mortality rate, duration of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or frequencies of re-intubation and tracheostomy were detected based on the identification of any pathogen. In sub-analyses according to the pneumonia classification, the number of pathogens identified did not differ between pneumonia types, and a higher incidence of identified MDR pathogens was detected in the hospital-acquired pneumonia group than in the community-acquired or healthcare- acquired pneumonia groups. However, the clinical outcomes of pneumonia according to identification status and type of pathogen did not differ significantly between the groups. Neither the causative micro-organism nor the existence of MDR pathogens in critically ill patients with pneumonia was associated with the clinical outcome of pneumonia, including ICU mortality. This result was consistent regardless of the pneumonia classification.

  6. An evaluation of applied biomechanics as an adjunct to systematic specific causation in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Kohles, Sean S

    2011-10-01

    Biomechanical tests of post hoc probability have been proposed by prior authors as reliable tests of causation in forensic settings. Biomechanical assessment of injury kinetics and kinematics is a potentially important tool in forensic medicine, but there is also the potential for misapplication. The most reliable application is when biomechanical analysis is used to explain injury mechanisms, such as how an injury may have occurred. When a biomechanical analysis is used as a means of determining whether, rather than how an injury has resulted from a traumatic exposure, then a lack of reliability of the methodology limits its application in forensic medicine. Herein, we describe a systematic assessment of causation by adapting established general causation principles to specific causation scenarios, and how biomechanical analysis of injury mechanics is properly used to augment such an approach in conjunction with the principles of forensic epidemiology. An example calculation of relative risk associated with cervical spine injury is provided as a representative probabilistic metric for assessing causation. The statistical benefits and limitations of biomechanical analysis are discussed as an adjunct to forensic medicine.

  7. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  8. Causative or precipitating aspects of burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Demarosi, Federica; Uglietti, Daniela; Carrassi, Antonio

    2006-09-01

    On causative or precipitating causes of burning mouth syndrome (BMS), there is a lack of consensus. In this prospective case-control study, we compared clinical features and laboratory aspects to evaluate the association of the proposed causative/precipitating factors of BMS. A total of 61 BMS patients and 54 control subjects underwent several evaluations: rest and stimulated salivary flow rates measurements, laboratory tests, isolation of Candida species, assessment of parafunctional activities, detection of anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated to compare the variables. No statistically significant differences were found with regard to the tested variables except for anxiety and depression. The results of this study seem not to support a role for the usually reported causative or precipitating factors of BMS and efforts should be addressed towards different aetiologies including possible neuropathic mechanisms of BMS.

  9. Top-down causation regarding the chemistry-physics interface: a sceptical view.

    PubMed

    Scerri, Eric R

    2012-02-06

    This article examines two influential authors who have addressed the interface between the fields of chemistry and physics and have reached opposite conclusions about whether or not emergence and downward causation represent genuine phenomena. While McLaughlin concludes that emergence is impossible in the light of quantum mechanics, Hendry regards issues connected with the status of molecular structure as supporting emergence. The present author suggests that one should not be persuaded by either of these arguments and pleads for a form of agnosticism over the reality of emergence and downward causation until further studies might be carried out.

  10. Migraine and the social selection vs causation hypotheses: a question larger than either/or?

    PubMed

    Peterlin, B Lee; Scher, Ann I

    2013-09-10

    For decades, the question of social selection vs social causation has been raised by public health researchers and social scientists to explain the association between socioeconomic factors and mood disorders.(1,2) The social selection or "downward drift" theory postulates that the disease itself limits an individual's educational and occupational achievements, leading to a lower socioeconomic status (SES). In contrast, the social causation hypothesis suggests that factors associated with low SES (e.g., stressful life events, poor health care access) increase the likelihood of disease onset or prolonged disease duration.(3,4) Simply stated, the end result of each hypothesis is as follows:

  11. Interplay of causation between suppliers and consumers in evolutionary trophic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Y; Ono, N

    1997-01-01

    Natural selection, conceived as the process of small causes making small effects on the level of molecular evolutionary dynamics of a population, can yield global effects on the level of evolutionary trophic dynamics of populations, including those of mass extinctions. Occurrence of mass extinctions is due to the interplay of causation between suppliers and consumers in trophic dynamics. If the case of supplier causation is available such that resource exploitation by consumers on the upper trophic level follows in time resource presentation by suppliers on the lower, instead of resource exploitation followed by resource presentation, mass extinctions could be a norm of the evolutionary trophic dynamics.

  12. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85. PMID:27031110

  13. Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Mary E.; Pace, Darra; Blue, Elfreda; Schwartz, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of autism and the lack of specific answers regarding causation have given rise to unproven educational interventions and medical treatments. Parents of a newly diagnosed child can easily fall prey to interventions that promise cures. These interventions may be harmful and, thus, pose one of the critical issues in special…

  14. Etiology in psychiatry: embracing the reality of poly-gene-environmental causation of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Uher, Rudolf; Zwicker, Alyson

    2017-06-01

    Intriguing findings on genetic and environmental causation suggest a need to reframe the etiology of mental disorders. Molecular genetics shows that thousands of common and rare genetic variants contribute to mental illness. Epidemiological studies have identified dozens of environmental exposures that are associated with psychopathology. The effect of environment is likely conditional on genetic factors, resulting in gene-environment interactions. The impact of environmental factors also depends on previous exposures, resulting in environment-environment interactions. Most known genetic and environmental factors are shared across multiple mental disorders. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, in particular, are closely causally linked. Synthesis of findings from twin studies, molecular genetics and epidemiological research suggests that joint consideration of multiple genetic and environmental factors has much greater explanatory power than separate studies of genetic or environmental causation. Multi-factorial gene-environment interactions are likely to be a generic mechanism involved in the majority of cases of mental illness, which is only partially tapped by existing gene-environment studies. Future research may cut across psychiatric disorders and address poly-causation by considering multiple genetic and environmental measures across the life course with a specific focus on the first two decades of life. Integrative analyses of poly-causation including gene-environment and environment-environment interactions can realize the potential for discovering causal types and mechanisms that are likely to generate new preventive and therapeutic tools. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  15. Direct Causation in the Linguistic Coding and Individuation of Causal Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    This research proposes a new theory of direct causation and examines how this concept plays a key role in the linguistic coding and individuation of causal events. According to the "no-intervening-cause hypothesis," a causal chain can be described by a single-clause sentence and construed as a single event if there are no intervening causers…

  16. Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Mary E.; Pace, Darra; Blue, Elfreda; Schwartz, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of autism and the lack of specific answers regarding causation have given rise to unproven educational interventions and medical treatments. Parents of a newly diagnosed child can easily fall prey to interventions that promise cures. These interventions may be harmful and, thus, pose one of the critical issues in special…

  17. The Acquisition of Causative/Inchoative Verbs in L2 Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between lexical semantics and derivational morphology in the acquisition of causative/inchoative-related verbs in Turkish as a second language (L2) by Spanish and English speakers. Suggests that L2 learners are attuned to the rich morphology of Turkish and that the acquisition of derivational morphology and lexical…

  18. [Sensitivity of nosocomial purulent-septic infection causative agents to disinfection agents and antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Sergevnin, V I; Kliukina, T V; Kliuchareva, N M; Volkova, E O; Kudriavtseva, L G

    2014-01-01

    Study the sensitivity of nosocomial purulent-septic infection (PSI) causative agents to disinfectants (DA) and antibiotics (AB). Sensitivity to DA and AB of 209 PSI causative agent strains isolated from patients and the environment of 2 obstetric and 3 surgical hospitals was studied in 2009-2011. Sensitivity to DA of 94 strains and to AB of 189 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with signs of PSI of reanimation and intensive therapy and surgical departments of a multi-field hospital was studied in 2012. Sensitivity to DA was determined on test-surfaces and in solution according to guidelines by V.V. Shkarin et al., 2010; sensitivity to AB - by disc-diffusion method. Among PSI causative agents resistant to DA the portion of poly-antibiotic resistant strains is higher than among microorganisms sensitive to DA, and among antibiotic resistant bacteria the number of strains resistant to DA is higher than among sensitive to antibiotics. The increase of resistance to DA and AB of P. aeruginosa strains is observed in parallel to the increase of volume of the antibacterial preparations used. The results obtained give evidence of the possibility of formation of combined (associated) resistance to DA and AB by nosocomial PSI causative agents against the background of increase of their consumption.

  19. Strategy for incorporating newly discovered causative genetic variants into genomic evaluations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With sequence data available for an increasing number of dairy cattle, discovery of causative genetic variants is expected to be frequent. Current genomic evaluation systems require genotypes for all markers that contribute to an evaluation. A minimum number of animals with an observation for a new ...

  20. Analytic Causative Constructions in Medieval Spanish: The Origins of a Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanaphre Villanueva, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an inventory of the Analytic Causative constructions that were in use in Peninsular Spanish from the 12th to the 16th centuries from the constructional perspective of Cognitive Grammar. A detailed profile of each construction was made including its constructional schema along with relevant semantic, syntactic,…

  1. 6.9 Sikkim Earthquake and Modeling of Ground Motions to Determine Causative Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sumer; Sharma, Jyoti; Sutar, Anup; Bansal, B. K.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, source parameters of the September 18, 2011 M w 6.9, Sikkim earthquake were determined using acceleration records. These parameters were then used to generate strong motion at a number of sites using the stochastic finite fault modeling technique to constrain the causative fault plane for this earthquake. The average values of corner frequency, seismic moment, stress drop and source radius were 0.12 Hz, 3.07 × 1026 dyne-cm, 115 bars and 9.68 km, respectively. The fault plane solution showed strike-slip movement with two nodal planes oriented along two prominent lineaments in the region, the NE-oriented Kanchendzonga and NW-oriented Tista lineaments. The ground motions were estimated considering both the nodal planes as causative faults and the results in terms of the peak ground accelerations (PGA) and Fourier spectra were then compared with the actual recordings. We found that the NW-SE striking nodal plane along the Tista lineament may have been the causative fault for the Sikkim earthquake, as PGA estimates are comparable with the observed recordings. We also observed that the Fourier spectrum is not a good parameter in deciding the causative fault plane.

  2. Etiology in psychiatry: embracing the reality of poly‐gene‐environmental causation of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Uher, Rudolf; Zwicker, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    Intriguing findings on genetic and environmental causation suggest a need to reframe the etiology of mental disorders. Molecular genetics shows that thousands of common and rare genetic variants contribute to mental illness. Epidemiological studies have identified dozens of environmental exposures that are associated with psychopathology. The effect of environment is likely conditional on genetic factors, resulting in gene‐environment interactions. The impact of environmental factors also depends on previous exposures, resulting in environment‐environment interactions. Most known genetic and environmental factors are shared across multiple mental disorders. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, in particular, are closely causally linked. Synthesis of findings from twin studies, molecular genetics and epidemiological research suggests that joint consideration of multiple genetic and environmental factors has much greater explanatory power than separate studies of genetic or environmental causation. Multi‐factorial gene‐environment interactions are likely to be a generic mechanism involved in the majority of cases of mental illness, which is only partially tapped by existing gene‐environment studies. Future research may cut across psychiatric disorders and address poly‐causation by considering multiple genetic and environmental measures across the life course with a specific focus on the first two decades of life. Integrative analyses of poly‐causation including gene‐environment and environment‐environment interactions can realize the potential for discovering causal types and mechanisms that are likely to generate new preventive and therapeutic tools. PMID:28498595

  3. Depression and Poverty among Rural Women: A Relationship of Social Causation or Social Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Leigh A.; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Methods: Structural equation…

  4. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  5. A Definitional Analysis of English Causative Verbs; Its Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Basis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsalves, Renison J.

    Arguments in favor of a particular decompositional approach to word meaning are presented and contrasted with other theories. The approach in question uses semantic markers to represent word meanings. The semantic marker analysis of English causative verbs is outlined and illustrated, showing how such an analysis could account for the semantic…

  6. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  7. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  8. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  9. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  10. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  11. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  12. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  13. A Study of Reverse Causation: Examining the Associations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Serum Levels with Two Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Radhika; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Steenland, Kyle

    2017-03-01

    Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations. We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations. In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30-65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005-2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause. Menopause and eGFR were significantly associated with measured (trend tests: p = 0.013, p = 0.0005, respectively) but not with modeled serum PFOA (p = 0.50, p = 0.76, respectively). Measured PFOA levels increased for the first 7 years after menopause (trend test, p < 0.0001), providing further evidence that the observed association between measured PFOA and menopause is subject to reverse causation for this outcome. Our results support the conjecture that in previous studies, earlier menopause and reduced kidney function are the causes rather than the results of increased measured serum PFOA. These results suggest caution in using biomarkers in cross-sectional studies. Citation: Dhingra R, Winquist A, Darrow LA, Klein M

  14. A Study of Reverse Causation: Examining the Associations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Serum Levels with Two Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations. Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations. Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005–2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause. Results: Menopause and eGFR were significantly associated with measured (trend tests: p = 0.013, p = 0.0005, respectively) but not with modeled serum PFOA (p = 0.50, p = 0.76, respectively). Measured PFOA levels increased for the first 7 years after menopause (trend test, p < 0.0001), providing further evidence that the observed association between measured PFOA and menopause is subject to reverse causation for this outcome. Conclusion: Our results support the conjecture that in previous studies, earlier menopause and reduced kidney function are the causes rather than the results of increased measured serum PFOA. These results suggest caution in using biomarkers in cross-sectional studies

  15. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  16. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  17. Adaptive Competition, Market Efficiency, and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savit, Robert; Manuca, Radu; Riolo, Rick

    1999-03-01

    In many social and biological systems agents simultaneously and adaptively compete for limited resources, thereby altering their environment. We analyze a simple model that incorporates fundamental features of such systems. If the space of strategies available to the agents is small, the system is in a phase in which all information available to the agents' strategies is traded away, and agents' choices are maladaptive, resulting in a poor collective utilization of resources. For larger strategy spaces, the system is in a phase in which the agents are able to coordinate their actions to achieve a better utilization of resources. The best utilization of resources occurs at a critical point, when the dimension of the strategy space is on the order of the number of agents.

  18. Compressed television transmission: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

    1981-01-01

    NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

  19. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Luciana Basili; de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Márcia; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Filho, José Meirelles; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-01-01

    Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 160 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed. PMID:24031756

  20. FOOT ECZEMA: THE ROLE OF PATCH TEST IN DETERMINING THE CAUSATIVE AGENT USING STANDARD SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Priya, K S; Kamath, Ganesh; Martis, Jacintha; D, Sukumar; Shetty, Narendra J; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda

    2008-01-01

    Foot dermatitis refers to the predominant involvement of feet in the eczematous process. This study is undertaken to determine the clinical pattern and causative agent in foot eczema and to evaluate the role of patch testing in determining the causative agent of foot eczema. Data was collected from 50 patients with foot eczema, who attended the out-patient department. The patch test was performed using Indian standard series. Patch test was positive in 88% of the patients. The most common site affected was the dorsal aspect of the foot (48%) and scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern. The highest number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and the lowest (4%) to neomycin sulfate. Rubber and rubber chemicals have been reported worldwide to be the most common sensitizer causing foot eczema. Thus, patch test has a major role in finding out the cause of foot eczema. PMID:19881990

  1. Top-down causation by information control: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research programme

    PubMed Central

    Auletta, G; Ellis, G.F.R; Jaeger, L

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of information control and functional equivalence classes in those systems are rigorously defined and used to characterize when top-down causation by feedback control happens, in a way that is testable. The causally significant elements we consider are equivalence classes of lower level processes, realized in biological systems through different operations having the same outcome within the context of information control and networks. PMID:18319208

  2. Three Human Gnathostomiasis Cases in Thailand with Molecular Identification of Causative Parasite Species.

    PubMed

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sangchan, Apichat; Visaetsilpanonta, Siriraksa; Keawkong, Worasak; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-09-01

    Human gnathostomiasis is one of the important food-borne parasitic zoonoses. The disease is caused by a spirurid roundworm of the genus Gnathostoma. Here, we describe three parasitological confirmed cases of human gnathostomiasis, caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum, in a hospital in Thailand during 2004-2012. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of cases were revealed. Parasites were accidentally recovered from patients and morphologically identified as Gnathostoma species. Confirmed diagnosis and identification of causative parasite species was made by DNA extraction of the recovered worms, followed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of DNA and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene. Sequences corresponding to ITS2 and cox-1 were similar to G. spinigerum. To our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular confirmation that recovered G. spinigerum is a causative agent of human infection in Thailand. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Three Human Gnathostomiasis Cases in Thailand with Molecular Identification of Causative Parasite Species

    PubMed Central

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sangchan, Apichat; Visaetsilpanonta, Siriraksa; Keawkong, Worasak; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-01-01

    Human gnathostomiasis is one of the important food-borne parasitic zoonoses. The disease is caused by a spirurid roundworm of the genus Gnathostoma. Here, we describe three parasitological confirmed cases of human gnathostomiasis, caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum, in a hospital in Thailand during 2004–2012. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of cases were revealed. Parasites were accidentally recovered from patients and morphologically identified as Gnathostoma species. Confirmed diagnosis and identification of causative parasite species was made by DNA extraction of the recovered worms, followed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of DNA and the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) gene. Sequences corresponding to ITS2 and cox-1 were similar to G. spinigerum. To our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular confirmation that recovered G. spinigerum is a causative agent of human infection in Thailand. PMID:26055743

  4. Neurological and neuropsychological consequences of electrical and lightning shock: review and theories of causation

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christopher J.; Reisner, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Injuries from lightning and electrical injuries involve multiple systems of the body, however neurological symptoms are very widely reported. A disabling neuropsychological syndrome is also noted. This paper presents a comprehensive review of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. Partial theories of causation for these injuries have been advanced, however, there is no convincing explanation for both delay in onset of symptoms and also the genesis of the neuropsychological syndrome. A theory of causation is proposed which satisfies both these constraints. This theory suggests circulating hormones such as cortisol, together with nitric oxide and oxidant free radicals from glutamatergic hyper-stimulation, act on tissues remote from the injury path including the hippocampus. This theory opens a research path to explore treatment options. PMID:28616016

  5. Causation and prediction in epidemiology: a guide to the "methodological revolution".

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Alex

    2015-12-01

    There is an ongoing "methodological revolution" in epidemiology, according to some commentators. The revolution is prompted by the development of a conceptual framework for thinking about causation here referred to as the Potential Outcomes Approach (POA), and the mathematical apparatus of directed acyclic graphs that accompanies it. But over and above the mathematics, a number of striking theses about causation are evident, for example: that a cause is something that makes a difference; that a cause is something that humans can intervene on; and that causal knowledge enables one to predict under hypothetical suppositions. This is especially remarkable in a discipline that has variously identified factors such as race and sex as determinants of health, since it has the consequence that factors of this kind cannot be treated as causes either as usefully or as meaningfully as was previously supposed. In this paper I seek to explain the significance of this movement in epidemiology, to understand its commitments, and to evaluate them.

  6. Geophysical evidence for a causative process for fragmentation in western Gondwana

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, L.A.G.; Moyes, A.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The existence and subsequent fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent are well established in the geological literature. Debate continues, however, on the exact prefragmentation geometry and the causative process of breakup. The easter Walvis Ridge and the Agulhas and the Mozambique plateaus, which surround southern Africa, exhibit geophysically anomalous oceanic crust and lithosphere. In the vicinity of these aseismic bathymetry highs, the crust is considerably thicker than normal, and the uppermost mantle has lower than normal densities and seismic velocities. Within a Gondwana framework, these anomalies coincide with a highly fragmented region at the triple junction of the three major plates (Africa, South America, and Antarctica). This anomalous oceanic crust and lithosphere, the ubiquitous and contemporaneous magmatism, and the basin and range-type tectonism of the region are consonant with a hot-mantle-upflow tectonic framework as the causative process for fragmentation.

  7. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  8. Occlusion as a causative factor in TMD. Scientific basis to occlusal therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker, I M

    1995-11-01

    There appears to be a pendulum swing toward large epidemiologic studies questioning the role of occlusion in dentistry. This article clearly demonstrates that significant scientific evidence exists on the side of occlusal causative factors. Clinicians need this current information to base practical decisions of treatment relative to both patients and those requiring restorative procedures. It further correctly clarifies that stress-related issues have an important role, along with other host-susceptibility altering factors.

  9. Died of Wounds on the Battlefield: Causation and Implications for Improving Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Died of Wounds on the Battlefield: Causation and Implications for Improving Combat Casualty Care Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Mark Hardin ...Medical Command, Department of the Army, or the Department of Defense. Address for reprints: Brian J. Eastridge, MD, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eastridge B. J., Hardin M., Cantrell J., Oetjen-Gerdes L., Zubko T., Mallak C., Wade C. E

  10. UV causation of melanoma in Xiphophorus is dominated by melanin photosensitized oxidant production

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Simon R.; Berwick, Marianne; Ley, Ronald D.; Walter, Ronald B.; Setlow, Richard B.; Timmins, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Controversy continues both as to which wavelengths of sunlight cause melanoma and the mechanisms by which these different wavelengths act. Direct absorption of UVB by DNA is central in albino animal models, but melanin-pigmented models have shown major contributions by wavelengths longer than UVB that are thought to be mediated by photosensitized oxidant production. The only model for which the action spectrum of melanoma causation is known is a genetically melanoma-susceptible specific cross of Xiphophorus fish. We used electron paramagnetic resonance to quantitatively detect the UV induction of reactive melanin radicals in situ in the melanin-containing cells in the skin of this model and derived the action spectrum for melanin-photosensitized oxidant production (Φox). This action spectrum was identical to that for melanoma induction (Φmel). These results confirm the hypothesis that melanin-photosensitized radical production is the major causative step of melanoma in this model and demonstrate that the wavelengths and mechanisms of melanoma causation in different models are dependent on the presence of melanin. This approach should be applicable to humans, thus providing an accurate surrogate for Φmel for prevention studies. PMID:16537493

  11. A Spirochaete is suggested as the causative agent of Akoya oyster disease by metagenomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Fujiwara, Atushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Takano, Tomokazu; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Satoh, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yoshikazu; Tsuchihashi, Yasushi; Aoki, Hideo; Odawara, Kazushi; Iwanaga, Shunsuke; Kurita, Jun; Kamaishi, Takashi; Nakayasu, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    Mass mortality that is acompanied by reddish browning of the soft tissues has been occurring in cultured pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii. The disease is called Akoya oyster disease (AOD). Although spreading pattern of the disease and transmission experiments suggest that the disease is infectious, the causative agent has not yet been identified. We used shotgun and 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to identify genes that are present specifically in affected oysters. The genes found only in diseased oysters were mostly bacterial origin, suggesting that the causative agent was a bacterial pathogen. This hypothesis was supported by the inhibition of AOD development in naïve oysters injected with the hemolymph of diseased animals followed immediately with penicillin bath-administration. Further analyses of the hemolymph and mantle specifically and universally detected genes of bacteria that belong to phylum Spirochaetes in diseased pearl oysters but not in healthy oysters. By in situ hybridization or immunostaining, a Brachyspira-like bacterium was observed in the smears of hemolymph from affected oysters, but not from healthy oysters. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA sequences showed that the presumptive causative bacterium was outside of but most closely related to family Brachyspiraceae. We propose ‘Candidatus Maribrachyspira akoyae’ gen. nov, sp nov., for this bacterium. PMID:28771537

  12. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Atsuko

    2010-05-01

    Case 1: 67-years-old woman with pollinosis noticed oppressive feeling of chest and back, and heart burn after accidental ingestion of her dental filling and dental treatment. Oral famotidine did not improve her symptom. Her peripheral blood eosinophils increased to 38.0%. As for the specific IgE, only cedar and cypress were positive. Case 2: a 42-years-old-woman with pollinosis and asthma repeated urticaria, heart burn, diarrhea and peripheral eosinophilia (25%). At her first visit to our department, her blood eosinophil increased to 52.9%, her serum IgG markedly increased in polyclonal pattern and overt all subclasses. The specific IgE was positive only for cypress. Because they revealed a remarkable infiltrates of eosinophils in the mucosa of alimentary tract, we diagnosed the 2 patient as eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In case 1, based on the history and patch-test-positive finding of formalin and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. In case 2, based on the patch-test-positive finding of garlic and sesame and improvement after removal of the two allergens, we diagnosed the two may be causative allergens. Although causative allergens of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are almost unknown, some cases are reported to be determined the allergens of foods and drugs. In our cases, patch test was useful to identify the allergens.

  13. Identification of causative mutation in a Korean family with Crouzon syndrome using whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Borum; Jung, Da Jung; Baek, Jeong-In; Kim, Min-A; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Sang-Heun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Craniosynostosis is a heterogeneous disorder that results in a common malformation which causes premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was recently developed as a powerful genetic strategy for identifying pathogenic mutations of heterogeneous disorders with various causative genes. A 24-year-old woman visited our department for evaluation of persistent hearing impairment and absence of an external auditory canal from birth. In this study, we performed WES to identify the causative mutation in a Korean family who has Crouzon Syndrome (CS). We first focused on 16 genes associated with craniosynostosis and sorted the heterozygous variations according to the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of her family. After the bioinformatic analysis for filtering and detecting variations, three non-synonymous variations in different genes were selected for additional analysis. Among these, the p.C278F mutation in the FGFR2 gene was only absent from both dbSNP and the 1000 Genomes database. We considered the p.C278F mutation in the FGFR2 gene as the causative mutation for the CS. This result suggests that the application of WES will be valuable for diagnosis of congenital disorders with clinical and genetics heterogeneities. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  14. [Formation of microbial biofilms in causative agents of acute and chronic pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lagun, L V; Atanasova, Iu V; Tapal'skiĭ, D V

    2013-01-01

    Study the intensity of formation of microbial biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated during various forms of pyelonephritis. 150 clinical isolates of microorganisms isolated from urine ofpatientswith acute and chronic pyelonephritiswere included into the study. Determination of intensity of film-formation was carried out by staining of the formed biofilms by crystal violet with consequent extraction of the dye and measurement of its concentration in washout solution. Among causative agents ofpyelonephritis P. aeruginosa isolates had the maximum film-forming ability. The intensity of biofilm formation of these isolates was 2-3 time higher than staphylococcus and enterobacteria strains. Strains isolated from patients with chronic pyelonephritis by ability to form biofilms significantly surpassed strains isolated from acute pyelonephritis patients. A higher ability to form microbial biofilms for microorganisms--causative agents of pyelonephritis progressing against the background ofurolithiasis was noted. The ability to form biofilms is determined by both causative agent species and character of the infectious process in which this microorganism participates. Intensive formation of biofilms by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus clinical isolates may be an important factor of chronization of urinary tract infections.

  15. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  16. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Reka; Abraham, Arpad; Horvath, Tibor; Kopeczi-Bocz, Tamas

    Most deficiencies of the Hungarian labor market emerge from a combination of the transition crisis and special features of the economy or transition process. The most crucial labor market problem is low employment. Negative impacts are high taxation and social security contributions; reduced investment, job creation, and economic growth; and…

  17. Transit administration and planning research

    SciTech Connect

    de Corla-Souza; Gupta.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Evaluation of demand-management strategies for Toledo's year 2010 transportation plan; Accommodating deaf and hard-of-hearing persons on public transportation systems in Massachusetts; Quick approach to compare highway and bus transit alternatives using the arterial analysis package; Panel survey approach to measuring transit route service elasticity of demand; UMTA and major investments: evaluation process and results; Using early performance to project transit route ridership: comparison of methods; Institutional requirements for competition: labor issues; Updating ride checks with multiple point checks; Producing section 15 service-consumed data: challenge for large transit; Parkrose targeted marketing campaign pass-incentive program.

  18. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  19. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  20. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  1. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  2. Causative Pathogens of Febrile Neutropaenia in Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Joyce Cm; Chai, Jie Yang; Wong, Yi Ling; Tan, Natalie Wh; Ha, Christina Tt; Chan, Mei Yoke; Tan, Ah Moy

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) using intensive chemotherapy has resulted in high cure rates but also substantial morbidity. Infective complications represent a significant proportion of treatment-related toxicity. The objective of this study was to describe the microbiological aetiology and clinical outcome of episodes of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropaenia in a cohort of children treated for ALL at our institution. Patients with ALL were treated with either the HKSGALL93 or the Malaysia-Singapore (Ma-Spore) 2003 chemotherapy protocols. The records of 197 patients who completed the intensive phase of treatment, defined as the period of treatment from induction, central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy to reinduction from June 2000 to January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. There were a total of 587 episodes of febrile neutropaenia in 197 patients, translating to an overall rate of 2.98 episodes per patient. A causative pathogen was isolated in 22.7% of episodes. An equal proportion of Gram-positive bacteria (36.4%) and Gram-negative bacteria (36.4%) were most frequently isolated followed by viral pathogens (17.4%), fungal pathogens (8.4%) and other bacteria (1.2%). Fungal organisms accounted for a higher proportion of clinically severe episodes of febrile neutropaenia requiring admission to the high-dependency or intensive care unit (23.1%). The overall mortality rate from all episodes was 1.5%. Febrile neutropaenia continues to be of concern in ALL patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. The majority of episodes will not have an identifiable causative organism. Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were the most common causative pathogens identified. With appropriate antimicrobial therapy and supportive management, the overall risk of mortality from febrile neutropaenia is extremely low.

  3. Causative Mechanisms of Tropical (10°N-15°N) Mesospheric Inversion Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Karanam; Sundararajan, Sridharan; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2016-07-01

    The inversion of temperature gradient from negative to positive superimposed upon the characteristically decreasing mesospheric thermal structure is known as Mesospheric Inversion Layer (MIL). Gravity wave breaking, planetary wave critical level interaction and the chemical heating have been suggested as potential causative mechanisms for the occurrence of the MILs. Although the morphological characteristics of MIL have been studied in detail at different sites using various instrumental techniques, their causative mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, nearly all these major causative mechanisms have been addressed through a few case studies observed from Rayleigh lidar and TIMED-SABER (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics - Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry) nightly temperatures over a tropical site, Gadanki (13.5°N,79.2°E). A few large MILs are observed above ˜80 km with amplitude and thickness of ˜50 K and ˜5 km respectively in 2007 and 2011 which are found to be predominantly due to gravity wave breaking and large chemical heating rate (˜15 K/day) by the exothermic reaction, H+O _{3}->OH+O _{2} respectively. It is also found that the SABER shows larger ozone (O _{3}) mixing ratios at the inversion heights (˜80-85 km) during the MIL events in 2011. In another special case study, a triple layered MIL event with three inversion layers at ˜70 km (˜11 K), 80 km (˜44 K), 90 km (˜109 K) has been observed in September 2011 over Gadanki region. It is found that these three inversion layers are respectively due to planetary wave breaking, gravity wave tidal interaction and chemical heating by the reaction, O+O+M->O _{2}+M.

  4. Identification of PRRT2 as the causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Li; Li, Xun-Hua; Hu, Zheng-Mao; Li, Jia-Da; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liang, Yu; San-A; Li, Nan; Chen, Su-Qin; Guo, Ji-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Shen, Lu; Zheng, Lan; Mao, Xiao; Yan, Wei-Qian; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Yu-Ting; Ai, San-Xi; Dai, Mei-Zhi; Zhang, Peng; Xia, Kun; Chen, Sheng-Di; Tang, Bei-Sha

    2011-12-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias is a paroxysmal movement disorder characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of abnormal involuntary movements induced by sudden voluntary movements. Although several loci, including the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, have been linked to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, the causative gene has not yet been identified. Here, we identified proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) as a causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias by using a combination of exome sequencing and linkage analysis. Genetic linkage mapping with 11 markers that encompassed the pericentromeric of chromosome 16 was performed in 27 members of two families with autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. Then, the whole-exome sequencing was performed in three patients from these two families. By combining the defined linkage region (16p12.1-q12.1) and the results of exome sequencing, we identified an insertion mutation c.649_650InsC (p.P217fsX7) in one family and a nonsense mutation c.487C>T (p.Q163X) in another family. To confirm our findings, we sequenced the exons and flanking introns of PRRT2 in another three families with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. The c.649_650InsC (p.P217fsX7) mutation was identified in two of these families, whereas a missense mutation, c.796C>T (R266W), was identified in another family with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias. All of these mutations completely co-segregated with the phenotype in each family. None of these mutations was identified in 500 normal unaffected individuals of matched geographical ancestry. Thus, we have identified PRRT2 as the first causative gene of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias, warranting further investigations to understand the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  5. Causation mechanisms in car-to-vulnerable road user crashes: implications for active safety systems.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-11-01

    Vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, are often involved in crashes with passenger cars. One way to prevent these crashes is to deploy active safety systems that support the car drivers and/or VRUs. However, to develop such systems, a thorough understanding of crash causation mechanisms is required. The aim of this study is to identify crash causation mechanisms from the perspective of the VRUs, and to explore the implications of these mechanisms for the development of active safety systems. Data originate from the European project SafetyNet, where 995 crashes were in-depth investigated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). To limit the scope, this study analyzed only intersection crashes involving VRUs. A total of 56 VRU crashes were aggregated. Results suggest that, while 30% of the VRUs did not see the conflict car due to visual obstructions in the traffic environment, 70% of the VRUs saw the car before the collision, but still misunderstood the traffic situation and/or made an inadequate plan of action. An important implication that follows from this is that, while detection of cars is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed, it is even more important to help the VRUs to correctly understand traffic situation (e.g., does the driver intend to slow down, and if s/he does, is it to let the VRU cross or for some other reason?). The former issue suggests a role for various cooperative active safety systems, as the obstacles are generally impenetrable with regular sensors. The latter issue is less straightforward. While various systems can be proposed, such as providing gap size estimation and reducing the car speed variability, the functional merits of each such a system need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Causation in negligence: from anti-jurisprudence to principle--individual responsibility as the cornerstone for the attribution of liability.

    PubMed

    Bagaric, Mirko; Erbacher, Sharon

    2011-06-01

    Causation is one of the most esoteric and poorly defined legal principles. The common law standards of the "but for" test and common sense are, in reality, code for unconstrained judicial choice. This leads to a high degree of unpredictability in negligence cases. Changes to the causation standard following the torts reforms have done nothing to inject principle into this area of law: the concept of "appropriateness" is no more illuminating than common sense. Despite this, the trend of recent High Court decisions offers some prospect of clarifying the test for causation. Key themes to emerge are an increased emphasis on individual responsibility and the associated concept of coherency with other legal standards. This article examines the doctrinal reasons underpinning the increasingly important role of these ideals and suggests how they can be accommodated into the test for causation to inject greater coherence and predictability into this area of law.

  7. [Exome sequencing: an efficient strategy for identifying the causative genes of monogenic disorders].

    PubMed

    Rebiya, Nuli; Patamu, Mohemaiti

    2011-10-01

    The development of new generation sequencing technologies has brought new opportunities for the study of diseases. Exome sequencing has shown to be an effective, rapid, high performance technique that has already been used in research of inherited diseases such as monogenic disorders. It has already been approved by scientists in the field of monogenic disorder study, and will become widely used. This approach will accelerate discovery of the causative genes of Mendelian disorders. This article reviews some recent applications of exome sequencing in the study of gene-related diseases.

  8. First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent: Trypanosoma Equiperdum Strain OVI

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Madeline, Anthony; Steinbiss, Sascha; Lakhdar, Latifa; Van Reet, Nick; Büscher, Philippe; Laugier, Claire; Cauchard, Julien; Petry, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and surra (Trypanosoma evansi). We herein report the genome sequence of a T. equiperdum strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the T. equiperdum species, and its availability will provide important insights for future studies on genetic classification of the subgenus Trypanozoon. PMID:28138343

  9. A case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis; possibility of basidiomycetous fungi as a causative antigen.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    We herein report a case of sinobronchial allergic mycosis (SAM) caused by basidiomycetous (BM) fungi (probably Phanerochaete velutina). The patient with bronchial asthma that accompanied allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) fulfilled all 6 criteria for diagnosing SAM. In this case, the BM fungus may act as an allergen, reacting continually in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. The antifungal drug (itraconazole 50 mg/day) seemed to achieve a partial response. Basidiomycetous fungi may attract attention because of the possibility as a causative antigen in this new clinical concept of SAM.

  10. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    PubMed

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  11. Cultural bases of images of causation in psychological disorder: a Colombian survey.

    PubMed

    Micklin, M; Leon, C A

    1978-01-01

    This study examines the influence of participation in differing socio-cultural contexts on beliefs about the causes of psychological disorder. Data were obtained through interviews with 794 laymen and 333 health workers, all residing in a single Colombian city. Results indicate an emphasis on organic causes among lay respondents and nearly equal emphasis on organic and social causes among medical-paramedical personnel. Futher variations are evident, between as well as within the two samples, when background characteristics are considered. Differences in these images of causation are explained in terms of the socio-cultural organization of Colombian society as well as that of the medical occupational subculture.

  12. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. PMID:27317779

  13. Environmentalist thinking and the question of disease causation in late Spanish Philippines.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2014-10-01

    The scientific understanding of disease causation was crucial to the ways in which the Spanish colonial state addressed epidemic diseases which periodically struck nineteenth-century Philippines. Scholars have often described Spanish colonial responses in terms of ineptitude and failure, and have often glossed over the multiple and competing scientific theories that preoccupied Spanish and Filipino physicians. This article examines the work and ideas of nineteenth-century Spanish colonial and patriotic Filipino physicians regarding disease causation in the tropical environment of the Philippines. It will focus on two key developments-Spanish environmentalist thinking and the emerging fields of microscopy and bacteriology. Much like the British and French colonialists, Spaniards viewed tropical climates as insalubrious and conducive to disease, perceiving themselves as constitutionally at risk in hot places, ill-suited, exposed, and vulnerable to so-called native diseases. By the 1880s, however, young Filipino researchers, some of whom had trained in Spain and France, were undertaking new research on polluted water, malaria, and cells. Influenced by the revolutionary new discoveries being made in bacteriology, these researchers questioned prevailing environmentalist explanations and focused, for the first time, on the nature of pathogens and microbial pathogenesis in disease development and transmission. But germ theory remained an idea among many. This article argues that although late nineteenth-century studies in microscopy by Filipinos slowly began to challenge Spanish colonial ideas, different streams of thinking overlapped and no single scientific explanation came to predominate.

  14. The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, Holger; Baumer, Sebastian; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Wiezer, Arnim; Liesegang, Heiko; Decker, Iwona; Herzberg, Christina; Martinez-Arias, Rosa; Merkl, Rainer; Henne, Anke; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2003-02-04

    Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals, and has been reported for over 24 centuries. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the tetanus toxin, with a human lethal dose of approximately 1 ng/kg. Fortunately, this disease is successfully controlled through immunization with tetanus toxoid; nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, an estimated 400,000 cases still occur each year, mainly of neonatal tetanus. The causative agent of tetanus disease is Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, whose natural habitat is soil, dust, and intestinal tracts of various animals. Here we report the complete genome sequence of toxigenic C. tetani E88, a variant of strain Massachusetts. The genome consists of a 2,799,250-bp chromosome encoding 2,372 ORFs. The tetanus toxin and a collagenase are encoded on a 74,082-bp plasmid, containing 61 ORFs. Additional virulence-related factors could be identified, such as an array of surface-layer and adhesion proteins (35 ORFs), some of them unique to C. tetani. Comparative genomics with the genomes of Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of gas gangrene, and Clostridium acetobutylicum, a nonpathogenic solvent producer, revealed a remarkable capacity of C. tetani: The organism can rely on an extensive sodium ion bioenergetics. Additional candidate genes involved in the establishment and maintenance of a pathogenic lifestyle of C. tetani are presented.

  15. Pneumonia presenting with organ dysfunctions: Causative microorganisms, host factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Rosario; Montull, Beatriz; Reyes, Soledad; Amara-Elori, Isabel; Zalacain, Rafael; Capelastegui, Alberto; Aspa, Javier; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Molinos, Luis; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Torres, Antoni

    2016-11-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious infection that may occasionally rapidly evolve provoking organ dysfunctions. We aimed to characterize CAP presenting with organ dysfunctions at the emergency room, with regard to host factors and causative microorganisms, and its impact on 30-day mortality. 460 of 4070 (11.3%) CAP patients had ≥2 dysfunctions at diagnosis, with a 30-day mortality of 12.4% vs. 3.4% in those with one or no dysfunctions. Among them, the most frequent causative microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae, gram-negatives and polymicrobial etiology. Independent host risk factors for presenting with ≥2 dysfunctions were: liver (OR 2.97) and renal diseases (OR 3.91), neurological disorders (OR 1.86), and COPD (OR 1.30). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OR 6.41) and bacteraemic episodes (OR 1.68) had the higher independent risk among microorganisms. The number of organ dysfunctions vs. none increased at 30-day mortality: three organs (OR 11.73), two organs (OR 4.29), and one organ (OR 2.42) whereas Enterobacteria (OR 3.73) were also independently related to mortality. The number of organ dysfunctions was the strongest 30-day mortality risk factor while Enterobacteriaceae was also associated with poorer outcome. The assessment of organ dysfunctions in CAP should be implemented for management, allocation and treatment decisions on initial evaluation.

  16. Moral Evaluations of Organ Transplantation Influence Judgments of Death and Causation.

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Gerend, Mary A

    Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants' beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition (vs. bad) were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, regardless of experimental condition. The results are discussed in light of the framework of motivated reasoning, in which motivation influences the selection of cognitive processes and representations applied to a given domain, as well as Knobe's person-as-moralist model, in which many basic concepts are appropriately imbued with moral features. On either explanatory framework, these data cast doubt on the psychological legitimacy of the mainstream justification for vital organ procurement from heart-beating donors, which holds that neurological criteria for death are scientifically justified, independently of concerns about organ transplantation. These data suggest that, rather than concluding that organ removal is permissible because the donor is dead, people may believe that the donor is dead because they believe organ removal to be permissible.

  17. The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Bäumer, Sebastian; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Wiezer, Arnim; Liesegang, Heiko; Decker, Iwona; Herzberg, Christina; Martínez-Arias, Rosa; Merkl, Rainer; Henne, Anke; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals, and has been reported for over 24 centuries. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the tetanus toxin, with a human lethal dose of ≈1 ng/kg. Fortunately, this disease is successfully controlled through immunization with tetanus toxoid; nevertheless, according to the World Health Organization, an estimated 400,000 cases still occur each year, mainly of neonatal tetanus. The causative agent of tetanus disease is Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, whose natural habitat is soil, dust, and intestinal tracts of various animals. Here we report the complete genome sequence of toxigenic C. tetani E88, a variant of strain Massachusetts. The genome consists of a 2,799,250-bp chromosome encoding 2,372 ORFs. The tetanus toxin and a collagenase are encoded on a 74,082-bp plasmid, containing 61 ORFs. Additional virulence-related factors could be identified, such as an array of surface-layer and adhesion proteins (35 ORFs), some of them unique to C. tetani. Comparative genomics with the genomes of Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of gas gangrene, and Clostridium acetobutylicum, a nonpathogenic solvent producer, revealed a remarkable capacity of C. tetani: The organism can rely on an extensive sodium ion bioenergetics. Additional candidate genes involved in the establishment and maintenance of a pathogenic lifestyle of C. tetani are presented. PMID:12552129

  18. Hand contact dermatitis in hairdressers: clinical and causative allergens, experience in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Tresukosol, Poohglin; Swasdivanich, Chanutta

    2012-12-01

    Hand dermatitis in hairdressers is a common occupational contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is thought to be more common. To investigate the causes of hand dermatitis, common allergens, clinical patterns, morphology and onset of lesions among hairdressers. Forty four hairdressers who were diagnosed with hand dermatitis in a dermatological outpatient department were included and investigated by patch testing with standard and hairdressing related allergens and/or prick test. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed with a positive patch test reaction in 33 cases (75%), irritant contact dermatitis was found in 11 cases (25%). The clinical manifestations were mostly scaly plaques (68.18%) or vesicles (50%). The most common site of involvement was the palms (38.63%). The common causative allergens were paraphenylenediamine (45.45%), nickel (31.18%), fragrance mix (20.45%), p-toluenediamine sulphate (18.18%), ammonium persulfate (13.63%), and p-aminophenol (13.63%). Allergic contact dermatitis is more common among hairdressers, PPD was the most common causative allergen in our study.

  19. A new unifying hypothesis for lathyrism, konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy: nitriles are the causative agents.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Soler-Martín, Carla; Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Cutillas, Blanca; Ambrosio, Santiago; Boadas-Vaello, Pere

    2011-03-01

    Konzo and lathyrism are associated with consumption of cassava and grass pea, respectively. Cassava consumption has also been associated with a third disease, tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN). This review presents a new unifying hypothesis on the causative agents for these diseases: namely, that they are nitriles, compounds containing cyano groups. The diseases may be caused by different but similar nitriles through direct neurotoxic actions not mediated by systemic cyanide release. Both cassava and Lathyrus contain nitriles, and other unidentified nitriles can be generated during food processing or in the human body. Available data indicate that several small nitriles cause a variety of neurotoxic effects. In experimental animals, 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), allylnitrile and cis-crotononitrile cause sensory toxicity, whereas hexadienenitrile and trans-crotononitrile induce selective neuronal degeneration in discrete brain regions. IDPN also induces a neurofilamentous axonopathy, and dimethylaminopropionitrile is known to cause autonomic (genito-urinary) neurotoxicity in both humans and rodents. Some of these actions depend on metabolic bioactivation of the parental nitriles, and sex- and species-dependent differences in susceptibility have been recorded. Recently, neuronal degeneration has been found in rats exposed to acetone cyanohydrin. Taken together, the neurotoxic properties of nitriles make them excellent candidates as causative agents for konzo, lathyrism and TAN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  1. Assessing statistical views of natural selection: Room for non-local causation?

    PubMed

    Huneman, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Recently some philosophers (the "statisticalists") have emphasized a potentially irreconcilable conceptual antagonism between the statistical characterization of natural selection (derived from population genetics) and the standard scientific discussion of natural selection in terms of forces and causes. Other philosophers have developed an account of the causal character of selectionist statements represented in terms of counterfactuals. I examine the compatibility between such statisticalism and counterfactually based causal accounts of natural selection (and related arguments about counterfactuals and causality) by distinguishing two distinct statisticalist claims: firstly the suggested impossibility for natural selection to be a cause acting upon populations and secondly the conceptualization that all evolutionary causes occur at the level of interactions between individual organisms. I argue that deriving the latter from the former involves supplementary assumptions concerning precisely what causation is. I critically examine two of these assumptions purportedly preventing natural selection being regarded as a cause: the locality claim and the modularity claim. I conclude that justifying the strongest version of statisticalism-i.e. evolutionary causation only occurs at the level of individual interactions between organisms-would require further metaphysical arguments that are likely to be deemed highly problematic. Additionally, I argue that such a metaphysical position would be considered incongruous with both our scientific and ordinary use of the concepts of causality and explanation as employed within our everyday epistemological framework.

  2. Recent trends in the distribution of causative diseases of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jin; Yan, Libo; Du, Lingyao; Liang, Lingbo; Zhou, Qiaoling; Liang, Tao; Bai, Lang; Tang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Fever of unknown origin is a challenging diagnostic problem and the aim of this research was to analyze trends in the distribution of its causative diseases. This retrospective study makes a comparison between two different clinical series of patients from two different periods: 227 from period 1 (1998-2002) and 602 from period 2 (2008-2012). There were fewer infections (31.72% vs.16.45%) and more miscellaneous causes (5.29% vs. 13.12%) in the period 2 series, whereas no significant differences in autoimmune diseases, malignancies and undiagnosed cases were found. Adult onset Still's disease and lymphoma occupied the largest proportion in autoimmune diseases (75.00%) and malignancies (89.81%), respectively. Interestingly, the autoimmune diseases group, instead of infections, was found to be the leading category of the causative diseases in fever of unknown origin, which is contrary to previous reports. Further, adult onset Still's disease and lymphoma were suggested to be valued more highly in view of the large and rising proportions found in this study. These trends could support the diagnosis and treatment of fever of unknown origin better in the future.

  3. Financial symmetry and moods in the market.

    PubMed

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter.

  4. Financial Symmetry and Moods in the Market

    PubMed Central

    Savona, Roberto; Soumare, Maxence; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how certain speculative transitions in financial markets can be ascribed to a symmetry break that happens in the collective decision making. Investors are assumed to be bounded rational, using a limited set of information including past price history and expectation on future dividends. Investment strategies are dynamically changed based on realized returns within a game theoretical scheme with Nash equilibria. In such a setting, markets behave as complex systems whose payoff reflect an intrinsic financial symmetry that guarantees equilibrium in price dynamics (fundamentalist state) until the symmetry is broken leading to bubble or anti-bubble scenarios (speculative state). We model such two-phase transition in a micro-to-macro scheme through a Ginzburg-Landau-based power expansion leading to a market temperature parameter which modulates the state transitions in the market. Via simulations we prove that transitions in the market price dynamics can be phenomenologically explained by the number of traders, the number of strategies and amount of information used by agents, all included in our market temperature parameter. PMID:25856392

  5. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  6. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  7. Financial instability from local market measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

    2012-08-01

    We study the emergence of instabilities in a stylized model of a financial market, when different market actors calculate prices according to different (local) market measures. We derive typical properties for ensembles of large random markets using techniques borrowed from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We show that, depending on the number of financial instruments available and on the heterogeneity of local measures, the market moves from an arbitrage-free phase to an unstable one, where the complexity of the market—as measured by the diversity of financial instruments—increases, and arbitrage opportunities arise. A sharp transition separates the two phases. Focusing on two different classes of local measures inspired by real market strategies, we are able to analytically compute the critical lines, corroborating our findings with numerical simulations.

  8. Work transitions.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Nadya A; Bynner, John

    2008-01-01

    Individuals make choices in, and adjust to, a world of work that is often a moving target. Because work is so central to human functioning, and transitions in and out of work can have major mental health repercussions, the authors argue that applied psychologists in health services need to understand those transitions. This article focuses on the different types of transition throughout a person's working life and the resources needed at different stages to ensure the success of these transitions. The authors start by examining the roles of capability and adaptability in supporting and facilitating adjustment to work transitions and their relation to identity development. They then examine the role of social and institutional contexts in shaping work transitions and their outcomes. The authors focus on voluntary versus involuntary transitions and then broaden the lens in discussing the policy implications of research on work transitions.

  9. Multi-factorial causative model for back pain management; relating causative factors and mechanisms to injury presentations and designing time- and cost effective treatment thereof.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    Back pain resolution has not statistically improved over many years with some literature suggesting chronic back pain to be increasing. From a search of literature on causes, events, mechanisms, factors and treatment for back pain, a model is developed that relates causes of back injury to factors that result in pain through two primary mechanisms; muscle fatigue and muscle/tendon/connective tissue strain or sprain with other main mechanisms being diminished reactivity and strength, changes in tendon/tissue mechanical properties and fear of back pain recurrence/fear of movement following a back pain episode. The model highlights the fact that back pain/injury is multi-factorial with numerous circular relationships. Therefore treatment should also be multi-factorial; a combination of physical and psychological therapy with attention to mechanisms at work or in daily living that exacerbate the injury and delay recovery thereof. Exercise is one method that can reduce muscle imbalance, improve resilience to muscle fatigue, and address reactivity and strength. More importantly, eccentric exercise can rectify musculotendinous or connective tissue injury which plays a role in prolonging the back injury cycle. Posture is identified as a causative factor for back pain with the time exposure for posture representing the largest portion of daily activities. From literature and from clinical observation, treatment methods can be improved and incorporated into integrated multi-modal programs. An integrated exercise program that commences with motor control exercise and progresses into functional movement is suggested. Furthermore a modification of the McKenzie extension movement may benefit back injury rehabilitation for a majority of lower back pain patients. Otherwise the sit-to-stand movement is a regular and frequent exacerbating mechanism of back pain and likely continuously tears connective tissue during the movement thus prolonging the cycle of back pain and can be

  10. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    PubMed

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  11. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  12. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  13. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  14. 42 CFR 403.813 - Marketing limitations and record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations and record retention... Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.813 Marketing limitations and record retention requirements. (a) Marketing limitations. (1) An endorsed sponsor may only market the following: (i)...

  15. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  16. Venus Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-05

    It appeared that New Yorkers were not going to be able to see the transit of the planet Venus across the Sun, but just before the transit was over the sun broke through the clouds and Yvette Lee Kang was able to catch a glimpse of the transit on Tuesday, June 5, 2012 in New York. A transit of Venus occurs when the planet passes directly between the sun and earth. This alignment is rare, coming in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century. The next Venus transit will be in December 2117. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Venus Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-05

    It appeared that New Yorkers were not going to be able to see the transit of the planet Venus across the Sun, but just before the transit was over the sun broke through the clouds and Liz Heller and Andriel Mesznik were able to catch a glimpse of the transit on Tuesday, June 5, 2012 in New York. A transit of Venus occurs when the planet passes directly between the sun and earth. This alignment is rare, coming in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century. The next Venus transit will be in December 2117. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  19. Evidence, illness, and causation: an epidemiological perspective on the Russo-Williamson Thesis.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Alexander R; Dammann, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    According to the Russo-Williamson Thesis, causal claims in the health sciences need to be supported by both difference-making and mechanistic evidence. In this article, we attempt to determine whether Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) can be improved through the consideration of mechanistic evidence. We discuss the practical composition and function of each RWT evidence type and propose that exposure-outcome evidence (previously known as difference-making evidence) provides associations that can be explained through a hypothesis of causation, while mechanistic evidence provides finer-grained associations and knowledge of entities that ultimately explains a causal hypothesis. We suggest that mechanistic evidence holds untapped potential to add value to the assessment of evidence quality in EBM and propose initial recommendations for the integration of mechanistic and exposure-outcome evidence to improve EBM by robustly leveraging available evidence in support of good medical decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered translational repression of an RNA-binding protein, Elav by AOA2-causative Senataxin mutation.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Saumitra Dey; Vs, Ancy; Mushtaq, Zeeshan; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2017-05-01

    Mutations in Senataxin (SETX) gene causes two types of neurological disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS4) and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2). Recent studies in cultured cells suggest that SETX plays a crucial role at the interface of transcription and the DNA damage response. Whether SETX can alter translational of specific RNA is not known. In this study, we report that expressing AOA2-causative truncated form of human SETX in Drosophila neurons alters the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. Interestingly, we found that expressing this truncated form of SETX in Drosophila muscles resulted in an alteration of translational repression of an RNA-binding protein, Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (Elav). Elav is transcribed in all tissues but remains translationally repressed except in neurons. Thus, our data suggest that an altered repression profile of RNA by SETX mutants could be one of the mechanisms underlying ALS4 or AOA2 pathogenesis.

  1. Acute septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae: a rare causative origin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Ham, Hyang-Do

    2015-04-01

    Septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a rare entity with symptoms that include erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the AC joint, fever, and limitation of shoulder motion with pain. In previous reports, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species have been mentioned as common causative organisms. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. However, it sometimes causes opportunistic infections leading to septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. AC joint infection associated with H.parainfluenzae is very rare, and only one case has been reported in the literature. Moreover, septic arthritis in immunocompetent patients is also very rare. Here, we report the case of a healthy patient with H. parainfluenzae-related septic arthritis of the AC joint.

  2. Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor.

  3. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    PubMed

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  4. Syphilis may be a confounding factor, not a causative agent, in syphilitic ALS.

    PubMed

    Tuk, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Based upon a review of published clinical observations regarding syphilitic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), I hypothesize that syphilis is actually a confounding factor, not a causative factor, in syphilitic ALS. Moreover, I propose that the successful treatment of ALS symptoms in patients with syphilitic ALS using penicillin G and hydrocortisone is an indirect consequence of the treatment regimen and is not due to the treatment of syphilis. Specifically, I propose that the observed effect is due to the various pharmacological activities of penicillin G ( e.g., a GABA receptor antagonist) and/or the multifaceted pharmacological activity of hydrocortisone. The notion that syphilis may be a confounding factor in syphilitic ALS is highly relevant, as it suggests that treating ALS patients with penicillin G and hydrocortisone-regardless of whether they present with syphilitic ALS or non-syphilitic ALS-may be effective at treating this rapidly progressive, highly devastating disease.

  5. Respiratory Picornaviruses and Respiratory Syncytial Virus as Causative Agents of Acute Expiratory Wheezing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Pasi; Vuorinen, Tytti; Österback, Riikka; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2004-01-01

    We studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (27%), enteroviruses (25%), rhinovirus (24%), and nontypable rhino/enterovirus (16%) were found most frequently. In infants, RSV was found in 54% and respiratory picornaviruses (rhinovirus and enteroviruses) in 42% of the cases. In older children, respiratory picornaviruses dominated (65% of children ages 1-2 years and 82% of children ages >3 years). Human metapneumovirus was detected in 4% of all children and in 11% of infants. To prevent and treat acute expiratory wheezing illnesses in children, efforts should be focused on RSV, enterovirus, and rhinovirus infections. PMID:15207063

  6. Respiratory picornaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus as causative agents of acute expiratory wheezing in children.

    PubMed

    Jartti, Tuomas; Lehtinen, Pasi; Vuorinen, Tytti; Osterback, Riika; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2004-06-01

    We studied the viral etiology of acute expiratory wheezing (bronchiolitis, acute asthma) in 293 hospitalized children in a 2-year prospective study in Finland. A potential causative viral agent was detected in 88% of the cases. Eleven different viruses were represented. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (27%), enteroviruses (25%), rhinovirus (24%), and nontypable rhino/enterovirus (16%) were found most frequently. In infants, RSV was found in 54% and respiratory picornaviruses (rhinovirus and enteroviruses) in 42% of the cases. In older children, respiratory picornaviruses dominated (65% of children ages 1-2 years and 82% of children ages > or =3 years). Human metapneumovirus was detected in 4% of all children and in 11% of infants. To prevent and treat acute expiratory wheezing illnesses in children, efforts should be focused on RSV, enterovirus, and rhinovirus infections.

  7. Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J.; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor. PMID:22400142

  8. Altered brain-gut axis in autism: comorbidity or causative mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Emeran A; Padua, David; Tillisch, Kirsten

    2014-10-01

    The concept that alterated communications between the gut microbiome and the brain may play an important role in human brain disorders has recently received considerable attention. This is the result of provocative preclinical and some clinical evidence supporting early hypotheses about such communication in health and disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), even though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In addition, alteration in the composition and metabolic products of the gut microbiome has long been implicated as a possible causative mechanism contributing to ASD pathophysiology, and this hypothesis has been supported by several recently published evidence from rodent models of autism induced by prenatal insults to the mother. Recent evidence in one such model involving maternal infection, that is characterized by alterations in behavior, gut physiology, microbial composition, and related metabolite profile, suggests a possible benefit of probiotic treatment on several of the observed abnormal behaviors.

  9. Addiction postulates and legal causation, or who's in charge, person or brain?

    PubMed

    Wallace, David L

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I address the persistent confusion over the meaning of a medical diagnosis of drug addiction or substance dependence in the courtroom, specifically in regard to legal judgments about the reasonable legal person, causation, and individual responsibility in civil actions. Using the example of the Engle tobacco litigation in Florida, where the plaintiffs have reduced mind to brain and claimed that the clinical status of addiction excuses or mitigates the smoker's responsibility for the health consequences of smoking based on brain processes, I examine the conceptual difficulties presented by use of biomedical models of behavior in a legal system predicated on different assumptions altogether. For legal purposes, the biological system in question is the human organism as a whole, not a brain per se, and there is a functional identity between a smoker and his motivational states for purposes of responsibility attribution.

  10. Rapid identification of black grain eumycetoma causative agents using rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sarah A; van den Ende, Bert H G Gerrits; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Accurate identification of mycetoma causative agent is a priority for treatment. However, current identification tools are far from being satisfactory for both reliable diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. A rapid, simple, and highly efficient molecular based method for identification of agents of black grain eumycetoma is introduced, aiming to improve diagnostic in endemic areas. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) uses species-specific padlock probes and isothermal DNA amplification. The tests were based on ITS sequences and developed for Falciformispora senegalensis, F. tompkinsii, Madurella fahalii, M. mycetomatis, M. pseudomycetomatis, M. tropicana, Medicopsis romeroi, and Trematosphaeria grisea. With the isothermal RCA assay, 62 isolates were successfully identified with 100% specificity and no cross reactivity or false results. The main advantage of this technique is the low-cost, high specificity, and simplicity. In addition, it is highly reproducible and can be performed within a single day.

  11. Rapid Identification of Black Grain Eumycetoma Causative Agents Using Rolling Circle Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; van den Ende, Bert H. G. Gerrits; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate identification of mycetoma causative agent is a priority for treatment. However, current identification tools are far from being satisfactory for both reliable diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. A rapid, simple, and highly efficient molecular based method for identification of agents of black grain eumycetoma is introduced, aiming to improve diagnostic in endemic areas. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) uses species-specific padlock probes and isothermal DNA amplification. The tests were based on ITS sequences and developed for Falciformispora senegalensis, F. tompkinsii, Madurella fahalii, M. mycetomatis, M. pseudomycetomatis, M. tropicana, Medicopsis romeroi, and Trematosphaeria grisea. With the isothermal RCA assay, 62 isolates were successfully identified with 100% specificity and no cross reactivity or false results. The main advantage of this technique is the low-cost, high specificity, and simplicity. In addition, it is highly reproducible and can be performed within a single day. PMID:25474355

  12. On matters of causation in personal injury cases: Considerations in forensic examination

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert; Klar, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatologists are often called to be independent examiners of injured claimants and to address the question: “What is causing the injured person’s symptoms?” This article deals with the legal principles that arise in these cases, including causation, convenient focus, secondary gain, and thin skull rules. We shall first set out two hypothetical scenarios of personal injury cases that set the scene for a discussion of legal principles in personal injury law. With the same two scenarios of personal injury in mind, we shall review the legal principles and the biopsychosocial models of the illnesses concerned and consider the importance of examiners going beyond diagnostic labels towards a more in-depth analysis of illness factors and mechanisms that in turn assist the trier of facts. PMID:27708902

  13. Injury causation in the great outdoors: A systems analysis of led outdoor activity injury incidents.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Goode, Natassia; Lenné, Michael G; Finch, Caroline F; Cassell, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Despite calls for a systems approach to assessing and preventing injurious incidents within the led outdoor activity domain, applications of systems analysis frameworks to the analysis of incident data have been sparse. This article presents an analysis of 1014 led outdoor activity injury and near miss incidents whereby a systems-based risk management framework was used to classify the contributing factors involved across six levels of the led outdoor activity 'system'. The analysis identified causal factors across all levels of the led outdoor activity system, demonstrating the framework's utility for accident analysis efforts in the led outdoor activity injury domain. In addition, issues associated with the current data collection framework that potentially limited the identification of contributing factors outside of the individuals, equipment, and environment involved were identified. In closing, the requirement for new and improved data systems to be underpinned by the systems philosophy and new models of led outdoor activity accident causation is discussed.

  14. Non-Reflective Thinkers Are Predisposed to Attribute Supernatural Causation to Uncanny Experiences.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Romain; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    For unknown reasons, individuals who are confident in their intuitions are more likely to hold supernatural beliefs. How does an intuitive cognitive style lead one to believe in faith healing, astrology, or extrasensory perception (ESP)? We hypothesize that cognitive style is critically important after one experiences an uncanny event that seems to invite a supernatural explanation. In three studies, we show that irrespective of their prior beliefs in the supernatural, non-reflective thinkers are more likely than reflective thinkers to accept supernatural causation after an uncanny encounter with astrology and ESP. This is the first time that controlled experiments demonstrate the negative dynamics of reflection and supernatural causality attribution. We consider the possible generalization of our findings to religious beliefs and their implications for the social vulnerability of non-reflective individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked.

  16. A suspected new species of Leishmania, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in a Thai patient.

    PubMed

    Sukmee, Theerayudh; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Mungthin, Mathirut; Worapong, Jeerapun; Rangsin, Ram; Samung, Yudhthana; Kongkaew, Wandee; Bumrungsana, Kusak; Chanachai, Karoon; Apiwathanasorn, Chamnan; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Wattanasri, Somsak; Ungchusak, Kumnun; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2008-05-01

    A suspected new species of Leishmania is described as the causative agent of the third reported case of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in a Thai man living in Southern Thailand. The results of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 of ssrRNA and the mini-exon genes were different from those of previously reported Leishmania species. A direct agglutination test (DAT) revealed that antibody against Leishmania infection was detected in nine domestic cats. No potential vectors could be identified. A large-scale epidemiological survey of leishmaniasis should be urgently conducted since visceral leishmaniasis is considered an emerging disease of public health concern in Thailand.

  17. [Isolation of the causative agent of tularemia from Siberian lemmings in Eastern Taymyr].

    PubMed

    Egorova, L S; Il'in, V A; Algazin, I P; Mal'kov, G B

    1975-06-01

    The authors present the results of bacteriological and serological study for tularemia of 498 lemmings caught in Taimyr. Positive results were revealed in 4 out of 98 sera examined in the indirect hemagglutination test. In carrying out 67 biological tests on albino mice there were isolated for the first time in the Soviet Union 6 cultures of the causative agent of tularemia from the spleen of lemmings. By morphological, cultural and virulent properties the cultures obtained failed to differ from those isolated in other regions of the Soviet Union, and, consequently, we referred to the holoarctic race. Thus, it was established by the authors (both serologically and bacteriologically) that there existed tundra foci of tularemia.

  18. New SLC12A3 disease causative mutation of Gitelman’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Grillone, Teresa; Menniti, Miranda; Bombardiere, Francesco; Vismara, Marco Flavio Michele; Belviso, Stefania; Fabiani, Fernanda; Perrotti, Nicola; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Colao, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Gitelman’s syndrome (GS) is a salt-losing tubulopathy with an autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations of SLC12A3, which encodes for the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter. In this study we report a new mutation of SLC12A3 found in two brothers affected by GS. Hypokalemia, hypocalciuria and hyper-reninemia were present in both patients while hypomagnesemia was detected only in one. Both patients are compound heterozygotes carrying one well known GS associated mutation (c.2581 C > T) and a new one (c.283delC) in SLC12A3 gene. The new mutation results in a possible frame-shift with a premature stop-codon (pGln95ArgfsX19). The parents of the patients, heterozygous carriers of the mutations found in SLC12A3, have no disease associated phenotype. Therefore, the new mutation is causative of GS. PMID:27872838

  19. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease.

  20. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  1. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  2. Mothers' beliefs as to causation and prevention of birth defects in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I

    1984-06-01

    The type of birth defects ever seen or heard of and beliefs as to the causation and means of preventing the defects were investigated among 225 newly deliverd and nursing mothers through interviews. The majority were between the ages of 20 to 29 years; 9.3% were between 35 and 40 years. The bulk of the respondents are illiterates. More than 75% of the mothers had 2 or more children. The most common birth defects seen were amputated leg; dislocated hips; lamed hand or funny elbows or ankles; extra digits; and missing digits. Common perceptions of the causes were God's will (32.9%) and evil doers or evil powers due to witchcraft or sorcery (40.9%). Poor nutrition or poor antenatal care was reported by only 2.2%; while 1.3% attributed the cause to an excessive combination of native and modern drugs. The majority believed that avoidance of walking at night and midafternoon during pregnancy would prevent birth defects. 10.2% and 5.3% were of the opinion that praying to God and going to the herbalist respectively would prevent birth defects. Prevention of birth defects is an essential task for all health workers in Nigeria. The causes of birth defects should be brodcast on radio and television and published in national dialects in the newspapers. 83.6% claimed that they were not informed of various means of preventing birth defects during prenatal clinic visits. The schools should include prevention and causation of birth defects in a health education curriculum.

  3. Neotrombicula inopinata (Acari: Trombiculidae) – a possible causative agent of trombiculiasis in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For over a decade, the presence of trombiculid mites in some mountain areas of La Rioja (Northern Spain) and their association with seasonal human dermatitis have been recognized. This work aimed to establish the species identity of the agent causing trombiculiasis in the study area. Methods Trombiculid larvae (chigger mites) were collected from vegetation in the Sierra Cebollera Natural Park and in Sierra La Hez during an outbreak of human trombiculiasis in 2010. Three specimens collected from a bird were also examined. Identification was made using morphological and morphometric traits based on the most recent taxonomic sources. A comparison of those mites with specimens of the same species collected throughout Europe was performed by means of cluster analysis with multiscale bootstrap resampling and calculation of approximately unbiased p-values. Results All collected mites were identified as Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909). Therefore, this species is the most likely causative agent of trombiculiasis in Spain, not Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790), as it was generally assumed. No chigger was identified as N. autumnalis in the study area. Neotrombicula inopinata clearly differs from N. autumnalis in the presence of eight or more setae in the 1st and 2nd rows of dorsal idiosomal setae vs. six setae in N. autumnalis. Comparison of N. inopinata samples from different locations shows significant geographic variability in morphometric traits. Samples from Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus formed three separate clusters. Conclusion Since the taxonomical basis of many studies concerning N. autumnalis as a causative agent of trombiculiasis is insufficient, it is highly possible that N. inopinata may be hiding behind the common name of “harvest bug” in Europe, together with N. autumnalis. PMID:24589214

  4. Close association between metal allergy and nail lichen planus: detection of causative metals in nail lesions.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, A; Satoh, T; Yokozeki, H

    2013-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology that affects the skin, mucous membranes and nails. Although metal allergies have been implicated in the development of oral LP (OLP), the contribution of these allergies to nail LP (NLP) has yet to be studied in detail. To elucidate the link between metal allergy and NLP. We retrospectively analysed 115 LP patients with respect to the contribution of metals to either NLP or OLP. We also attempted to detect the specific metals involved in these nail lesions. Of the 79 patients that received a metal patch test (PT), 24 (30%) were positive for at least one of the metal compounds tested. Notably, the prevalence of positive reactions to metals in the NLP patients was significantly higher as compared with the OLP patients (59% vs. 27%, P < 0.05). Among the 10 PT-positive patients with NLP, improvement of the skin lesions was seen in six of the patients after removal of dental materials containing causative metals or systemic disodium cromoglycate therapy. On the other hand, only 3 of 16 PT-positive patients with OLP exhibited improvement after the removal of dental materials. Causative metals in the dental fillings/braces were detected in the involved nail tissues. This study suggests that metal allergies are more closely associated with NLP vs. OLP, and that deposited metals in the nail apparatus contribute to the development of lichenoid tissue reactions in the nail bed and matrix. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and related occupational causative factors among electricity linemen: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Padmanathan, Vinothini; Joseph, Leonard; Omar, Baharudin; Nawawi, Roslizawati

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tasks of linemen are highly associated with the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Although linemen are prone to develop WRMDs, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of WRMDs and related occupational causative factors. Therefore, the present review was conducted to report on the prevalence of WRMDs and to outline causative risk factors within occupational tasks in the lineman profession. Literature search was conducted in various databases such as Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles published between 1996-2013. The articles were analyzed, selected and retrieved based on predetermined objectives, inclusion criteria and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). In the review process only articles published in English were considered. The review identified moderate to high prevalence of WRMDs among the linemen population. Back and shoulder regions were highly affected compared to the other body regions. The review also reported occupational tasks such as bar installation, insulator fixation and manual handling of tools as high risk tasks that lead to the development of WRMDs. In addition, occupational tools such as ladders, manual cutters and manual presses were also identified as a potential ergonomic hazard. In conclusion, the current review identified that WRMDs are common in the back and shoulder regions among linemen. Also, a number of occupational risk factors were identified to be associated with WRMDs among the linemen. Hence, future research on prevention and intervention studies concerning lineman profession population in order to develop a good job practice are recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):725-734. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Breastfeeding and the prevalence of allergic diseases in schoolchildren: Does reverse causation matter?

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Yasumi, Takahiro; Heike, Toshio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Fujii, Tatsuya; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Infants at higher risk of allergic diseases might be breastfed for longer periods compared with infants at lower risk in the hope that breastfeeding might reduce the risk of atopic disorders. Therefore, this intention could manifest as an apparent allergy-promoting effect of breastfeeding or reverse causation. To analyze the effect of breast feeding on the prevalence of allergic diseases at school age, a large questionnaire survey was administered to the parents of schoolchildren aged 7-15 yrs. 13,215 parents responded (response rate, 90.1%). Prevalence rates of allergic diseases were compared according to the type of feeding in infancy (either complete breastfeeding, mixed feeding or complete artificial feeding). In both univariate and multivariate analysis, compared with those with complete artificial feeding, those with mixed and complete breastfeeding showed a significantly lower prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). On the other hand, in univariate analysis, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) were significantly higher in those with complete breastfeeding (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). There was a significantly higher proportion of complete breastfeeding among those with greater risk of allergic diseases (presence of family history, either eczema or wheeze within 6 months after birth, or FA in infancy). Therefore, our multivariate analysis included these risks as confounding factors, and we found that the promoting effects of breastfeeding on AD and FA disappeared. In conclusion, our data clearly showed the inhibitory effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of BA at school age. The apparent promoting effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of AD and FA is most likely because of reverse causation. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S

  7. Causative impact of air pollution on evapotranspiration in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ling

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric dispersion conditions strongly impact air pollution under identical surface emissions. The degree of air pollution in the Jing-Jin-Ji region is so severe that it may impose feedback on local climate. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a significant role in the estimation of crop water requirements, as well as in studies on climate variation and change. Since the traditional correlation analysis cannot capture the causality, we apply the convergent cross mapping method (CCM) in this study to observationally investigate whether the air pollution impacts ET0. The results indicate that southwest regions of Jing-Jin-Ji always suffer higher PM2.5 concentration than north regions through the whole year, and correlation analysis suggests that PM2.5 concentration has a significant negative effect on ET0 in most cities. The causality detection with CCM quantitatively demonstrates the significantly causative influence of PM2.5 concentration on ET0, higher PM2.5 concentration decreasing ET0. However, CCM analysis suggests that PM2.5 concentration has a relatively weak causal influence on ET0 while the correlation analysis gives the near zero correlation coefficient in Zhangjiakou city, indicating that the causative influence of PM2.5 concentration on ET0 is better revealed with CCM method than the correlation analysis. Considering that ET0 is strongly associated with crop water requirement, the amount of water for agricultural irrigation could be reduced at high PM2.5 concentrations. These findings can be utilized to improve the efficiency of water resources utilization, and reduce the exploiting amount of groundwater in the Jing-Jin-Ji region, although PM2.5 is detrimental to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Marriage Inhibit Antisocial Behavior? An Examination of Selection versus Causation via a Longitudinal Twin Design

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Donnellan, M. Brent; Humbad, Mikhila N.; Hicks, Brian M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Prior studies have indicated that marriage is negatively associated with male antisocial behavior. Although often interpreted as a causal association, marriage is not a random event. As such, the association may stem from selection processes, whereby men less inclined towards antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. Objective To evaluate selection versus causation explanations of the association between marriage and desistence from antisocial behavior. Design Co-twin control analyses in a prospective twin study provided an analog of the idealized counterfactual model of causation. The co-twin control design uses the unmarried co-twin of a married twin to estimate what the married twin would have looked like had he remained unmarried. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins are particularly informative as they share a common genotype and rearing environment. Setting General community Participants 289 male-male twin pairs (65% MZ) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29 years. None of the participants were married at age 17, and 2.6% were married at age 20. By age 29, 58.8% of the participants were or had been married. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure A tally of Criterion C symptoms of DSM-III-R Antisocial Personality Disorder, as assessed via structured clinical interview. Results Mean differences in antisocial behavior across marital status were present even at ages 17 and 20, suggesting a selection process. However, the within-pair effect of marriage was significant for MZ twins, such that the married twin engaged in less antisocial behavior than his unmarried co-twin. Results were equivalent to those in dizygotic twins and persisted when controlling for prior antisocial behavior. Conclusions Results indicate an initial selection effect, whereby men with lower levels of antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. However, this tendency to refrain from antisocial behavior appears to be accentuated by the state of

  9. Is it possible to diagnose infectious oesophagitis without seeing the causative organism? A histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Demir, Derya; Doğanavşargil, Başak; Sarsık, Banu; Sezak, Murat; Tunçyürek, Müge

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the utility of using histological changes to diagnose infectious oesophagitis when causative organisms cannot be seen. Sixty-seven endoscopic biopsy specimens (51 Candida, 9 herpes simplex virus, 4 tuberculosis, and 3 cytomegalovirus oesophagitis) collected from 2000-2010 that matched the investigative criteria were included in the study. Cases were re-evaluated for histological changes observed in oesophagitis, and the findings were statistically compared using nonparametric tests. Thirty-nine cases occurred in male patients, and 28 occurred in female patients; the mean age of the patients was 51±20.1 years (range, 5-94 years). All cases showed lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltration; while 27 (40.3%) showed eosinophilic infiltration. The density of lymphocytes and eosinophils were 8.43±6 and 1.07±1.62 per high power field, respectively, and these rates were higher in tuberculosis oesophagitis cases. Lamina propria infiltration was present in herpes simplex virus and Candida oesophagitis. Dense neutrophilic infiltration (>50/high power field) was noted in herpes simplex virus oesophagitis. Candida colonization was observed in 82% of cases with eosinophilic infiltration, and 80% of cases with erosion. Ulceration was present in all tuberculosis oesophagitis cases (p<0.001). Basal cell hyperplasia, papillary elongation, and dilated intercellular spaces were seen in all cases except for 2 Candida oesophagitis cases. Lamina propria fibrosis was especially noted in cytomegalovirus oesophagitis cases. It is not possible to distinguish infectious oesophagitis from other subtypes, especially reflux oesophagitis, if the causative organism is not detected. Clinicopathological correlation and control with repeat targeted biopsies are essential for diagnosis.

  10. Neotrombicula inopinata (Acari: Trombiculidae) - a possible causative agent of trombiculiasis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2014-03-03

    For over a decade, the presence of trombiculid mites in some mountain areas of La Rioja (Northern Spain) and their association with seasonal human dermatitis have been recognized. This work aimed to establish the species identity of the agent causing trombiculiasis in the study area. Trombiculid larvae (chigger mites) were collected from vegetation in the Sierra Cebollera Natural Park and in Sierra La Hez during an outbreak of human trombiculiasis in 2010. Three specimens collected from a bird were also examined. Identification was made using morphological and morphometric traits based on the most recent taxonomic sources. A comparison of those mites with specimens of the same species collected throughout Europe was performed by means of cluster analysis with multiscale bootstrap resampling and calculation of approximately unbiased p-values. All collected mites were identified as Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909). Therefore, this species is the most likely causative agent of trombiculiasis in Spain, not Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790), as it was generally assumed. No chigger was identified as N. autumnalis in the study area. Neotrombicula inopinata clearly differs from N. autumnalis in the presence of eight or more setae in the 1st and 2nd rows of dorsal idiosomal setae vs. six setae in N. autumnalis. Comparison of N. inopinata samples from different locations shows significant geographic variability in morphometric traits. Samples from Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus formed three separate clusters. Since the taxonomical basis of many studies concerning N. autumnalis as a causative agent of trombiculiasis is insufficient, it is highly possible that N. inopinata may be hiding behind the common name of "harvest bug" in Europe, together with N. autumnalis.

  11. Causation model of autism: Audiovisual brain specialization in infancy competes with social brain networks.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Karen Frankel; Oestreicher, Leonard M

    2016-06-01

    Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD. Infants are attracted to the saliency of AV materials, yet do not have the experience to recognize these stimuli as socially relevant. The authors present a developmental model of autism in which exposure to screen-based AV input in genetically susceptible infants stimulates specialization of non-social sensory processing in the brain. Through a process of neuroplasticity, the autistic infant develops the skills that are driven by the AV viewing. The AV developed neuronal pathways compete with preference for social processing, negatively affecting development of social brain pathways and causing global developmental delay. This model explains atypical face and speech processing, as well as preference for AV synchrony over biological motion in ASD. Neural hyper-connectivity, enlarged brain size and special abilities in visual, auditory and motion processing in ASD are also explained by the model. Positive effects of early intervention are predicted by the model. Researchers studying causation of autism have largely overlooked AV exposure in infancy as a potential contributing factor. The authors call for increased public awareness of the association between early screen viewing and ASD, and a concerted research effort to determine the extent of causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Causative mutations and premature cardiovascular disease in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Rubba, Paolo; Gentile, Marco; Marotta, Gennaro; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Sodano, Marta; De Simone, Biagio; Jossa, Fabrizio; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Giacobbe, Carola; Di Taranto, Maria D; Fortunato, Giuliana

    2017-07-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common autosomal dominant disease, caused by mutations leading to elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and, if untreated, to premature cardiovascular disease. Methods Patients (young adults with a family history of hypercholesterolaemia or premature cardiovascular disease) with LDL cholesterol concentration ≥4.9 mmol/l, after excluding Familial Combined Hyperlipidaemia, were evaluated for causative mutations, Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score calculation and non-invasive ultrasound examination of carotid arteries. Results Of the 263 patients, 210 were heterozygotes for LDL receptor ( LDLR) mutations, four had APOB gene mutations, one PCSK9 gene mutation, while 48 had no evidence of mutations. Among 194 unrelated index cases 149 had mutations (77%). Among patients with LDLR mutations ( n = 145), there were five compound heterozygotes, 75 patients with null mutations and 65 with missense mutations. As many as 178 patients underwent a follow-up and treatment (statin ± ezetimibe), achieving a mean reduction of 49% in LDL cholesterol, with 21% of patients reaching the LDL goal of 2.6 mmol/l. In a multivariate analysis, carotid plaques, at ultrasound examination, were associated with the presence of genetic mutation ( p = 0.001), LDL cholesterol ( p < 0.001), Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score ( p < 0.001), independently of age, gender, smoking habits and systolic blood pressure. The presence of carotid plaque ( p = 0.017), LDL cholesterol ( p < 0.003), Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score ( p < 0.001) were independently associated with premature cardiovascular disease. Conclusions We identified patients with causative mutations in 82% of the cases under study. In addition to LDL cholesterol and Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score, carotid plaques in ultrasound evaluation provide direct evidence of premature vascular disease and are associated with high risk for cardiovascular events.

  13. Structure and Agency in Transition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of transition studies in the UK, Germany, USA and Canada, the virtues of analysing the structural contexts, institutional arrangements and the young peoples' action orientations are presented. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, school and the labour market have become more and more decoupled and transition routes…

  14. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA... Reduction (TIGGER) program and the Clean Fuels Grant program enhanced with Section 5309 Bus and Bus... technologies for transit buses and markets for those technologies. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Successful...

  15. 39 CFR 3010.29 - Transition rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition rule. 3010.29 Section 3010.29 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.29 Transition rule. If the Postal Service initial exercise of its authority...

  16. Reform of China's Technical and Vocational Education in the Transition from a Planned Economy System to a Socialist Market Economy System--A Case Study. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Zuguang; Zeng, Zida

    Since the early 1990s, China's government has followed a socialist market economy system. Accordingly, the technical and vocational education (TVE) should be restructured to meet its needs. Reform of the TVE system has four aspects. First, reform of the planning system includes a move from a central plan of enrollment to planning according to…

  17. Ammana Market Renovation Majjasim, Iraq. Sustainment Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-30

    U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS DIRECTOR, IRAQ TRANSITION ASSISTANCE OFFICE SUBJECT: Report on Sustainment Assessment of the Ammana Market ...compaction, and placement of 65 meter (m) x 45m x 15 centimeter (cm) concrete pads construction of four steel market stall roofs construction of a 1,771...performed only an expedited assessment of the areas available; a complete review of all work completed was not possible. Concrete Pad The SOW required

  18. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  19. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  20. [Mutation screening for the causative gene in a four-generation Chinese pedigree with progressive cardiac conduction defect].

    PubMed

    Tan, X J; Huang, H; He, F; Zhu, L; Li, H; Jiang, Y S; Li, H; Huang, X H; Sun, Z S; Li, Z H

    2016-05-24

    To define the potential causative gene mutation in a Chinese pedigree with progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD). Sanger sequencing was performed to define potential causative gene mutation in a four-generation family with 68 members including seven PCCD patients (5 male) from 2010 to 2015.No causative gene was detected by screening known candidate genes related to PCCD including SCN5A, NKX2.5 and LMNA.High-throughput sequencing technology on exon-enriched DNA was then used to search the causative genes in 2 patients and one normal family member. Eight new non-synonymous single nucleotide variants including AQP7 gene (exon5: c.T343C: p.Y115H), CACNA1B gene (NM_001243812: exon19: c.A2986G: p.T996A), CATSPERB gene (exon27: c.C3254G: p.P1085R), CLCA2 gene (exon11: c.G1725T: p.W575C), CLCA3P gene (ncRNA_intronic), MYLK-AS1 gene (ncRNA_intronic), TTN gene (ncRNA_UTR3), LMNA gene (LMNA: NM_170708: exon5: c.C922T: p.Q308X) were identified by comparing and filtering the results with known public databases.Then, more detailed biological analysis on these 8 genes was conducted.Traditional Sanger sequencing validated the exome sequencing results, and found that the mutation c. 1725G﹥T in gene CLCA2 segregated with the phenotype of this PCCD pedigree.The mutation c. 1725G﹥T in gene CLCA2 was thus be considered as the causative PCCD gene in this pedigree from the perspective of genetics and genomics. The heterozygote mutation c. 1725G﹥T in gene CLCA2 might be causative gene in this PCCD pedigree.This finding adds new gene mutation variant responsible for PCCD.

  1. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  2. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  3. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  4. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  5. Marketing II Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  6. Marketing Manual: Workplace Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe Coll., Strathroy (Ontario).

    This manual applies marketing concepts and methods, selling techniques and principles to the workplace literacy program for the purpose of assisting individuals involved in promoting and selling these programs. Part I provides a rationale for marketing and discusses the following: the role of the sponsor in marketing, market versus marketing,…

  7. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  8. Identification of a novel sequence type of Escherichia coli as the causative agent of pyelonephritis and bloodstream infection

    PubMed Central

    Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Moloney, Geraldine; Chotirmall, Sanjay H.; Rogers, Thomas R.; Smith, Stephen G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli are one of the predominant causative agents of bacteraemia. Case presentation: This case report outlines a presentation of community-acquired pyelonephritis and secondary bloodstream infection in an 81-year-old man. Laboratory investigations revealed that the causative isolate was a multi-drug-resistant E. coli of a novel multi-locus sequence type. This sequence type (ST) was designated ST-458 and was most closely related to the globally prevalent ST-131 lineage. Conclusion: This is the first report of a novel E. coli ST, ST-458, which caused pyelonephritis and bacteraemia. PMID:28348784

  9. Phase transition phenomenon: A compound measure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bo Soo; Park, Chanhi; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the well-documented phenomenon of phase transition in financial markets using combined information from both return and volume changes within short time intervals. We suggest a new measure for the phase transition behaviour of markets, calculated as a return distribution conditional on local variance in volume imbalance, and show that this measure successfully captures phase transition behaviour under various conditions. We analyse the intraday trade and quote dataset from the KOSPI 200 index futures, which includes detailed information on the original order size and the type of each initiating investor. We find that among these two competing factors, the submitted order size yields more explanatory power on the phenomenon of market phase transition than the investor type.

  10. Marketing through Video Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhart, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using video presentations as marketing tools. Includes information about video news releases, public service announcements, and sales/marketing presentations. Describes the three stages in creating a marketing video: preproduction planning; production; and postproduction. (JOW)

  11. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across-Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S

    2016-08-09

    Sequence data are expected to increase the reliability of genomic prediction by containing causative mutations directly, especially in cases where low linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations limits prediction reliability, such as across-breed prediction in dairy cattle. In practice, the causative mutations are unknown, and prediction with only variants in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutations is not realistic, leading to a reduced reliability compared to knowing the causative variants. Our objective was to use sequence data to investigate the potential benefits of sequence data for the prediction of genomic relationships, and consequently reliability of genomic breeding values. We used sequence data from five dairy cattle breeds, and a larger number of imputed sequences for two of the five breeds. We focused on the influence of linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across-breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare causative mutations, and all causative mutations were rare. Our results show that sequence data can potentially improve genomic prediction, but careful selection of markers is essential. Copyright © 2016 Berg et al.

  12. A Multicenter Evaluation of Blood Culture Practices, Contamination Rates, and the Distribution of Causative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Altindis, Mustafa; Koroglu, Mehmet; Demiray, Tayfur; Dal, Tuba; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Sengil, Ahmet Zeki; Atasoy, Ali Riza; Doğan, Metin; Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Ece, Gulfem; Kaya, Selcuk; Iraz, Meryem; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul; Temiz, Hakan; Kandemir, Idris; Aksaray, Sebahat; Cetinkol, Yeliz; Sahin, Idris; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Kilic, Abdullah; Kocoglu, Esra; Gulhan, Baris; Karabay, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of blood culture testing in the diagnosis of bacteremia is limited by contamination. In this multicenter study, the aim was to evaluate the contamination rates of blood cultures as well as the parameters that affect the culture results. Sample collection practices and culture data obtained from 16 university/research hospitals were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 214,340 blood samples from 43,254 patients admitted to the centers in 2013 were included in this study. The blood culture results were evaluated based on the three phases of laboratory testing: the pre-analytic, the analytic, and the post-analytic phase. Blood samples were obtained from the patients through either the peripheral venous route (64%) or an intravascular catheter (36%). Povidone-iodine (60%) or alcohol (40%) was applied to disinfect the skin. Of the 16 centers, 62.5% have no dedicated phlebotomy team, 68.7% employed a blood culture system, 86.7% conducted additional studies with pediatric bottles, and 43.7% with anaerobic bottles. One center maintained a blood culture quality control study. The average growth rate in the bottles of blood cultures during the defined period (1259 - 26,400/year) was 32.3%. Of the growing microorganisms, 67% were causative agents, while 33% were contaminants. The contamination rates of the centers ranged from 1% to 17%. The average growth time for the causative bacteria was 21.4 hours, while it was 36.3 hours for the contaminant bacteria. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (22.45%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (20.11%). Further, the most frequently identified contaminant bacteria were CoNS (44.04%). The high contamination rates were remarkable in this study. We suggest that the hospitals' staff should be better trained in blood sample collection and processing. Sterile glove usage, alcohol usage for disinfection, the presence of a phlebotomy team, and quality control studies may all contribute to

  13. A Multicenter Evaluation of Blood Culture Practices, Contamination Rates, and the Distribution of Causative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Mustafa; Koroglu, Mehmet; Demiray, Tayfur; Dal, Tuba; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Sengil, Ahmet Zeki; Atasoy, Ali Riza; Doğan, Metin; Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Ece, Gulfem; Kaya, Selcuk; Iraz, Meryem; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul; Temiz, Hakan; Kandemir, Idris; Aksaray, Sebahat; Cetinkol, Yeliz; Sahin, Idris; Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Kilic, Abdullah; Kocoglu, Esra; Gulhan, Baris; Karabay, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of blood culture testing in the diagnosis of bacteremia is limited by contamination. Objectives: In this multicenter study, the aim was to evaluate the contamination rates of blood cultures as well as the parameters that affect the culture results. Materials and Methods: Sample collection practices and culture data obtained from 16 university/research hospitals were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 214,340 blood samples from 43,254 patients admitted to the centers in 2013 were included in this study. The blood culture results were evaluated based on the three phases of laboratory testing: the pre-analytic, the analytic, and the post-analytic phase. Results: Blood samples were obtained from the patients through either the peripheral venous route (64%) or an intravascular catheter (36%). Povidone-iodine (60%) or alcohol (40%) was applied to disinfect the skin. Of the 16 centers, 62.5% have no dedicated phlebotomy team, 68.7% employed a blood culture system, 86.7% conducted additional studies with pediatric bottles, and 43.7% with anaerobic bottles. One center maintained a blood culture quality control study. The average growth rate in the bottles of blood cultures during the defined period (1259 - 26,400/year) was 32.3%. Of the growing microorganisms, 67% were causative agents, while 33% were contaminants. The contamination rates of the centers ranged from 1% to 17%. The average growth time for the causative bacteria was 21.4 hours, while it was 36.3 hours for the contaminant bacteria. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (22.45%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (20.11%). Further, the most frequently identified contaminant bacteria were CoNS (44.04%). Conclusions: The high contamination rates were remarkable in this study. We suggest that the hospitals’ staff should be better trained in blood sample collection and processing. Sterile glove usage, alcohol usage for disinfection, the presence of

  14. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  15. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  16. Severely Handicapped Youth Competing in the Labor Market: Implementation and Effectiveness Report from the First Two Years of Project COMPETE. Working Paper 87-2. COMPETE: Community-Based Model for Public School Exit and Transition to Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Joseph R.; And Others

    This paper is a product of Project COMPETE, a service demonstration project undertaken for the purpose of developing and validating a model and training sequence to improve transition services for moderately, severely, and profoundly retarded youth. The paper reports on the first 2 years of the project, which has placed 20 students with a mean IQ…

  17. Marketing is everything.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  18. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable.

  19. Sensitivity of a digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe in detecting Mikrocytos mackini, causative agent of Denman Island disease (mikrocytosis), in oysters.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gary R; Bower, Susan M; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2005-02-01

    The protistan parasite Mikrocytos mackini, causative agent of Denman Island disease (mikrocytosis), induces mortality and reduces marketability in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in British Columbia, Canada. This parasite is a pathogen of international concern because it infects a range of oyster species, and because its life cycle and mode of transmission are unknown. A digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe in situ hybridisation technique (DIG-ISH) was developed, and its detection sensitivity was compared to standard histological sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E-histo). In H&E-histo preparations, the detection of M. mackini was certain only when the parasite occurred within the vesicular connective tissue of adult oysters. However, the DIG-ISH technique clearly demonstrated the presence of infection in all other host tissues as well as in juvenile oysters with poorly developed vesicular connective tissue. The probe hybridised strongly to M. mackini, did not hybridise to oyster tissues or with the other shellfish parasites tested, and was more sensitive for detecting infections when compared to H&E-histo.

  20. Marketing Online Services: Product, Market and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…

  1. Mining Marketing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  2. Editorial Commentary: The Hip Bone's Connected to the Spine Bone-But Correlation Does Not Equal Causation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D

    2016-11-01

    A significant correlation was observed between the degree of lumbar spine arthritis and 2 quantitative markers of cam morphology (alpha angle and anterior femoral head-neck offset) in a large osteological collection of cadaveric lumbar spine and femurs. Although this study does not prove causation, it does impart further insight into the "hip-spine syndrome" in nonarthritic hips with proximal femoral asphericity.

  3. Transfer in SLA and Creoles: The Implications of Causative Serial Verbs in the Interlanguage of Vietnamese ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study that attributes verb serialization in the interlanguage of Vietnamese-speaking ESL learners to language transfer and, furthermore, puts forward the view that such transfer bears a resemblance to substrate influence in creoles with serial verb constructions (SVCs). In a task that elicited English causatives through…

  4. Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the merits of the "social causation" and "health selection" explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals' SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural…

  5. Can a Microwave Heat up Coffee? How English- and Japanese-Speaking Children Choose Subjects in Lexical Causative Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2016-01-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or "causers," are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores…

  6. An ERP Study of Causative Cleft Construction in Japanese: Evidence for the Preference of Shorter Linear Distance in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Masataka; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the processing of two types of Japanese causative cleft constructions (subject-gap vs. object-gap) by conducting an event-related brain potential experiment to clarify the processing mechanism of long-distance dependencies. The results demonstrated that the subject-gap constructions elicited larger P600 effects than the…

  7. Evidence of Lexical Transfer in Learner Syntax: The Acquisition of English Causatives by Speakers of Hindi-Urdu and Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2001-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study in which transfer of verb properties was investigated via syntactic data elicited from second language learners. The performance of Hindi-Urdu speakers on tests of English causatives was compared with that of Vietnamese speakers, because there are five significant differences between causativization patterns in…

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Phages Capable of Infecting Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood Disease in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Diane G.; Krohn, Andrew; LeBlanc, Lucy; Zhang, Anna; Stamereilers, Casey; Amy, Penny S.

    2015-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequences of nine phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease in honeybees. The phages were isolated from soil, propolis, and infected bees from three U.S. states. This is the largest number of P. larvae phage genomes sequenced in a single publication to date. PMID:26472825

  9. First-Language Constrained Variability in the Second-Language Acquisition of Argument-Structure-Changing Morphology with Causative Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2001-01-01

    Presents three related experiments on the acquisition of two classes of causative verbs: physical change of state verbs with agentive subjects and psychological change of state verbs with experiencer objects in English, Spanish, and Turkish as second languages by speakers whose native languages are English, Spanish, Turkish, and Japanese.…

  10. An ERP Study of Causative Cleft Construction in Japanese: Evidence for the Preference of Shorter Linear Distance in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yano, Masataka; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the processing of two types of Japanese causative cleft constructions (subject-gap vs. object-gap) by conducting an event-related brain potential experiment to clarify the processing mechanism of long-distance dependencies. The results demonstrated that the subject-gap constructions elicited larger P600 effects than the…

  11. Evidence of Lexical Transfer in Learner Syntax: The Acquisition of English Causatives by Speakers of Hindi-Urdu and Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Park, Rena

    2001-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study in which transfer of verb properties was investigated via syntactic data elicited from second language learners. The performance of Hindi-Urdu speakers on tests of English causatives was compared with that of Vietnamese speakers, because there are five significant differences between causativization patterns in…

  12. Cumulative Causation, Coethnic Settlement Maturity and Mexican Immigration to U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1995-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, James D.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the tenets of Massey's (1999) cumulative causation theory of migration to explain variation in aggregate patterns of Mexican migration to U.S. metropolitan destinations during the late 1990s. Analogous to sending contexts, results suggest that the dynamics of migration vary substantially with the maturity of the Mexican…

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the merits of the "social causation" and "health selection" explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals' SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural…

  14. Cumulative Causation, Coethnic Settlement Maturity and Mexican Immigration to U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1995-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, James D.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the tenets of Massey's (1999) cumulative causation theory of migration to explain variation in aggregate patterns of Mexican migration to U.S. metropolitan destinations during the late 1990s. Analogous to sending contexts, results suggest that the dynamics of migration vary substantially with the maturity of the Mexican…

  15. Can a Microwave Heat up Coffee? How English- and Japanese-Speaking Children Choose Subjects in Lexical Causative Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2016-01-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or "causers," are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores…

  16. Using risk management files to identify and address causative factors associated with adverse events in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Paul D; Pichert, James W; Hickson, Gerald B; Bledsoe, Sandra H; Hamming, David; Hathaway, Jacob; Nguyen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of 84 consecutive pediatrics-related internal review files opened by a medical center’s risk managers between 1996 and 2001. The aims were to identify common causative factors associated with adverse events/adverse outcomes (AEs) in a Pediatrics Department, then suggest ways to improve care. The main outcome was identification of any patterns of factors that contributed to AEs so that interventions could be designed to address them. Cases were noted to have at least one apparent contributing problem; the most common were with communication (44% of cases), diagnosis and treatment (37%), medication errors (20%), and IV/Central line issues (17%). 45% of files involved a child with an underlying diagnosis putting her/him at high risk for an adverse outcome. All Pediatrics Departments face multiple challenges in assuring consistent quality care. The extent to which the data generalize to other institutions is unknown. However, the data suggest that systematic analysis of aggregated claims files may help identify and drive opportunities for improvement in care. PMID:18472985

  17. The genomic sequence of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhai; Danila, Maria I; Feng, Zehua; Buller, R Mark L; Wang, Chunlin; Han, Xiaosi; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Upton, Chris

    2003-12-05

    Ectromelia virus is the causative agent of mousepox, an acute exanthematous disease of mouse colonies in Europe, Japan, China, and the U.S. The Moscow, Hampstead, and NIH79 strains are the most thoroughly studied with the Moscow strain being the most infectious and virulent for the mouse. In the late 1940s mousepox was proposed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of smallpox and generalized vaccinia in humans. Studies in the last five decades from a succession of investigators have resulted in a detailed description of the virologic and pathologic disease course in genetically susceptible and resistant inbred and out-bred mice. We report the DNA sequence of the left-hand end, the predicted right-hand terminal repeat, and central regions of the genome of the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (approximately 177,500 bp), which together with the previously sequenced right-hand end, yields a genome of 209,771 bp. We identified 175 potential genes specifying proteins of between 53 and 1924 amino acids, and 29 regions containing sequences related to genes predicted in other poxviruses, but unlikely to encode for functional proteins in ectromelia virus. The translated protein sequences were compared with the protein database for structure/function relationships, and these analyses were used to investigate poxvirus evolution and to attempt to explain at the cellular and molecular level the well-characterized features of the ectromelia virus natural life cycle.

  18. Biosynthesis of the IFN-gamma binding protein of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongdong; Buller, R Mark L; Chen, Nanhai; Green, Michael; Nuara, Anthony A

    2005-03-30

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV), the causative agent of mousepox, expresses an extracellular interferon-gamma binding protein (IFN-gammaBP) with homology to the ligand binding domains of the IFN-gamma high affinity receptor (IFN-gammaR1). Unlike the cellular receptor, the IFN-gammaBP binds IFN-gamma from several species. The IFN-gammaBP is synthesized early after infection, accumulating in the extracellular milieu as dimers composed of two protein species with Mr of 34.6 or 33.0 kDa. Homodimers are covalently linked by an interchain disulphide bond at position 216. The IFN-gammaBP has complex N-linked oligosaccharides at positions 41 and 149 as determined by site-directed mutagenesis and glycosidase treatment. Glycosylation at position 41 is required for secretion from mammalian cells and may play a role in the activity of the IFN-gammaBP. Glycosylation at position 149 is not required for secretion, and the lack of glycosylation at this site does not diminish ligand binding as measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA.

  19. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent.

  20. The naeglerial causation of rheumatoid disease and many human cancers. A new concept in medicine.

    PubMed

    Wyburn-Mason, R

    1979-11-01

    Man and terrestrial animals live in an environment containing free-living amoebae on the surface soil, in pools, fresh water lakes, rivers and streams. They form cysts, which float in the air and which are continually inhaled and found in the nasopharynx and their trophozoites are present in human and animal faeces. Amoebae of the genus, Naegleria, have been demonstrate; in all human tissues, both healthy and in larger numbers in those taken from cases of rheumatoid disease, in all human cancers and in the unaffected tissues of cancer patients. They can be killed in vitro by a series of different anti-amoebic substances and treatment of active cases of rheumatoid disease by any of these, either causes cessation of disease activity or a temporary exaggeration of symptoms followed by their lessening or disappearance (Herxheimer reaction), indicating the presence of an amoeba in the affected tissues as the causative organism of the inflammation in this disease in subjects genetically sensitive to the organism. Every internal organ may be involved in the inflammatory response in cases of rheumatoid disease and this also ceases with the above treatments. Many of these internal lesions are premalignant, so that infection with the organism either in sensitive subjects or with pathogenic species, appears to be the primary cause of cancer in many cases. The presence in the body of Naegleria represents the source of the constant antigenic stimulation thought to be responsible both for rheumatoid disease and for the development of lymphomata and myelomatosis.

  1. The Complex Relationship of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Acute Kidney Injury: Causation or Association?

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Daniel J.; Shekar, Kiran; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit capable of providing prolonged cardiorespiratory support. Recent advancement in ECMO technology has resulted in increased utilisation and clinical application. It can be used as a bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-bridge, bridge-to-transplant, or bridge-to-decision. ECMO can restitute physiology in critically ill patients, which may minimise the risk of progressive multiorgan dysfunction. Alternatively, iatrogenic complications of ECMO clearly contribute to worse outcomes. These factors affect the risk : benefit ratio of ECMO which ultimately influence commencement/timing of ECMO. The complex interplay of pre-ECMO, ECMO, and post-ECMO pathophysiological processes are responsible for the substantial increased incidence of ECMO-associated acute kidney injury (EAKI). The development of EAKI significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality; however, there is a lack of evidence defining a potential benefit or causative link between ECMO and AKI. This area warrants investigation as further research will delineate the mechanisms involved and subsequent strategies to minimise the risk of EAKI. This review summarizes the current literature of ECMO and AKI, considers the possible benefits and risks of ECMO on renal function, outlines the related pathophysiology, highlights relevant investigative tools, and ultimately suggests an approach for future research into this under investigated area of critical care. PMID:27006941

  2. The natural history of preventive medicine, or breaking the chains of causation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor

    1980-01-01

    In the past the natural history of disease has shown chains of causation. With the acute diseases, these chains have usually been quite short and easily broken. With the chronic diseases of today, they are far longer and more complicated. Often they involve patterns of behaviour extending over half a lifetime. These patterns are, in turn, determined partly by genetic make-up, partly by family and social environment. The study of these chains necessitated both observation and social survey methods. The breaking of the chains entails the use of propaganda or mass education. By far the most effective educational agent is the spoken word, coming from someone held in respect. The most effective persuader is fear. In social medicine we can seldom plan large-scale experiments. We have to seize such opportunities as life presents. One such opportunity was the creation of the new towns after the war. It was found that good social planning yielded good results in terms of social satisfaction, and infant-mortality and psychosis rates. The prevention of neurosis is a more difficult matter. In administration and in politics resistance to learning from the experience of others is strong. The preventive medicine of the future will necessitate the teaching of common sense applied to human behaviour to extremely resistant audiences. PMID:7000280

  3. Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Vanzzini-Zago, Virginia; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Ramirez-Flores, Elizabeth; Oregon-Miranda, Eric; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed worldwide. Some genera included in this group act as opportunistic pathogens causing fatal encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a sight-threatening infection of the cornea associated with the use of soft contact lenses that could even end in blindness if an early diagnosis and treatment are not achieved. Furthermore, the numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase of contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of lenses and their cases. In Mexico, no cases of AK have been described so far although the isolation of other pathogenic FLA such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris from both clinical and environmental sources has been reported. The present study reports two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed in two patients admitted to the Hospital "Luis Sánchez Bulnes" for Blindness Prevention in Mexico City, Mexico. Corneal scrapes and contact lenses were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in both patients. Strains were axenized after initial isolation to classify at the genotype level. After sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of Acanthamoeba, genotype T3 and genotype T4 were identified in clinical case 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of AK in Mexico in the literature and the first description of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic infection.

  4. Role of myofascial trigger points in post-amputation pain: causation and management.

    PubMed

    Reiestad, Finn; Kulkarni, Jai

    2013-04-01

    Post-amputation pain is a multifactorial issue and thus necessitates multiple treatment strategies. Myofascial trigger points-related pain remains under diagnosed and hence not addressed. This study investigates causation and management. To identify the presence and role of myofascial trigger points in post amputation pain. Post-amputation pain clinic review and recruitment. Twenty one identified patients in the post-amputation pain clinic with myofascial trigger points were recruited, of which 13 were transtibial and eight transfemoral and all had phantom limb pain and stump pain. The trigger points were identified and injected with long-acting local anaesthetic on a weekly basis and patients were followed up on an ongoing basis. There was significant resolution of pain on the Visual Analogue Scale in the majority of these patients within five weeks, though some of the transtibial cohort needed further eight injections on a weekly basis for resolution of the pain. Identification of myofascial trigger points in amputation stumps and their role in post-amputation pain, followed by appropriate intervention is an important facet of management of this complex chronic pain. Clinical relevance Myofascial trigger points in amputation stumps can lead to ongoing chronic post-amputation pain and our results indicate that identification and intervention of these trigger points does lead to notable resolution of this pain.

  5. [Dependence of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations on causative microorganisms able to produce superantigens].

    PubMed

    Verba, Vytis; Gudzinskiene, Solveiga

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study of 176 immunologically tested patients admitted to Kaunas Medical University Hospital during 1997-2000 was performed. All patients had positive bacteriological culture test result confirming an infectious etiology of the disease. Our results showed that majority of immunological parameters were dependent on such non-specific factors as intensity and localization of the inflammatory process, an overall functional status of the patient, and the number of the disease exacerbation episodes during the last year before admission. In contrast to this, the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes, the relative amount of HLA-DR positive lymphocytes and the index of neutrophil latex phagocytosis were exceptionally dependent on the species of the causative microorganism, in particular on superantigen producing cocci. In this case, the HLA-DR positive lymphocyte amount and the neutrophil phagocytosis index were significantly higher. In addition, the CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio (the immunoregulatory index) was significantly lower in this group. As much as those findings are concordant with the signs of excessive immune activation, we conclude that they reflect a possible superantigenic action of the disease causing bacteria. Therefore, a need for immunomodulating therapy during the infections caused by species able to produce superantigens is confirmed.

  6. Ureaplasma urealyticum as a causative organism of urinary tract infection stones.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A; Tharwat, A

    1996-01-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious organism which is not recovered by conventional bacterial cultures techniques, but special cultures are required for its isolation and identification. As it is a urease-producing organism, it is considered a risk factor for the formation of struvite calculi in the urinary tract. A total of 30 patients with urinary infection stones (19 of them with the 1st formation and 11 with recurrent stone formation) were included in the study. Both bladder urine specimen (cystoscopically obtained) and stones removed were subjected to conventional cultures and also to Ureaplasma specific cultures (A7 agar and U9 broth). The results of culture techniques revealed that 86.7% of patients had aerobic organisms (E. coli in 46.7%, Klebsiella in 30%, Proteus in 6.7% and Pseudomonas in 3.3%) and 26.7% showed U. urealyticum in mid stream urine. As regards stone cultures, they revealed aerobic organisms in 76.7%, and U. urealyticum in 20%. Sensitivity tests for U. urealyticum showed that minocycline was the most effective antimicrobial followed by tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. From these data, we conclude that U. urealyticum may be the causative organism for infection stone and should be searched for via its specific cultures, especially in patients with recurrent stones and with the so-called sterile pyuria.

  7. Inflammation as a causative factor in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, P S

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting mainly the elderly, although a small proportion of PD patients develop the illness at a much younger age. In the former group, idiopathic PD patients, the causes of the illness have been the subject of longstanding debate with environmental toxins, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal protein handling and oxidative stress being suggested. One problem has been that the epidemiology of PD has offered few clues to provide evidence for a single major causative factor. Comparatively recently it has been found that in both patients and experimental models of PD in animals neuroinflammation appears to be a ubiquitous finding. These cases present with all of the classical features of inflammation including phagocyte activation, increased synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines and complement activation. Although this process is vital for normal function and protection in both the CNS, as in the periphery, it is postulated that in the aetiology of PD this process may spiral out of control with over activation of microglia, over production of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators as well as the release of destructive molecules such as reactive oxygen species. Given that dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are relatively vulnerable to ‘stress' and the region has a large population of microglia in comparison to other CNS structures, these events may easily trigger neurodegeneration. These factors are examined in this review along with a consideration of the possible use of anti-inflammatory drugs in PD. PMID:17339843

  8. Identification of CHIP as a Novel Causative Gene for Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuting; Wang, Junling; Li, Jia-Da; Ren, Haigang; Guan, Wenjuan; He, Miao; Yan, Weiqian; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhengmao; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Jingjing; Su, Zheng; Dai, Meizhi; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Guo, Jifeng; Zhou, Yafang; Zhang, Fufeng; Li, Nan; Du, Juan; Xu, Qian; Hu, Yacen; Pan, Qian; Shen, Lu; Wang, Guanghui; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Tang, Beisha

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by complex clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although more than 20 disease-causing genes have been identified, many patients are still currently without a molecular diagnosis. In a two-generation autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia family, we mapped a linkage to a minimal candidate region on chromosome 16p13.3 flanked by single-nucleotide polymorphism markers rs11248850 and rs1218762. By combining the defined linkage region with the whole-exome sequencing results, we identified a homozygous mutation (c.493CT) in CHIP (NM_005861) in this family. Using Sanger sequencing, we also identified two compound heterozygous mutations (c.389AT/c.441GT; c.621C>G/c.707GC) in CHIP gene in two additional kindreds. These mutations co-segregated exactly with the disease in these families and were not observed in 500 control subjects with matched ancestry. CHIP colocalized with NR2A, a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, in the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not disease-associated mutant CHIPs promoted the degradation of NR2A, which may underlie the pathogenesis of ataxia. In conclusion, using a combination of whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis, we identified CHIP, encoding a U-box containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia. PMID:24312598

  9. Brucella Melitensis As Causative Agent for Neck Abscess in an Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Sarrou, Styliani; Skoulakis, Charalampos; Hajiioannou, Jiannis; Petinaki, Efi; Bizakis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, is very common in the Mediterranean basin and a major concern in livestock areas. We present a rare case of a Brucella-caused abscess in the neck of a stock-breeder in an endemic Greek area. Case Report: A 39-year-old male, living in the rural area of Thessaly, presented with a mass in the left area of his neck. Clinical examination and imaging tests revealed an abscess in the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. Sampling of the abscess by fine-needle aspiration yielded inflammatory fluid (17x103 cells/μL). Molecular sequencing (16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction) performed directly in the clinical sample identified the presence of Brucella melitensis within 24 hours after material sampling. The microorganism was isolated in agar media four days later. The Rose-Bengal test was negative, while the Brucellacapt test showed titer 1/320. Given the results obtained with these molecular techniques, the patient was offered treatment with streptomycin (1 g for 3 weeks) and oral doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 6 weeks), concurrently. Conclusion: In areas endemic for brucellosis, the investigation of a patient with a neck abscess should include Brucella spp. among possible causative agents. PMID:28251029

  10. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingxin

    2014-01-01

    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China’s 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization. PMID:25525564

  11. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered.

  12. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China's 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization.

  13. CRISPR Repair Reveals Causative Mutation in a Preclinical Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Justus, Sally; Lee, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Lijuan; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H

    2016-08-01

    Massive parallel sequencing enables identification of numerous genetic variants in mutant organisms, but determining pathogenicity of any one mutation can be daunting. The most commonly studied preclinical model of retinitis pigmentosa called the "rodless" (rd1) mouse is homozygous for two mutations: a nonsense point mutation (Y347X) and an intronic insertion of a leukemia virus (Xmv-28). Distinguishing which mutation causes retinal degeneration is still under debate nearly a century after the discovery of this model organism. Here, we performed gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and demonstrated that the Y347X mutation is the causative variant of disease. Genome editing in the first generation produced animals that were mosaic for the corrected allele but still showed neurofunction preservation despite low repair frequencies. Furthermore, second-generation CRISPR-repaired mice showed an even more robust rescue and amelioration of the disease. This predicts excellent outcomes for gene editing in diseased human tissue, as Pde6b, the mutated gene in rd1 mice, has an orthologous intron-exon relationship comparable with the human PDE6B gene. Not only do these findings resolve the debate surrounding the source of neurodegeneration in the rd1 model, but they also provide the first example of homology-directed recombination-mediated gene correction in the visual system.

  14. Interleukin-6 and lung inflammation: evidence for a causative role in inducing respiratory system resistance increments.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that has been shown to be increased in some pathological conditions involving the respiratory system such as those experimentally induced in animals or spontaneously occurring in humans. Experimental data demonstrating that interleukin-6 plays a significant role in commonly occurring respiratory system inflammatory diseases are reviewed here. Those diseases, i.e. asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are characterised by mechanical derangements of the respiratory system, for the most part due to increased elastance and airway resistance. Recent findings showing that interleukin-6 has a causative role in determining an increase in airway resistance are reviewed. The end-inflation occlusion method was used to study the mechanical properties of the respiratory system before and after interleukin-6 administration. The cytokine was shown to induce significant, dose-dependent increments in both the resistive pressure dissipation due to frictional forces opposing the airflow in the airway (ohmic resistance) and the additional resistive pressure dissipation due to the visco-elastic properties of the system, i.e. stress relaxation (visco-elastic resistance). There were no alterations in respiratory system elastance. Even when administered to healthy mammals, interleukin-6 determines a significant effect on respiratory system resistance causing an increase in the mechanical work of breathing during inspiration. IL-6 hypothetically plays an active role in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and the mechanisms that may be involved are discussed here.

  15. Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma--an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; van de Sande, W W J; Fahal, A H; Reinel, D; Schöfer, H

    2015-10-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic putrid infection of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue concerning predominantly the feet, and more rarely other body parts. Mycetoma can be caused by both fungi (eumycetoma) and bacteria (actinomycetoma). Mode of infection is an inoculation of the causative microorganism via small injuries of the skin. The clinical correlate of both forms of mycetoma is tumescence with abscesses, painless nodules, sinuses and discharge. The latter is commonly serous-purulent and contains grains (filamentous granules) which can be expressed for diagnostic purposes. Distinctive for both eumycetoma and actinomycetoma, are the formation of grains. Grains represent microcolonies of the microorganism in vivo in the vital tissue. The most successful treatment option for eumycetomas offers itraconazole in a dosage of 200 mg twice daily. This triazole antifungal is considered as 'gold standard' for eumycetomas. Alternatively, the cheaper ketoconazole was widely used, however, it was currently stopped by the FDA. Actinomycetomas should be treated by the combination of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole 80/400 to 160/800 mg per day) and amikacin 15 mg/kg body weight per day. Mycetomas are neglected infections of the poor. They are more than a medical challenge. In rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America mycetomas lead to socio-economic consequences involving the affected patients, their families and the society in general. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of dihydroxyacetone against causative agents of dermatomycosis.

    PubMed

    Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Mondadori, Andressa Grazziotin; Oppe, Tércio Paschke; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2011-04-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a three-carbon sugar, is the browning ingredient in commercial sunless tanning formulations. DHA preparations have been used for more than 50 years and are currently highly popular for producing temporary pigmentation resembling an ultraviolet-induced tan. In this work, the in vitro antifungal activity of dihydroxyacetone was tested against causative agents of dermatomycosis, more specifically against dermatophytes and Candida spp. The antifungal activity was determined by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for yeasts and filamentous fungi. The data obtained show that the fungicidal activity varied from 1.6 to 50 mg ml(-1). DHA seems to be a promising substance for the treatment of dermatomycosis because it has antifungal properties at the same concentration used in artificial suntan lotions. Therefore, it is a potential low-toxicity antifungal agent that may be used topically because of its penetration into the corneal layers of the skin.

  17. Irregular location of major pectoral muscle can be a causative factor of pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Morotomi, Tadaaki; Takano, Naoki; Jiang, Hua; Kishi, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Pectus excavatum-commonly known as funnel chest-is one of the most frequently observed congenital deformities, in which the patients' thoraces present concavity. This paper presents our original hypothesis that the abnormal positioning of the major pectoral muscle can be a potential factor in the occurrence of pectus excavatum, and evaluates the validity of the hypothesis by performing an anatomical and a biomechanical study. An anatomical study on clinical cases revealed that the major pectoral muscle tends to be positioned more superiorly in pectus excavatum patients than in normal persons. The biomechanical study, using three-dimensional finite element dynamic simulation, revealed that the major pectoral muscle functions to elevate the sternum and that the elevating effect is reduced when the muscle is located at superior regions on the thoracic wall. These findings support our hypothesis that the abnormal position of the major pectoral muscle is a potential causative factor for pectus excavatum. This hypothesis suggests that, during surgical correction of pectus excavatum with an open approach, surgeons should reposition the major pectoral muscle to its correct anatomical position to avoid recurrence.

  18. Detection of Tetrodotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (TSP) Toxins and Causative Factors in Bivalve Molluscs from the UK

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Andrew D.; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Coates, Lewis; Bickerstaff, Lesley; Milligan, Steve; O’Neill, Alison; Faulkner, Dermot; McEneny, Hugh; Baker-Austin, Craig; Lees, David N.; Algoet, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Tetrodotoxins (TTXs) are traditionally associated with the occurrence of tropical Pufferfish Poisoning. In recent years, however, TTXs have been identified in European bivalve mollusc shellfish, resulting in the need to assess prevalence and risk to shellfish consumers. Following the previous identification of TTXs in shellfish from southern England, this study was designed to assess the wider prevalence of TTXs in shellfish from around the coast of the UK. Samples were collected between 2014 and 2016 and subjected to analysis using HILIC-MS/MS. Results showed the continued presence of toxins in shellfish harvested along the coast of southern England, with the maximum concentration of total TTXs reaching 253 µg/kg. TTX accumulation was detected in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), native oysters (Ostrea edulis) common mussels (Mytilus edulis) and hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), but not found in cockles (Cerastoderma edule), razors (Ensis species) or scallops (Pecten maximus). Whilst the highest concentrations were quantified in samples harvested during the warmer summer months, TTXs were still evident during the winter. An assessment of the potential causative factors did not reveal any links with the phytoplankton species Prorocentrum cordatum, instead highlighting a greater level of risk in areas of shallow, estuarine waters with temperatures above 15 °C. PMID:28867772

  19. Are Aβ and Its Derivatives Causative Agents or Innocent Bystanders in AD?

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Nikolaos K.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration in neocortical regions of the brain. Currently, Aβ-based theories, including amyloid depositions and soluble Aβ, form the basis of most therapeutic approaches to AD. It remains unclear, however, whether Aβ and its derivatives are the primary causative agents of neuronal loss in AD. Reported studies show no significant correlations between brain amyloid depositions and either degree of dementia or loss of neurons, and brain amyloid loads similar to AD are often found in normal individuals. Furthermore, behavioral abnormalities in animal models overexpressing amyloid precursor protein seem independent of amyloid depositions. Soluble Aβ theories propose toxic Aβ42 or its oligomers as the agents that promote cell death in AD. Aβ peptides, however, are normal components of human serum and CSF, and it is unclear under what conditions these peptides become toxic. Presently, there is little evidence of disease-associated abnormalities in soluble Aβ and no toxic oligomers specific to AD have been found. That familial AD mutations of amyloid precursor protein, PS1 and PS2 promote neurodegeneration suggests the biological functions of these proteins play critical roles in neuronal survival. Evidence shows that the PS/γ-secretase system promotes production of peptides involved in cell surface-to-nucleus signaling and gene expression, providing support for the hypothesis that familial AD mutations may contribute to neurodegeneration by inhibiting PS-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:20160455

  20. Cholesterol as a Causative Factor in Alzheimer Disease: A Debatable Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD. Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only APP and Aβ. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine the above-mentioned issues and discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, and the involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, such as isoprenoids and oxysterols, in AD. PMID:24329875

  1. DNA Double-Strand Breaks: A Potential Causative Factor for Mammalian Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li; Mitchell, James R.; Hasty, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Aging is a pleiotropic and stochastic process influenced by both genetics and environment. As a result the fundamental underlying causes of aging are controversial and likely diverse. Genome maintenance and in particular the repair of DNA damage is critical to ensure longevity needed for reproduction and as a consequence imperfections or defects in maintaining the genome may contribute to aging. There are many forms of DNA damage with double-strand breaks (DSBs) being the most toxic. Here we discuss DNA DSBs as a potential causative factor for aging including factors that generate DNA DSBs, pathways that repair DNA DSBs, consequences of faulty or failed DSB repair and how these consequences may lead to age-dependent decline in fitness. At the end we compare mouse models of premature aging that are defective for repairing either DSBs or UV light-induced lesions. Based on these comparisons we believe the basic mechanisms responsible for their aging phenotypes are fundamentally different demonstrating the complex and pleiotropic nature of this process. PMID:18346777

  2. The history of the plague and the research on the causative agent Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Björn P; Dunkelberg, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    The plague is an infectious bacterial disease having a high fatality rate without treatment. It has occurred in three huge pandemics since the 6th century with millions of deaths and numerous smaller epidemics and sporadic cases. Referring to specific clinical symptoms of pulmonary plague the disease became known as the Black Death. This pandemic probably originated in central Asia and began spreading westward along major trade routes. Upon the arrival in the eastern Mediterranean the disease quickly spread especially by sea traffic to Italy, Greece and France and later throughout Europe by land. Until the 18th century many European cities were frequently affected by other great plague epidemics. The worldwide spread of the third pandemic began when the plague reached Hong Kong and Canton in the year 1894. The gram-negative coccobacillus now designated as Yersinia pestis has been discovered as the causative agent of plague in this Hong Kong outbreak. In the following years the role of rats and fleas and their detailed role in the transmission of plague has been discovered and experimentally verified. Today the plague is still endemic in many countries of the world.

  3. Alzheimer’s disease causation by copper toxicity and treatment with zinc

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence will be presented that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) epidemic is new, the disease being very rare in the 1900s. The incidence is increasing rapidly, but only in developed countries. We postulate that the new emerging environmental factor partially causal of the AD epidemic is ingestion of inorganic copper from drinking water and taking supplement pills, along with a high fat diet. Inorganic copper can be partially directly absorbed and elevate the serum free copper pool. The Squitti group has shown that serum free copper is elevated in AD, correlates with cognition, and predicts cognition loss. Thus, our inorganic copper hypothesis fits well with the Squitti group data. We have also shown that AD patients are zinc deficient compared to age-matched controls. Because zinc is a neuronal protective factor, we postulate that zinc deficiency may also be partially causative of AD. We carried out a small 6 month double blind study of a new zinc formulation and found that in patients age 70 and over, it protected against cognition loss. Zinc therapy also significantly reduced serum free copper in AD patients, so efficacy may come from restoring normal zinc levels, or from lowering serum free copper, or from both. PMID:24860501

  4. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  5. Isolation, experimental transmission, and characterization of causative agent of Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Holland, C J; Ristic, M; Cole, A I; Johnson, P; Baker, G; Goetz, T

    1985-02-01

    Potomac horse fever, a disease characterized by fever, anorexia, leukopenia, and occasional diarrhea, is fatal in approximately 30 percent of affected animals. The seasonal occurrence of the disease (June to October) and evidence of antibodies to the rickettsia Ehrlichia sennetsu in the serum of convalescing horses suggested that a related rickettsia might be the causative agent. Such an agent was isolated in cultured blood monocytes from an experimentally infected pony. This intracytoplasmic organism was adapted to growth in primary cultures of canine blood monocytes. A healthy pony inoculated with these infected monocytes also developed the disease. The organism was reisolated from this animal which, at autopsy, had pathological manifestations typical of Potomac horse fever. Cross serologic reactions between the newly isolated agent and antisera to 15 rickettsiae revealed that it is related to certain members of the genus Ehrlichia, particularly to Ehrlichia sennetsu. Since the disease occurs in other parts of the United States as well as in the vicinity of the Potomac River, and since it has also been reported in Europe, the name equine monocytic ehrlichiosis is proposed as being more descriptive.

  6. Causative pathogens and antibiotic resistance in children hospitalized for urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Mesut; Büyükkaragöz, Bahar; Çelebi Tayfur, Asli; Çaltik, Aysun; Köksoy, Adem Yasin; Çizmeci, Zeynep; Günbey, Sacit

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections in children and a major cause of hospitalization. In this study we investigated the clinical characteristics, causative uropathogens; their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance patterns, treatment modalities and efficacy in children hospitalized for UTI in a tertiary care setting. Patients hospitalized for an upper UTI between March 2009 and July 2014 were enrolled. The urine culture-antibiogram results and accompanying urinary tract abnormalities were recorded retrospectively. A total of 142 patients (104 girls, 73.2%; 38 boys, 26.8%) were enrolled. Mean patient age was 32.6 ± 4.1 months. History of recurrent UTI was present in 45.8% (n = 65), with prior hospitalization in 12.0% (n = 17). Frequency of vesicoureteral reflux was 18.3% (n = 26). Gram-negative enteric microorganisms yielded growth in all culture-positive UTI and the most common microorganism was Escherichia coli (n = 114, 80.3%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL (+)) bacterial strains were detected in 49.3% (n = 70), with third-generation cephalosporin resistance in all and increased duration of hospitalization. The prevalence of UTI with ESBL (+) bacterial strains with multi-drug resistance is increasing in the hospitalized pediatric population, therefore rational use of antibiotics is essential. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2008-06-01

    Perception is an intentional action through space in time by which the finite brain explores the infinite world. By acting, the brain thrusts its body into the future space-time of the world while predicting the sensory consequences. Through perceiving its actions and their results, it remembers its predictions, its actions, and their consequences. To perform these operations the brain, through chaotic dynamics, constructs and uses finite perceptual matrices of space-time and infers causation. Perceived time differs from world time in ways that are determined by the neural mechanisms of intentionality. In particular, perception of the self in action, through the mechanism of preafference, gives structure and content to the concepts of continuity, contiguity, duration, temporal order, cause, and effect. We expand our perceptual scales beyond kinesthesia by converting time into space by use of clocks and calendars. Remembered time differs from perceived time in being dependent on awareness, which makes it episodic, fragmentary, and subject to large variations in rates of time lapse in the flow of meanings. The attribution of causal agency to objects and events in the world results from the experience of temporal sequencing in the action-perception cycle: "I act" [cause] "I feel" [effect] during Piaget's somatomotor phase in early human development.

  8. Joint Committee on Aviation Pathology: IV. Crew behavior in accident causation.

    PubMed

    Yanowitch, R E

    1977-10-01

    The behavioral intercrew dynamics were investigated in three fatal air carrier accidents. This is apparently the original research done on this vital safety area and certain important factors have been identified for use in the prevention of future accidents. It is seen that a pilot in a flying situation is, in reality, a processor of information encompassing a system of behavior patterns. A failure in the information processing modes may be contributory to accident causation. The processing system contains four interrelated phases: 1) sensing the incoming information (Perception); 2) analyzing and understanding the processed information (Comprehension); 3) making a decision based on the understanding (Decision); and 4) performing or not performing some physical act based on the decision (Action). The dynamic factors of selective inattention, ego function, and level of awareness are present in all crew behavior. If any one of these dynamic factors affects the performance of the flight task, the behavior may lead to inappropriate performance. This may result in a fatal accident. Conclusions concerning accident prevention are drawn from this study.

  9. Identification of causative compounds and microorganisms for musty odor occurrence in the Huangpu River, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daolin; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min; Chen, Guoguang; Zhang, Shujun

    2013-03-01

    There are regular problems of musty odor in the Huangpu River, a major source of drinking water for Shanghai, China. In this study, the musty odor and its main causative compounds in the Huangpu River source water were confirmed through a yearly investigation using flavor profile analysis combined with HSPME-GC-MS analysis. The investigation showed that 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) with a concentration level between 28.6 and 71.0 ng/L was responsible for the musty odor in summer from July to September. Microscopic observation confirmed with the cloning results showed that Phormidium spp., which accounted for 80%-95% of the algal cell density, was the microorganisms responsible for the production of 2-MIB and the estimated 2-MIB yield was 0.022 pg/cell. Results from a wide-area sampling campaign in the Huangpu River watershed showed that, other than the large tributaries receiving water from Tai Lake, several small creeks close to the intake may have contributed most of the 2-MIB and the Phormidium spp. to the Huangpu River source water. This study provides methodology for the investigation of odor causing compounds and microorganisms in river-type source water, and the result will be useful for water quality control in both source water and drinking water.

  10. Corroboration of in vivo cartilage pressures with implications for synovial joint tribology and osteoarthritis causation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Kjirste C; Hodge, W Andrew; Krebs, David E; Mann, Robert W

    2005-10-11

    Pressures on normal human acetabular cartilage have been collected from two implanted instrumented femoral head hemiprostheses. Despite significant differences in subjects' gender, morphology, mobility, and coordination, in vivo pressure measurements from both subjects covered similar ranges, with maximums of 5-6 MPa in gait, and as high as 18 MPa in other movements. Normalized for subject weight and height (nMPa), for free-speed walking the maximum pressure values were 25.2 for the female subject and 24.5 for the male subject. The overall maximum nMPa values were 76.2 for the female subject during rising from a chair at 11 months postoperative and 82.3 for the male subject while descending steps at 9 months postoperative. These unique in vivo data are consistent with corresponding cadaver experiments and model analyses. The collective results, in vitro data, model studies, and now corroborating in vivo data support the self-pressurizing "weeping" theory of synovial joint lubrication and provide unique information to evaluate the influence of in vivo pressure regimes on osteoarthritis causation and the efficacy of augmentations to, and substitutions for, natural cartilage.

  11. New Levels of Language Processing Complexity and Organization Revealed by Granger Causation

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Caplan, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Granger causation analysis of high spatiotemporal resolution reconstructions of brain activation offers a new window on the dynamic interactions between brain areas that support language processing. Premised on the observation that causes both precede and uniquely predict their effects, this approach provides an intuitive, model-free means of identifying directed causal interactions in the brain. It requires the analysis of all non-redundant potentially interacting signals, and has shown that even “early” processes such as speech perception involve interactions of many areas in a strikingly large network that extends well beyond traditional left hemisphere perisylvian cortex that play out over hundreds of milliseconds. In this paper we describe this technique and review several general findings that reframe the way we think about language processing and brain function in general. These include the extent and complexity of language processing networks, the central role of interactive processing dynamics, the role of processing hubs where the input from many distinct brain regions are integrated, and the degree to which task requirements and stimulus properties influence processing dynamics and inform our understanding of “language-specific” localized processes. PMID:23293611

  12. Meningitis resulting in hearing loss and labyrinthitis ossificans - does the causative organism matter?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Susan A; Sanli, Halit; Gibson, William P R

    2008-06-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate whether one causative agent of meningitis is more likely to cause profound hearing loss and labyrinthitis ossificans. We obtained data from the New South Wales health department for cases of meningitis between 1995 and 2005 (1568 cases) and the Sydney Cochlear Implant Centre for cochlear implant patients with hearing loss secondary to meningitis from 1984 to 2005 (70 ears in 59 patients). The aetiological agents were compared with regard to their ability to cause profound hearing loss and cochlear ossification. Neisseria meningitidis resulted in 56.9% of cases of meningitis and 11.4% of the cases of profound hearing loss resulting in cochlear implantation (incidence of profound hearing loss of 0.4%). Streptococcus pneumoniae, however, caused 41.1% of meningitis but 85.7% of cochlear implantation (incidence of 4.6%). Labyrinthitis ossificans was more common after infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae but there was no statistically significant difference between Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis for labyrinthitis ossificans (p = 0.45, chi-squared test). In conclusion Neisseria meningitidis meningitis carries a very low risk of profound hearing loss but Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis a significantly higher risk.

  13. Multi-agent electricity market modeling with EMCAS.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M.; Macal, C.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-09-05

    Electricity systems are a central component of modern economies. Many electricity markets are transitioning from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets that have recently undergone this transition have exhibited extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transformations require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable tools that can be used to test these regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are required. Multi-agent models can provide such tools. To better understand the requirements such as tool, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the multi-agent Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices.

  14. Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.

    PubMed

    Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues.

  15. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  16. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  17. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  18. The Development of Competent Marketing Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ian; Tsarenko, Yelena; Wagstaff, Peter; Powell, Irene; Steel, Marion; Brace-Govan, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The process of transition from university undergraduate to business professional is a crucial stage in the development of a business career. This study examines both graduate and employer perspectives on the essential skills and knowledge needed by marketing professionals to successfully perform their roles. From in-depth interviews with 14…

  19. Geological Transition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-11

    This image, taken by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the transition between the Murray Formation, in which layers are poorly expressed and difficult to trace from orbit, and the hematite ridge, which is made up of continuous layers.

  20. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  1. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  2. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  3. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing.

  4. Markets for recovered aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The study describes the operation of the markets for scrap aluminum as an example of how recycling markets are structured, what factors influence the supply of and demand for materials, what projections can be made about recycling markets, and how government policies to increase recycling may affect these markets.

  5. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care.

  6. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  7. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  8. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  9. Marketing your expertise.

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, L M

    1999-01-01

    Marketing an existing or new venture is a vital part of business. For the nurse entrepreneur, marketing involves applying previously learned skills to new situations. The methods used to market a service may mean the difference between success and failure. Unfortunately many entrepreneurs think that because they have a great idea, clients will beat a path to their door. Marketing requires planning, creativity, time, and money. It is an ongoing process that must be evaluated regularly. When marketing achieves results, clients commit to using the entrepreneur's services and profits are realized. Basic marketing concepts are considered, and strategies for developing a workable marketing plan are presented.

  10. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  11. Universality of market superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denys, Mateusz; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Jagielski, Maciej; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    We use a key concept of the continuous-time random walk formalism, i.e., continuous and fluctuating interevent times in which mutual dependence is taken into account, to model market fluctuation data when traders experience excessive (or superthreshold) losses or excessive (or superthreshold) profits. We analytically derive a class of "superstatistics" that accurately model empirical market activity data supplied by Bogachev, Ludescher, Tsallis, and Bunde that exhibit transition thresholds. We measure the interevent times between excessive losses and excessive profits and use the mean interevent discrete (or step) time as a control variable to derive a universal description of empirical data collapse. Our dominant superstatistic value is a power-law corrected by the lower incomplete gamma function, which asymptotically tends toward robustness but initially gives an exponential. We find that the scaling shape exponent that drives our superstatistics subordinates itself and a "superscaling" configuration emerges. Thanks to the Weibull copula function, our approach reproduces the empirically proven dependence between successive interevent times. We also use the approach to calculate a dynamic risk function and hence the dynamic VaR, which is significant in financial risk analysis. Our results indicate that there is a functional (but not literal) balance between excessive profits and excessive losses that can be described using the same body of superstatistics but different calibration values and driving parameters. We also extend our original approach to cover empirical seismic activity data (e.g., given by Corral), the interevent times of which range from minutes to years. Superpositioned superstatistics is another class of superstatistics that protects power-law behavior both for short- and long-time behaviors. These behaviors describe well the collapse of seismic activity data and capture so-called volatility clustering phenomena.

  12. Universality of market superstatistics.

    PubMed

    Denys, Mateusz; Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard; Jagielski, Maciej; Stanley, H Eugene

    2016-10-01

    We use a key concept of the continuous-time random walk formalism, i.e., continuous and fluctuating interevent times in which mutual dependence is taken into account, to model market fluctuation data when traders experience excessive (or superthreshold) losses or excessive (or superthreshold) profits. We analytically derive a class of "superstatistics" that accurately model empirical market activity data supplied by Bogachev, Ludescher, Tsallis, and Bunde that exhibit transition thresholds. We measure the interevent times between excessive losses and excessive profits and use the mean interevent discrete (or step) time as a control variable to derive a universal description of empirical data collapse. Our dominant superstatistic value is a power-law corrected by the lower incomplete gamma function, which asymptotically tends toward robustness but initially gives an exponential. We find that the scaling shape exponent that drives our superstatistics subordinates itself and a "superscaling" configuration emerges. Thanks to the Weibull copula function, our approach reproduces the empirically proven dependence between successive interevent times. We also use the approach to calculate a dynamic risk function and hence the dynamic VaR, which is significant in financial risk analysis. Our results indicate that there is a functional (but not literal) balance between excessive profits and excessive losses that can be described using the same body of superstatistics but different calibration values and driving parameters. We also extend our original approach to cover empirical seismic activity data (e.g., given by Corral), the interevent times of which range from minutes to years. Superpositioned superstatistics is another class of superstatistics that protects power-law behavior both for short- and long-time behaviors. These behaviors describe well the collapse of seismic activity data and capture so-called volatility clustering phenomena.

  13. Criticality and market efficiency in a simple realistic model of the stock market.

    PubMed

    Challet, Damien; Marsili, Matteo

    2003-09-01

    We discuss a simple model based on the minority game which reproduces the main stylized facts of anomalous fluctuations in finance. We present the analytic solution of the model in the thermodynamic limit. Stylized facts arise only close to a line of critical points with nontrivial properties, marking the transition to an unpredictable market. We show that the emergence of critical fluctuations close to the phase transition is governed by the interplay between the signal to noise ratio and the system size. These results provide a clear and consistent picture of financial markets, where stylized facts and verge of unpredictability are intimately related aspects of the same critical systems.

  14. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  15. A Marketing Case History Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  16. Peroxides with antiplasmodial activity inhibit proliferation of Perkinsus olseni, the causative agent of Perkinsosis in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Araujo, N C P; Afonso, R; Bringela, A; Cancela, M L; Cristiano, M L S; Leite, R B

    2013-12-01

    Perkinsus olseni, the causative agent of Perkinsosis, can drastically affect the survival of target marine mollusks, with dramatic economic consequences for aquaculture. P. olseni is a member of the Alveolata group, which also comprises parasites that are highly relevant for medical and veterinary sciences such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma. P. olseni shares several unique metabolic pathways with those pathological parasites but is not toxic to humans. In this work, six antimalarially active peroxides, derived from the natural product artemisinin or synthetic trioxolanes, were synthesized and tested on P. olseni proliferation and survival. All peroxides tested revealed an inhibitory effect on P. olseni proliferation at micromolar concentrations. The relevance of the peroxide functionality on toxicity and the effect of Fe(II)-intracellular concentration on activity were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that the peroxide functionality is the toxofore and intracellular iron concentration also proved to be a crucial co-factor on the activation of peroxides in P. olseni. These data points to a mechanism of bioactivation in P. olseni sharing similarities with the one proposed in P. falciparum parasites. Preliminary studies on bioaccumulation were conducted using fluorescent-labeled peroxides. Results show that synthetic trioxolanes tend to accumulate on a vacuole while the labeled artemisinin accumulates in the cytoplasm. Preliminary experiments on differential genes expression associated to Fe(II) transport protein (Nramp) and calcium transport protein (ATP6/SERCA) were also conducted by qPCR. Results point to a fourfold increase in expression of both genes upon exposure to trioxolanes and approximately twofold upon exposure to artemisinin derivatives. Data obtained in this investigation is relevant for better understanding of the biology of Perkinsus and may also be important in the development of new strategies for Perkinsosis prevention and control.

  17. Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Joong; Jeon, Junbeom; Shin, Jaemoon; Kim, Nan Young; Hong, Jeong Hoon; Oh, Jae-Min; Hong, SangKyoon; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Young-Eun; Kang, Suk Yun; Ma, Hyeo-Il; Lee, Unjoo; Yoon, Jeehee

    2017-08-01

    Many hereditary movement disorders with complex phenotypes without a locus symbol prefix for familial PD present as parkinsonism; however, the dysregulation of genes associated with these phenotypes in the SNpc of PD patients has not been systematically studied. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed using 10 previously published genome-wide expression datasets obtained by laser-captured microdissection of pigmented neurons in the SNpc. A custom-curated gene set for hereditary parkinsonism consisting of causative genes (n = 78) related to disorders with a parkinsonism phenotype, but not necessarily idiopathic or monogenic PD, was constructed from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database. In 9 of the 10 gene expression data sets, gene set enrichment analysis showed that the disease-causing genes for hereditary parkinsonism were downregulated in the SNpc in PD patients compared to controls (nominal P values <0.05 in five studies). Among the 63 leading edge subset genes representing downregulated genes in PD, 79.4% were genes without a locus symbol prefix for familial PD. A meta-gene set enrichment analysis performed with a random-effect model showed an association between the gene set for hereditary parkinsonism and PD with a negative normalized enrichment score value (-1.40; 95% CI: -1.52∼-1.28; P < 6.2E-05). Disease-causing genes with a parkinsonism phenotype are downregulated in the SNpc in PD. Our study highlights the importance of genes associated with hereditary movement disorders with parkinsonism in understanding the pathogenesis of PD. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Pathology of Camel Tuberculosis and Molecular Characterization of Its Causative Agents in Pastoral Regions of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Gezahegne; Bayleyegn, Gizachew; Sisay Tessema, Tesfaye; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu; Ameni, Gobena

    2011-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB) and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), region of difference-4 (RD4)-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906) on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ2 = 4.789; P = 0.029). The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ2 = 22.697; P = 0.002) and lung lobes (χ2 = 17.901; P = 0.006). Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91) of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31) of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels. PMID:21283668

  19. Comprehensive Screening of Eight Known Causative Genes in Congenital Hypothyroidism With Gland-in-Situ

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Adeline K.; Serra, Eva G.; Cangul, Hakan; Alyaarubi, Saif; Ullah, Irfan; Schoenmakers, Erik; Deeb, Asma; Habeb, Abdelhadi M.; Almaghamsi, Mohammad; Peters, Catherine; Nathwani, Nisha; Aycan, Zehra; Saglam, Halil; Bober, Ece; Dattani, Mehul; Shenoy, Savitha; Murray, Philip G.; Babiker, Amir; Willemsen, Ruben; Thankamony, Ajay; Lyons, Greta; Irwin, Rachael; Padidela, Raja; Tharian, Kavitha; Davies, Justin H.; Puthi, Vijith; Park, Soo-Mi; Massoud, Ahmed F.; Gregory, John W.; Albanese, Assunta; Pease-Gevers, Evelien; Martin, Howard; Brugger, Kim; Maher, Eamonn R.; Chatterjee, V. Krishna K.; Anderson, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Lower TSH screening cutoffs have doubled the ascertainment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), particularly cases with a eutopically located gland-in-situ (GIS). Although mutations in known dyshormonogenesis genes or TSHR underlie some cases of CH with GIS, systematic screening of these eight genes has not previously been undertaken. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the contribution and molecular spectrum of mutations in eight known causative genes (TG, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, SLC5A5, SLC26A4, IYD, and TSHR) in CH cases with GIS. Patients, Design, and Setting: We screened 49 CH cases with GIS from 34 ethnically diverse families, using next-generation sequencing. Pathogenicity of novel mutations was assessed in silico. Results: Twenty-nine cases harbored likely disease-causing mutations. Monogenic defects (19 cases) most commonly involved TG (12), TPO (four), DUOX2 (two), and TSHR (one). Ten cases harbored triallelic (digenic) mutations: TG and TPO (one); SLC26A4 and TPO (three), and DUOX2 and TG (six cases). Novel variants overall included 15 TG, six TPO, and three DUOX2 mutations. Genetic basis was not ascertained in 20 patients, including 14 familial cases. Conclusions: The etiology of CH with GIS remains elusive, with only 59% attributable to mutations in TSHR or known dyshormonogenesis-associated genes in a cohort enriched for familial cases. Biallelic TG or TPO mutations most commonly underlie severe CH. Triallelic defects are frequent, mandating future segregation studies in larger kindreds to assess their contribution to variable phenotype. A high proportion (∼41%) of unsolved or ambiguous cases suggests novel genetic etiologies that remain to be elucidated. PMID:27525530

  20. Narrowing in on the causative defect of an intriguing X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy.

    PubMed

    Minassian, B A; Aiyar, R; Alic, S; Banwell, B; Villanova, M; Fardeau, M; Mandell, J W; Juel, V C; Rafii, M; Auranen, M; Kalimo, H

    2002-08-27

    X-Linked myopathy with excessive autophagy (XMEA) is a childhood-onset slowly progressive disease of skeletal muscle with no cardiac, nervous system, or other organ involvement. Pathology is distinctive: membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles, multifold reduplication of the basement membrane, and intense deposition of membrane attack complex and calcium at the myofiber surface. XMEA has been linked to the most telomeric 10.5 cM of Xq28. The authors now report identification of new families, refinement of the locus, mapping of genes to the region, and screening of candidate genes for mutations. Seven new families were ascertained, including an American family with XMEA. Using 11 new microsatellite genetic markers, the authors fine-mapped a recombination in this family and a common ancestral haplotype in two French families, which localized the gene in a 4.37-Mb region. Sequence data were assembled from public and private databases and a near-continuous sequence derived for the entire region. With this sequence, a gene map of 82 genes and 28 expressed sequence tag clusters was constructed; to date, 12 candidate genes have been screened for mutations. This study doubles the number of reported families with XMEA and more firmly establishes its distinctive clinicopathologic features. It also advances the search for the XMEA causative defect by reducing the disease locus to approximately half its previous size, assembling an almost complete sequence of the refined region, identifying all known genes in this sequence, and excluding the presence of mutations in 10% of these genes.

  1. Nosocomial infections in pediatric population and antibiotic resistance of the causative organisms in north of iran.

    PubMed

    Behzadnia, Salar; Davoudi, Alireza; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of the nosocomial infections is complicated especially in children due to an increase in the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to survey the nosocomial infections in children and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of their causative organisms in teaching hospitals in the north of Iran. The investigation was designed as a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of patients under 12 years old, which were hospitalized in three teaching hospitals in the north of Iran and had symptoms of nosocomial infections in 2012. The required data of patients were extracted and entered in the information forms. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 16). Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests (Monte Carlo) were used. Out of the total number of 34556 hospitalized patients in three teaching hospitals, 61 (0.17%) patients were children under 12 years old age with nosocomial infection from which 50.81% were girls and 49.18% were boys. Most of these patients (55.73%) were admitted to the burn unit. The most common type of nosocomial infection (49.18%) was wound infection. Pseudomonas spp. (36.84%) and Acinetobacter spp. (28.02%) were the most common bacteria isolated from the clinical specimens. All the Acinetobacter spp. were multidrug-resistant. All the gram negative and gram positive bacterial species in our study showed high resistance to antibiotics. The rate of nosocomial infections was low in our study because the detection of nosocomial infection was based on the clinical grounds in most cases and laboratory reports might contain false-negative results. These results provide useful information for future large scale surveillance in the context of prevention programs.

  2. Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobials against Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony, the Causative Agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; McKellar, Quintin A.; McKeever, Declan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a disease of substantial economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Failure of vaccination to curtail spread of this disease has led to calls for evaluation of the role of antimicrobials in CBPP control. Three major classes of antimicrobial are effective against mycoplasmas, namely tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effector kinetics of oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against two MmmSC field strains in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 using a macrodilution technique, and time-kill curves were constructed for various multiples of the MIC over a 24 hour period in artificial medium and serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models to obtain 24 hour-area under curve/MIC ratios for mycoplasmastasis and, where appropriate, for mycoplasmacidal activity and virtual mycoplasmal elimination. Results Minimum inhibitory concentrations against B237 were 20-fold higher, 2-fold higher and approximately 330-fold lower in serum than in artificial medium for oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and tulathromycin, respectively. Such differences were mirrored in experiments using Tan8. Oxytetracycline was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in both matrices. Danofloxacin elicited mycoplasmacidal activity against B237 and virtual elimination of Tan8; similar maximum antimycoplasmal effects were observed in artificial medium and serum. Tulathromycin effected virtual elimination of B237 but was mycoplasmastatic against Tan8 in artificial medium. However, this drug was mycoplasmastatic against both strains in the more physiologically relevant matrix of serum. Conclusions Oxytetracycline, danofloxacin and

  3. Causation's nuclear future: applying proportional liability to the Price-Anderson Act.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, William D

    2014-11-01

    For more than a quarter century, public discourse has pushed the nuclear-power industry in the direction of heavier regulation and greater scrutiny, effectively halting construction of new reactors. By focusing on contemporary fear of significant accidents, such discourse begs the question of what the nation's court system would actually do should a major nuclear incident cause radiation-induced cancers. Congress's attempt to answer that question is the Price-Anderson Act, a broad statute addressing claims by the victims of a major nuclear accident. Lower courts interpreting the Act have repeatedly encountered a major stumbling block: it declares that judges must apply the antediluvian preponderance-of-the-evidence logic of state tort law, even though radiation science insists that the causes of radiation-induced cancers are more complex. After a major nuclear accident, the Act's paradoxically outdated rules for adjudicating "causation" would make post-incident compensation unworkable. This Note urges that nuclear-power-plant liability should not turn on eighteenth-century tort law. Drawing on modern scientific conclusions regarding the invariably "statistical" nature of cancer, this Note suggests a unitary federal standard for the Price-Anderson Act--that a defendant be deemed to have "caused" a plaintiff's injury in direct proportion to the increased risk of harm the defendant has imposed. This "proportional liability" rule would not only fairly evaluate the costs borne by injured plaintiffs and protect a reawakening nuclear industry from the prospect of bank-breaking litigation, but would prove workable with only minor changes to the Price-Anderson Act's standards of "injury" and "fault."

  4. Complete genome sequencing of two causative viruses of cassava mosaic disease in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oteng-Frimpong, R; Levy, Y; Torkpo, S K; Danquah, E Y; Offei, S K; Gafni, Y

    2012-01-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMV), caused by one or a combination of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is ranked among the most important constraints to profitable and efficient production of cassava. Effective control measures require in-depth knowledge of the viral causative agent. Using rolling-circle amplification and unique enzymes, the full genome of two species of cassava mosaic geminivirus isolated from infected cassava plants in Ghana were cloned into pCambia 1300 and pET-28b. The sequences of the genome were determined on an ABI sequencer and a pairwise comparison was performed with other cassava-infecting geminiviruses from different countries. It was revealed that cassava grown in Ghana is attacked by two species of geminivirus in either single or mixed infections. These are the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV)-like, with high sequence similarity of 94% and 80%, respectively, between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of each virus, and 66% and 41% similarity of the common region (CR) (for A and B accordingly). The DNA-A of ACMV and EACMV-like contained 2781 and 2800 nucleotides, respectively, while their DNA-B components had 2725 and 2734 nucleotides, respectively. ACMV DNA-A was over 97% similar to those of other ACMVs from the continent. In contrast, EACMV-like DNA-A was over 98% similar to the isolates from Cameroon and other West African countries, and less than 88% similar to other EACMV species. Thus ACMV and EACMV-like were named African cassava mosaic virus-Ghana and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus-Ghana. Computer analysis revealed that their genome arrangement follows the typical old world bipartite begomovirus genome. The association of these two species and their interaction might account for the severe symptoms observed on infected plants in the field and in the greenhouse.

  5. Causation's nuclear future: applying proportional liability to the Price-Anderson Act.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, William D

    2014-11-01

    For more than a quarter century, public discourse has pushed the nuclear-power industry in the direction of heavier regulation and greater scrutiny, effectively halting construction of new reactors. By focusing on contemporary fear of significant accidents, such discourse begs the question of what the nation's court system would actually do should a major nuclear incident cause radiation-induced cancers. Congress's attempt to answer that question is the Price-Anderson Act, a broad statute addressing claims by the victims of a major nuclear accident. Lower courts interpreting the Act have repeatedly encountered a major stumbling block: it declares that judges must apply the antediluvian preponderance-of-the-evidence logic of state tort law, even though radiation science insists that the causes of radiation-induced cancers are more complex. After a major nuclear accident, the Act's paradoxically outdated rules for adjudicating "causation" would make post-incident compensation unworkable. This Note urges that nuclear-power-plant liability should not turn on eighteenth-century tort law. Drawing on modern scientific conclusions regarding the invariably "statistical" nature of cancer, this Note suggests a unitary federal standard for the Price-Anderson Act--that a defendant be deemed to have "caused" a plaintiff's injury in direct proportion to the increased risk of harm the defendant has imposed. This "proportional liability" rule would not only fairly evaluate the costs borne by injured plaintiffs and protect a reawakening nuclear industry from the prospect of bank-breaking litigation, but would prove workable with only minor changes to the Price-Anderson Act's standards of "injury" and "fault."

  6. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Harris, Steven A; Harris, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials.

  8. Causative mechanisms for the occurrence of a triple layered mesospheric inversion event over low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Sridharan, S.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2014-05-01

    The temperature profile obtained from the space borne instrument "Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry" instrument onboard "Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics" shows a triple layered mesospheric inversion event on the night of 23 September 2011, when there is an overpass near the low-latitude sites Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The three mesospheric inversion layers (MILs) are formed in the height region around ~70 (lower), ~80 (middle), and ~90 km (upper) with amplitudes ~11, ~44, and ~109 K and thickness of 3.4, 4.9, and 6.6 km, respectively. The formation of the lower and middle MILs can only be observed in the Rayleigh lidar temperature profiles over Gadanki due to upper height limitation of the system. Nearly all the dominant causative mechanisms are examined for the occurrence of the MIL event. The lower MIL at ~70 km is inferred to be due to planetary wave dissipation, as there is a sudden decrease of planetary wave activity above 70 km. Further, it is demonstrated that the middle MIL at ~80 km is due to the turbulence generated by gravity wave breaking which is in turn due to gravity wave-semi-diurnal tidal interaction, though the height of the middle MIL descends at the rate of ~1 km/h, which is nearly the vertical phase speed of diurnal tide, whereas the upper MIL at above 90 km is due to the large chemical heating rate (~45 K/day) generated by the dominant exothermic reaction O + O + M → O2 + M.

  9. Najar or Bhut-Evil eye or ghost affliction: Gujarati views about illness causation.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Alison M

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the supernatural beliefs of najar (evil eye) and bhut (ghost) and their roles in illness causation in Gujarati families in Britain today. The data arose unexpectedly in an ethnography of child rearing patterns carried out in Harrow, North West London and a short period of observation in Ahmedabad, India. I used anthropological methods of participant observation and unstructured interviews, which were transcribed using pseudonyms. The study group involved 70 Hindu and Jain Gujarati households with children and the fieldwork was conducted over a period of four years. Many of the individuals studied had migrated from India to East Africa before coming to the UK in the 1970s, but maintain links with both countries through kinship ties, marriage and rituals. I set out to study the continuity of women's roles in the transmission of religious and moral values, the rituals of childhood, views about infant feeding, and parenting relationships within joint families. The beliefs of najar and bhut in poor, rural settings in India have been described, but these Gujarati beliefs in Britain have not been well documented. This study indicates that najar and bhut continue to be a concern of women in most Gujarati families in Britain today and across all socio-economic groups, not confined to those on the 'bread-line', as have been previously suggested. These beliefs align themselves with Hindu ideas of the soul and reincarnation: powerful forces residing outside the body. An understanding of these beliefs could be informative to health professionals working with Gujarati communities in the UK.

  10. Differences in Thoracic Injury Causation Patterns Between Seat Belt Restrained Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Locey, Caitlin M.; Zonfrillo, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to delineate age-based differences in specific thoracic injury diagnoses for seat belt restrained rear seat occupants and describe the associated injury causation in order to provide insight into how the load of the seat belt is transferred to occupants of various sizes. Using data from the Crash Investigation Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), 20 cases of rear seated, lap and shoulder belt restrained occupants with AIS2+ thoracic injuries in frontal crashes were reviewed. Seven were children and adolescents age 8–15 years, 5 were 16–24 years, 3 were 25–54 years, and 5 were 55+ years. Six of the seven 8–15 year olds sustained injuries to the lung in the form of pulmonary contusion or pneumothorax. Only three of the seven sustained a skeletal (sternum or rib) fracture; only one of these three involved multiple ribs bilaterally. In contrast, four of the five 16–24 year olds sustained at least one rib fracture - often multiple and bilateral. The adult cohort (25+ years) was involved in predominantly more minor crashes; however they all sustained complex rib fractures – seven of the eight involved multiple ribs, four of the eight were also bilateral. Belt compression – either from the shoulder belt or the lap belt – was identified as the primary cause of the thoracic injuries. Often, there was clear evidence of the location of belt loading from AIS 1 chest contusions or abrasions. These findings have implications for age-based thoracic injury criteria suggesting that that different metrics may be needed for different age groups. PMID:23169131

  11. Gray marketing of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, P E; Walsh, M G

    1995-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketers in the European Union are constrained by regulated prices, opening up opportunities for gray marketers. The authors investigate the legal framework that regulates gray markets by summarizing and analyzing relevant European Court of Justice decisions that favor gray marketers and actually foster parallel trade. Before marketing managers can develop effective strategies in this marketplace, they must first understand the precedents of the legal system in which they will be operating.

  12. Coupled effects of market impact and asymmetric sensitivity in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fei; Shi, Yong-Dong

    2013-05-01

    By incorporating market impact and asymmetric sensitivity into the evolutionary minority game, we study the coevolutionary dynamics of stock prices and investment strategies in financial markets. Both the stock price movement and the investors’ global behavior are found to be closely related to the phase region they fall into. Within the region where the market impact is small, investors’ asymmetric response to gains and losses leads to the occurrence of herd behavior, when all the investors are prone to behave similarly in an extreme way and large price fluctuations occur. A linear relation between the standard deviation of stock price changes and the mean value of strategies is found. With full market impact, the investors tend to self-segregate into opposing groups and the introduction of asymmetric sensitivity leads to the disappearance of dominant strategies. Compared with the situations in the stock market with little market impact, the stock price fluctuations are suppressed and an efficient market occurs. Theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of phase transition from clustering to self-segregation in the present model is similar to that in the majority-minority game and the occurrence and disappearance of efficient markets are related to the competition between the trend-following and the trend-aversion forces. The clustering of the strategies in the present model results from the majority-wins effect and the wealth-driven mechanism makes the market become predictable.

  13. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  14. Market structure explained by pairwise interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bury, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Financial markets are a typical example of complex systems where interactions between constituents lead to many remarkable features. Here we give empirical evidence, by making as few assumptions as possible, that the market microstructure capturing almost all of the available information in the data of stock markets does not involve higher order than pairwise interactions. We give an economic interpretation of this pairwise model. We show that it accurately recovers the empirical correlation coefficients; thus the collective behaviors are quantitatively described by models that capture the observed pairwise correlations but no higher-order interactions. Furthermore, we show that an order-disorder transition occurs, as predicted by the pairwise model. Last, we make the link with the graph-theoretic description of stock markets recovering the non-random and scale-free topology, shrinking length during crashes and meaningful clustering features, as expected.

  15. Identifying States of a Financial Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-09-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992-2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical ``market states''. Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen.

  16. Identifying states of a financial market.

    PubMed

    Münnix, Michael C; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992-2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical "market states". Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen.

  17. Identifying States of a Financial Market

    PubMed Central

    Münnix, Michael C.; Shimada, Takashi; Schäfer, Rudi; Leyvraz, Francois; Seligman, Thomas H.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of complex systems has become a central issue because such systems exist in a wide range of scientific disciplines. We here focus on financial markets as an example of a complex system. In particular we analyze financial data from the S&P 500 stocks in the 19-year period 1992–2010. We propose a definition of state for a financial market and use it to identify points of drastic change in the correlation structure. These points are mapped to occurrences of financial crises. We find that a wide variety of characteristic correlation structure patterns exist in the observation time window, and that these characteristic correlation structure patterns can be classified into several typical “market states”. Using this classification we recognize transitions between different market states. A similarity measure we develop thus affords means of understanding changes in states and of recognizing developments not previously seen. PMID:22966419

  18. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  19. 7 CFR 1208.12 - Market or marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1208.12 Section 1208.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1208.12 Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of processed...

  20. Epidemiology in the courtroom: an evidence-based paradigm for the determination of causation in compensation environments.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Donald C

    2010-04-01

    Identify an evidence-based paradigm for the determination of causation of occupational injury and illness litigation. The Westlaw and LexisNexis databases were used to identify legal principles governing the admissibility of scientific evidence in legal proceedings. The Medline database was referenced to identify evidence-based methods for the determination of causation complying with legal precepts for the admissibility of scientific testimony. Expert witness testimony must be relevant and reliable. Testimony must be sufficiently based on reliable facts and data. Testimony must be the product of reliable principles or methods. The witness must have reliably applied the principles and methods to the facts of the case. Conscientious application of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Guide for the Determination of Work-Relatedness of Disease, as adapted, comforts with legal prerequisites for the admissibility of scientific evidence in medicolegal proceedings.