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Sample records for caused mitochondrial injury

  1. Is cell aging caused by respiration-dependent injury to the mitochondrial genome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, J. E.; Yengoyan, L. S.; Miquel, J.; Cottrell, S. F.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    Though intrinsic mitochondrial aging has been considered before as a possible cause of cellular senescence, the mechanisms of such mitochondrial aging have remained obscure. In this article, the hypothesis of free-radical-induced inhibition of mitochondrial replenishment in fixed postmitotic cells is expanded. It is maintained that the respiration-dependent production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals may not be fully counteracted, leading to a continuous production of lipoperoxides and malonaldehyde in actively respiring mitochondria. These compounds, in turn, can easily react with the mitochondrial DNA which is in close spatial relationship with the inner mitochondrial membrane, producing an injury that the mitochondria may be unable to counteract because of their apparent lack of adequate repair mechanisms. Mitochondrial division may thus be inhibited leading to age-related reduction of mitochondrial numbers, a deficit in energy production with a concomitant decrease in protein synthesis, deterioration of physiological performance, and, therefore, of organismic performance.

  2. Preferential mitochondrial DNA injury caused by glucose oxidase as a steady generator of hydrogen peroxide in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Salazar, J J; Van Houten, B

    1997-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is more prone to reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage than nuclear DNA, a continuous flux of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produced with the glucose/glucose oxidase system. Using a horse radish peroxidase (HRPO)-based colorimetric assay to detect H2O2, glucose oxidase (GO; 12 mU/ml) produced 95 microM of H2O2 in 1 h, whereas only 46 microM of hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the presence of SV40-transformed human fibroblasts ( approximately 1 x 10(6). DNA damage was assessed in the mitochondira and three nuclear regions using a quantitative PCR assay. GO (12 mU/ml) resulted in more damage to the mitochondrial DNA (2.250 +/- 0.045 lesions/10 kb) than in any one of three nuclear targets, which included the non-expressed beta-globin locus (0.436 +/- 0.029 lesions/10 kb); and the active DNA polymerase b gene (0.442 +/- 0.037 lesions/10 kb); and the active hprt gene (0.310 +/- 0.025). Damage to the mtDNA occurred within 15 min of GO treatment, whereas nuclear damage did not appear until after 30 min, and reached a maximum after 60 min. Repair of mitochondrial damage after a 15 min GO (6 mU/ml) treatment was examined. Mitochondria repaired 50% of the damage after 1 h, and by 6 h all the damage was repaired. Higher doses of GO-generated H202, or more extended treatment periods, lead to mitochondrial DNA damage which was not repaired. Mitochondrial function was monitored using the MTT (3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A 15 min treatment with 6 mU/ml of GO decreased mitochondrial activity to 80% of the control; the activity recovered completely within 1 h after damage. These data show that GO-generated H202 causes acute damage to mtDNA and function, and demonstrate that this organelle is an important site for the cellular toxicity of ROS.

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  4. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei, E-mail: wshlei@aliyun.com

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} concentration, suppressed themore » expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury. - Highlights: • We study MCU with primary neuron culture. • MCU induces mitochondrial fission. • MCU reverses MIEF1 effect.« less

  6. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  7. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    He, Haiyan; Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070; Huh, Jin

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphinemore » reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine

  8. Spinal cord injury - Symptoms and causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the leading cause of spinal cord injuries, accounting for almost half of new spinal cord injuries ... address these problems if they affect you. Respiratory system. Your injury may make it more difficult to ...

  9. Dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium signaling and superoxide flashes cause mitochondrial genomic DNA damage in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiu-Qiang; Chen, Qian; Wang, Xianhua; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Wang, Yun; Cheng, He-Ping; Guo, Caixia; Sun, Qinmiao; Chen, Quan; Tang, Tie-Shan

    2013-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. Indications of oxidative stress are apparent in brain tissues from both HD patients and HD mouse models; however, the origin of this oxidant stress remains a mystery. Here, we used a yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128) to investigate the potential connections between dysregulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling and mitochondrial oxidative damage in HD cells. We found that YAC128 mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit a strikingly higher level of mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) loading and elevated superoxide generation compared with WT cells, indicating that both mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling and superoxide generation are dysregulated in HD cells. The excessive mitochondrial oxidant stress is critically dependent on mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading in HD cells, because blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake abolished elevated superoxide generation. Similar results were obtained using neurons from HD model mice and fibroblast cells from HD patients. More importantly, mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading in HD cells caused a 2-fold higher level of mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA) damage due to the excessive oxidant generation. This study provides strong evidence to support a new causal link between dysregulated mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling, elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress, and mtDNA damage in HD. Our results also indicate that reducing mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake could be a therapeutic strategy for HD.

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial health and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laura C; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2016-10-18

    Mitochondria are the main source of cellular energy production and are dynamic organelles that undergo biogenesis, remodeling, and degradation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in a number of disease states including acute and chronic central or peripheral nervous system injury by traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), and neurodegenerative disease as well as in metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes and obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is most commonly observed in high energy requiring tissues like the brain and skeletal muscle. In persons with chronic SCI, changes to skeletal muscle may include remarkable atrophy and conversion of muscle fiber type from oxidative to fast glycolytic, combined with increased infiltration of intramuscular adipose tissue. These changes contribute to a proinflammatory environment, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The loss of metabolically active muscle combined with inactivity predisposes individuals with SCI to type II diabetes and obesity. The contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density and electron transport chain activity to the development of the aforementioned comorbidities following SCI is unclear. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics is imperative to designing and testing effective treatments for this growing population. The current editorial will review ways to study mitochondrial function and the importance of improving skeletal muscle mitochondrial health in clinical populations with a special focus on chronic SCI.

  11. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  12. Mitochondrial Approaches to Protect Against Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.; Bienengraeber, Martin; Stowe, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart disease), alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury. PMID:21559063

  13. Fisetin Confers Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activity.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Karthi; Ravindran, Sriram; Kurian, Gino A; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2018-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion is considered an optimal treatment for AMI. Paradoxically, the procedure of reperfusion can itself cause myocardial tissue injury. Therefore, a strategy to minimize the reperfusion-induced myocardial tissue injury is vital for salvaging the healthy myocardium. Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (IRI) using a Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. I/R produced significant myocardial tissue injury, which was characterized by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the perfusate and decreased indices of hemodynamic parameters. Furthermore, I/R resulted in elevated oxidative stress, uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IRI was associated with a loss of the mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, when the animals were pretreated with fisetin, it significantly attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial tissue injury, blunted the oxidative stress, and restored the structure and function of mitochondria. Mechanistically, the fisetin effects were found to be mediated via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3 β ), which was confirmed by a biochemical assay and molecular docking studies.

  14. Mitochondrial tRNA cleavage by tRNA-targeting ribonuclease causes mitochondrial dysfunction observed in mitochondrial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: atetsu@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazutoshi

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • MTS-tagged ribonuclease was translocated successfully to the mitochondrial matrix. • MTS-tagged ribonuclease cleaved mt tRNA and reduced COX activity. • Easy and reproducible method of inducing mt tRNA dysfunction. - Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a genome possessed by mitochondria. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during aerobic respiration in mitochondria, mtDNA is commonly exposed to the risk of DNA damage. Mitochondrial disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and mutations or deletions on mitochondrial tRNA (mt tRNA) genes are often observed in mtDNA of patients with the disease. Hence, the correlation between mt tRNA activity and mitochondrialmore » dysfunction has been assessed. Then, cybrid cells, which are constructed by the fusion of an enucleated cell harboring altered mtDNA with a ρ{sup 0} cell, have long been used for the analysis due to difficulty in mtDNA manipulation. Here, we propose a new method that involves mt tRNA cleavage by a bacterial tRNA-specific ribonuclease. The ribonuclease tagged with a mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS) was successfully translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Additionally, mt tRNA cleavage, which resulted in the decrease of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, was observed.« less

  15. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

  16. Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zhenlong; Di, Wencheng; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Reiter, Russel J; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions of melatonin against IR injury in brain, heart, liver, and others. Finally, we explore several potential future directions of research in this area. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of melatonin in IR injury identified to date and will hopefully aid in the design of future research and increase the potential of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.

  17. Mutations in FBXL4 Cause Mitochondrial Encephalopathy and a Disorder of Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bonnen, Penelope E.; Yarham, John W.; Besse, Arnaud; Wu, Ping; Faqeih, Eissa A.; Al-Asmari, Ali Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad A.M.; Eyaid, Wafaa; Hadeel, Alrukban; He, Langping; Smith, Frances; Yau, Shu; Simcox, Eve M.; Miwa, Satomi; Donti, Taraka; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; Wong, Lee-Jun; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.; Scott, Kenneth L.; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear genetic disorders causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and the molecular etiology remains undiagnosed in the majority of cases. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identified recessive nonsense and splicing mutations in FBXL4 segregating in three unrelated consanguineous kindreds in which affected children present with a fatal encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and severe mtDNA depletion in muscle. We show that FBXL4 is an F-box protein that colocalizes with mitochondria and that loss-of-function and splice mutations in this protein result in a severe respiratory chain deficiency, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and a disturbance of the dynamic mitochondrial network and nucleoid distribution in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Expression of the wild-type FBXL4 transcript in cell lines from two subjects fully rescued the levels of mtDNA copy number, leading to a correction of the mitochondrial biochemical deficit. Together our data demonstrate that mutations in FBXL4 are disease causing and establish FBXL4 as a mitochondrial protein with a possible role in maintaining mtDNA integrity and stability. PMID:23993193

  18. Methyl pyruvate rescues mitochondrial damage caused by SIGMAR1 mutation related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, Hideaki; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Shioda, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease caused by motor neuron degeneration. Recently, a novel SIGMAR1 gene variant (p.E102Q) was discovered in some familial ALS patients. We address mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration caused by the mutation using Neuro2A cells overexpressing σ1R(E102Q), a protein of a SIGMAR1 gene variant (p.E102Q) and evaluate potential amelioration by ATP production via methyl pyruvate (MP) treatment. σ1R(E102Q) overexpression promoted dissociation of the protein from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and cytoplasmic aggregation, which in turn impaired mitochondrial ATP production and proteasome activity. Under ER stress conditions, overexpression of wild-type σ1R suppressed ER stress-induced mitochondrial injury, whereas σ1R(E102Q) overexpression aggravated mitochondrial damage and induced autophagic cell death. Moreover, σ1R(E102Q)-overexpressing cells showed aberrant extra-nuclear localization of the TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), a condition exacerbated by ER stress. Treatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporter inhibitor Ru360 mimicked the effects of σ1R(E102Q) overexpression, indicating that aberrant σ1R-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport likely underlies TDP-43 extra-nuclear localization, segregation in inclusion bodies, and ubiquitination. Finally, enhanced ATP production promoted by methyl pyruvate (MP) treatment rescued proteasome impairment and TDP-43 extra-nuclear localization caused by σ1R(E102Q) overexpression. Our observations suggest that neurodegeneration seen in some forms of ALS are due in part to aberrant mitochondrial ATP production and proteasome activity as well as TDP-43 mislocalization resulting from the SIGMAR1 mutation. ATP supplementation by MP represents a potential therapeutic strategy to treat ALS caused by SIGMAR1 mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Crucial Role of Early Mitochondrial Injury in L-Lysine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Biczó, György; Hegyi, Péter; Dósa, Sándor; Shalbuyeva, Natalia; Berczi, Sándor; Sinervirta, Riitta; Hracskó, Zsuzsanna; Siska, Andrea; Kukor, Zoltán; Jármay, Katalin; Venglovecz, Viktória; Varga, Ilona S.; Iványi, Béla; Alhonen, Leena; Wittmann, Tibor; Gukovskaya, Anna; Takács, Tamás

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Large doses of intraperitoneally injected basic amino acids, L-arginine, or L-ornithine, induce acute pancreatitis in rodents, although the mechanisms mediating pancreatic toxicity remain unknown. Another basic amino acid, L-lysine, was also shown to cause pancreatic acinar cell injury. The aim of the study was to get insight into the mechanisms through which L-lysine damages the rat exocrine pancreas, in particular to characterize the kinetics of L-lysine-induced mitochondrial injury, as well as the pathologic responses (including alteration of antioxidant systems) characteristic of acute pancreatitis. Results We showed that intraperitoneal administration of 2 g/kg L-lysine induced severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. L-lysine administration caused early pancreatic mitochondrial damage that preceded the activation of trypsinogen and the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are commonly thought to play an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis. Our data demonstrate that L-lysine impairs adenosine triphosphate synthase activity of isolated pancreatic, but not liver, mitochondria. Innovation and Conclusion Taken together, early mitochondrial injury caused by large doses of L-lysine may lead to the development of acute pancreatitis independently of pancreatic trypsinogen and NF-κB activation. PMID:21644850

  20. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    PubMed

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Mitochondrial Injury after Cardiac Arrest (COMICA)

    PubMed Central

    Donnino, Michael W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Grossestreur, Anne V.; Cocchi, Michaen N.; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Results Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0 hours. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18 ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16 ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0 hours cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66 ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27 ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher RNAase P (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and B2M (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Conclusions Cytochrome C was increased in post-cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in post-arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. PMID:28126408

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Renal Grafts Against Prolonged Cold Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Specific Mitochondrial Actions.

    PubMed

    Lobb, I; Jiang, J; Lian, D; Liu, W; Haig, A; Saha, M N; Torregrossa, R; Wood, M E; Whiteman, M; Sener, A

    2017-02-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is unavoidably caused by loss and subsequent restoration of blood flow during organ procurement, and prolonged ischemia-reperfusion injury IRI results in increased rates of delayed graft function and early graft loss. The endogenously produced gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), is a novel molecule that mitigates hypoxic tissue injury. The current study investigates the protective mitochondrial effects of H 2 S during in vivo cold storage and subsequent renal transplantation (RTx) and in vitro cold hypoxic renal injury. Donor allografts from Brown Norway rats treated with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution + H 2 S (150 μM NaSH) during prolonged (24-h) cold (4°C) storage exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) decreased acute necrotic/apoptotic injury and significantly (p < 0.05) improved function and recipient Lewis rat survival compared to UW solution alone. Treatment of rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E) with the mitochondrial-targeted H 2 S donor, AP39, during in vitro cold hypoxic injury improved the protective capacity of H 2 S >1000-fold compared to similar levels of the nonspecific H 2 S donor, GYY4137 and also improved syngraft function and survival following prolonged cold storage compared to UW solution. H 2 S treatment mitigates cold IRI-associated renal injury via mitochondrial actions and could represent a novel therapeutic strategy to minimize the detrimental clinical outcomes of prolonged cold IRI during RTx. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Injuries caused by fragmenting rifle ammunition.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jorgen Joakim; Naess, Paal Aksel; Gaarder, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Although penetrating injuries are encountered on a regular basis in high volume trauma centres, most civilian trauma teams will be unfamiliar with the treatment of patients with injuries caused by fragmenting ammunition. The terrorist attacks in Norway on July 22, 2011 included a shooting spree causing 69 deaths and 60 injured. One of the weapons used was a semi-automatic rifle, calibre 5.56mm, with soft tip, short stop ammunition. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristic injury patterns and lessons learned from the treatment of multiple patients admitted at the regional trauma centre with injuries from this type of ammunition. We undertook an observational study of patients admitted at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval after the shooting spree at Utoya on July 22, 2011. Data on demographics, injuries, injury severity, surgical procedures and outcome were collected prospectively. Of the 21 patients admitted after the shooting incident, 18 were identified with injuries caused by fragmenting ammunition and included in the study. Median age was 17 years (IQR 16, 19), median ISS 21 (IQR 12, 30) and 12 patients were female. They had been hit by a total of 38 projectiles, of which 32 were fragmenting bullets. Of the seven patients who sustained injuries to the head, neck and face, one patient required a craniotomy and one patient had a non-survivable head injury. Of the 11 patients with torso injuries, six of the eight patients with chest injuries had intra-thoracic injuries that could be treated with chest tubes only. One patient had cardiac tamponade, requiring thoracotomy. Six patients underwent laparotomy, four of them more than one. Of the 10 patients with extremity injuries, two had nerve injuries and six patients had fractures. Five amputations were performed within the first nine days. A total of 101 operations were required within the first four weeks. The majority of these were repeated soft tissue debridements due to progressive necrosis

  4. SIRT1 activation by curcumin pretreatment attenuates mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Weixun; Lin, Yan; Yi, Wei; Liang, Zhenxing; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ning; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Song; Li, Yue; Chen, Wensheng; Yu, Shiqiang; Yi, Dinghua; Jin, Zhenxiao

    2013-12-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cardiovascular system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a type of histone deacetylase, contributes to IRI. Curcumin (Cur) is a strong natural antioxidant and is the active component in Curcuma longa; Cur has protective effects against IRI and may regulate the activity of SIRT1. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Cur pretreatment on myocardial IRI and to elucidate this potential mechanism. Isolated and in vivo rat hearts and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to IR. Prior to this procedure, the hearts or cardiomyocytes were exposed to Cur in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA. Cur conferred a cardioprotective effect, as shown by improved postischemic cardiac function, decreased myocardial infarct size, decreased myocardial apoptotic index, and several biochemical parameters, including the up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 and the down-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA each blocked the Cur-mediated cardioprotection by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. Cur also resulted in a well-preserved mitochondrial redox potential, significantly elevated mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased formation of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. These observations indicated that the IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was remarkably attenuated. However, this Cur-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that Cur pretreatment attenuates IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of SIRT1 signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Vladimir; Ninković, Srdan; Harhaji, Vladimir; Milankov, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries it is necessary to define risk factors and to analyze the most frequent causes of injuries--that being the aim of this study. The study sample consisted of 451 surgically treated patients, including 400 sportsmen (65% of them being active and 35% recreational sportsmen), 29% female and 71% male; of whom 90% were younger than 35. Sports injuries, as the most frequent cause of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, were recorded in 88% of patients (non-contact ones in 78% and contact ones in 22%), injuries occurring in everyday activities in 11% and in traffic in 1%. Among sportsmen, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was most frequently performed in football players (48%), then in handball players (22%), basketball players (13%), volleyball players (8%), martial arts fighters (4%). However, the injury incidence was the highest among the active basketball players (1 injured among 91 active players). Type of footwear, warming up before the activity, genetic predisposition and everyday therapy did not have a significant influence on getting injured. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened three times more often during matches, in the middle and at the end of a match and training session (79%), at landing after the jump or when changing direction of movement (75%) without a contact with other competitors, on dry surfaces (79%), among not so well prepared sportsmen.

  6. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    PubMed

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  7. Mitochondrial-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: Mitochondrial Biogenesis as a Potential Pharmacological Target

    PubMed Central

    Scholpa, Natalie E.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, which directly reduces the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis and leads to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury after SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy. This review discusses the past and present pharmacological options for the treatment of SCI as well as current research on mitochondria-targeted approaches. Increased antioxidant activity, inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition, alternate energy sources, and manipulation of mitochondrial morphology are among the strategies under investigation. Unfortunately, many of these tactics address single aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately proving largely ineffective. Therefore, this review also examines the unexplored therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, which has the potential to more comprehensively improve mitochondrial function after SCI. PMID:28935700

  8. Mitochondrial-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: Mitochondrial Biogenesis as a Potential Pharmacological Target.

    PubMed

    Scholpa, Natalie E; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, which directly reduces the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis and leads to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury after SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy. This review discusses the past and present pharmacological options for the treatment of SCI as well as current research on mitochondria-targeted approaches. Increased antioxidant activity, inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition, alternate energy sources, and manipulation of mitochondrial morphology are among the strategies under investigation. Unfortunately, many of these tactics address single aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately proving largely ineffective. Therefore, this review also examines the unexplored therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, which has the potential to more comprehensively improve mitochondrial function after SCI. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  9. Occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Ari; Haapiainen, Reijo

    2003-10-01

    Missed diaphragmatic perforation caused by penetrating trauma can lead to subsequent strangulation of a hollow viscus, which has prompted the use of invasive diagnostic procedures to exclude occult diaphragmatic injuries in asymptomatic, high-risk patients. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds of the lower chest and upper abdomen, and to examine the natural history and consequences of missed diaphragmatic injuries. On the basis of patient data from two previous randomized studies from our institution, a retrospective analysis was performed on 97 patients treated for anterior stab wounds located between the nipple line, the umbilical level, and the posterior axillary lines not having indications for immediate surgical exploration. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their initial randomized management (open or laparoscopic exploration vs. expectant observation). In the exploration group (n = 47), four diaphragmatic injuries (9%) were detected (three left-sided and one right-sided). Excluding patients with associated injuries requiring surgical repair, the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries was 3 of 43 (7%). In the observation group (n = 50), there were two patients (4%) with delayed presentation of missed left-sided diaphragmatic injury 2 and 23 months later, respectively. Both injuries resulted from stab wounds of the left flank and presented with herniation of the stomach or small bowel and colon. The overall incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries in left-sided thoracoabdominal stab wounds was 4 of 24 (17%), and was much lower after stab wounds of left epigastrium (0%), right lower chest (0%), and right epigastrium (4%). In asymptomatic patients with anterior or flank stab wounds of the lower chest or upper abdominal area, the risk of an occult diaphragmatic injury is approximately 7% which, if undetected, is associated with a high risk of subsequent

  10. Mechanism of Siglec-8-induced human eosinophil apoptosis: role of caspases and mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Nutku, Esra; Hudson, Sherry A; Bochner, Bruce S

    2005-10-28

    Sialic acid binding immunoglobulin like lectin (Siglec)-8 crosslinking with specific antibodies causes human eosinophil apoptosis. Mechanisms by which Siglec-8 crosslinking induces apoptosis are not known. Peripheral blood eosinophils were examined for caspase, mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement after incubating the cells with anti-Siglec-8 crosslinking Abs or control Abs, in the presence or absence of selective inhibitors. Siglec-8 crosslinking induced rapid cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in eosinophils. Selective caspase-8 and/or caspase-9 inhibitors inhibited this apoptosis. Siglec-8 crosslinking on eosinophils increased dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential upstream of caspase activation. Rotenone and antimycin, inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain components, completely inhibited apoptosis. Additional experiments with an inhibitor of ROS, diphenyleneiodonium, demonstrated that ROS was also essential for Siglec-8-mediated apoptosis and preceded Siglec-8-mediated mitochondrial dissipation. These experiments show that Siglec-8-induced apoptosis occurs through the sequential production of ROS, followed by induction of mitochondrial injury and caspase cleavage.

  11. Cholecystokinin induces caspase activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic acinar cells. Roles in cell injury processes of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gukovskaya, Anna S; Gukovsky, Ilya; Jung, Yoon; Mouria, Michelle; Pandol, Stephen J

    2002-06-21

    Apoptosis and necrosis are critical parameters of pancreatitis, the mechanisms of which remain unknown. Many characteristics of pancreatitis can be studied in vitro in pancreatic acini treated with high doses of cholecystokinin (CCK). We show here that CCK stimulates apoptosis and death signaling pathways in rat pancreatic acinar cells, including caspase activation, cytochrome c release, and mitochondrial depolarization. The mitochondrial dysfunction is mediated by upstream caspases (possibly caspase-8) and, in turn, leads to activation of caspase-3. CCK causes mitochondrial alterations through both permeability transition pore-dependent (cytochrome c release) and permeability transition pore-independent (mitochondrial depolarization) mechanisms. Caspase activation and mitochondrial alterations also occur in untreated pancreatic acinar cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are different. In particular, caspases protect untreated acinar cells from mitochondrial damage. We found that caspases not only mediate apoptosis but also regulate other parameters of CCK-induced acinar cell injury that are characteristic of pancreatitis; in particular, caspases negatively regulate necrosis and trypsin activation in acinar cells. The results suggest that the observed signaling pathways regulate parenchymal cell injury and death in CCK-induced pancreatitis. Protection against necrosis and trypsin activation by caspases can explain why the severity of pancreatitis in experimental models correlates inversely with the extent of apoptosis.

  12. MitoTEMPO Prevents Oxalate Induced Injury in NRK-52E Cells via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Modulating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major risks for urolithiasis, hyperoxaluria can be caused by genetic defect or dietary intake. And high oxalate induced renal epithelial cells injury is related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether MitoTEMPO, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, could protect against oxalate mediated injury in NRK-52E cells via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating oxidative stress. MitoSOX Red was used to determine mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and quantification of ATP synthesis were measured to evaluate mitochondrial function. The protein expression of Nox4, Nox2, and p22 was also detected to explore the effect of oxalate and MitoTEMPO on NADPH oxidase. Our results revealed that pretreatment with MitoTEMPO significantly inhibited oxalate induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) release and decreased oxalate induced mtROS generation. Further, MitoTEMPO pretreatment restored disruption of Δψm and decreased ATP synthesis mediated by oxalate. In addition, MitoTEMPO altered the protein expression of Nox4 and p22 and decreased the protein expression of IL-6 and osteopontin (OPN) induced by oxalate. We concluded that MitoTEMPO may be a new candidate to protect against oxalate induced kidney injury as well as urolithiasis. PMID:28116040

  13. Mitochondrial Causes of Epilepsy: Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Steele, Hannah E; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are frequently associated with seizures. In this review, the authors discuss the seizure patterns and distinguishing features of mitochondrial epilepsy, alongside the indications for investigating, and how to investigate epilepsy from a mitochondrial perspective. Finally, they discuss management strategies for this complex group of patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  15. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A.; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. PMID:26159696

  16. Parkin regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial function to protect against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica A; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Yifeng; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic liver disease claims two million lives per year. We previously reported that autophagy protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis by removing damaged mitochondria. However, the mechanisms for removal of these mitochondria are unknown. Parkin is an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase that is recruited to damaged mitochondria to initiate ubiquitination of mitochondrial outer membrane proteins and subsequent mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In addition to its role in mitophagy, Parkin has been shown to have other roles in maintaining mitochondrial function. We investigated whether Parkin protected against alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis using wild-type (WT) and Parkin knockout (KO) mice treated with alcohol by the acute-binge and Gao-binge (chronic plus acute-binge) models. We found that Parkin protected against liver injury in both alcohol models, likely because of Parkin's role in maintaining a population of healthy mitochondria. Alcohol caused greater mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in Parkin KO livers compared with WT livers. After alcohol treatment, Parkin KO mice had severely swollen and damaged mitochondria that lacked cristae, which were not seen in WT mice. Furthermore, Parkin KO mice had decreased mitophagy, β-oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and cytochrome c oxidase activity after acute alcohol treatment compared with WT mice. Interestingly, liver mitochondria seemed able to adapt to alcohol treatment, but Parkin KO mouse liver mitochondria had less capacity to adapt to Gao-binge treatment compared with WT mouse liver mitochondria. Overall, our findings indicate that Parkin is an important mediator of protection against alcohol-induced mitochondrial damage, steatosis, and liver injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Kelly A; Chapey, Kristen S; Nanescu, Sonia E; Huang, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-08

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase ( Gamt ) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt -deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  18. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nanescu, Sonia E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase (Gamt) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt-deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  19. Disrupting mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis causes tumor-selective TRAIL sensitization through mitochondrial network abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yohei; Takata, Natsuhiko; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has emerged as a promising anticancer agent with high tumor-selective cytotoxicity. The congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer types including malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma impede the current TRAIL therapy of these cancers. Since fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ level is essential for cell function and survival, Ca2+ dynamics could be a promising target for cancer treatment. Recently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial Ca2+ removal increased TRAIL efficacy toward malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma cells. Here we report that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload leads to tumor-selective sensitization to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Treatment with the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor CGP-37157 and oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor antimycin A and FCCP resulted in a rapid and persistent mitochondrial Ca2+ rise. These agents also increased TRAIL sensitivity in a tumor-selective manner with a switching from apoptosis to a nonapoptotic cell death. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload led to increased mitochondrial fragmentation, while mitochondrial Ca2+ removal resulted in mitochondrial hyperfusion. Regardless of their reciprocal actions on the mitochondrial dynamics, both interventions commonly exacerbated TRAIL-induced mitochondrial network abnormalities. These results expand our previous study and suggest that an appropriate level of mitochondrial Ca2+ is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial dynamics and the survival of these cells. Thus, disturbing mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis may serve as a promising approach to overcome the TRAIL resistance of these cancers with minimally compromising the tumor-selectivity.

  20. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin's cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Hayman, John

    2014-01-08

    Charles Darwin (CD), "father of modern biology," suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD. A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD's complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs), known to cause CVS, described in the literature. Organ tissues involved in CD's disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy. CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress, and that only few symptoms could not be explained by a MID.

  1. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates sepsis-induced injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in liver via AMPK-mediated autophagy flux.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Yang, Lei; Peng, Yue; Wang, Qianlu; Gao, Min; Yang, Mingshi; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2017-08-31

    Sepsis-led mitochondrial dysfunction has become a critical pathophysiological procedure in sepsis. Since ginsenosides have been applied in the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction, ginsenoside Rg3 was employed to study its effects on the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sepsis. The apoptosis rate, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pools, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined in LPS-induced sepsis hepatocytes treated with different concentrations of Rg3. Then, the protein expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis related transcription factors, autophagy-related proteins, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway related proteins were determined by Western blotting in both in vitro and in vivo sepsis models. Rg3 shows functions of promotion of OCR, attenuation of ROS, and maintenance of GSH pools, and its conjugating activity in the in vitro sepsis models. Rg3-treated cells were observed to have a higher MTP value compared with the LPS only induced cells. Moreover, Rg3 treatment can inhibit mitochondrial dysfunction via increasing the protein expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis related transcription factors. Rg3 treatment has the function of inhibitor of apoptosis of human primary hepatocytes, and Rg3 can up-regulate the autophagy-related proteins and activate AMPK signal pathway in sepsis models. Meanwhile, the mitochondrial protective function exerted by Rg3 decreased after the autophagy inhibitors or AMPK inhibitor treatment in LPS-induced human primary hepatocytes. Rg3 can improve mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating autophagy in mitochondria via activating the AMPK signal pathway, thus protecting cell and organ injuries caused by sepsis. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Mitochondrial PKC-ε deficiency promotes I/R-mediated myocardial injury via GSK3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Gang; Cheng, Yong; Wu, Ting; Wu, Bing; Zhang, You-En

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial fission is critically involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which has been considered as one of the leading causes of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. In our previous works, we demonstrate that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) deficiency aggravates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ALDH2 deficiency promotes mitochondrial injury and cardiomyocyte death in response to I/R stress and the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by aortic cross-clamping for 45 min. followed by unclamping for 24 hrs in ALDH2 knockout (ALDH2 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice. Then myocardial infarct size, cell apoptosis and cardiac function were examined. The protein kinase C (PKC) isoform expressions and their mitochondrial translocation, the activity of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), caspase9 and caspase3 were determined by Western blot. The effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or PKC-δ shRNA treatment on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were also detected. The results showed that ALDH2 -/- mice exhibited increased myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced levels of cleaved caspase9, caspase3 and phosphorylated Drp1. Mitochondrial PKC-ε translocation was lower in ALDH2 -/- mice than in WT mice, and PKC-δ was the opposite. Further data showed that mitochondrial PKC isoform ratio was regulated by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which could be reversed by NAC pre-treatment under I/R injury. In addition, PKC-ε inhibition caused activation of caspase9, caspase3 and Drp1Ser 616 in response to I/R stress. Importantly, expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was lower in ALDH2 -/- mice than in WT mice, and both were increased by NAC pre-treatment. I/R-induced mitochondrial translocation of GSK-3β was inhibited by PKC-δ shRNA or NAC pre-treatment. In addition

  3. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin’s cyclic vomiting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Hayman, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Charles Darwin (CD), “father of modern biology,” suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD’s complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs), known to cause CVS, described in the literature. Results Organ tissues involved in CD’s disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy. Conclusion CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress, and that only few symptoms could not be explained by a MID. PMID:24453499

  4. Mitochondrial JNK activation triggers autophagy and apoptosis and aggravates myocardial injury following ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Qin, Xinghua; Cai, Xiaoqing; Yang, Lu; Xing, Yuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lihua; Tang, Ying; Liu, Jiankang; Zhang, Xing; Gao, Feng

    2015-02-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase that plays a central role in initiating apoptosis in disease conditions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial JNK signaling is partly responsible for ischemic myocardial dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report for the first time that activation of mitochondrial JNK, rather than JNK localization on mitochondria, induces autophagy and apoptosis and aggravates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion induced a dominant increase of mitochondrial JNK phosphorylation, while JNK mitochondrial localization was reduced. Treatment with Tat-SabKIM1, a retro-inverso peptide which blocks JNK interaction with mitochondria, decreased mitochondrial JNK activation without affecting JNK mitochondrial localization following reperfusion. Tat-SabKIM1 treatment reduced Bcl2-regulated autophagy, cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis and myocardial infarct size. Notably, selective inhibition of mitochondrial JNK activation using Tat-SabKIM1 produced a similar infarct size-reducing effect as inhibiting universal JNK activation with JNK inhibitor SP600125. Moreover, insulin-treated animals exhibited significantly dampened mitochondrial JNK activation accompanied by reduced infarct size and diminished autophagy and apoptosis following reperfusion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that mitochondrial JNK activation, rather than JNK mitochondrial localization, induces autophagy and apoptosis and exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Insulin selectively inhibits mitochondrial JNK activation, contributing to insulin cardioprotection against myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Facial Injuries Caused by Power Tools.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiye; Choi, Jin-Hee; Hyun Kim, Oh; Won Kim, Sug

    2016-06-01

    The number of injuries caused by power tools is steadily increasing as more domestic woodwork is undertaken and more power tools are used recreationally. The injuries caused by the different power tools as a consequence of accidents are an issue, because they can lead to substantial costs for patients and the national insurance system. The increase in hand surgery as a consequence of the use of power tools and its economic impact, and the characteristics of the hand injuries caused by power saws have been described. In recent years, the authors have noticed that, in addition to hand injuries, facial injuries caused by power tools commonly present to the emergency room. This study aimed to review the data in relation to facial injuries caused by power saws that were gathered from patients who visited the trauma center at our hospital over the last 4 years, and to analyze the incidence and epidemiology of the facial injuries caused by power saws. The authors found that facial injuries caused by power tools have risen continually. Facial injuries caused by power tools are accidental, and they cause permanent facial disfigurements and functional disabilities. Accidents are almost inevitable in particular workplaces; however, most facial injuries could be avoided by providing sufficient operator training and by tool operators wearing suitable protective devices. The evaluation of the epidemiology and patterns of facial injuries caused by power tools in this study should provide the information required to reduce the number of accidental injuries.

  6. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy Caused by Elevated Reactive Oxygen Species and Impaired Cardiomyocyte Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donghui; Li, Yifei; Heims-Waldron, Danielle; Bezzerides, Vassilios; Guatimosim, Silvia; Guo, Yuxuan; Gu, Fei; Zhou, Pingzhu; Lin, Zhiqiang; Ma, Qing; Liu, Jianming; Wang, Da-Zhi; Pu, William T

    2018-01-05

    Although mitochondrial diseases often cause abnormal myocardial development, the mechanisms by which mitochondria influence heart growth and function are poorly understood. To investigate these disease mechanisms, we studied a genetic model of mitochondrial dysfunction caused by inactivation of Tfam (transcription factor A, mitochondrial), a nuclear-encoded gene that is essential for mitochondrial gene transcription and mitochondrial DNA replication. Tfam inactivation by Nkx2.5 Cre caused mitochondrial dysfunction and embryonic lethal myocardial hypoplasia. Tfam inactivation was accompanied by elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation. Mosaic embryonic Tfam inactivation confirmed that the block to cardiomyocyte proliferation was cell autonomous. Transcriptional profiling by RNA-seq demonstrated the activation of the DNA damage pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of ROS or the DNA damage response pathway restored cardiomyocyte proliferation in cultured fetal cardiomyocytes. Neonatal Tfam inactivation by AAV9-cTnT-Cre caused progressive, lethal dilated cardiomyopathy. Remarkably, postnatal Tfam inactivation and disruption of mitochondrial function did not impair cardiomyocyte maturation. Rather, it elevated ROS production, activated the DNA damage response pathway, and decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation. We identified a transient window during the first postnatal week when inhibition of ROS or the DNA damage response pathway ameliorated the detrimental effect of Tfam inactivation. Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Tfam inactivation induced ROS production, activated the DNA damage response, and caused cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest, ultimately resulting in lethal cardiomyopathy. Normal mitochondrial function was not required for cardiomyocyte maturation. Pharmacological inhibition of ROS or DNA damage response pathways is a potential strategy to prevent cardiac dysfunction caused by some forms of mitochondrial

  7. Activation of mitochondrial calpain and increased cardiac injury: beyond AIF release

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jeremy; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Calpain 1 (CPN1) is a ubiquitous cysteine protease that exists in both cytosol and cardiac mitochondria. Mitochondrial CPN1 (mit-CPN1) is located in the intermembrane space and matrix. Activation of mit-CPN1 within the intermembrane space increases cardiac injury by releasing apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria during ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We asked if activation of mit-CPN1 is involved in mitochondrial injury during IR. MDL-28170 (MDL) was used to inhibit CPN1 in buffer-perfused hearts following 25-min ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. MDL treatment decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into coronary effluent compared with untreated hearts, indicating that inhibition of CPN1 decreases cardiac injury. MDL also prevented the cleavage of spectrin (a substrate of CPN1) in cytosol during IR, supporting that MDL treatment decreased cytosolic calpain activation. In addition, MDL markedly improved calcium retention capacity compared with untreated heart, suggesting that MDL treatment decreases mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition, we found that IR led to decreased complex I activity, whereas inhibition of mit-CPN1 using MDL protected complex I. Pyruvate dehydrogenase content was decreased following IR. However, pyruvate dehydrogenase content was preserved in MDL-treated mitochondria. Taken together, MDL treatment decreased cardiac injury during IR by inhibiting both cytosolic and mit-CPN1. Activation of mit-CPN1 increases cardiac injury during IR by sensitizing mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and impairing mitochondrial metabolism through damage of complex I. PMID:26637561

  8. Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, D P

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. While delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unique to marijuana and nicotine to tobacco, the smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gases and particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lung. Although far fewer marijuana than tobacco cigarettes are generally smoked on a daily basis, the pulmonary consequences of marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater deposition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular marijuana smoking produces a number of long-term pulmonary consequences, including chronic cough and sputum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway inflammation and injury and immunohistochemical evidence of dysregulated growth of respiratory epithelial cells, that may be precursors to lung cancer. The THC in marijuana could contribute to some of these injurious changes through its ability to augment oxidative stress, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibit apoptosis. On the other hand, physiologic, clinical or epidemiologic evidence that marijuana smoking may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory cancer is limited and inconsistent. Habitual use of marijuana is also associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, including impairment in microbial phagocytosis and killing that is associated with defective production of immunostimulatory cytokines and nitric oxide, thereby potentially predisposing to pulmonary infection. In view of the growing interest in medicinal marijuana, further epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the true risks of regular marijuana smoking on respiratory health.

  9. Role of dynamin-related protein 1-mediated mitochondrial fission in resistance of mouse C2C12 myoblasts to heat injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Deuster, Patricia; Chen, Yifan

    2016-12-15

    Understanding how skeletal muscles respond to high temperatures may help develop strategies for improving exercise tolerance and preventing heat injury. Mitochondria regulate cell survival by constantly changing their morphology through fusion and fission in response to environmental stimuli. Little is known about the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in tolerance of skeletal muscle against heat stress. Mild heat acclimation and moderate heat shock appear to have different effects on the mitochondrial morphology and fission protein Drp1 in skeletal muscle cells. Mitochondrial integrity plays a key role in cell survival under heat stress. The regulation of mitochondrial morphology is closely coupled to cell survival during stress. We examined changes in the mitochondrial morphology of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in response to heat acclimation and heat shock exposure. Acclimated cells showed a greater survival rate during heat shock exposure than non-acclimated cells, and were characterized by long interconnected mitochondria and reduced expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) for their mitochondrial fractions. Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to heat shock led to apoptotic death featuring activation of caspase 3/7, release of cytochrome c and loss of cell membrane integrity. Heat shock also caused excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species in C2C12 cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence image analysis revealed translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria from the cytosol in C2C12 cells exposed to heat shock. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 or Drp1 gene silencer reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and increased cell viability during exposure to heat shock. These results suggest that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission may regulate susceptibility to heat-induced apoptosis in muscle cells and that Drp1 may serve as a target for the prevention of heat-related injury

  10. Role of dynamin‐related protein 1‐mediated mitochondrial fission in resistance of mouse C2C12 myoblasts to heat injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianzheng; Deuster, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Key points Understanding how skeletal muscles respond to high temperatures may help develop strategies for improving exercise tolerance and preventing heat injury.Mitochondria regulate cell survival by constantly changing their morphology through fusion and fission in response to environmental stimuli. Little is known about the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in tolerance of skeletal muscle against heat stress.Mild heat acclimation and moderate heat shock appear to have different effects on the mitochondrial morphology and fission protein Drp1 in skeletal muscle cells. Mitochondrial integrity plays a key role in cell survival under heat stress. Abstract The regulation of mitochondrial morphology is closely coupled to cell survival during stress. We examined changes in the mitochondrial morphology of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in response to heat acclimation and heat shock exposure. Acclimated cells showed a greater survival rate during heat shock exposure than non‐acclimated cells, and were characterized by long interconnected mitochondria and reduced expression of dynamin‐related protein 1 (Drp1) for their mitochondrial fractions. Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to heat shock led to apoptotic death featuring activation of caspase 3/7, release of cytochrome c and loss of cell membrane integrity. Heat shock also caused excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species in C2C12 cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence image analysis revealed translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria from the cytosol in C2C12 cells exposed to heat shock. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 or Drp1 gene silencer reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and increased cell viability during exposure to heat shock. These results suggest that Drp1‐dependent mitochondrial fission may regulate susceptibility to heat‐induced apoptosis in muscle cells and that Drp1 may serve as a target for the prevention of

  11. Inhibition of Drp1 attenuates mitochondrial damage and myocardial injury in Coxsackievirus B3 induced myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Zhang, Ming; Yan, Rui

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is closely related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, innate immunity, and energy metabolism, which are all linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. A close nexus between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiovascular disease with mitochondrial dysfunction has been deeply researched, but there is still no relevant report in viral myocarditis. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-linked mitochondrial fission in VMC. Mice were inoculated with the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and treated with mdivi1 (a Drp1 inhibitor). Protein expression of Drp1 was increased in mitochondria while decreased in cytoplasm and accompanied by excessive mitochondrial fission inmore » VMC mice. In addition, midivi1 treatment attenuate inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of the mice, serum Cardiac troponin I (CTnI) and Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) level. Mdivi1 also could improved the survival rate of mice and mitochondrial dysfunction reflected as the up-regulated mitochondrial marker enzymatic activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). At the same time, mdivi1 rescued the body weight loss, myocardial injury and apoptosis of cardiomyocyte. Furthermore, decease in LVEDs and increase in EF and FS were detected by echocardiogram, which indicated the improved myocardial function. Thus, Drp1-linked excessive mitochondrial fission contributed to VMC and midivi1 may be a potential therapeutic approach. - Highlights: • The expression of Drp1 is significantly increased in mitochondria while decreased in cytoplasm in VMC mice. • Drp1-linked excessive mitochondrial fission is involved in VMC. • Midivi1 treatment mitigate the mitochondrial damage, inflammation, apoptosis in VMC mice. • The disturbance of mitochondrial dynamics may be a new therapeutic target for VMC.« less

  12. Self-inflicted injuries are an important cause of penetrating traumatic injuries in Japan.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Suzukawa, Masayuki; Lefor, Alan K

    2016-10-01

    Japan has a low crime rate, but a high suicide rate. The aim of this study is to review the causes of penetrating traumatic injuries in a tertiary care emergency center in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed all admissions for traumatic injuries over a 3-year period, and calculated the proportion of patients with penetrating traumatic injuries. Weapon used, age, gender, Injury Severity Score, cause of injury, and site of injury in all patients with penetrating injuries were reviewed. The proportion of patients with penetrating injuries among patients with all types of traumatic injuries requiring surgical intervention was calculated. Of 1,321 patients admitted over 3 years, 65 patients (5%) suffered from penetrating injuries. Most were stab wounds, with only one gunshot (2%). The most common site of injury was an extremity (48%). The most common cause of penetrating injury was self-inflicted (38%). The abdomen is the most common site injured among self-inflicted injuries. Of patients with all types of traumatic injuries requiring surgical intervention, penetrating injuries accounted for 23%. Penetrating injuries represent 23% of all patients with traumatic injuries who required surgical intervention. Self-inflicted penetrating injuries were most common, supporting the need for preventive services. Acute care surgeons must be familiar with the surgical management of penetrating traumatic injuries, even in a country with a low crime rate.

  13. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025; Ruan, Zheng, E-mail: ruanzheng@ncu.edu.cn

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes thatmore » are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.« less

  14. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  15. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; Lasheen, Noha N; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180-200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD + . Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF- α , and IL1- β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF- α , IL-1 β , and testicular mitochondrial NAD + were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD + , which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone.

  16. Baton twirling: another cause of eye injury.

    PubMed Central

    Fern, A I; Kyle, P; Allan, D

    1987-01-01

    Baton twirling is an increasingly popular sport, with an estimated 5000 participants in Scotland alone. The baton, weighing over 200 g, is spun at high speeds and frequently thrown over 40 feet (12 m) into the air. We report a case of a 17-year-old girl who sustained a serious eye injury after being struck by a baton. The occurrence of eye injury has not been reported in this sport, and we discuss the potential for injury. PMID:3427002

  17. Hepatocellular toxicity of oxalicumone A via oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy human liver cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Si; Yao, Limei; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Li, Weirong

    2018-01-01

    The marine‑derived oxalicumone A (POA) has been demonstrated as a potent anti‑tumor bioactive agent for a variety of human carcinoma, but to the best of our knowledge, remains to be evaluated in healthy liver cells. As many drugs distribute preferentially in the liver, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of POA on apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in L‑02 healthy liver cells. A Cell‑Counting kit‑8 assay demonstrated that POA inhibits the proliferation of L‑02 cells in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Furthermore, POA induced apoptosis by increasing the percentage of cells in early apoptosis and the sub‑G1 cell cycle, along with causing S‑phase arrest in L‑02 cells. Additionally, POA activated caspase 3, increased the protein expression levels of Fas ligand and B‑cell lymphoma X‑associated protein, and decreased the expression of the anti‑apoptotic protein B‑cell lymphoma 2. POA additionally reduced the content of GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase, elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, increased reactive oxygen species production and the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which suggested that POA induced lipid peroxidation injury in L‑02 cells and that oxidative stress serves an important role. Furthermore, POA caused alternations of mitochondrial function, including an abrupt depletion of adenosine triphosphate synthesis, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential in L‑02 cells. These data suggested that POA exerts cytotoxicity, at least in part, by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually apoptosis. Changes in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress by POA may therefore be critical in POA‑induced toxicity in L‑02 cells.

  18. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  19. Causes and Outcomes of Pediatric Injuries Occurring at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Scala, Carla; Gallagher, Susan Scavo; Schneps, Sue E.

    1997-01-01

    Used the National Pediatric Trauma Registry, which collects data on child injuries requiring hospitalization, to examine causes and outcomes of injuries occurring at school. Analysis of 1,558 cases indicated that most injuries were unintentional and occurred among students age 10-14 years. Nearly half occurred in recreational areas. Falls and…

  20. Homozygous YME1L1 mutation causes mitochondriopathy with optic atrophy and mitochondrial network fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Bianca; Wai, Timothy; Hu, Hao; MacVicar, Thomas; Musante, Luciana; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Stenzel, Werner; Gräf, Ralph; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Langer, Thomas; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-08-06

    Mitochondriopathies often present clinically as multisystemic disorders of primarily high-energy consuming organs. Assembly, turnover, and surveillance of mitochondrial proteins are essential for mitochondrial function and a key task of AAA family members of metalloproteases. We identified a homozygous mutation in the nuclear encoded mitochondrial escape 1-like 1 gene YME1L1, member of the AAA protease family, as a cause of a novel mitochondriopathy in a consanguineous pedigree of Saudi Arabian descent. The homozygous missense mutation, located in a highly conserved region in the mitochondrial pre-sequence, inhibits cleavage of YME1L1 by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, which culminates in the rapid degradation of YME1L1 precursor protein. Impaired YME1L1 function causes a proliferation defect and mitochondrial network fragmentation due to abnormal processing of OPA1. Our results identify mutations in YME1L1 as a cause of a mitochondriopathy with optic nerve atrophy highlighting the importance of YME1L1 for mitochondrial functionality in humans.

  1. Homozygous YME1L1 mutation causes mitochondriopathy with optic atrophy and mitochondrial network fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Bianca; Wai, Timothy; Hu, Hao; MacVicar, Thomas; Musante, Luciana; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Stenzel, Werner; Gräf, Ralph; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Langer, Thomas; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondriopathies often present clinically as multisystemic disorders of primarily high-energy consuming organs. Assembly, turnover, and surveillance of mitochondrial proteins are essential for mitochondrial function and a key task of AAA family members of metalloproteases. We identified a homozygous mutation in the nuclear encoded mitochondrial escape 1-like 1 gene YME1L1, member of the AAA protease family, as a cause of a novel mitochondriopathy in a consanguineous pedigree of Saudi Arabian descent. The homozygous missense mutation, located in a highly conserved region in the mitochondrial pre-sequence, inhibits cleavage of YME1L1 by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, which culminates in the rapid degradation of YME1L1 precursor protein. Impaired YME1L1 function causes a proliferation defect and mitochondrial network fragmentation due to abnormal processing of OPA1. Our results identify mutations in YME1L1 as a cause of a mitochondriopathy with optic nerve atrophy highlighting the importance of YME1L1 for mitochondrial functionality in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16078.001 PMID:27495975

  2. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  3. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, W.P.; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan

    2008-03-15

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (> 500 {mu}M) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 {mu}M) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting thatmore » mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca{sup 2+} chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca{sup 2+}-Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury.« less

  4. Dichloroacetate treatment in Leigh syndrome caused by mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, J; Sugita, K; Tanabe, Y; Maemoto, T; Niimi, H

    1997-01-01

    Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) was administered to a 1-year-old female case of Leigh syndrome, who had a T > G point mutation at nt 8993 of mitochondrial DNA. Her biochemical and clinical symptoms improved gradually, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed reduction of the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio, and magnetic resonance imaging showed progressive cerebral atrophy despite the DCA therapy. These results suggest that DCA therapy may not retard the progress of the primary disease in Leigh syndrome, but produced clinical improvement most likely by reducing toxic accumulation of lactate.

  5. Caffeic acid attenuates rat liver reperfusion injury through sirtuin 3-dependent regulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Hu, Bai-He; Sun, Kai; Chang, Xin; Zhao, Xin-Rong; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) plays critical roles in regulating mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, whether Sirt3 is involved in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains elusive. Caffeic acid (CA) is a natural antioxidant derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Whether CA protects against liver I/R injury through regulating Sirt3 and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CA on liver I/R injury, microcirculatory disturbance, and potential mechanisms, particularly focusing on Sirt3-dependent MRC. Liver I/R of male Sprague-Dawley rats was established by occlusion of portal area vessels for 30 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. CA (15 mg/kg/h) was continuously infused via the femoral vein starting 30 min before ischemia. After I/R, Sirt3 expression, and MRC activity decreased, acetylation of NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9 and succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein variant provoked, and the liver microcirculatory disturbance and injury were observed. Treatment with CA attenuated liver injury, inhibited Sirt3 down-expression, and up-regulated MRC activity. CA attenuated rat liver microcirculatory disturbance and oxidative injury through regulation of Sirt3 and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Injuries to children caused by burning rice husk.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, Sherine Subodhini

    2002-02-01

    A case study of injury to the feet of children from Sri Lanka due to burning husk is discussed. The hot husk causes deep burns on the dorsum of the feet and spares the plantar surface. The contractures caused by the burns lead to severe deformity, and are very resistant to treatment. These burn injuries need to be treated early, in specialized centers, to avoid long term complications. Health education of the public plays an important role in the prevention of these injuries.

  7. [Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating].

    PubMed

    Hilgert, R E; Besch, L; Behnke, B; Egbers, H-J

    2004-12-01

    In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue injury by alcohol, high fat, nonalcoholic substances and pathological conditions through post-translational protein modifications

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Akbar, Mohammed; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee; Yoon, Seung Kew; Hardwick, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are critically important in providing cellular energy ATP as well as their involvement in anti-oxidant defense, fat oxidation, intermediary metabolism and cell death processes. It is well-established that mitochondrial functions are suppressed when living cells or organisms are exposed to potentially toxic agents including alcohol, high fat diets, smoking and certain drugs or in many pathophysiological states through increased levels of oxidative/nitrative stress. Under elevated nitroxidative stress, cellular macromolecules proteins, DNA, and lipids can undergo different oxidative modifications, leading to disruption of their normal, sometimes critical, physiological functions. Recent reports also indicated that many mitochondrial proteins are modified via various post-translation modifications (PTMs) and primarily inactivated. Because of the recently-emerging information, in this review, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and roles of five major PTMs (namely oxidation, nitration, phosphorylation, acetylation, and adduct formation with lipid-peroxides, reactive metabolites, or advanced glycation end products) in experimental models of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as well as acute hepatic injury caused by toxic compounds. We also highlight the role of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) in some of these PTM changes. Finally, we discuss translational research opportunities with natural and/or synthetic anti-oxidants, which can prevent or delay the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction, fat accumulation and tissue injury. PMID:25465468

  9. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation triggers inflammatory response and tissue injury associated with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion: therapeutic potential of mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horváth, Bėla; Zsengellėr, Zsuzsanna; Bátkai, Sándor; Cao, Zongxian; Kechrid, Malek; Holovac, Eileen; Erdėlyi, Katalin; Tanchian, Galin; Liaudet, Lucas; Stillman, Isaac E.; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, however its exact role and its spatial-temporal relationship with inflammation are elusive. Herein we explored the spatial-temporal relationship of oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response during the course of hepatic I/R and the possible therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, using a mouse model of segmental hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatic I/R was characterized by early (at 2 hours of reperfusion) mitochondrial injury, decreased complex I activity, increased oxidant generation in the liver or liver mitochondria, and profound hepatocellular injury/dysfunction with acute pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, MIP-1αCCL3, MIP-2/CXCL2) without inflammatory cell infiltration, followed by marked neutrophil infiltration and more pronounced secondary wave of oxidative/nitrative stress in the liver (starting from 6 hours of reperfusion and peaking at 24 hours). Mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants, MitoQ or Mito-CP, dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced liver dysfunction, the early and delayed oxidative and nitrative stress response (HNE/carbonyl adducts, malondialdehyde, 8-OHdG, and 3-nitrotyrosine formation), mitochondrial and histopathological injury/dysfunction, as well as delayed inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death. Mitochondrially generated oxidants play a central role in triggering the deleterious cascade of events associated with hepatic I/R, which may be targeted by novel antioxidants for therapeutic advantage. PMID:22683818

  10. Steatotic livers are susceptible to normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury from mitochondrial Complex-I dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Michael JJ; Premkumar, Rakesh; Hickey, Anthony JR; Jiang, Yannan; Delahunt, Brett; Phillips, Anthony RJ; Bartlett, Adam SJR

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 10-min ischemia/10-min reperfusion) on steatotic liver mitochondrial function after normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 8-wk with either control chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet inducing > 60% mixed steatosis. Three groups (n = 10/group) for each dietary state were tested: (1) the IRI group underwent 60 min partial hepatic ischemia and 4 h reperfusion; (2) the IPC group underwent IPC prior to same standard IRI; and (3) sham underwent the same surgery without IRI or IPC. Hepatic mitochondrial function was analyzed by oxygraphs. Mitochondrial Complex-I, Complex-II enzyme activity, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histological injury were measured. RESULTS: Steatotic-IRI livers had a greater increase in ALT (2476 ± 166 vs 1457 ± 103 IU/L, P < 0.01) and histological injury following IRI compared to the lean liver group. Steatotic-IRI demonstrated lower Complex-I activity at baseline [78.4 ± 2.5 vs 116.4 ± 6.0 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001] and following IRI [28.0 ± 6.2 vs 104.3 ± 12.6 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001]. Steatotic-IRI also demonstrated impaired Complex-I function post-IRI compared to the lean liver IRI group. Complex-II activity was unaffected by hepatic steatosis or IRI. Lean liver mitochondrial function was unchanged following IRI. IPC normalized ALT and histological injury in steatotic livers but had no effect on overall steatotic liver mitochondrial function or individual mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. CONCLUSION: Warm IRI impairs steatotic liver Complex-I activity and function. The protective effects of IPC in steatotic livers may not be mediated through mitochondria. PMID:27217699

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans neuron degeneration and mitochondrial suppression caused by selected environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoyu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2013-01-01

    . elegans exposed to another neuron toxicant Mn2+ at the concentration 50 or 100 mM. We further examined the mitochondrial gene expression and found significant lower level of mitochondrial complex IV subunits COI and COII in C. elegans exposed to rotenone. These results demonstrate that environmental chemicals cause persistent suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial gene expression, and suggest a critical role of modifying mitochondrial biogenesis in toxicants-induced neuron degeneration in C. elegans model. PMID:24380023

  12. Exercise Prevents Cardiac Injury and Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Advanced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with PGC-1α and Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bei, Yihua; Lu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yalong; Cao, Yujie; Chen, Ping; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetics. Exercise has been reported to be effective to protect the heart from cardiac injury during the development of DCM. However, the potential cardioprotective effect of exercise in advanced DCM remains unclear. Seven-week old male C57BL/6 wild-type or db/db mice were either subjected to a running exercise program for 15 weeks or kept sedentary. Cardiac function, myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis were examined for evaluation of cardiac injury. A reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening in db/db mice was significantly reversed by exercise training. DCM induced remarkable cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 at the protein level. Meanwhile, DCM caused slightly myocardial fibrosis with elevated mRNA levels of collagen I and collagen III. Also, DCM resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription, together with reduced mtDNA content and impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure. All of these changes could be abolished by exercise training. Furthermore, DCM-associated inhibition of PGC-1α and Akt signaling was significantly activated by exercise, indicating that exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be responsible for mediating cardioprotective effect of exercise in DCM. Exercise preserves cardiac function, prevents myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and improves mitochondrial biogenesis in the late stage of DCM. Exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be promising therapeutic targets for advanced DCM. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to

  14. Chymase Mediates Injury and Mitochondrial Damage in Cardiomyocytes during Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Litovsky, Silvio H.; Powell, Pamela C.; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F.; Dell'Italia, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  15. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  16. Burn Injuries: Causes, Consequences, Knowledge, Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healer, Cheryl V.; And Others

    This report covers Phase I of the Burn Injury Education Demonstration Project, a four-phased project designed to explore the feasibility of using educational intervention strategies to increase knowledge and appropriate behaviors and attitudes to reduce the number and severity of burns. Phase I involved a comprehensive needs assessment conducted…

  17. Anaerobic and aerobic pathways for salvage of proximal tubules from hypoxia-induced mitochondrial injury

    PubMed Central

    WEINBERG, JOEL M.; VENKATACHALAM, MANJERI A.; ROESER, NANCY F.; SAIKUMAR, POTHANA; DONG, ZHENG; SENTER, RUTH A.; NISSIM, ITZHAK

    2010-01-01

    We have further examined the mechanisms for a severe mitochondrial energetic deficit, deenergization, and impaired respiration in complex I that develop in kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia-reoxygenation, and their prevention and reversal by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) + aspartate. The abnormalities preceded the mitochondrial permeability transition and cytochrome c loss. Anaerobic metabolism of α-KG + aspartate generated ATP and maintained mitochondrial membrane potential. Other citric-acid cycle intermediates that can promote anaerobic metabolism (malate and fumarate) were also effective singly or in combination with α-KG. Succinate, the end product of these anaerobic pathways that can bypass complex I, was not protective when provided only during hypoxia. However, during reoxygenation, succinate also rescued the tubules, and its benefit, like that of α-KG + malate, persisted after the extra substrate was withdrawn. Thus proximal tubules can be salvaged from hypoxia-reoxygenation mitochondrial injury by both anaerobic metabolism of citric-acid cycle intermediates and aerobic metabolism of succinate. These results bear on the understanding of a fundamental mode of mitochondrial dysfunction during tubule injury and on strategies to prevent and reverse it. PMID:11053054

  18. Osthole attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury through mitochondrial biogenesis-independent inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-fei; Li, Liang; Feng, Feng; Yuan, Hua; Gao, Da-kuan; Fu, Luo-an; Fei, Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Osthole, the main bioactive compounds isolated from the traditional Chinese medical herb broad Cnidium monnieri (L.) cusson, has been shown to exert spectrum of pharmacologic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of osthole against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Osthole was administrated at the concentration of 0.1, 1, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) 1 h before spinal cord ischemia. The effects on spinal cord injury were measured by spinal cord water content, infarct volume, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and neurologic assessment. Mitochondria were purified from injured spinal cord tissue to determine mitochondrial function. We found that treatment with osthole (10 and 50 mg/kg) significantly decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume, preserved normal motor neurons, and improved neurologic functions. These protective effects can be also observed even if the treatment was delayed to 4 h after reperfusion. Osthole treatment preserved mitochondrial membrane potential level, reduced reactive oxygen species production, increased adenosine triphosphate generation, and inhibited cytochrome c release in mitochondrial samples. Moreover, osthole increased mitochondria respiratory chain complex activities in spinal cord tissue, with no effect on mitochondrial DNA content and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors. All these findings demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of osthole in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury model and suggest that oshtole-induced neuroprotection was mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis-independent inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of the mitochondrial protein-only ribonuclease P complex causes aberrant tRNA processing and lethality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Mirkovic, Elena; Koutmos, Markos; Cox, Rachel T

    2016-07-27

    Proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA are translated using mitochondrially encoded tRNAs and rRNAs. As with nuclear encoded tRNAs, mitochondrial tRNAs must be processed to become fully functional. The mitochondrial form of ribonuclease P (mt:RNase P) is responsible for 5'-end maturation and is comprised of three proteins; mitochondrial RNase P protein (MRPP) 1 and 2 together with proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP). However, its mechanism and impact on development is not yet known. Using homology searches, we have identified the three proteins composing Drosophila mt:RNase P: Mulder (PRORP), Scully (MRPP2) and Roswell (MRPP1). Here, we show that each protein is essential and localizes with mitochondria. Furthermore, reducing levels of each causes mitochondrial deficits, which appear to be due at least in part to defective mitochondrial tRNA processing. Overexpressing two members of the complex, Mulder and Roswell, is also lethal, and in the case of Mulder, causes abnormal mitochondrial morphology. These data are the first evidence that defective mt:RNase P causes mitochondrial dysfunction, lethality and aberrant mitochondrial tRNA processing in vivo, underscoring its physiological importance. This in vivo mt:RNase P model will advance our understanding of how loss of mitochondrial tRNA processing causes tissue failure, an important aspect of human mitochondrial disease. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Causes of electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers.

    PubMed

    McCann, Michael; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith; Chowdhury, Risana; Welch, Laura

    2003-04-01

    Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the years 1992-1998; and (2) 61 electrical injuries identified between November 1, 1990 and December 31, 1998 from a George Washington University Emergency Department injury surveillance database. Contact with "live" electrical wiring, equipment, and light fixtures was the main cause of electrical deaths and injuries among electrical workers, followed by contact with overhead power lines. Among non-electrical workers, contact with overhead power lines was the major cause of death. Other causes included contact with energized metal objects, machinery, power tools, and portable lights. Arc flash or blast caused 31% of electrical injuries among construction workers, but less than 2% of electrical deaths. Adoption of a lockout/tagout standard for construction, and training for non-electrical workers in basic electrical safety would reduce the risk of electrical deaths and injuries in construction. Further research is needed on ways to prevent electrical deaths and injuries while working "live". Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Structure-activity relationship analysis of mitochondrial toxicity caused by antiviral ribonucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhinan; Kinkade, April; Behera, Ishani; Chaudhuri, Shuvam; Tucker, Kathryn; Dyatkina, Natalia; Rajwanshi, Vivek K; Wang, Guangyi; Jekle, Andreas; Smith, David B; Beigelman, Leo; Symons, Julian A; Deval, Jerome

    2017-07-01

    Recent cases of severe toxicity during clinical trials have been associated with antiviral ribonucleoside analogs (e.g. INX-08189 and balapiravir). Some have hypothesized that the active metabolites of toxic ribonucleoside analogs, the triphosphate forms, inadvertently target human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), thus inhibiting mitochondrial RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Others have proposed that the prodrug moiety released from the ribonucleoside analogs might instead cause toxicity. Here, we report the mitochondrial effects of several clinically relevant and structurally diverse ribonucleoside analogs including NITD-008, T-705 (favipiravir), R1479 (parent nucleoside of balapiravir), PSI-7851 (sofosbuvir), and INX-08189 (BMS-986094). We found that efficient substrates and chain terminators of POLRMT, such as the nucleoside triphosphate forms of R1479, NITD-008, and INX-08189, are likely to cause mitochondrial toxicity in cells, while weaker chain terminators and inhibitors of POLRMT such as T-705 ribonucleoside triphosphate do not elicit strong in vitro mitochondrial effects. Within a fixed 3'-deoxy or 2'-C-methyl ribose scaffold, changing the base moiety of nucleotides did not strongly affect their inhibition constant (K i ) against POLRMT. By swapping the nucleoside and prodrug moieties of PSI-7851 and INX-08189, we demonstrated that the cell-based toxicity of INX-08189 is mainly caused by the nucleoside component of the molecule. Taken together, these results show that diverse 2' or 4' mono-substituted ribonucleoside scaffolds cause mitochondrial toxicity. Given the unpredictable structure-activity relationship of this ribonucleoside liability, we propose a rapid and systematic in vitro screen combining cell-based and biochemical assays to identify the early potential for mitochondrial toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Spinal cord injuries caused by aviation accidents].

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Ohry, A; Zeilig, G; Gur, S

    1992-05-15

    During the past 15 years fewer than 1% of those treated in the National Spinal Cord Injury Center were injured as a result of aviation accidents. In addition to 9 such patients treated at the center since 1973, another 6 were found among the many hundreds receiving ambulatory care in our clinics. 3 patients had survived a helicopter crash, 2 were injured while ejecting from combat aircraft, 3 were injured in crashes of light aircraft, 1 fell from a hand glider and 6 were injured in parachute drops. Of the 15 reviewed, 6 use wheelchairs, 3 walk assisted by orthopedic devices, while 6 ambulate freely. Although initial hospitalization was not substantially longer than in other patients with spinal cord injuries, extended ambulatory psychological intervention was necessary.

  4. 'Mitochondrial energy imbalance and lipid peroxidation cause cell death in Friedreich's ataxia'.

    PubMed

    Abeti, R; Parkinson, M H; Hargreaves, I P; Angelova, P R; Sandi, C; Pook, M A; Giunti, P; Abramov, A Y

    2016-05-26

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease. The mutation consists of a GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, which downregulates frataxin, leading to abnormal mitochondrial iron accumulation, which may in turn cause changes in mitochondrial function. Although, many studies of FRDA patients and mouse models have been conducted in the past two decades, the role of frataxin in mitochondrial pathophysiology remains elusive. Are the mitochondrial abnormalities only a side effect of the increased accumulation of reactive iron, generating oxidative stress? Or does the progressive lack of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), induced by reduced frataxin, cause an inhibition of the electron transport chain complexes (CI, II and III) leading to reactive oxygen species escaping from oxidative phosphorylation reactions? To answer these crucial questions, we have characterised the mitochondrial pathophysiology of a group of disease-relevant and readily accessible neurons, cerebellar granule cells, from a validated FRDA mouse model. By using live cell imaging and biochemical techniques we were able to demonstrate that mitochondria are deregulated in neurons from the YG8R FRDA mouse model, causing a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) due to an inhibition of Complex I, which is partially compensated by an overactivation of Complex II. This complex activity imbalance leads to ROS generation in both mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, which results in glutathione depletion and increased lipid peroxidation. Preventing this increase in lipid peroxidation, in neurons, protects against in cell death. This work describes the pathophysiological properties of the mitochondria in neurons from a FRDA mouse model and shows that lipid peroxidation could be an important target for novel therapeutic strategies in FRDA, which still lacks a cure.

  5. [CLAVICLE FRACTURES IN CHILDREN--CIRCUMSTANCES AND CAUSES OF INJURY].

    PubMed

    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  6. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  7. G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 causes uncoupling protein-mediated mitochondrial depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Papkovskaia, Tatiana D.; Chau, Kai-Yin; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Healy, Daniel G.; Nishio, Koji; Staddon, James; Duchen, Michael R.; Hardy, John; Schapira, Anthony H.V.; Cooper, J. Mark

    2012-01-01

    The G2019S leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), clinically and pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Mitochondrial abnormalities are a common feature in PD pathogenesis and we have investigated the impact of G2019S mutant LRRK2 expression on mitochondrial bioenergetics. LRRK2 protein expression was detected in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts at levels higher than those observed in the mouse brain. The presence of G2019S LRRK2 mutation did not influence LRRK2 expression in fibroblasts. However, the expression of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in both fibroblast and neuroblastoma cells was associated with mitochondrial uncoupling. This was characterized by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased oxygen utilization under basal and oligomycin-inhibited conditions. This resulted in a decrease in cellular ATP levels consistent with compromised cellular function. This uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was associated with a cell-specific increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 and 4 expression. Restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential by the UCP inhibitor genipin confirmed the role of UCPs in this mechanism. The G2019S LRRK2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and UCP4 mRNA up-regulation were LRRK2 kinase-dependent, whereas endogenous LRRK2 levels were required for constitutive UCP expression. We propose that normal mitochondrial function was deregulated by the expression of G2019S LRRK2 in a kinase-dependent mechanism that is a modification of the normal LRRK2 function, and this leads to the vulnerability of selected neuronal populations in PD. PMID:22736029

  8. Gene-by-environment interactions that disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis cause neurodegeneration in C. elegans Parkinson's models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanna; Perentis, Rylee J; Caldwell, Guy A; Caldwell, Kim A

    2018-05-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disorder where environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria have a central role in the progression of neurodegeneration in sporadic and/or genetic forms of PD. We previously reported that exposure to a secondary metabolite from the soil bacterium, Streptomyces venezuelae, results in age- and dose-dependent dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human SH-SY5Y neurons. Initial characterization of this environmental factor indicated that neurodegeneration occurs through a combination of oxidative stress, mitochondrial complex I impairment, and proteostatic disruption. Here we present extended evidence to elucidate the interaction between this bacterial metabolite and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of DA neurodegeneration. We demonstrate that it causes a time-dependent increase in mitochondrial fragmentation through concomitant changes in the gene expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion components. In particular, the outer mitochondrial membrane fission and fusion genes, drp-1 (a dynamin-related GTPase) and fzo-1 (a mitofusin homolog), are up- and down-regulated, respectively. Additionally, eat-3, an inner mitochondrial membrane fusion component, an OPA1 homolog, is also down regulated. These changes are associated with a metabolite-induced decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced DA neurodegeneration that is dependent on PINK-1 function. Genetic analysis also indicates an association between the cell death pathway and drp-1 following S. ven exposure. Metabolite-induced neurotoxicity can be suppressed by DA-neuron-specific RNAi knockdown of eat-3. AMPK activation by 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR) ameliorated metabolite- or PINK-1-induced neurotoxicity; however, it enhanced neurotoxicity under normal conditions. These studies underscore the critical role of mitochondrial

  9. Prolonged Fasting Identifies Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction as Consequence Rather Than Cause of Human Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hoeks, Joris; van Herpen, Noud A.; Mensink, Marco; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; van Beurden, Denis; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    causes for the observed reduction in mitochondrial capacity. PMID:20573749

  10. The acylphloroglucinols hyperforin and myrtucommulone A cause mitochondrial dysfunctions in leukemic cells by direct interference with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wiechmann, Katja; Müller, Hans; Fischer, Dagmar; Jauch, Johann; Werz, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The acylphloroglucinols hyperforin (Hypf) and myrtucommulone A (MC A) induce death of cancer cells by triggering the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, accompanied by a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c. However, the upstream targets and mechanisms leading to these mitochondrial events in cancer cells remain elusive. Here we show that Hypf and MC A directly act on mitochondria derived from human leukemic HL-60 cells and thus, disrupt mitochondrial functions. In isolated mitochondria, Hypf and MC A efficiently impaired mitochondrial viability (EC50 = 0.2 and 0.9 µM, respectively), caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (at 0.03 and 0.1 µM, respectively), and suppressed mitochondrial ATP synthesis (IC50 = 0.2 and 0.5 µM, respectively). Consequently, the compounds activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in HL-60 cells, a cellular energy sensor involved in apoptosis of cancer cells. Side by side comparison with the protonophore CCCP and the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin suggest that Hypf and MC A act as protonophores that primarily dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential by direct interaction with the mitochondrial membrane. Together, Hypf and MC A abolish the mitochondrial proton motive force that on one hand impairs mitochondrial viability and on the other cause activation of AMPK due to lowered ATP levels which may further facilitate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

  11. Frozen chips: an unusual cause of severe frostbite injury

    PubMed Central

    Graham, C.; Stevenson, J.

    2000-01-01

    A case of severe frostbite injury to the right foot is presented. This was caused by the inappropriate application of a bag of frozen chips to the foot in an attempt to ease non-specific pain. No specific acute traumatic injury was identified. As the patient was a teacher of physical education, the pain had initially been assumed to originate from a minor musculoskeletal injury. Full recovery ensued after surgical excision of necrotic tissue and split skin grafting. The danger of inappropriate overenthusiastic use of ice packs or other frozen material to treat soft tissue injuries is emphasised. The need for education to prevent similar future injuries is discussed. Key Words: cold injury; frostbite; ice pack; skin; necrosis PMID:11049150

  12. Adenoviral Gene Transfer of Hepatic Stimulator Substance Confers Resistance Against Hepatic Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury by Improving Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) has been suggested to protect liver cells from various toxins. However, the precise role of HSS in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. This study aims to elucidate whether overexpression of HSS could attenuate hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury and its possible mechanisms. Both in vivo hepatic I/R injury in mice and in vitro hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) in a cell model were used to evaluate the effect of HSS protection after adenoviral gene transfer. Moreover, a possible mitochondrial mechanism of HSS protection was investigated. Efficient transfer of the HSS gene into liver inhibited hepatic I/R injury in mice, as evidenced by improvement in liver function tests, the preservation of hepatic morphology, and a reduction in hepatocyte apoptosis. HSS overexpression also inhibited H/R-induced cell death, as detected by cell viability and cell apoptosis assays. The underlying mechanism of this hepatic protection might involve the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis, as shown by the good preservation of mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the inhibition of cytochrome c leakage and caspase activity. Moreover, the suppression of H/R-induced mitochondrial ROS production and the maintenance of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities may participate in this mechanism. This new function of HSS expands the possibility of its application for the prevention of I/R injury, such as hepatic resection and liver transplantation in clinical practice. PMID:23461564

  13. Febuxostat pretreatment attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shulin; Li, Yunpeng; Song, Xudong; Wang, Xianbao; Zhao, Cong; Chen, Aihua; Yang, Pingzhen

    2015-07-02

    Febuxostat is a selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO). XO is a critical source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Inhibition of XO is therapeutically effective in I/R injury. Evidence suggests that febuxostat exerts antioxidant effects by directly scavenging ROS. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of febuxostat on myocardial I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms. We utilized an in vivo mouse model of myocardial I/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. Mice were randomized into five groups: Sham, I/R (I/R + Vehicle), I/R + FEB (I/R + febuxostat), AL + I/R (I/R + allopurinol) and FEB (febuxostat), respectively. The I/R + FEB mice were pretreated with febuxostat (5 mg/kg; i.p.) 24 and 1 h prior to I/R. NRCs received febuxostat (1 and 10 µM) at 24 and 1 h before exposure to hypoxia for 3 h followed by reoxygenation for 3 h. Cardiac function, myocardial infarct size, serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myocardial apoptotic index (AI) were measured in order to ascertain the effects of febuxostat on myocardial I/R injury. Hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R) injury in NRCs was examined using MTT, LDH leakage assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The underlying mechanisms were determined by measuring ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and expression of cytochrome c, cleaved caspases as well as Bcl-2 protein levels. Myocardial I/R led to an elevation in the myocardial infarct size, serum levels of CK and LDH, cell death and AI. Furthermore, I/R reduced cardiac function. These changes were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with febuxostat and allopurinol, especially by febuxostat. Febuxostat also protected the mitochondrial structure following myocardial I/R, inhibited H/R-induced ROS generation, stabilized the

  14. Penehyclidine hydrochloride regulates mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis through p38MAPK and JNK signal pathways and provides cardioprotection in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Wang, Lirui; Chang, Siyuan; Yuan, Pu

    2018-05-31

    The potential mechanism of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis, and MAPKs were involved in the cardioprotective effect of this drug on myocardial I/R injury. Ninety healthy adult male Wistar rats were separately pretreated with normal saline (0.9%); PHC; and signal pathway blockers of MAPKs, Drp1, and Bcl-2. Coronary artery ligation and subsequent reperfusion were performed to induce myocardial I/R injury. Echocardiography was performed. Myocardial enzymes and oxidative stress markers were detected. Myocardial cell apoptotic rates and infarct sizes were measured. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Expression levels of MAPKs, mitochondria regulatory proteins (Drp1, Mfn1/2), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax) were determined. PHC pretreatment improved myocardial abnormalities (dysfunction, injury, infarct size, and apoptotic rate), mitochondrial abnormalities (dysfunction and fission), and excessive oxidative stress and inhibited the activities of p38MAPK and JNK signal pathways in rats with myocardial I/R injury (P < 0.05). Additionally, p38MAPK and JNK blockers (SB239063 and SP600125, respectively) had an effect on rats same as that of PHC. Although Drp1 blocker (Mdivi-1) showed a similar cardioprotective effect (P < 0.05), it did not affect the expression of MAPKs and apoptosis-related proteins (P > 0.05). In addition, Bcl-2 blocker (ABT-737) caused a high expression of Drp1 and a low expression of Mfn1/2 (P < 0.05). PHC regulated mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis through p38MAPK and JNK signal pathways and provided cardioprotection in rats with myocardial I/R injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessedmore » by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS.

  16. Atypical amyoplasia congenita in an infant with Leigh syndrome: a mitochondrial cause of severe contractures?

    PubMed

    Wilnai, Yael; Seaver, Laurie H; Enns, Gregory M

    2012-09-01

    Amyoplasia congenita is a distinct form of arthrogryposis with characteristic features including internally rotated and adducted shoulders, extended elbows, flexion, and ulnar deviation of the wrists, and adducted thumbs. Fetal hypokinesia, secondary to a variety of genetic conditions, neuromuscular disorders, and environmental agents, is associated with contractures. In order to increase our understanding of the phenotypic spectrum associated with SURF 1 deficiency, a common cause of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency and Leigh syndrome, we describe a now 6-year-old boy who presented in the neonatal period with amyoplasia congenita. His development was normal until age 10.5 months, at which time he developed severe hypotonia and choreoathetosis following an episode of viral gastroenteritis. Following the onset of neurological symptoms, he gradually developed severe kyphosis and lower limb contractures. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels were elevated and head imaging showed characteristic features of Leigh syndrome. He was found to harbor two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the SURF 1 gene. In this case, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resultant energy deficiency may have played a role in causing abnormal neuronal development during embryogenesis, causing arthrogryposis. A variety of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies have been associated with contractures of varying severity. Therefore, mitochondrial disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal arthrogryposis, especially if other characteristic findings such as lactic acidemia or basal ganglia abnormalities are present. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mitochondrial tRNAPhe mutation as a cause of end-stage renal disease in childhood

    PubMed Central

    D’Aco, Kristin E; Manno, Megan; Clarke, Colleen; Ganesh, Jaya; Meyers, Kevin EC; Sondheimer, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Background We identified a mitochondrial tRNA mutation (m.586G>A) in a patient with renal failure and symptoms consistent with a mitochondrial cytopathy. This mutation was of unclear significance because there were neither consistent reports of linkage to specific disease phenotypes nor an existing analysis of effects upon mitochondrial function. Case-Diagnosis/Treatment A 16-month-old girl with failure-to-thrive, developmental regression, persistent lactic acidosis, hypotonia, GI dysmotility, adrenal insufficiency and hematologic abnormalities developed hypertension and renal impairment with chronic tubulointerstitial fibrosis, progressing to renal failure with need for peritoneal dialysis. Evaluation of her muscle and blood identified a mutation of the mitochondrial tRNA for phenylalanine, m.586G>A. Conclusions The m.586G>A mutation is pathogenic and is a cause of end-stage renal disease in childhood. The mutation interferes with the stability of tRNAPhe and affects the translation of mitochondrial proteins and the stability of the electron transport chain. PMID:23135609

  18. Plasma Bacterial and Mitochondrial DNA Distinguish Bacterial Sepsis from Sterile SIRS and Quantify Inflammatory Tissue Injury in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. SIRS can cause organ dysfunction and death but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS and post-infective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) reflecting cellular injury. Circulating bacterial 16S-DNA (bDNA) is a pathogen-associated pattern (PAMP) reflecting ongoing infection. We developed qPCR assays to quantify these markers and predicted their plasma levels might help distinguish sterile injury from infection. To study these events in primates we assayed banked serum from papio baboons that had undergone a brief challenge of intravenous Bacillus anthracis deltaSterne (modified to remove toxins) followed by antibiotics (anthrax) that causes organ failure and death. To investigate the progression of sepsis to “severe” sepsis and death we studied animals where anthrax was pretreated with drotrecogin alfa (aPC), which attenuates sepsis in baboons. We also contrasted lethal anthrax bacteremia against non-lethal E.coli bacteremia and against sterile tissue injury from Shiga-like toxin-1 (Stx1). bDNA and mtDNA levels in timed samples were correlated with blood culture results and assays of organ function. Sterile injury by Stx1 increased mtDNA but bDNA was undetectable: consistent with the absence of infection. The bacterial challenges caused parallel early bDNA and mtDNA increases, but bDNA detected pathogens even after bacteria were undetectable by culture. Sub-lethal E.coli challenge only caused transient rises in mtDNA consistent with a self-limited injury. In lethal anthrax challenge (n=4) bDNA increased transiently but mtDNA levels remained elevated until death

  19. Athletes' perception of the causes of injury in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Edvard; Pavletič, Mitija S; Smrdu, Maja; Atiković, Almir

    2017-05-01

    Gymnastics requires a high level of flexibility, conditioning and complete body recruitment that is infrequently matched by other sports. Artistic gymnastics has a relatively high incidence of injuries, which are generally of minor or medium severity. With all its complexity, it poses a unique diagnostic and treatment challenge to medical practitioners. The present study examined athletes' perception of the causes of injury and of the possible ways to reduce their incidence. The research involved 63 quality athletes, of whom 20 were in men's artistic gymnastics, 21 in women's artistic gymnastics, and 22 in rhythmic gymnastics. We used the self-assessment method. Factors inducing injury were grouped into three different categories: training, the athlete himself, and the environment. We used the χ2 test to test the association between a risk factor and injuries. The association between injuries and risk factors was also tested using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall, an incidence of 184 injuries was found, of which 67 (36.4%) were acute and 117 (63.5%) were chronic injuries. According to binary logistic regression analyses, psychological factors significantly associated with the prevalence of acute and chronic injury in both sexes for all disciplines were: a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load. In our study, higher rates of acute and chronic injury were observed among male gymnasts, who reported their occurrence during training by overload, and among female gymnasts, who reported a poor technique, improper methods of teaching, and an inadequate load as main causes of their occurrence. Improving the communication between athletes and coaches, taking the opinion of an athlete into account, and the athlete's active involvement in preparation of the program include the most crucial points for reducing the incidence of injuries.

  20. Saw injuries causing phalangeal neck fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2012-07-01

    The outcome of adult phalangeal neck fractures caused by saws has not been previously investigated. Over a 15-year period, a total of 36 cases of saw-related injuries resulting in phalangeal neck fractures of the middle phalanx of the finger or the proximal phalanx of the thumb were treated. All injuries were industrial and covered by insurance. They were all adult males with type II fractures. The fracture were managed by K-wire fixation, immobilizing the distal joint only. The proximal joints were mobilized immediately after surgery and the K-wire was removed after 5 weeks. The following 2 patterns of saw injuries were observed: dorsal impact injuries resulting in a phalangeal neck fracture and concurrent extensor tendon injury (group I, n = 20 patients), and dorsolateral impact injuries resulting in concurrent extensor (± partial flexor) tendon and nerve injury (group II, n = 16 patients). The outcome with respect to range of motion and return to work was significantly better in the former group. Major complications such as nonunion, malunion, avascular necrosis of the phalangeal head, osteomyelitis, or contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints were not observed. Two patients (1 in each group) had superficial pin-site infection. It was concluded that adult phalangeal neck fractures caused by saws is a separate entity from the previously reported series of closed phalangeal neck fractures in adults.

  1. The management of hand injuries caused by sea urchin spines.

    PubMed

    Nassab, R; Rayatt, S; Peart, F

    2005-08-01

    Injuries to the hand by sea urchin spines are not commonly seen in the United Kingdom. There are many varieties of sea urchins (Echinoidea) throughout the world. They have a spherical calcium carbonate exoskeleton covered with spines. Certain varieties may be venomous, in particular the flower urchin (Toxopneustes pileolus) found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. Injury may also be caused by the urchin spines or pedicellaria (delicate seizing organs equipped with jaws). A small number of hand injuries associated with sea urchin spines have been reported in the literature.

  2. Liability for Personal Injury Caused by Defective Medical Computer Programs

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent M.

    1980-01-01

    Defective medical computer programs can cause personal injury. Financial responsibility for the injury under tort law will turn on several factors: whether the program is a product or a service, what types of defect exist in the product, and who produced the program. The factors involved in making these decisions are complex, but knowledge of the relevant issues can assist computer personnel in avoiding liability.

  3. Riboflavin transporter deficiency mimicking mitochondrial myopathy caused by complex II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Graeme A M; Ejaz, Resham; Cordeiro, Dawn; Kannu, Peter; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet

    2018-02-01

    Biallelic likely pathogenic variants in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 cause riboflavin transporter deficiency. It is characterized by muscle weakness, ataxia, progressive ponto-bulbar palsy, amyotrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss. Oral riboflavin halts disease progression and may reverse symptoms. We report two new patients whose clinical and biochemical features were mimicking mitochondrial myopathy. Patient 1 is an 8-year-old male with global developmental delay, axial and appendicular hypotonia, ataxia, and sensorineural hearing loss. His muscle biopsy showed complex II deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SLC52A2 (c.917G>A; p.Gly306Glu). Patient 2 is a 14-month-old boy with global developmental delay, respiratory insufficiency requiring ventilator support within the first year of life. His muscle biopsy revealed combined complex II + III deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SCL52A3 (c.1223G>A; p.Gly408Asp). We report two new patients with riboflavin transporter deficiency, caused by mutations in two different riboflavin transporter genes. Both patients presented with complex II deficiency. This treatable neurometabolic disorder can mimic mitochondrial myopathy. In patients with complex II deficiency, riboflavin transporter deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis to allow early treatment and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ubiquinol treatment for TBI in male rats: Effects on mitochondrial integrity, injury severity, and neurometabolism.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Janet D; Gupte, Raeesa; Thimmesch, Amanda; Shen, Qiuhua; Hiebert, John B; Brooks, William M; Clancy, Richard L; Diaz, Francisco J; Harris, Janna L

    2018-06-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is significant secondary damage to cerebral tissue from increased free radicals and impaired mitochondrial function. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defenses is termed oxidative stress. Often there are insufficient antioxidants to scavenge ROS, leading to alterations in cerebral structure and function. Attenuating oxidative stress following a TBI by administering an antioxidant may decrease secondary brain injury, and currently many drugs and supplements are being investigated. We explored an over-the-counter supplement called ubiquinol (reduced form of coenzyme Q10), a potent antioxidant naturally produced in brain mitochondria. We administered intra-arterial ubiquinol to rats to determine if it would reduce mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and severity of a contusive TBI. Adult male F344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) Saline-TBI, (2) ubiquinol 30 minutes before TBI (UB-PreTBI), or (3) ubiquinol 30 minutes after TBI (UB-PostTBI). We found when ubiquinol was administered before or after TBI, rats had an acute reduction in brain mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and two serum biomarkers of TBI severity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). However, in vivo neurometabolic assessment with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy did not show attenuated injury-induced changes. These findings are the first to show that ubiquinol preserves mitochondria and reduces cellular injury severity after TBI, and support further study of ubiquinol as a promising adjunct therapy for TBI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The targeted anti-oxidant MitoQ causes mitochondrial swelling and depolarization in kidney tissue.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Esther M; Duss, Michael; Bugarski, Milica; Haenni, Dominik; Schuh, Claus D; Landau, Ehud M; Hall, Andrew M

    2018-04-01

    Kidney proximal tubules (PTs) contain a high density of mitochondria, which are required to generate ATP to power solute transport. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous kidney diseases. Damaged mitochondria are thought to produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to oxidative stress and activation of cell death pathways. MitoQ is a mitochondrial targeted anti-oxidant that has shown promise in preclinical models of renal diseases. However, recent studies in nonkidney cells have suggested that MitoQ might also have adverse effects. Here, using a live imaging approach, and both in vitro and ex vivo models, we show that MitoQ induces rapid swelling and depolarization of mitochondria in PT cells, but these effects were not observed with SS-31, another targeted anti-oxidant. MitoQ consists of a lipophilic cation (Tetraphenylphosphonium [TPP]) joined to an anti-oxidant component (quinone) by a 10-carbon alkyl chain, which is thought to insert into the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). We found that mitochondrial swelling and depolarization was also induced by dodecyltriphenylphosphomium (DTPP), which consists of TPP and the alkyl chain, but not by TPP alone. Surprisingly, MitoQ-induced mitochondrial swelling occurred in the absence of a decrease in oxygen consumption rate. We also found that DTPP directly increased the permeability of artificial liposomes with a cardiolipin content similar to that of the IMM. In summary, MitoQ causes mitochondrial swelling and depolarization in PT cells by a mechanism unrelated to anti-oxidant activity, most likely because of increased IMM permeability due to insertion of the alkyl chain. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patrick R; Gawryluk, Jeremy W; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals live longer but experience a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells lead to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat(1-72)-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND.

  7. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  8. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For themore » in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.« less

  9. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function and Glutamatergic System Are the Target of Guanosine Effect in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Dobrachinski, Fernando; da Rosa Gerbatin, Rogério; Sartori, Gláubia; Ferreira Marques, Naiani; Zemolin, Ana Paula; Almeida Silva, Luiz Fernando; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Freire Royes, Luiz Fernando; Rechia Fighera, Michele; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly complex multi-factorial disorder. Experimental trauma involves primary and secondary injury cascades that underlie delayed neuronal dysfunction and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamatergic excitotoxicity are the hallmark mechanisms of damage. Accordingly, a successful pharmacological intervention requires a multi-faceted approach. Guanosine (GUO) is known for its neuromodulator effects in various models of brain pathology, specifically those that involve the glutamatergic system. The aim of the study was to investigate the GUO effects against mitochondrial damage in hippocampus and cortex of rats subjected to TBI, as well as the relationship of this effect with the glutamatergic system. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a unilateral moderate fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) and treated 15 min later with GUO (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline 0.9%). Analyses were performed in hippocampus and cortex 3 h post-trauma and revealed significant mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by a disrupted membrane potential, unbalanced redox system, decreased mitochondrial viability, and complex I inhibition. Further, disruption of Ca 2+ homeostasis and increased mitochondrial swelling was also noted. Our results showed that mitochondrial dysfunction contributed to decreased glutamate uptake and levels of glial glutamate transporters (glutamate transporter 1 and glutamate aspartate transporter), which leads to excitotoxicity. GUO treatment ameliorated mitochondrial damage and glutamatergic dyshomeostasis. Thus, GUO might provide a new efficacious strategy for the treatment acute physiological alterations secondary to TBI.

  10. Effects of compression injury on brain mitochondrial and tissue viability evaluated by a multiparametric monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Bachbut, Galit; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2008-02-01

    Neurosurgical procedures involve brain compression created by retractors. Although it is clear that retractors are causing damage to the brain tissue, the pathophysiology of the retraction was not investigated in details. In the present study we used the multiparametric monitoring approach for real time evaluation of mitochondrial function, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical activities monitored contralaterally to the retractor placement on the brain. The aims of the study were to test the effects of retractor size and severity of the compression on the degree of damage to the cerebral tissue. A special probe was lowered towards the cerebral cortex, (2mm and 4mm in depth) using a micromanipulator. Compression lasted for 30 minutes, than the retractor was elevated back to its initial position and monitoring continued for two hours. Additionally, two sizes of retractors were used 6mm and 3mm in diameter, the 3mm retractor included an intracranial pressure (ICP) probe. The results show that the combination of a large retractor with the depth of 4mm yielded high mortality rate (62%) of the rats while the use of a smaller retractor decreased significantly the percentage of mortality. Also, compression to the depth of 4mm increased tissue injury as compared to 2mm depth. In conclusion, the present study raises the importance and significance of multiparametric monitoring, and not only ICP and cerebral blood flow of the areas nearby the retractor position and not only the retraction site, as well as the effect of the retractor size on the damage induced to the cerebral tissue.

  11. Defective mitochondrial rRNA methyltransferase MRM2 causes MELAS-like clinical syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Caterina; D’Souza, Aaron R; Dallabona, Cristina; Lodi, Tiziana; Rebelo-Guiomar, Pedro; Rorbach, Joanna; Donati, Maria Alice; Procopio, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Guerrini, Renzo; Zeviani, Massimo; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; DiMauro, Salvatore; Ferrero, Ileana; Minczuk, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Defects in nuclear-encoded proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery cause early-onset and tissue-specific deficiency of one or more OXPHOS complexes. Here, we report a 7-year-old Italian boy with childhood-onset rapidly progressive encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes. Multiple OXPHOS defects and decreased mtDNA copy number (40%) were detected in muscle homogenate. Clinical features combined with low level of plasma citrulline were highly suggestive of mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, however, the common m.3243 A > G mutation was excluded. Targeted exome sequencing of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteome identified a damaging mutation, c.567 G > A, affecting a highly conserved amino acid residue (p.Gly189Arg) of the MRM2 protein. MRM2 has never before been linked to a human disease and encodes an enzyme responsible for 2’-O-methyl modification at position U1369 in the human mitochondrial 16S rRNA. We generated a knockout yeast model for the orthologous gene that showed a defect in respiration and the reduction of the 2’-O-methyl modification at the equivalent position (U2791) in the yeast mitochondrial 21S rRNA. Complementation with the mrm2 allele carrying the equivalent yeast mutation failed to rescue the respiratory phenotype, which was instead completely rescued by expressing the wild-type allele. Our findings establish that defective MRM2 causes a MELAS-like phenotype, and suggests the genetic screening of the MRM2 gene in patients with a m.3243 A > G negative MELAS-like presentation. PMID:28973171

  12. Defective mitochondrial rRNA methyltransferase MRM2 causes MELAS-like clinical syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garone, Caterina; D'Souza, Aaron R; Dallabona, Cristina; Lodi, Tiziana; Rebelo-Guiomar, Pedro; Rorbach, Joanna; Donati, Maria Alice; Procopio, Elena; Montomoli, Martino; Guerrini, Renzo; Zeviani, Massimo; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; DiMauro, Salvatore; Ferrero, Ileana; Minczuk, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Defects in nuclear-encoded proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery cause early-onset and tissue-specific deficiency of one or more OXPHOS complexes. Here, we report a 7-year-old Italian boy with childhood-onset rapidly progressive encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes. Multiple OXPHOS defects and decreased mtDNA copy number (40%) were detected in muscle homogenate. Clinical features combined with low level of plasma citrulline were highly suggestive of mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, however, the common m.3243 A > G mutation was excluded. Targeted exome sequencing of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteome identified a damaging mutation, c.567 G > A, affecting a highly conserved amino acid residue (p.Gly189Arg) of the MRM2 protein. MRM2 has never before been linked to a human disease and encodes an enzyme responsible for 2'-O-methyl modification at position U1369 in the human mitochondrial 16S rRNA. We generated a knockout yeast model for the orthologous gene that showed a defect in respiration and the reduction of the 2'-O-methyl modification at the equivalent position (U2791) in the yeast mitochondrial 21S rRNA. Complementation with the mrm2 allele carrying the equivalent yeast mutation failed to rescue the respiratory phenotype, which was instead completely rescued by expressing the wild-type allele. Our findings establish that defective MRM2 causes a MELAS-like phenotype, and suggests the genetic screening of the MRM2 gene in patients with a m.3243 A > G negative MELAS-like presentation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Contribution of dopamine to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and dopaminergic deficits caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Barros-Miñones, L; Goñi-Allo, B; Suquia, V; Beitia, G; Aguirre, N; Puerta, E

    2015-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by oxidative stress probably due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. In this study we investigated the contribution of dopamine (DA) to such effects. For this, we modulated the dopaminergic system of mice at the synthesis, uptake or metabolism levels. Striatal mitochondrial complex I activity was decreased 1 h after MDMA; an effect not observed in the striatum of DA depleted mice or in the hippocampus, a dopamine spare region. The DA precursor, L-dopa, caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity by itself and exacerbated the dopaminergic deficits when combined with systemic MDMA. By contrast, no damage was observed when L-dopa was combined with intrastriatal injections of MDMA. On the other hand, dopamine uptake blockade using GBR 12909, inhibited both, the acute inhibition of complex I activity and the long-term dopaminergic toxicity caused by MDMA. Moreover, the inhibition of DA metabolism with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, pargyline, afforded a significant protection against MDMA-induced complex I inhibition and neurotoxicity. Taken together, these findings point to the formation of hydrogen peroxide subsequent to DA metabolism by MAO, rather than a direct DA-mediated mitochondrial complex I inhibition, and the contribution of a peripheral metabolite of MDMA, as the key steps in the chain of biochemical events leading to DA neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  15. Lowered iPLA2γ activity causes increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in a rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Fu, Xian; Xu, Xiupeng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Lin, Chao; Li, Zheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-02-01

    iPLA 2 γ, calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 γ, discerningly hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to liberate free fatty acids. iPLA 2 γ-deficiency has been associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. More importantly, the iPLA 2 family is causative proteins in mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorders such as parkinsonian disorders. However, the mechanisms by which iPLA 2 γ affects Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unknown. Mitochondrion stress has a key part in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration. The present evaluation revealed that lowered iPLA 2 γ function provokes the parkinsonian phenotype and leads to the reduction of dopamine and its metabolites, lowered survival, locomotor deficiencies, and organismal hypersensitivity to rotenone-induced oxidative stress. In addition, lowered iPLA 2 γ function escalated the amount of mitochondrial irregularities, including mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) regeneration, reduced ATP synthesis, reduced glutathione levels, and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Further, lowered iPLA 2 γ function was tightly linked with strengthened lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane flaws following rotenone treatment, which can cause cytochrome c release and eventually apoptosis. These results confirmed the important role of iPLA 2 γ, whereby decreasing iPLA 2 γ activity aggravates mitochondrial degeneration to induce neurodegenerative disorders in a rotenone rat model of Parkinson's disease. These findings may be useful in the design of rational approaches for the prevention and treatment of PD-associated symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism study on mitochondrial fragmentation under oxidative stress caused by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengnan; Zhou, Feifan; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo continual fusion and fission to maintain their morphology and functions, but the mechanism involved is still not clear. Here, we investigated the effect of mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) on mitochondrial dynamics in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1). Upon HF-LPLI-triggered oxidative stress, mitochondria displayed a fragmented structure, which was abolished by exposure to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, indicating that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial translocation of the profission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was observed following HF-LPLI, demonstrating apoptosis-related activation of Drp1. Notably, DHA pre-treatment prevented HF-LPLI-induced Drp1 activation. We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress through activation of Drp1 causes mitochondrial fragmentation.

  18. Physiological and environmental causes of freezing injury in red spruce

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes

    2000-01-01

    For many, concerns about the implications of "environmental change" conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (

  19. An Epidemiological Perspective on the Cause of Running Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Case reports do not consider the population which is injured and therefore are inappropriate for finding causal relationships. A review of three epidemiological studies, which take the population into account, showed that the only reasonably well-established cause of running injuries is the number of miles run per week. (Author/MT)

  20. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Rivero, Juan M.; Villanueva-Paz, Marina; de la Cruz-Ojeda, Patricia; de la Mata, Mario; Cotán, David; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de Lavera, Isabel; Álvarez-Córdoba, Mónica; Luzón-Hidalgo, Raquel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are very versatile organelles in continuous fusion and fission processes in response to various cellular signals. Mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial fission/fusion, movements and turnover, are essential for the mitochondrial network quality control. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics can cause neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in which mitochondrial fusion and transport are impaired, or dominant optic atrophy which is caused by a reduced mitochondrial fusion. On the other hand, mitochondrial dysfunction in primary mitochondrial diseases promotes reactive oxygen species production that impairs its own function and dynamics, causing a continuous vicious cycle that aggravates the pathological phenotype. Mitochondrial dynamics provides a new way to understand the pathophysiology of mitochondrial disorders and other diseases related to mitochondria dysfunction such as diabetes, heart failure, or Hungtinton’s disease. The knowledge about mitochondrial dynamics also offers new therapeutics targets in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:28933354

  1. Mutations in mitochondrial complex I assembly factor NDUFAF3 cause Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baertling, Fabian; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Timal, Sharita; van den Brand, Mariël Am; Ngu, Lock Hock; Distelmaier, Felix; Rodenburg, Richard Jt; Nijtmans, Leo Gj

    2017-03-01

    NDUFAF3 is an assembly factor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Variants in NDUFAF3 have been identified as a cause of severe multisystem mitochondrial disease. In a patient presenting with Leigh syndrome, which has hitherto not been described as a clinical feature of NDUFAF3 deficiency, we identified a novel homozygous variant and confirmed its pathogenicity in patient fibroblasts studies. Furthermore, we present an analysis of complex I assembly routes representative of each functional module and, thereby, link NDUFAF3 to a specific step in complex I assembly. Therefore, our report expands the phenotype of NDUFAF3 deficiency and further characterizes the role of NDUFAF3 in complex I biogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI. PMID:29563990

  3. Insulin alleviates mitochondrial oxidative stress involving upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in septic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Dao; Zhang, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Ju-Xing; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of insulin on mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups: Control group, sham surgery group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, and CLP plus insulin group. Blood specimens and kidney tissues were obtained at 12 and 24 h after surgery as separate experiments. Analyses of histology and indicators of renal injury [blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (CRE) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)], mitochondrial function [adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)], oxidative stress [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO)], endogenous antioxidant systems [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH)] as well as the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP), PINK1 protein (a major mediator of mitophagy), PGC1α protein (a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis) were performed. Compared with CLP group, the CLP plus insulin group had milder histological damage, higher levels of ATP and MMP as well as lower levels of BUN, serum CRE and NGAL, intrarenal iNOS, mitochondrial ROS and total NO. Moreover, the CLP plus insulin group demonstrated increased expression of SOD2 and UCP2. In contrast, insulin administration suppressed mitophagy meanwhile did not upregulate total GSH and induce mitochondrial biogenesis following CLP. These findings indicated that the upregulation of SOD2 and UCP2 may be involved in insulin protecting against mitochondrial oxidative stress in septic AKI.

  4. Small Interfering RNA Targeting Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Improves Cardiomyocyte Cell Viability in Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Reducing Calcium Overload.

    PubMed

    Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; Vázquez-Garza, Eduardo; Chapoy-Villanueva, Héctor; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular Ca 2+ mishandling is an underlying mechanism in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury that results in mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiomyocytes death. These events are mediated by mitochondrial Ca 2+ ( m Ca 2+ ) overload that is facilitated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) channel. Along this line, we evaluated the effect of siRNA-targeting MCU in cardiomyocytes subjected to H/R injury. First, cardiomyocytes treated with siRNA demonstrated a reduction of MCU expression by 67%, which resulted in significant decrease in mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport. siRNA treated cardiomyocytes showed decreased mitochondrial permeability pore opening and oxidative stress trigger by Ca 2+ overload. Furthermore, after H/R injury MCU silencing decreased necrosis and apoptosis levels by 30% and 50%, respectively, and resulted in reduction in caspases 3/7, 9, and 8 activity. Our findings are consistent with previous conclusions that demonstrate that MCU activity is partly responsible for cellular injury induced by H/R and support the concept of utilizing siRNA-targeting MCU as a potential therapeutic strategy.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 2 protects against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating mitochondrial damage and proinflammatory signalling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Meng; Yu, Li-Xia; He, Jian; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Ge, Xiu-Ping; Ren, Xiao-Li; Ye, Fa-Qing; Bellusci, Saverio; Xiao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kun; Zhang, Jin-San

    2017-11-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The molecular basis underlying I/RI-induced renal pathogenesis and measures to prevent or reverse this pathologic process remains to be resolved. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is reported to have protective roles of myocardial infarction as well as in several other I/R related disorders. Herein we present evidence that FGF2 exhibits robust protective effect against renal histological and functional damages in a rat I/RI model. FGF2 treatment greatly alleviated I/R-induced acute renal dysfunction and largely blunted I/R-induced elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, and also the number of TUNEL-positive tubular cells in the kidney. Mechanistically, FGF2 substantially ameliorated renal I/RI by mitigating several mitochondria damaging parameters including pro-apoptotic alteration of Bcl2/Bax expression, caspase-3 activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and K ATP channel integrity. Of note, the protective effect of FGF2 was significantly compromised by the K ATP channel blocker 5-HD. Interestingly, I/RI alone resulted in mild activation of FGFR, whereas FGF2 treatment led to more robust receptor activation. More significantly, post-I/RI administration of FGF2 also exhibited robust protection against I/RI by reducing cell apoptosis, inhibiting the release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecule HMBG1 and activation of its downstream inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF α. Taken together, our data suggest that FGF2 offers effective protection against I/RI and improves animal survival by attenuating mitochondrial damage and HMGB1-mediated inflammatory response. Therefore, FGF2 has the potential to be used for the prevention and treatment of I/RI-induced AKI. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury via ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoyu; Lu, Fuhua; Zheng, Yanqun; Zeng, Yuqun; Zou, Chuan; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on indoxyl sulfate-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) injury in vitro and study its mechanism. HUVECs were incubated with indoxyl sulfate at concentrations in the range found in uremic patients. Then we determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate on endothelial phenotype, endothelial function, ROS (reactive oxygen species), cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. In addition, we detected whether GSPE can suppress the injury of HUVECs induced by indoxyl sulfate and probe the mechanism underlying the protective effects of GSPE by analyzing mitochondrial dysfunction. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced HVUECs injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GSPE-enhanced eNOS and VE-cadherin expression, inhibited intracellular ROS level and cell apoptosis, adjust mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level induced by indoxyl sulfate. These results suggest that GSPE prevents HUVECs from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and may be a promising agent for treating uremia toxin-induced injury.

  7. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jason A; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-12-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5mg/kg) starting 24h after reperfusion until 72h-144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R+vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R+SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h-144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24h-144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Injuries caused by acids and bases - emergency treatment].

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Kaiser, Guido; Freudenberg, Matthias; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Emergency medical care for injuries caused by acids and bases is challenging for rescue services. They have to deal with operational safety, detection of the toxic agent, emergency medical care of the patient and handling of the rescue mission. Because of the rareness of such situations experience and routine are largely missing. This article highlights some basic points for the therapy and provides support for such rescue missions. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  9. [Severe Eyeball and Facial Skeletal Injuries Caused by Firefighting Sport].

    PubMed

    Rusňák, Š; Maranová, Z; Kasl, Z; Hecová, L; Voigt, E; Raiskup, F

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to draw attention to possible injuries of the eye and the facial skeleton caused by firefighting sport. There was a group of 9 patients presented who were treated from 2006 to 2015 in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University Hospital in Pilsen and diagnosed with severe eyeball contusion after being hit by a jet of water and/or a water pipe. Three cases are presented in detail. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Chronic ethanol feeding causes depression of mitochondrial elongation factor Tu in the rat liver: implications for the mitochondrial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Brian; Gonye, Gregory; Sykora, Peter; Crumm, Sara; Cahill, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding is known to negatively impact hepatic energy metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the underlying lesion responsible for this may lie at the level of the mitoribosome. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure of the hepatic mitoribosome in alcoholic male rats and their isocalorically paired controls. Our experiments revealed that chronic ethanol feeding resulted in a significant depletion of both structural (death-associated protein 3) and functional [elongation factor thermo unstable (EF-Tu)] mitoribosomal proteins. In addition, significant increases were found in nucleotide elongation factor thermo stable (EF-Ts) and structural mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12). The increase in MRPL12 was found to correlate with an increase in the levels of the 39S large mitoribosomal subunit. These changes were accompanied by decreased levels of nuclear- and mitochondrially encoded respiratory subunits, decreased amounts of intact respiratory complexes, decreased hepatic ATP levels, and depressed mitochondrial translation. Mathematical modeling of ethanol-mediated changes in EF-Tu and EF-Ts using prederived kinetic data predicted that the ethanol-mediated decrease in EF-Tu levels could completely account for the impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. In conclusion, chronic ethanol feeding results in a depletion of mitochondrial EF-Tu levels within the liver that is mathematically predicted to be responsible for the impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis seen in alcoholic animals.

  11. Mechanical ventilation causes pulmonary mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed alveolarization in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Veniamin; Sosunov, Sergey A; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Utkina-Sosunova, Irina V; Ten, Vadim S

    2013-12-01

    Hyperoxia inhibits pulmonary bioenergetics, causing delayed alveolarization in mice. We hypothesized that mechanical ventilation (MV) also causes a failure of bioenergetics to support alveolarization. To test this hypothesis, neonatal mice were ventilated with room air for 8 hours (prolonged) or for 2 hours (brief) with 15 μl/g (aggressive) tidal volume (Tv), or for 8 hours with 8 μl/g (gentle) Tv. After 24 hours or 10 days of recovery, lung mitochondria were examined for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-phosphorylating respiration, using complex I (C-I)-dependent, complex II (C-II)-dependent, or cytochrome C oxidase (C-IV)-dependent substrates, ATP production rate, and the activity of C-I and C-II. A separate cohort of mice was exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a known uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. At 10 days of recovery, pulmonary alveolarization and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed. Sham-operated littermates were used as control mice. At 24 hours after aggressive MV, mitochondrial ATP production rates and the activity of C-I and C-II were significantly decreased compared with control mice. However, at 10 days of recovery, only mice exposed to prolonged-aggressive MV continued to exhibit significantly depressed mitochondrial respiration. This was associated with significantly poorer alveolarization and VEGF expression. In contrast, mice exposed to brief-aggressive or prolonged-gentle MV exhibited restored mitochondrial ADP-phosphorylation, normal alveolarization and pulmonary VEGF content. Exposure to DNP fully replicated the phenotype consistent with alveolar developmental arrest. Our data suggest that the failure of bioenergetics to support normal lung development caused by aggressive and prolonged ventilation should be considered a fundamental mechanism for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature neonates.

  12. Common causes of injury and legal action in laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Jalian, Chris A; Avram, Mathew M

    2013-02-01

    To identify common causes of legal action, injuries, claims, and decisions related to medical professional liability claims stemming from cutaneous laser surgery. Search of online public legal documents using a national database. Frequency and nature of cases, including year of litigation, location and certification of provider, injury sustained, cause of legal action, verdict, and indemnity payment. From 1985 to 2012, the authors identified 174 cases related to injury stemming from cutaneous laser surgery. The incidence of litigation related to laser surgery shows an increasing trend, with peak occurrence in 2010. Laser hair removal was the most common litigated procedure. Nonphysician operators accounted for a substantial subset of these cases, with their physician supervisors named as defendants, despite not performing the procedure. Plastic surgery was the specialty most frequently litigated against. Of the preventable causes of action, the most common was failure to obtain an informed consent. Of the 120 cases with public decisions, 61 (50.8%) resulted in decisions in favor of the plaintiff. The mean indemnity payment was $380 719. Claims related to cutaneous laser surgery are increasing and result in indemnity payments that exceed the previously reported average across all medical specialties. Nonphysicians performing these procedures will be held to a standard of care corresponding to an individual with appropriate training; thus, physicians are ultimately responsible for the actions of their nonphysician agents.

  13. [Medical care of injuries caused intentionally by domestic violence].

    PubMed

    Híjar-Medina, Martha; Flores-Regata, Lilí; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Blanco, Julia

    2003-01-01

    To describe and analyze the causes of emergency care services for intentional injuries, especially those caused by domestic violence, at four public hospitals in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 1998, which included variables related with the victim, the aggressor, and the medical care provided to the victim. A questionnaire was applied to individuals who had been injured intentionally. Statistical analysis of data consisted of simple frequencies, the chi 2 test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was also used to adjust for variables associated with the injury requiring emergency medical care. A total of 598 cases of intentional injuries were analyzed, 16% of which were due to domestic violence. Females were the most frequent victims (76%), followed by young people between 15 and 29 years old (46%). Variables associated with medical care due to injuries by domestic violence were: age 30 or older (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.90), female gender (OR 8.60 95% CI 4.25-17.40), history of injuries (OR 4.93 95% CI 2.03-11.95), home as place of occurrence (OR 36.25 95% CI 16.59-79.18), and low education level (OR 2.33 95% CI 1.03-5.26). Study findings are consistent with those from other studies and call for enforcement of the Mexican Official Norm for Medical Care of Domestic Violence (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Atención Médica de la Violencia Familiar) established in March 2000.

  14. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake wasmore » measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake.

  15. Inhaled, Nebulized Sodium Nitrite Protects In Murine and Porcine Experimental Models Of Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation by Limiting Mitochondrial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kautza, Benjamin; Gomez, Hernando; Escobar, Daniel; Corey, Catherine; Ataya, Bilal; Luciano, Jason; Botero, Ana Maria; Gordon, Lisa; Brumfield, John; Martinez, Silvia; Holder, Andre; Ogundele, Olufunmilayo; Pinsky, Michael; Shiva, Sruti; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The cellular injury that occurs in the setting of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R) affects all tissue types and can drive altered inflammatory responses. Resuscitative adjuncts hold the promise of decreasing such injury. Here we test the hypothesis that sodium nitrite (NaNO2), delivered as a nebulized solution via an inhalational route, protects against injury and inflammation from HS/R. Methods Mice underwent HS/R to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 20 or 25 mmHg. Mice were resuscitated with Lactated Ringers after 90–120 minutes of hypotension. Mice were randomized to receive nebulized NaNO2 via a flow through chamber (30mg in 5mL PBS). Pigs (30–35 kg) were anesthetized and bled to a MAP of 30–40 mmHg for 90 minutes, randomized to receive NaNO2 (11 mg in 2.5 mL PBS) nebulized into the ventilator circuit starting 60 minutes into the hypotensive period, followed by initial resuscitation with Hextend. Pigs had ongoing resuscitation and support for up to four hours. Hemodynamic data were collected continuously. Results NaNO2 limited organ injury and inflammation in murine hemorrhagic shock. A nitrate/nitrite depleted diet exacerbated organ injury, as well as mortality, and inhaled NaNO2 significantly reversed this effect. Furthermore, NaNO2 limited mitochondrial oxidant injury. In porcine HS/R, NaNO2 had no significant influence on shock induced hemodynamics. NaNO2 limited hypoxia/reoxia or HS/R-induced mitochondrial injury and promoted mitochondrial fusion. Conclusion NaNO2 may be a useful adjunct to shock resuscitation based on its limitation of mitochondrial injury. PMID:26410351

  16. PINK1 alleviates myocardial hypoxia-reoxygenation injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Qiu, Liangxian; Liu, Xiping

    PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group. The vector overexpressing PINK1 was constructed to transfect intomore » H/R-induced H9c2 cells. Our results showed that cell viability was increased, cell apoptosis and caspase 3, cytochrome C (Cyto C) levels were decreased after LV-PINK1 transfection. Furthermore, PINK1 overexpression stabilized electron transport chain (ETC) activity, increased ATP production, mPTP opening and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), inhibited ROS-generating mitochondria, implying PINK1 alleviates H/R induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. In addition, the TRAP-1 siRNA was transfected into PINK1 treated H9c2 cells after H/R to detected the molecular mechanism of PINK1 protecting cardiomyocytes. The results indicated that silence of TRAP-1 reversed the effects of PINK1 in H/R-induced H9c2 cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that PINK1 overexpression alleviates H/R-induced cell damage of H9c2 cells by phosphorylation of TRAP-1, and that is a valid approach for protection from myocardial I/R injury. - Highlights: • Effects of H/R on cell viability and PINK1 expression in H9c2 cells. • Effects of PINK1 on cell viability in H9c2 cells with H/R model. • Effects of PINK1 on mitochondrial dysfunction in H9c2 cells with H/R model. • PINK1 ameliorates H/R-induced H9c2 cells injury by activating p-TRAP-1.« less

  17. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Jason A., E-mail: funkj@musc.edu; Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even furthermore » augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na{sup +},K{sup +}–ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial

  18. MECR Mutations Cause Childhood-Onset Dystonia and Optic Atrophy, a Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Disorder.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Gali; Kerätär, Juha M; Riley, Lisa G; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Eyal, Eran; Pietikäinen, Laura P; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Hamada, Jeffrey; Gregory, Allison; Rogers, Caleb; Hogarth, Penelope; Nance, Martha A; Shalva, Nechama; Veber, Alvit; Tzadok, Michal; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Tonduti, Davide; Renaldo, Florence; Kraoua, Ichraf; Panteghini, Celeste; Valletta, Lorella; Garavaglia, Barbara; Cowley, Mark J; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Roscioli, Tony; Silberstein, Jonathon M; Hoffmann, Chen; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Tiranti, Valeria; Anikster, Yair; Christodoulou, John; Kastaniotis, Alexander J; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Hayflick, Susan J

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway essential for the function of the respiratory chain and several mitochondrial enzyme complexes. We report here a unique neurometabolic human disorder caused by defective mtFAS. Seven individuals from five unrelated families presented with childhood-onset dystonia, optic atrophy, and basal ganglia signal abnormalities on MRI. All affected individuals were found to harbor recessive mutations in MECR encoding the mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-coenzyme A-reductase involved in human mtFAS. All six mutations are extremely rare in the general population, segregate with the disease in the families, and are predicted to be deleterious. The nonsense c.855T>G (p.Tyr285 ∗ ), c.247_250del (p.Asn83Hisfs ∗ 4), and splice site c.830+2_830+3insT mutations lead to C-terminal truncation variants of MECR. The missense c.695G>A (p.Gly232Glu), c.854A>G (p.Tyr285Cys), and c.772C>T (p.Arg258Trp) mutations involve conserved amino acid residues, are located within the cofactor binding domain, and are predicted by structural analysis to have a destabilizing effect. Yeast modeling and complementation studies validated the pathogenicity of the MECR mutations. Fibroblast cell lines from affected individuals displayed reduced levels of both MECR and lipoylated proteins as well as defective respiration. These results suggest that mutations in MECR cause a distinct human disorder of the mtFAS pathway. The observation of decreased lipoylation raises the possibility of a potential therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human mitochondrial disease-like symptoms caused by a reduced tRNA aminoacylation activity in flies

    PubMed Central

    Guitart, Tanit; Picchioni, Daria; Piñeyro, David; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The translation of genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome requires specific machinery that functions in the organelle. Among the many mutations linked to human disease that affect mitochondrial translation, several are localized to nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases. The molecular significance of these mutations is poorly understood, but it is expected to be similar to that of the mutations affecting mitochondrial transfer RNAs. To better understand the molecular features of diseases caused by these mutations, and to improve their diagnosis and therapeutics, we have constructed a Drosophila melanogaster model disrupting the mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase by RNA interference. At the molecular level, the knockdown generates a reduction in transfer RNA serylation, which correlates with the severity of the phenotype observed. The silencing compromises viability, longevity, motility and tissue development. At the cellular level, the knockdown alters mitochondrial morphology, biogenesis and function, and induces lactic acidosis and reactive oxygen species accumulation. We report that administration of antioxidant compounds has a palliative effect of some of these phenotypes. In conclusion, the fly model generated in this work reproduces typical characteristics of pathologies caused by mutations in the mitochondrial aminoacylation system, and can be useful to assess therapeutic approaches. PMID:23677612

  20. Principles for managing penetrating craniocerebral injuries caused by firearm missiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yi, S Y; Liu, W P; Zhang, Z W; Wang, L G; Li, A M

    1996-07-01

    Penetrating craniocerebral firearm injuries remain one of the most lethal causes of all trauma and are common both in war or peace time. Data were reviewed for 4140 severely head-injured patients (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores 3-8) treated at Xi-Jing Hospital between 1973 and 1993; 51 of these patients had acute penetrating craniocerebral injuries caused by firearm missiles. These patients consisted of 46 males (90.2%) and 5 females (9.8%) ranging in age from 3 months to 48 years (median 22.4 years). The lesion types included 2 tangential wounds, 37 tubular wounds and 12 through-and-through wounds. All cases were urgent with the patients in severe and unstable states. After emergency treatment and operation, 5 cases died (9.8%). Follow up studies at three months showed that 23 cases (45.1%) had made a good recovery. Moderate disability, severe disability and vegetative states in this series were 29.4%, 13.7% and 2.0% respectively. Long term follow up studies indicated that 32 were able to resume their occupation. The principles for managing penetrating craniocerebral firearm injuries and suggestions for operation are discussed.

  1. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    SciTech Connect

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A.; Janneh, O.

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolatedmore » rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening

  2. Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Injuries Are Induced by Various Irrigation Pressures in Rabbit Models of Mild and Severe Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhixiu; Yu, Weimin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Fan; Rao, Ting; Yao, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to study whether tolerance to irrigation pressure could be modified by evaluating the oxidative damage of obstructed kidneys based on rabbit models experiencing different degrees of hydronephrosis. Methods A total of 66 rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups and a control group. In the experimental groups, the rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing mild (group M, n=24) or severe (group S, n=24) hydronephrosis. In each experimental group, the rabbits were then randomly divided into 4 subgroups (M0-M3 and S0-S3) consisting of 6 rabbits each. Group 0 received no perfusion. Groups 1 through 3 were perfused with 20, 60 and 100 mmHg fluid, respectively. For the control group, after a sham operation was performed, the rabbits were divided into 4 subgroups and were perfused with fluid at 0, 20, 60 or 100 mmHg of pressure. Kidney injuries was evaluated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Oxidative damage was assessed by analyzing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxide (H2O2) levels, mitochondrial injuries was assessed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tubular cell apoptosis. Results In the experimental groups, all results were similar for groups 0 and 1. In group 2, abnormalities were observed in the S group only, and the kidneys of rabbits in group 3 suffered oxidative damage and mitochondrial injuries with increased NGAL, decreased Mn-SOD, GR and CAT,increased MDA and H2O2, lower levels of MMP, mitochondrial vacuolization and an increased apoptotic index. Conclusion In rabbits, severely obstructed kidneys were more susceptible to oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury than mildly obstructed kidneys when subjected to higher degrees of kidney perfusion pressure. PMID:26090815

  3. Estrogen-related receptor α is essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Tsushida, Keigo; Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Masuda, Kana; Tanimura, Satoshi; Miyake, Hiromasa; Arata, Yuka; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Wada, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been associated with not only higher in-hospital mortality but also the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence has suggested the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired dynamics in the pathogenesis of AKI. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcription factor to regulate the transcription of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we examined the effects of ERRα deficiency on the progression of AKI induced by cisplatin. Male C57BL/6 J wild-type and ERRα -/- mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin. Seventy-two hours after the injection, kidney function and morphology were evaluated. ERRα expression was observed in renal tubules, and cisplatin inhibited its translocation into nuclei. ERRα deficiency exacerbated cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury, as well as oxidative stress and apoptosis. ERRα -/- mice kidneys revealed lower mitochondrial DNA content and swollen mitochondria with reduced cristae. In addition, these mice had lower expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin-2. The cisplatin-induced decrease in mitochondrial DNA and altered mitochondrial structure were more severe in ERRα -/- mice. In cultured mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells, the ERRα inverse agonist XCT-790 significantly inhibited mitofusin-2 expression and induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Taken together, our findings suggest the involvement of ERRα in the progression of cisplatin-induced AKI probably through impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury Causes Chronic Liver Pathology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbeck, Andrew D.; Laws, J. Lukas; Bandaru, Veera V.R.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Haughey, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption to peripheral organ innervation and regulation. Relatively little work has investigated these post-SCI systemic changes, however, despite considerable evidence that multiple organ system dysfunction contributes to chronic impairments in health. Because metabolic dysfunction is common after SCI and the liver is a pivotal site for metabolic homeostasis, we sought to determine if liver pathology occurs as a result of SCI in a rat spinal contusion model. Histologic evidence showed excess lipid accumulation in the liver for at least 21 days post-injury after cervical or midthoracic SCI. Lipidomic analysis revealed an acute increase in hepatic ceramides as well as chronically elevated lactosylceramide. Post-SCI hepatic changes also included increased proinflammatory gene expression, including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, chemokine ligand-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. These were coincident with increased CD68+ macrophages in the liver through 21 days post-injury. Serum alanine transaminase, used clinically to detect liver damage, was significantly increased at 21 days post-injury, suggesting that early metabolic and inflammatory damage preceded overt liver pathology. Surprisingly, liver inflammation was even detected after lumbar SCI. Collectively, these results suggest that SCI produces chronic liver injury with symptoms strikingly similar to those of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fatty liver disease). These clinically significant hepatic changes after SCI are known to contribute to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome, all of which are more prevalent in persons with SCI. Targeting acute and prolonged hepatic pathology may improve recovery and reduce long-term complications after SCI. PMID:25036371

  5. Increased work in cardiac trabeculae causes decreased mitochondrial NADH fluorescence followed by slow recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, R; Bers, D M

    1996-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation rate in isolated mitochondria is stimulated by increased [ADP], resulting in decreased [NADH]. In intact hearts, however, increased mechanical work has generally not been shown to cause an increase in [ADP]. Therefore, increased [NADH] has been suggested as an alternative for stimulating the phosphorylation rate. Such a rise in [NADH] could result from stimulation of various substrate dehydrogenases by increased intracellular [Ca2+] (e.g., during increased pacing frequency). We have monitored mitochondrial [NADH] in isolated rat ventricular trabeculae, using a novel fluorescence spectroscopy method where a native fluorescence signal was used to correct for motion artifacts. Work was controlled by increased pacing frequency and assessed using time-averaged force. At low-pacing rates (approximately 0.1 Hz), [NADH] immediately decreased during contraction and then slowly recovered (approximately 5 s) before the next contraction. At higher rates, [NADH] initially decreased by an amount related to pacing rate (i.e., work). However, during prolonged stimulation, [NADH] slowly (approximately 60 s) recovered to a new steady-state level below the initial level. We conclude that 1) during increased work, oxidative phosphorylation is not initially stimulated by increased mitochondrial [NADH]; and 2) increased pacing frequency slowly causes stimulation of NADH production. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 PMID:8842239

  6. Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy Caused by Thymidine Phosphorylase Enzyme Deficiency: From Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    Yadak, Rana; Sillevis Smitt, Peter; van Gisbergen, Marike W.; van Til, Niek P.; de Coo, Irenaeus F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a progressive metabolic disorder caused by thymidine phosphorylase (TP) enzyme deficiency. The lack of TP results in systemic accumulation of deoxyribonucleosides thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd). In these patients, clinical features include mental regression, ophthalmoplegia, and fatal gastrointestinal complications. The accumulation of nucleosides also causes imbalances in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), which may play a direct or indirect role in the mtDNA depletion/deletion abnormalities, although the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. The available therapeutic approaches include dialysis and enzyme replacement therapy, both can only transiently reverse the biochemical imbalance. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is shown to be able to restore normal enzyme activity and improve clinical manifestations in MNGIE patients. However, transplant related complications and disease progression result in a high mortality rate. New therapeutic approaches, such as adeno-associated viral vector and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy have been tested in Tymp-/-Upp1-/- mice, a murine model for MNGIE. This review provides background information on disease manifestations of MNGIE with a focus on current management and treatment options. It also outlines the pre-clinical approaches toward future treatment of the disease. PMID:28261062

  7. Mutant NDUFS3 subunit of mitochondrial complex I causes Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bénit, P; Slama, A; Cartault, F; Giurgea, I; Chretien, D; Lebon, S; Marsac, C; Munnich, A; Rötig, A; Rustin, P

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory chain complex I deficiency represents a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Mutations have been reported in 13 of the 14 subunits encoding the core of complex I (seven mitochondrial and six nuclear genes) and these result in Leigh or Leigh-like syndromes or cardiomyopathy. In this study, a combination of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and sequence analysis was used to study the NDUFS3 gene in a series of complex I deficient patients. Mutations found in this gene (NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulphur protein 3), coding for the seventh and last subunit of complex I core, were shown to cause late onset Leigh syndrome, optic atrophy, and complex I deficiency. A biochemical diagnosis of complex I deficiency on cultured amniocytes from a later pregnancy was confirmed through the identification of disease causing NDUFS3 mutations in these cells. While mutations in the NDUFS3 gene thus result in Leigh syndrome, a dissimilar clinical phenotype is observed in mutations in the NDUFV2 and NDUFS2 genes, resulting in encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy. The reasons for these differences are uncertain.

  8. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao

    2012-11-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites amore » reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats

  9. Upregulation of autophagy decreases chlorine-induced mitochondrial injury and lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Benavides, Gloria A; Komarova, Svetlana; Doran, Stephen F; Johnson, Michelle; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Zhang, Jianhua; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Matalon, Sadis

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of toxicity during exposure of the airways to chlorinated biomolecules generated during the course of inflammation and to chlorine (Cl2) gas are poorly understood. We hypothesized that lung epithelial cell mitochondria are damaged by Cl2 exposure and activation of autophagy mitigates this injury. To address this, NCI-H441 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial) cells were exposed to Cl2 (100 ppm/15 min) and bioenergetics were assessed. One hour after Cl2, cellular bioenergetic function and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased. These changes were associated with increased MitoSOX signal, and treatment with the mitochondrial redox modulator MitoQ attenuated these bioenergetic defects. At 6h postexposure, there was significant increase in autophagy, which was associated with an improvement of mitochondrial function. Pretreatment of H441 cells with trehalose (an autophagy activator) improved bioenergetic function, whereas 3-methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) resulted in increased bioenergetic dysfunction 1h after Cl2 exposure. These data indicate that Cl2 induces bioenergetic dysfunction, and autophagy plays a protective role in vitro. Addition of trehalose (2 vol%) to the drinking water of C57BL/6 mice for 6 weeks, but not 1 week, before Cl2 (400 ppm/30 min) decreased white blood cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 6h after Cl2 by 70%. Acute administration of trehalose delivered through inhalation 24 and 1h before the exposure decreased alveolar permeability but not cell infiltration. These data indicate that Cl2 induces bioenergetic dysfunction associated with lung inflammation and suggests that autophagy plays a protective role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Plasma bacterial and mitochondrial DNA distinguish bacterial sepsis from sterile systemic inflammatory response syndrome and quantify inflammatory tissue injury in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome can cause organ dysfunction and death, but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS, and postinfective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a damage-associated molecular pattern reflecting cellular injury. Circulating bacterial 16S DNA (bDNA) is a pathogen-associated pattern (PAMP) reflecting ongoing infection. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify these markers, and predicting their plasma levels might help distinguish sterile injury from infection. To study these events in primates, we assayed banked serum from Papio baboons that had undergone a brief challenge of intravenous Bacillus anthracis delta Sterne (modified to remove toxins) followed by antibiotics (anthrax) that causes organ failure and death. To investigate the progression of sepsis to "severe" sepsis and death, we studied animals where anthrax was pretreated with drotrecogin alfa (activated protein C), which attenuates sepsis in baboons. We also contrasted lethal anthrax bacteremia against nonlethal E. coli bacteremia and against sterile tissue injury from Shiga-like toxin 1. Bacterial DNA and mtDNA levels in timed samples were correlated with blood culture results and assays of organ function. Sterile injury by Shiga-like toxin 1 increased mtDNA, but bDNA was undetectable: consistent with the absence of infection. The bacterial challenges caused parallel early bDNA and mtDNA increases, but bDNA detected pathogens even after bacteria were undetectable by culture. Sublethal E. coli challenge only caused transient rises in mtDNA consistent with a self-limited injury. In lethal

  11. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury.

    PubMed

    MacAndie, K; Kyle, P

    1998-07-01

    The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device. A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly. The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1. Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

  12. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress caused by Sod2 deficiency promotes cellular senescence and aging phenotypes in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Michael C.; Flynn, James M.; Day, Nicholas U.; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Cellular senescence arrests the proliferation of mammalian cells at risk for neoplastic transformation, and is also associated with aging. However, the factors that cause cellular senescence during aging are unclear. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause cellular senescence in culture, and accumulated molecular damage due to mitochondrial ROS has long been thought to drive aging phenotypes in vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative stress can promote cellular senescence in vivo and contribute to aging phenotypes in vivo, specifically in the skin. We show that the number of senescent cells, as well as impaired mitochondrial (complex II) activity increase in naturally aged mouse skin. Using a mouse model of genetic Sod2 deficiency, we show that failure to express this important mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme also impairs mitochondrial complex II activity, causes nuclear DNA damage, and induces cellular senescence but not apoptosis in the epidermis. Sod2 deficiency also reduced the number of cells and thickness of the epidermis, while increasing terminal differentiation. Our results support the idea that mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular senescence contribute to aging skin phenotypes in vivo. PMID:22278880

  14. BENZYL ALCOHOL PROTECTS AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN HEPATOTOXICITY BY INHIBITING CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES BUT CAUSES MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION AND CELL DEATH AT HIGHER DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Du, Kuo; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is a serious public health problem in western countries. Current treatment options for APAP poisoning are limited and novel therapeutic intervention strategies are needed. A recent publication suggested that benzyl alcohol (BA) protects against APAP hepatotoxicity and could serve as a promising antidote for APAP poisoning. To assess the protective mechanisms of BA, C56Bl/6J mice were treated with 400mg/kg APAP and/or 270mg/kg BA. APAP alone caused extensive liver injury at 6h and 24h post-APAP. This injury was attenuated by BA co-treatment. Assessment of protein adduct formation demonstrated that BA inhibits APAP metabolic activation. In support of this, in vitro experiments also showed that BA dose-dependently inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. Correlating with the hepatoprotection of BA, APAP-induced oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were reduced. Similar results were obtained in primary mouse hepatocytes. Interestingly, BA alone caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cell toxicity at high doses, and its protective effect could not be reproduced in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). We conclude that BA protects against APAP hepatotoxicity mainly by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes in mice. Considering its toxic effect and the loss of protection in PHH, BA is not a clinically useful treatment option for APAP overdose patient. PMID:26522885

  15. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Results: Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (CcO), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression. PMID:27830025

  16. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (C c O), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 ( P <0.05). The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression.

  17. Interspecific hybridization causes long-term phylogenetic discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Graham P; Cameron-Christie, Sophia R; Kennedy, Hannah L; Palmer, Gemma; Sanders, Tessa R; Winter, David J

    2017-06-01

    Classification, phylogeography and the testing of evolutionary hypotheses rely on correct estimation of species phylogeny. Early molecular phylogenies often relied on mtDNA alone, which acts as a single linkage group with one history. Over the last decade, the use of multiple nuclear sequences has often revealed conflict among gene trees. This observation can be attributed to hybridization, lineage sorting, paralogy or selection. Here, we use 54 groups of fishes from 48 studies to estimate the degree of concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees in two ecological grades of fishes: marine and freshwater. We test the hypothesis that freshwater fish phylogenies should, on average, show more discordance because of their higher propensity for hybridization in the past. In keeping with this idea, concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees (as measured by proportion of components shared) is on average 50% higher in marine fishes. We discuss why this difference almost certainly results from introgression caused by greater historical hybridization among lineages in freshwater groups, and further emphasize the need to use multiple nuclear genes, and identify conflict among them, in estimation of species phylogeny. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. New vignettes for the experimental manipulation of injury cause in prospective mild traumatic brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Edmed, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    This study developed standardized vignettes that depict a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from one of several causes and subjected them to formal expert review. A base vignette was developed using the World Health Organization operational criteria for mild TBI. Eight specific causes (e.g. sport vs assault) were examined. A convenience sample of mild TBI experts with a discipline background of Neuropsychology from North America, Australasia and Europe (n = 21) used an online survey to evaluate the vignettes and rated the role of cause on outcome. The vignette suite was rated as fitting the mild TBI WHO operational diagnostic criteria at least moderately well. When compared to other factors, cause was not rated as significantly contributing to outcome. When evaluated in isolation, approximately half of the sample rated cause as important or very important and at least two of three clinical outcomes were associated with a different cause. The vignettes may be useful in experimental mild TBI research. They enable the injury parameters to be controlled so that the effects of cause can be isolated and examined empirically. Such studies should advance understanding of the role of this factor in mild TBI outcome.

  19. The axon-protective WLD(S) protein partially rescues mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis after axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Godzik, Katharina; Coleman, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The axon-protective Wallerian degeneration slow (WLD(S)) protein can ameliorate the decline in axonal ATP levels after neurite transection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this effect is associated with maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and/or glycolysis. We used isolated neurites of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) cultures in the Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analyser to determine mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis under different conditions. We observed that both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis declined significantly during the latent phase of Wallerian degeneration. WLD(S) partially reduced the decline both in glycolysis and in mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we found that depleting NAD levels in uncut cultures led to changes in mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis similar to those rescued by WLD(S) after cut, suggesting that the maintenance of NAD levels in Wld(S) neurites after axonal injury at least partially underlies the maintenance of ATP levels. However, by using another axon-protective mutation (Sarm1(-/-)), we could demonstrate that rescue of basal ECAR (and hence probably glycolysis) rather than basal OCR (mitochondrial respiration) may be part of the protective phenotype to delay Wallerian degeneration. These findings open new routes to study glycolysis and the connection between NAD and ATP levels in axon degeneration, which may help to eventually develop therapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Systematic review of severe acute liver injury caused by terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shengli

    2014-08-01

    Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended.

  1. Road safety in Poland: magnitude, causes and injuries.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr; Lasota, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most frequent cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions get injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2.2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents epidemiology of road accidents in the period 2004-2015 with particular emphasis on the key issues of road safety in Poland, related to the dangerous behaviour of road users (disregard toward traffic rules). Between years 2004 and 2015 on Polish roads took place more than 508000 accidents with 53155 fatalities and more then 572000 casualties. Despite the various measures which are taken to improve safety on Polish roads, the number of dead and wounded in the vehicle mishap is still large, and losses borne by society are high. To improve safety on Polish roads, it is necessary to continue multi- action plan to systematically progress in the level of road safety.

  2. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-06-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well.

  3. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well. PMID:27209646

  4. Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy cause decreased insulin secretion from β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Wen-Sen; Lu, Chin-I; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Kao, Shu-Huei; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2015-11-15

    Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) is a major component of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesised that AGEs reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by damaging mitochondrial functions and inducing mitophagy. Mitochondrial morphology and the occurrence of autophagy were examined in pancreatic islets of diabetic db/db mice and in the cultured CML-BSA-treated insulinoma cell line RIN-m5F. In addition, the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on mitochondria in AGE-damaged tissues were evaluated. The diabetic db/db mouse exhibited an increase in the number of autophagosomes in damaged mitochondria and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Treatment of db/db mice with ALA for 12 wk increased the number of mitochondria with well-organized cristae and fewer autophagosomes. Treatment of RIN-m5F cells with CML-BSA increased the level of RAGE protein and autophagosome formation, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased insulin secretion. CML-BSA also reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, increased ROS and lipid peroxide production, and caused mitochondrial DNA deletions. Elevated fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level and mitochondrial fragmentation demonstrated the unbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in CML-BSA-treated cells. Additionally, increased levels of Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 protein suggest that fragmented mitochondria were associated with increased mitophagic activity, and ALA attenuated the CML-BSA-induced mitophage formation. Our study demonstrated that CML-BSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in pancreatic β-cells. The findings from this study suggest that increased concentration of AGEs may damage β-cells and reduce insulin secretion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Disease-causing mitochondrial heteroplasmy segregated within induced pluripotent stem cell clones derived from a patient with MELAS.

    PubMed

    Folmes, Clifford D L; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Li, Xing; McDonald, Amber; Oglesbee, Devin; Hrstka, Sybil C; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondrial diseases display pathological phenotypes according to the mixture of mutant versus wild-type mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), known as heteroplasmy. We herein examined the impact of nuclear reprogramming and clonal isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) on mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Patient-derived dermal fibroblasts with a prototypical mitochondrial deficiency diagnosed as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) demonstrated mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced oxidative reserve due to heteroplasmy at position G13513A in the ND5 subunit of complex I. Bioengineered iPSC clones acquired pluripotency with multilineage differentiation capacity and demonstrated reduction in mitochondrial density and oxygen consumption distinguishing them from the somatic source. Consistent with the cellular mosaicism of the original patient-derived fibroblasts, the MELAS-iPSC clones contained a similar range of mtDNA heteroplasmy of the disease-causing mutation with identical profiles in the remaining mtDNA. High-heteroplasmy iPSC clones were used to demonstrate that extended stem cell passaging was sufficient to purge mutant mtDNA, resulting in isogenic iPSC subclones with various degrees of disease-causing genotypes. On comparative differentiation of iPSC clones, improved cardiogenic yield was associated with iPSC clones containing lower heteroplasmy compared with isogenic clones with high heteroplasmy. Thus, mtDNA heteroplasmic segregation within patient-derived stem cell lines enables direct comparison of genotype/phenotype relationships in progenitor cells and lineage-restricted progeny, and indicates that cell fate decisions are regulated as a function of mtDNA mutation load. The novel nuclear reprogramming-based model system introduces a disease-in-a-dish tool to examine the impact of mutant genotypes for MELAS patients in bioengineered tissues and a cellular probe for molecular features of individual

  6. Altering CO2 during reperfusion of ischemic cardiomyocytes modifies mitochondrial oxidant injury.

    PubMed

    Lavani, Romeen; Chang, Wei-Tien; Anderson, Travis; Shao, Zuo-Hui; Wojcik, Kimberly R; Li, Chang-Qing; Pietrowski, Robert; Beiser, David G; Idris, Ahamed H; Hamann, Kimm J; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2007-07-01

    Acute changes in tissue CO2 and pH during reperfusion of the ischemic heart may affect ischemia/reperfusion injury. We tested whether gradual vs. acute decreases in CO2 after cardiomyocyte ischemia affect reperfusion oxidants and injury. Comparative laboratory investigation. Institutional laboratory. Embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. Microscope fields of approximately 500 chick cardiomyocytes were monitored throughout 1 hr of simulated ischemia (PO2 of 3-5 torr, PCO2 of 144 torr, pH 6.8), followed by 3 hrs of reperfusion (PO2 of 149 torr, PCO2 of 36 torr, pH 7.4), and compared with cells reperfused with relative hypercarbia (PCO2 of 71 torr, pH 6.8) or hypocarbia (PCO2 of 7 torr, pH 7.9). The measured outcomes included cell viability (via propidium iodide) and oxidant generation (reactive oxygen species via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation and nitric oxide [NO] via 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate oxidation). Compared with normocarbic reperfusion, hypercarbia significantly reduced cell death from 54.8% +/- 4.0% to 26.3% +/- 2.8% (p < .001), significantly decreased reperfusion reactive oxygen species (p < .05), and increased NO at a later phase of reperfusion (p < .01). The NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (200 microM) reversed this oxidant attenuation (p < .05), NO increase (p < .05), and the cardioprotection conferred by hypercarbic reperfusion (increasing death to 54.3% +/- 6.0% [p < .05]). Conversely, hypocarbic reperfusion increased cell death to 80.4% +/- 4.5% (p < .01). It also increased reactive oxygen species by almost two-fold (p = .052), without affecting the NO level thereafter. Increased reactive oxygen species was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex III inhibitor stigmatellin (20 nM) when given at reperfusion (p < .05). Cell death also decreased from 85.9% +/- 4.5% to 52.2% +/- 6.5% (p < .01). The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin (300 microM) had no effect on reperfusion reactive oxygen

  7. High fat, high sucrose diet causes cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction due in part to oxidative post-translational modification of mitochondrial complex II.

    PubMed

    Sverdlov, Aaron L; Elezaby, Aly; Behring, Jessica B; Bachschmid, Markus M; Luptak, Ivan; Tu, Vivian H; Siwik, Deborah A; Miller, Edward J; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Pimentel, David R; Cohen, Richard A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity leads to metabolic heart disease (MHD) characterized by increased oxidative stress that may cause oxidative post-translational modifications (OPTM) of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. The functional consequences of OPTM of cardiac mitochondrial proteins in MHD are unknown. Our objective was to determine whether cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in MHD due to diet-induced obesity is associated with cysteine OPTM. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) or control diet for 8months. Cardiac mitochondria from HFHS-fed mice (vs. control diet) had an increased rate of H2O2 production, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, a decreased rate of complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and complex II activity were partially restored ex-vivo by reducing conditions. A biotin switch assay showed that HFHS feeding increased cysteine OPTM in complex II subunits A (SDHA) and B (SDHB). Using iodo-TMT multiplex tags we found that HFHS feeding is associated with reversible oxidation of cysteines 89 and 231 in SDHA, and 100, 103 and 115 in SDHB. MHD due to consumption of a HFHS "Western" diet causes increased H2O2 production and oxidative stress in cardiac mitochondria associated with decreased ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Impaired complex II activity and ATP production are associated with reversible cysteine OPTM of complex II. Possible sites of reversible cysteine OPTM in SDHA and SDHB were identified by iodo-TMT tag labeling. Mitochondrial ROS may contribute to the pathophysiology of MHD by impairing the function of complex II. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Mitochondria: From Basic Mitochondrial Biology to Cardiovascular Disease". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intermediate filament aggregates cause mitochondrial dysmotility and increase energy demands in giant axonal neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Israeli, Eitan; Dryanovski, Dilyan I.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Singer, Jeffrey D.; Julien, Jean P.; Goldman, Robert D.; Opal, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal polymers that extend from the nucleus to the cell membrane, giving cells their shape and form. Abnormal accumulation of IFs is involved in the pathogenesis of number neurodegenerative diseases, but none as clearly as giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), a ravaging disease caused by mutations in GAN, encoding gigaxonin. Patients display early and severe degeneration of the peripheral nervous system along with IF accumulation, but it has been difficult to link GAN mutations to any particular dysfunction, in part because GAN null mice have a very mild phenotype. We therefore established a robust dorsal root ganglion neuronal model that mirrors key cellular events underlying GAN. We demonstrate that gigaxonin is crucial for ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation of neuronal IF. Moreover, IF accumulation impairs mitochondrial motility and is associated with metabolic and oxidative stress. These results have implications for other neurological disorders whose pathology includes IF accumulation. PMID:27000625

  9. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  10. Causes, types and severity of injury among army soldiers hospitalized with alcohol comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Howland, Jonathan; Bell, Nicole S; Hollander, Ilyssa E

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between alcohol use and the cause, type and severity of hospitalized injuries. We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) to conduct cross-sectional analyses of the association between alcohol comorbidity and the cause, type and severity of soldiers' non-combat injuries requiring hospitalization. Subjects were active-duty US army soldiers (n = 211 790) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of injury between 1980 and 2002. Alcohol comorbidity was positively associated with hospitalized injuries resulting from fights and falls and negatively associated with sports injuries; positively associated with hospitalized cases of head injury, open wounds and poisonings and negatively associated with musculoskeletal injury; and, overall, associated with shorter length of stay. Controlling for demographic factors did not moderate the association between alcohol and cause, type or severity of injury. Alcohol comorbidity is specifically associated with injuries related to impairment and antisocial behavior.

  11. Causes, types and severity of injury among army soldiers hospitalized with alcohol comorbidity*

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Jonathan; Bell, Nicole S.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between alcohol use and the cause, type and severity of hospitalized injuries. Design/setting We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) to conduct cross-sectional analyses of the association between alcohol comorbidity and the cause, type and severity of soldiers’ non-combat injuries requiring hospitalization. Participants Subjects were active-duty US army soldiers (n = 211 790) hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of injury between 1980 and 2002. Findings Alcohol comorbidity was positively associated with hospitalized injuries resulting from fights and falls and negatively associated with sports injuries; positively associated with hospitalized cases of head injury, open wounds and poisonings and negatively associated with musculoskeletal injury; and, overall, associated with shorter length of stay. Controlling for demographic factors did not moderate the association between alcohol and cause, type or severity of injury. Conclusion Alcohol comorbidity is specifically associated with injuries related to impairment and antisocial behavior. PMID:17697276

  12. Mitochondrial-targeted DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 protects against ventilator-induced lung injury in intact mice.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Mouner, Marc; Chouteau, Joshua M; Gorodnya, Olena M; Ruchko, Mykhaylo V; Potter, Barry J; Wilson, Glenn L; Gillespie, Mark N; Parker, James C

    2013-02-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative mitochondrial-targeted DNA (mtDNA) damage triggered ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Control mice and mice infused with a fusion protein targeting the DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) to mitochondria were mechanically ventilated with a range of peak inflation pressures (PIP) for specified durations. In minimal VILI (1 h at 40 cmH(2)O PIP), lung total extravascular albumin space increased 2.8-fold even though neither lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratios nor bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 or IL-6 failed to differ from nonventilated or low PIP controls. This increase in albumin space was attenuated by OGG1. Moderately severe VILI (2 h at 40 cmH(2)O PIP) produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio and marked increases in BAL MIP-2 and IL-6, accompanied by oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage, as well as decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSH ratio compared with nonventilated lungs. All of these injury indices were attenuated in OGG1-treated mice. At the highest level of VILI (2 h at 50 cmH(2)O PIP), OGG1 failed to protect against massive lung edema and BAL cytokines or against depletion of the tissue GSH pool. Interestingly, whereas untreated mice died before completing the 2-h protocol, OGG1-treated mice lived for the duration of observation. Thus mitochondrially targeted OGG1 prevented VILI over a range of ventilation times and pressures and enhanced survival in the most severely injured group. These findings support the concept that oxidative mtDNA damage caused by high PIP triggers induction of acute lung inflammation and injury.

  13. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J.; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1–8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes. PMID:27754853

  14. Burn injury in kitchen workers: a cause for prevention.

    PubMed

    Riina, L H; Simpson, R L; Gudjonsson, O; Glickman, L T; Harris, S U; Johnson, D; Ginocchio, M

    2000-01-01

    Preventable thermal injuries in professional kitchen workers have been identified, and we have introduced a protective garment. Because of the nature of their occupation, kitchen workers are prone to thermal injuries. It has been our experience that the majority of these injuries are scald injuries on the ankles and dorsum of the feet. We propose that a protective garment, such as a waterproof shoe and garter, could reduce the incidence of these injuries.

  15. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Transport by Zaprinast Causes Massive Accumulation of Aspartate at the Expense of Glutamate in the Retina*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianhai; Cleghorn, Whitney M.; Contreras, Laura; Lindsay, Ken; Rountree, Austin M.; Chertov, Andrei O.; Turner, Sally J.; Sahaboglu, Ayse; Linton, Jonathan; Sadilek, Martin; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Sweet, Ian R.; Paquet-Durand, François; Hurley, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Transport of pyruvate into mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is crucial for complete oxidation of glucose and for biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids. Zaprinast is a well known phosphodiesterase inhibitor and lead compound for sildenafil. We found Zaprinast alters the metabolomic profile of mitochondrial intermediates and amino acids in retina and brain. This metabolic effect of Zaprinast does not depend on inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. By providing 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine as fuels, we found that the metabolic profile of the Zaprinast effect is nearly identical to that of inhibitors of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier. Both stimulate oxidation of glutamate and massive accumulation of aspartate. Moreover, Zaprinast inhibits pyruvate-driven O2 consumption in brain mitochondria and blocks mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in liver mitochondria. Inactivation of the aspartate glutamate carrier in retina does not attenuate the metabolic effect of Zaprinast. Our results show that Zaprinast is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier activity, and this action causes aspartate to accumulate at the expense of glutamate. Our findings show that Zaprinast is a specific mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) inhibitor and may help to elucidate the roles of MPC in amino acid metabolism and hypoglycemia. PMID:24187136

  16. Involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in chronic ethanol-mediated liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    King, Adrienne L.; Swain, Telisha M.; Mao, Zhengkuan; Udoh, Uduak S.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Betancourt, Angela M.; Griguer, Corrine E.; Crowe, David R.; Lesort, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption increases sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore induction in liver. Ca2+ promotes MPT pore opening, and genetic ablation of cyclophilin D (CypD) increases the Ca2+ threshold for the MPT. We used wild-type (WT) and CypD-null (CypD−/−) mice fed a control or an ethanol-containing diet to investigate the role of the MPT in ethanol-mediated liver injury. Ca2+-mediated induction of the MPT and mitochondrial respiration were measured in isolated liver mitochondria. Steatosis was present in WT and CypD−/− mice fed ethanol and accompanied by increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end label-positive nuclei. Autophagy was increased in ethanol-fed WT mice compared with ethanol-fed CypD−/− mice, as reflected by an increase in the ratio of microtubule protein 1 light chain 3B II to microtubule protein 1 light chain 3B I. Higher levels of p62 were measured in CypD−/− than WT mice. Ethanol decreased mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and select complex activities in WT and CypD−/− mice. Ethanol also increased CypD protein in liver of WT mice. Mitochondria from control- and ethanol-fed WT mice were more sensitive to Ca2+-mediated MPT pore induction than mitochondria from their CypD−/− counterparts. Mitochondria from ethanol-fed CypD−/− mice were also more sensitive to Ca2+-induced swelling than mitochondria from control-fed CypD−/− mice but were less sensitive than mitochondria from ethanol-fed WT mice. In summary, CypD deficiency was associated with impaired autophagy and did not prevent ethanol-mediated steatosis. Furthermore, increased MPT sensitivity was observed in mitochondria from ethanol-fed WT and CypD−/− mice. We conclude that chronic ethanol consumption likely lowers the threshold for CypD-regulated and -independent characteristics of the ethanol-mediated MPT pore in liver mitochondria. PMID:24356880

  17. Nuclear factors involved in mitochondrial translation cause a subgroup of combined respiratory chain deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kemp, John P; Smith, Paul M; Pyle, Angela; Neeve, Vivienne C M; Tuppen, Helen A L; Schara, Ulrike; Talim, Beril; Topaloglu, Haluk; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Abicht, Angela; Czermin, Birgit; Lochmüller, Hanns; McFarland, Robert; Chinnery, Patrick F; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; Taylor, Robert W; Horvath, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in several mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis have recently been reported in combined respiratory chain deficiency, indicating a generalized defect in mitochondrial translation. However, the number of patients with pathogenic mutations is small, implying that nuclear defects of mitochondrial translation are either underdiagnosed or intrauterine lethal. No comprehensive studies have been reported on large cohorts of patients with combined respiratory chain deficiency addressing the role of nuclear genes affecting mitochondrial protein synthesis to date. We investigated a cohort of 52 patients with combined respiratory chain deficiency without causative mitochondrial DNA mutations, rearrangements or depletion, to determine whether a defect in mitochondrial translation defines the pathomechanism of their clinical disease. We followed a combined approach of sequencing known nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis (EFG1, EFTu, EFTs, MRPS16, TRMU), as well as performing in vitro functional studies in 22 patient cell lines. The majority of our patients were children (<15 years), with an early onset of symptoms <1 year of age (65%). The most frequent clinical presentation was mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (63%); however, a number of patients showed cardiomyopathy (33%), isolated myopathy (15%) or hepatopathy (13%). Genomic sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid modifying factor (TRMU) in a single patient only, presenting with early onset, reversible liver disease. No pathogenic mutation was detected in any of the remaining 51 patients in the other genes analysed. In vivo labelling of mitochondrial polypeptides in 22 patient cell lines showed overall (three patients) or selective (four patients) defects of mitochondrial translation. Immunoblotting for mitochondrial proteins revealed decreased steady state levels of proteins in some patients

  18. Injuries to dancers: prevalence, treatment, and perceptions of causes.

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, A.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of injuries to dancers was commissioned by the National Organisation of Dance and Mime. Questionnaires asking about chronic and recent injuries were sent to 188 dancers and completed by 141 dancers from seven professional ballet and modern dance companies in the United Kingdom (75% response rate). It was found that of the 141 dancers, 67 (47%) had experienced a chronic injury and 59 (42%) an injury in the previous six months that had affected their dancing. A high proportion of injuries to the soft tissues had not responded to treatment. With correct treatment such injuries should usually heal completely. Dancers are aware of the high rate of injuries and also of procedures that might help to prevent injury--for example, dancing on floors that are sprung and in warmer studios; teachers' and choreographers' awareness of a dancer's limitations and the need for rest and adequate treatment when an injury occurs. Images p732-a PMID:2496824

  19. [Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function.

  20. An unusual cause of cold injury: liquified petroleum gas leakage.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Nevra; Jasharllari, Lorenc; Kayapınar, Muhammed; Savacı, Nedim

    2011-11-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an odorless and colorless gas that is a mixture of hydrocarbons (propane and butane). It is now more commonly preferred among drivers as an auto-gas throughout the world because it is cheaper than petrol or diesel and produces the same amount of energy. Because of its rapid vaporization and consequent lowering of temperature, it may cause severe cold injuries. A 33-year-old male who suffered from hand burn due to LPG is presented in this article. In LPG-converted cars, if the conversion has not been done properly, LPG may leak. Thus, the public must be informed of this potential danger while undertaking repairs of their vehicles.

  1. Mitochondrial Optic Atrophy (OPA) 1 Processing Is Altered in Response to Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Hurling, Chloe; Stolp, Helen; Sobotka, Kristina; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; Thornton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Perturbation of mitochondrial function and subsequent induction of cell death pathways are key hallmarks in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, both in animal models and in term infants. Mitoprotective therapies therefore offer a new avenue for intervention for the babies who suffer life-long disabilities as a result of birth asphyxia. Here we show that after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons or in a mouse model of HI, mitochondrial protein homeostasis is altered, manifesting as a change in mitochondrial morphology and functional impairment. Furthermore we find that the mitochondrial fusion and cristae regulatory protein, OPA1, is aberrantly cleaved to shorter forms. OPA1 cleavage is normally regulated by a balanced action of the proteases Yme1L and Oma1. However, in primary neurons or after HI in vivo, protein expression of YmelL is also reduced, whereas no change is observed in Oma1 expression. Our data strongly suggest that alterations in mitochondria-shaping proteins are an early event in the pathogenesis of neonatal HI injury. PMID:26393574

  2. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury

    PubMed Central

    MacAndie, K.; Kyle, P.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device.
METHODS—A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly.
RESULTS—The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1.
CONCLUSIONS—Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

 Keywords: ocular trauma; projectiles PMID:9924377

  3. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  4. Cause, type, and workers' compensation costs of injury to fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Walton, Surrey M; Conrad, Karen M; Furner, Sylvia E; Samo, Daniel G

    2003-04-01

    Work-related injury rates in the fire service industry exceed those for most other industries, however little is known about the cost of injury to firefighters. This is a preliminary investigation of detailed worker's compensation records of firefighter injuries, 1,343 claims in all, collected from 1992-1999. Summary statistics and regression analysis regarding the cause, nature, and cost of injury to firefighters are presented. Overexertion accounted for a significant portion (over 1/3) of injuries to firefighters, typically involved injuries to the back, and was associated with significantly higher costs than other types of injuries. The per-claim average worker's compensation cost of injury to firefighters was $5,168 and the average for injuries caused by overexertion was $9,715. Overexertion is a costly source of injury to firefighters that can likely be reduced through policy intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ibutilide protects against cardiomyocytes injury via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Li; Huang, Xia; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease with multiple inter-relating causes culminating in rapid atrial activation and atrial structural remodeling. The contribution of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria stress to AF has been highlighted. As the class III antiarrhythmic agent, ibutilide are widely used to AF. This study was designed to explore whether ibutilide could treat AF by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and mitochondria stress. The neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and exposed to H 2 O 2 , ibutilide was add to the culture medium 12 h. Then the cell viability, oxidative stress levels and apoptotic rate were analyzed. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress related protein (GRP78, GRP94, CHOP), mitochondria-dependent protein (Bax, Bcl-2) and caspase-3/9/12 were identified by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. In our results, remarkable decreased cell viability and oxidative stress levels were detected in cardiomyocytes after treating with H 2 O 2 . The apoptotic rate and the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways increased. While ibutilide significantly inhibited these changes. These data suggested that ibutilide serves a protective role against H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and the mechanism is related to suppression of mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  6. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Pathogenesis of Hemorrhagic Injury: Targeted Therapy with Minocycline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    minocy- cline treatment (Figures 1-4). Minocycline also improved mitochondrial function as assessed by intravital multiphoton imaging of the...will make direct measurements by intravital multiphoton microscopy to determine whether onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition and...oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization were assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R with vehicle or

  7. High fat, high sucrose diet causes cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction due in part to oxidative post-translational modification of mitochondrial complex II

    PubMed Central

    Sverdlov, Aaron L.; Elezaby, Aly; Behring, Jessica B.; Bachschmid, Markus M.; Luptak, Ivan; Tu, Vivian H.; Siwik, Deborah A.; Miller, Edward J.; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S; Pimentel, David R.; Cohen, Richard A.; Colucci, Wilson S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet-induced obesity leads to metabolic heart disease (MHD) characterized by increased oxidative stress that may cause oxidative post-translational modifications (OPTM) of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. The functional consequences of OPTM of cardiac mitochondrial proteins in MHD are unknown. Our objective was to determine whether cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in MHD due to diet-induced obesity is associated with cysteine OPTM. Methods and results Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) or control diet for 8 months. Cardiac mitochondria from HFHS-fed mice (vs. control diet) had an increased rate of H2O2 production, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, a decreased rate of complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Complex II substrate-driven ATP synthesis and complex II activity were partially restored ex-vivo by reducing conditions. A biotin switch assay showed that HFHS feeding increased cysteine OPTM in complex II subunits A (SDHA) and B (SDHB). Using iodo-TMT multiplex tags we found that HFHS feeding is associated with reversible oxidation of cysteines 89 and 231 in SDHA, and 100, 103 and 115 in SDHB. Conclusions MHD due to consumption of a HFHS “Western” diet causes increased H2O2 production and oxidative stress in cardiac mitochondria associated with decreased ATP synthesis and decreased complex II activity. Impaired complex II activity and ATP production are associated with reversible cysteine OPTM of complex II. Possible sites of reversible cysteine OPTM in SDHA and SDHB were identified by iodo-TMT tag labeling. Mitochondrial ROS may contribute to the pathophysiology of MHD by impairing the function of complex II. PMID:25109264

  8. Silymarin protects against renal injury through normalization of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Bin Feng; Meng, Ran; Bin Huang; Bi, Yan; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Dalong

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney diseases and the conventional treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors is not enough to prevent renal injury and prolong the progression of disease. Recently, silymarin has shown protective effects on renal tissue injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential capacity of silymarin to prevent renal injury during obesity induced by high fat diet (HFD) in mice. In vivo, male C57BL/6 mice received HFD (60% of total calories) for 12 weeks, randomized and treated orally with vehicle saline or silymarin (30mg/kg body weight/d) for 4 weeks. In vitro, human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2) were exposed to 300μM palmitic acid (PA) for 36h followed by silymarin administration at different concentrations. The administration of silymarin significantly ameliorated HFD induced glucose metabolic disorders, oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the kidney. Silymarin significantly mitigated renal lipid accumulation, fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in HFD mice and PA treated HK2 cells. Furthermore, silymarin partly restored mitochondrial membrane potential of HK2 cells after PA exposure. In conclusion, silymarin can improve oxidative stress and preserve mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney, potentially via preventing accumulation of renal lipids and fatty acid β-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Cause of Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Marcia R.

    There is increasing evidence that many children and adolescents who display behavior disorders have sustained a traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury can take the following forms: closed head trauma in which the brain usually suffers diffuse damage; open head injury which usually results in specific focal damage; or internal trauma (e.g.,…

  10. Mitochondrial ROS cause motor deficits induced by synaptic inactivity: Implications for synapse pruning.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Eva; Gibson, Jack W; Megson, Ian L; Whitfield, Philip D; Tovmasyan, Artak; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Murphy, Michael P; Moult, Peter R; Cobley, James N

    2018-06-01

    Developmental synapse pruning refines burgeoning connectomes. The basic mechanisms of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production suggest they select inactive synapses for pruning: whether they do so is unknown. To begin to unravel whether mitochondrial ROS regulate pruning, we made the local consequences of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) pruning detectable as motor deficits by using disparate exogenous and endogenous models to induce synaptic inactivity en masse in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles. We resolved whether: (1) synaptic inactivity increases mitochondrial ROS; and (2) chemically heterogeneous antioxidants rescue synaptic inactivity induced motor deficits. Regardless of whether it was achieved with muscle (α-bungarotoxin), nerve (α-latrotoxin) targeted neurotoxins or an endogenous pruning cue (SPARC), synaptic inactivity increased mitochondrial ROS in vivo. The manganese porphyrins MnTE-2-PyP 5+ and/or MnTnBuOE-2-PyP 5+ blocked mitochondrial ROS to significantly reduce neurotoxin and endogenous pruning cue induced motor deficits. Selectively inducing mitochondrial ROS-using mitochondria-targeted Paraquat (MitoPQ)-recapitulated synaptic inactivity induced motor deficits; which were significantly reduced by blocking mitochondrial ROS with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP 5+ . We unveil mitochondrial ROS as synaptic activity sentinels that regulate the phenotypical consequences of forced synaptic inactivity at the NMJ. Our novel results are relevant to pruning because synaptic inactivity is one of its defining features. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. © 2011 Villarroya et al.

  12. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  13. Vitamin E protects against the mitochondrial damage caused by cyclosporin A in LLC-PK1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arriba, G. de; Seccion de Nefrologia del Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara; Departamento de Medicina de la Universidad de Alcala de Henares

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has nephrotoxic effects known to involve reactive oxygen species (ROS), since antioxidants prevent the kidney damage induced by this drug. Given that mitochondria are among the main sources of intracellular ROS, the aims of our study were to examine the mitochondrial effects of CsA in the porcine renal endothelial cell line LLC-PK1 and the influence of the antioxidant Vitamin E (Vit E). Following the treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with CsA, we assessed the mitochondrial synthesis of superoxide anion, permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, cardiolipin peroxidation, cytochrome c release and cellular apoptosis, using flow cytometry andmore » confocal microscopy procedures. Similar experiments were done after Vit E preincubation of cells. CsA treatment increased superoxide anion in a dose-dependent way. CsA opened the permeability transition pores, caused Bax migration to mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and cardiolipin content. Also CsA released cytochrome c into cytosol and provoked cellular apoptosis. Vit E pretreatment inhibited the effects that CsA induced on mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells and avoided apoptosis. CsA modifies mitochondrial LLC-PK1 cell physiology with loss of negative electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increased lipid peroxidation. These features are related to apoptosis and can explain the cellular damage that CsA induces. As Vit E inhibited these effects, our results suggest that they were mediated by an increase in ROS production by mitochondria.« less

  14. Genetic Ablation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Causes Cigarette Smoke-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Rico de Souza, Angela; Zago, Michela; Pollock, Stephen J.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alterations in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation are involved in the etiology of COPD. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells are sensitive to the oxidative properties of cigarette smoke, and whose loss may precipitate the development of COPD. Fibroblasts express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that attenuates pulmonary inflammation and may also regulate apoptosis. We hypothesized the AhR would prevent apoptosis caused by cigarette smoke. Using genetically deleted in vitro AhR expression models and an established method of cigarette smoke exposure, we report that AhR expression regulates fibroblasts proliferation and prevents morphological features of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation caused by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Absence of AhR expression results in cleavage of PARP, lamin, and caspase-3. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including cytochrome c release, was associated with loss of AhR expression, indicating activation of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Heightened sensitivity of AhR-deficient fibroblasts was not the result of alterations in GSH, Nrf2, or HO-1 expression. Instead, AhR−/− cells had significantly less MnSOD and CuZn-SOD expression, enzymes that protects against oxidative stress. The ability of the AhR to suppress apoptosis was not restricted to fibroblasts, as siRNA-mediated knockdown of the AhR in lung epithelial cells also increased sensitivity to smoke-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induced loss of lung structural support (i.e. fibroblasts, epithelial cells) caused by aberrations in AhR expression may explain why some smokers develop lung diseases such as COPD. PMID:21984831

  15. Renal Tubular Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction Occurs Despite Preserved Renal Oxygen Delivery in Experimental Septic Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pollen, Sean; Greco, Elisabetta; Courtneidge, Holly; Hall, Andrew M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Tam, Frederick W. K.; Unwin, Robert J.; Singer, Mervyn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To explain the paradigm of significant renal functional impairment despite preserved hemodynamics and histology in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Design: Prospective observational animal study. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: Male Wistar rats. Intervention: Using a fluid-resuscitated sublethal rat model of fecal peritonitis, changes in renal function were characterized in relation to global and renal hemodynamics, and histology at 6 and 24 hours (n = 6–10). Sham-operated animals were used as comparison (n = 8). Tubular cell mitochondrial function was assessed using multiphoton confocal imaging of live kidney slices incubated in septic serum. Measurements and Main Results: By 24 hours, serum creatinine was significantly elevated with a concurrent decrease in renal lactate clearance in septic animals compared with sham-operated and 6-hour septic animals. Renal uncoupling protein-2 was elevated in septic animals at 24 hours although tubular cell injury was minimal and mitochondrial ultrastructure in renal proximal tubular cells preserved. There was no significant change in global or renal hemodynamics and oxygen delivery/consumption between sham-operated and septic animals at both 6- and 24-hour timepoints. In the live kidney slice model, mitochondrial dysfunction was seen in proximal tubular epithelial cells incubated with septic serum with increased production of reactive oxygen species, and decreases in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects were prevented by coincubation with the reactive oxygen species scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-1-oxyl. Conclusions: Renal dysfunction in sepsis occurs independently of hemodynamic instability or structural damage. Mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by circulating mediators that induce local oxidative stress may represent an important pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:29293148

  16. Thiamine preserves mitochondrial function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, preventing inactivation of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Mkrtchyan, Garik V; Üçal, Muammer; Müllebner, Andrea; Dumitrescu, Sergiu; Kames, Martina; Moldzio, Rudolf; Molcanyi, Marek; Schaefer, Samuel; Weidinger, Adelheid; Schaefer, Ute; Hescheler, Juergen; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Redl, Heinz; Bunik, Victoria I; Kozlov, Andrey V

    2018-05-16

    Based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction we aimed at localization of mitochondrial defect and attempted to correct it by thiamine. Interventional controlled experimental animal study was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury. Thiamine was administered 1 h prior to trauma; cortex was extracted for analysis 4 h and 3 d after trauma. Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) by 4 h was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial respiration with glutamate but neither with pyruvate nor succinate. Assays of TCA cycle flux-limiting 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) and functionally linked enzymes (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) indicated that only OGDHC activity was decreased. Application of the OGDHC coenzyme precursor thiamine rescued the activity of OGDHC and restored mitochondrial respiration. These effects were not mediated by changes in the expression of the OGDHC sub-units (E1k and E3), suggesting post-translational mechanism of thiamine effects. By the third day after TBI, thiamine treatment also decreased expression of TNF-R1. Specific markers of unfolded protein response did not change in response to thiamine. Our data point to OGDHC as a major site of damage in mitochondria upon traumatic brain injury, which is associated with neuroinflammation and can be corrected by thiamine. Further studies are required to evaluate the pathological impact of these findings in clinical settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Yap-Hippo pathway regulates cerebral hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in neuroblastoma N2a cells via inhibiting ROCK1/F-actin/mitochondrial fission pathways.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chizi; Wei, Jianchao; Wu, Chengsi

    2018-05-23

    Yes-associated protein (Yap), a regulator of cellular apoptosis, has been demonstrated to be involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through poorly defined mechanisms. The present study aimed to explore the role of Yap in regulating cerebral IR injury in vitro, with a focus on mitochondrial fission and ROCK1/F-actin pathways. Our data demonstrated that Yap was actually downregulated in N2a cells after cerebral hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury, and that lower expression of Yap was closely associated with increased cell death. However, the reintroduction of Yap was able to suppress the HR-mediated N2a cells death via blocking the mitochondria-related apoptotic signal. At the molecular levels, Yap overexpression sustained mitochondrial potential, normalized the mitochondrial respiratory function, reduced ROS overproduction, limited HtrA2/Omi release from mitochondria into the nucleus, and suppressed pro-apoptotic proteins activation. Subsequently, functional studies have further illustrated that HR-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis was highly regulated by mitochondrial fission, whereas Yap overexpression was able to attenuate HR-mediated mitochondrial fission and, thus, promote N2a cell survival in the context of HR injury. At last, we demonstrated that Yap handled mitochondrial fission via closing ROCK1/F-actin signaling pathways. Activation of ROCK1/F-actin pathways abrogated the protective role of Yap overexpression on mitochondrial homeostasis and N2a cell survival in the setting of HR injury. Altogether, our data identified Yap as the endogenous defender to relieve HR-mediated nerve damage via antagonizing ROCK1/F-actin/mitochondrial fission pathways.

  18. Deleterious variants in TRAK1 disrupt mitochondrial movement and cause fatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Barel, Ortal; Malicdan, May Christine V; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kandel, Judith; Pri-Chen, Hadass; Stephen, Joshi; Castro, Inês G; Metz, Jeremy; Atawa, Osama; Moshkovitz, Sharon; Ganelin, Esther; Barshack, Iris; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Nass, Dvora; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Amariglio, Ninette; Shalva, Nechama; Vilboux, Thierry; Ferreira, Carlos; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Heimer, Gali; Hoffmann, Chen; Yardeni, Tal; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Avivi, Camila; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Glick Saar, Efrat; Wallace, Douglas C; Gahl, William A; Rechavi, Gideon; Schrader, Michael; Eckmann, David M; Anikster, Yair

    2017-03-01

    Cellular distribution and dynamics of mitochondria are regulated by several motor proteins and a microtubule network. In neurons, mitochondrial trafficking is crucial because of high energy needs and calcium ion buffering along axons to synapses during neurotransmission. The trafficking kinesin proteins (TRAKs) are well characterized for their role in lysosomal and mitochondrial trafficking in cells, especially neurons. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified homozygous truncating variants in TRAK1 (NM_001042646:c.287-2A > C), in six lethal encephalopathic patients from three unrelated families. The pathogenic variant results in aberrant splicing and significantly reduced gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. In comparison with normal cells, TRAK1-deficient fibroblasts showed irregular mitochondrial distribution, altered mitochondrial motility, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and diminished mitochondrial respiration. This study confirms the role of TRAK1 in mitochondrial dynamics and constitutes the first report of this gene in association with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. [Cyclosporin A causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells].

    PubMed

    Pérez de Hornedo, J; de Arriba, G; Calvino, M; Benito, S; Parra, T

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. As mitochondria are one of the main sources of ROS in cells, we evaluated the role of CsA in mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells. We incubated cells with CsA 1 microM for 24 hours and studies were performed with flow citometry and confocal microscopy. We studied mitochondrial NAD(P)H content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production (MitoSOX Red), oxidation of cardiolipin of inner mitochondrial membrane (NAO) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DIOC2(3)). Also we analyzed the intracellular ROS synthesis (H2DCF-DA) and reduced glutation (GSH) of cells. Our results showed that CsA decreased NAD(P)H and membrane potential, and increased O2.- in mitochondria. CsA also provoked oxidation of cardiolipin. Furthermore, CsA increased intracellular ROS production and decreased GSH content. These results suggest that CsA has crucial effects in mitochondria. CsA modified mitochondrial physiology through the decrease of antioxidant mitochondrial compounds as NAD(P)H and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of oxidants as O2.-. Also, CsA alters lipidic structure of inner mitochondrial membrane through the oxidation of cardiolipin. These effects trigger a chain of events that favour intracellular synthesis of ROS and depletion of GSH that can compromise cellular viability. Nephrotoxic cellular effects of CsA can be explained, at least in part, through its influence on mitochondrial functionalism.

  20. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    PubMed

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  1. [Ballistic approach in head injuries caused by missiles].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, P; Billant, J B; Desgeorges, M

    1989-01-01

    If the missile head injury treatment is relatively well codified, wound ballistic, on the other hand, is not well known of neurosurgeons. Different means of study and tissue simulants are being listed. In face of numerous contradictory results, we shall only retain the M.L. Fackler method with 10% gelatin. Experimental results will depend on: 1. Missile parameters. For instance, in soft homogeneous tissue, one can discern shells with an uncertain path, full jacketed bullets which tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule "all or none". 2. Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, which can overturn everything described in soft tissues. These wound ballistic notions have lead us to formulate two pathogenic hypothesizes, allowing us to understand sometime case reports which had first seemed paradoxical: the brain structure, enclosed in the skull will not able to survive any major temporary cavity, the more or less deep missile pathway through the skull will be very different according to the type and energy of the missile, and to the hardness of pierced bone.

  2. The Effect of Propofol on Mitochondrial Fission during Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion Injury in Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Zheng, Shengfa; Liu, Maodong; Jia, Changxin; Wang, Shilei; Wang, Xue; Xue, Sha; Guo, Yunliang

    2016-01-01

    The neuroprotective role of propofol in transient global and focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion (I/R) animal model has recently been highlighted. However, no studies have conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial fission/fusion and I/R injury under the intervention of propofol. Moreover, neuroprotective mechanism of propofol is yet unclear. Culturing primary hippocampal cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation (OGD/R) model, as a model of cerebral I/R in vitro. Methods CCK-8 assay was used to test the effect of propofol on cell viability. We examined the effect of propofol on mitochondrial ultrastructure and mitochondrial fission evoked by OGD/R with transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence assay. To investigate possible neuroprotective mechanisms, the authors then examined whether propofol could inhibit calcium-overload, calcineurin (CaN) activation and the phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) during the period of OGD/R, as well as the combination of Drp1-ser 637 and fission 1 (Fis1) protein by immunofluorescence assay, ELISA and double-labeling immunofluorescence analysis. Finally, the expression of Drp1-ser 637 and Fis1, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome C (Cyt C) were detected by western blot. When added in culture media during OGD period, propofol (0.1μM-50μM) could alleviate neurons injury and protect mitochondrial ultrastructure, meanwhile inhibit mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+, CaN activition and the phosphorylation of Drp1-ser637 were suppressed, as well as the translocation and combination of Drp1-ser 637 and Fis1. The authors also found that the expression of Cyt C, AIF, Drp1-ser637 and Fis1 were down-regulated. Notably, high dose of propofol (100μM-200μM) were confirmed to decrease the survival of neurons based on results of cell viability. Propofol could inhibit mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial

  3. [Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters].

    PubMed

    Golubović, Zoran; Stanić, Vojkan; Trenkić, Srbobran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Stevanović, Goran; Lesić, Aleksandar; Golubović, Ivan; Milić, Dragan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Najman, Stevo

    2010-08-01

    Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they directly threaten the life of the wounded patient. Despite

  4. HIBCH mutations can cause Leigh-like disease with combined deficiency of multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Heales, Simon J R; Brown, Garry K; Hargreaves, Iain P; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Gunny, Roxana; Abulhoul, Lara; Wanders, Ronald J A; Clayton, Peter T; Leonard, James V; Rahman, Shamima

    2013-12-04

    Deficiency of 3-hydroxy-isobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) caused by HIBCH mutations is a rare cerebral organic aciduria caused by disturbance of valine catabolism. Multiple mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) enzyme deficiencies can arise from a number of mechanisms, including defective maintenance or expression of mitochondrial DNA. Impaired biosynthesis of iron-sulphur clusters and lipoic acid can lead to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency in addition to multiple RC deficiencies, known as the multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome. Two brothers born to distantly related Pakistani parents presenting in early infancy with a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, associated with basal ganglia changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging, were investigated for suspected Leigh-like mitochondrial disease. The index case had deficiencies of multiple RC enzymes and PDHc in skeletal muscle and fibroblasts respectively, but these were normal in his younger brother. The observation of persistently elevated hydroxy-C4-carnitine levels in the younger brother led to suspicion of HIBCH deficiency, which was investigated by biochemical assay in cultured skin fibroblasts and molecular genetic analysis. Specific spectrophotometric enzyme assay revealed HIBCH activity to be below detectable limits in cultured skin fibroblasts from both brothers. Direct Sanger sequence analysis demonstrated a novel homozygous pathogenic missense mutation c.950G cause of the multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with multiple RC deficiencies and/or pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  5. Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 to the Myocardium Protects the Heart From Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibition of Mitochondria Outer Membrane Permeabilization: A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Ayako; Matoba, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Gentaro; Koga, Jun-Ichiro; Mao, Yajing; Nakano, Kaku; Takeuchi, Osamu; Sadoshima, Junichi; Egashira, Kensuke

    2016-07-22

    Mitochondria-mediated cell death plays a critical role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) protects hearts from IR injury through inhibition of mitochondria outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which causes mitochondrial-mediated cell death. We formulated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing Mdivi1 (Mdivi1-NP). We recently demonstrated that these nanoparticles could be successfully delivered to the cytosol and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes under H2O2-induced oxidative stress that mimicked IR injury. Pretreatment with Mdivi1-NP ameliorated H2O2-induced cell death in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes more potently than Mdivi1 alone, as indicated by a lower estimated half-maximal effective concentration and greater maximal effect on cell survival. Mdivi1-NP treatment of Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts through the coronary arteries at the time of reperfusion reduced infarct size after IR injury more effectively than Mdivi1 alone. Mdivi1-NP treatment also inhibited Drp1-mediated Bax translocation to the mitochondria and subsequent cytochrome c leakage into the cytosol, namely, MOMP, in mouse IR hearts. MOMP inhibition was also observed in cyclophilin D knockout (CypD-KO) mice, which lack the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening. Intravenous Mdivi1-NP treatment in vivo at the time of reperfusion reduced IR injury in wild-type and CypD-KO mice, but not Bax-KO mice. Mdivi1-NP treatment reduced IR injury through inhibition of MOMP, even in the absence of a CypD/MPTP opening. Thus, nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery of Mdivi1 may be a novel treatment strategy for IR injury. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    PubMed

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  7. Malnutrition-associated liver steatosis and ATP depletion is caused by peroxisomal and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, Tim; Ciapaite, Jolita; Bloks, Vincent W; Ackereley, Cameron; Gerding, Albert; Jurdzinski, Angelika; de Moraes, Roberta Allgayer; Zhang, Ling; Wolters, Justina C; Bischoff, Rainer; Wanders, Ronald J; Houten, Sander M; Bronte-Tinkew, Dana; Shatseva, Tatiana; Lewis, Gary F; Groen, Albert K; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M; Jonker, Johan W; Kim, Peter K; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2016-12-01

    Severe malnutrition in young children is associated with signs of hepatic dysfunction such as steatosis and hypoalbuminemia, but its etiology is unknown. Peroxisomes and mitochondria play key roles in various hepatic metabolic functions including lipid metabolism and energy production. To investigate the involvement of these organelles in the mechanisms underlying malnutrition-induced hepatic dysfunction we developed a rat model of malnutrition. Weanling rats were placed on a low protein or control diet (5% or 20% of calories from protein, respectively) for four weeks. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial structural features were characterized using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. A novel targeted quantitative proteomics method was applied to analyze 47 mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid β-oxidation pathways. Low protein diet-fed rats developed hypoalbuminemia and hepatic steatosis, consistent with the human phenotype. Hepatic peroxisome content was decreased and metabolomic analysis indicated peroxisomal dysfunction. This was followed by changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure and increased mitochondrial content. Mitochondrial function was impaired due to multiple defects affecting respiratory chain complex I and IV, pyruvate uptake and several β-oxidation enzymes, leading to strongly reduced hepatic ATP levels. Fenofibrate supplementation restored hepatic peroxisome abundance and increased mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity, resulting in reduced steatosis and normalization of ATP and plasma albumin levels. Malnutrition leads to severe impairments in hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial function, and hepatic metabolic dysfunction. We discuss the potential future implications of our findings for the clinical management of malnourished children. Severe malnutrition in children is associated with metabolic disturbances

  8. Feeding behavior and injury caused by Lygus hesperus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the importance of Lygus hesperus as a crop pest in the western United States, key aspects of its feeding behavior and consequent injury to cotton are poorly understood. Previous studies of Lygus stage-dependent injury to cotton produced conflicting results. We sought to clarify these relat...

  9. Case of penetrating orbitocranial injury caused by wood.

    PubMed Central

    Mutlukan, E; Fleck, B W; Cullen, J F; Whittle, I R

    1991-01-01

    A case of retained intraorbital and intracerebral wooden foreign body following an orbitocranial penetrating injury through the lower lid of an adult is described. Initial failure to recognise the true nature of the injury led to intracerebral abscess formation and monocular blindness. Diagnosis and management of such cases are discussed. Images PMID:2043585

  10. Depletion of mitochondrial fission factor DRP1 causes increased apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Yamauchi, Akane, E-mail: ainoyama@research.twmu.ac.jp; Oda, Hideaki

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DRP1 is required for mitochondrial fission in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DRP1 participates in inhibition of colon cancer cell apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DRP1 can inhibit apoptosis through the regulation of cytochrome c release. -- Abstract: Mitochondria play a critical role in regulation of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, by releasing apoptogenic factors including cytochrome c. Growing evidence suggests that dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology are involved in cellular apoptotic response. However, whether DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission is required for induction of apoptosis remains speculative. Here, we show that siRNA-mediated DRP1 knockdown promoted accumulation of elongated mitochondria in HCT116more » and SW480 human colon cancer cells. Surprisingly, DRP1 down-regulation led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of these cells. A higher rate of cytochrome c release and reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential were also revealed in DRP1-depleted cells. Taken together, our present findings suggest that mitochondrial fission factor DRP1 inhibits colon cancer cell apoptosis through the regulation of cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane integrity.« less

  11. The prevention of selected and imposed posture-caused injury.

    PubMed

    Kemp, D

    1977-09-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that posture and health are interrelated. Poor health and injuries impose their own specific postures, and poor posture can contribute towards injury and poor health. The correlation between posture and health is not absolute. We can say that a certain posture will increase the probability of injury. Individual differences of age, sex, somatype, fitness, fatigue, load and frequency of posture adoption will dictate if injury will occur, or not, with any individual. There is no doubt that some postures are more stressful than others. The individual factors mentioned dictate whether the resulting strain is above or below the critical amount required for injury. Copyright © 1977 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  12. An unusual burn injury caused by a car battery.

    PubMed

    Nisanci, Mustafa; Sengezer, Mustafa; Durmuş, Muzaffer

    2005-01-01

    In a car battery accident, a 21-year old man sustained a band of deep burn involving the dorsoradial aspect of the wrist. He was treated by excision and grafting on the third day after injury. A metal watchstrap that the patient was wearing, with evidence of the arching phenomenon on it, short-circuited the battery of the vehicle. Although the underlying etiology that triggered the events leading to thermal injury was an electrical accident, the current did not pass through any part of the patient's body, as what happens in an electrical injury. In our current understanding, the pathophysiology of electrical injury dictates the transmission of current through living tissues, leading to a specific type of tissue damage that should be distinguishable from the type that results from a usual thermal injury, as it happened in our case.

  13. Esophageal Helicobacter pylori colonization aggravates esophageal injury caused by reflux

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yun-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Yun; Teng, Gui-Gen; Wang, Shu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate esophageal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization on esophageal injury caused by reflux and the related mechanisms. METHODS: An esophagitis model, with acid and bile reflux, was surgically produced in male rats. The rats were randomly divided into either: (1) an esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) group; (2) an EGDA with H. pylori infection group; (3) a pseudo-operation with H. pylori infection group; or (4) a pseudo-operation group. All rats were kept for 36 wk. Based on the location of H. pylori colonization, the EGDA rats with H. pylori infection were subdivided into those with concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization or those with only gastric H. pylori colonization. The esophageal injuries were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The expressions of CDX2 and MUC2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of cyclin D1, c-Myc, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. RESULTS: Esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) developed in rats that underwent EGDA. When comparing rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization to EGDA-only rats, the severity of injury (87.9 ± 5.2 vs 77.2 ± 8.6, macroscopically, 92.5 ± 8.0 vs 83.8 ± 5.5, microscopically, both P < 0.05) and the incidences of BE (80.0% vs 33.3%, P = 0.055) and EAC (60.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05) were increased. These increases were associated with upregulation of CDX2 and MUC2 mRNA (10.1 ± 5.4 vs 3.0 ± 2.9, 8.4 ± 4.6 vs 2.0 ± 3.2, respectively, Ps < 0.01) and protein (8.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.1, 7.3 ± 4.0 vs 1.8 ± 2.7, respectively, all P < 0.05). The expression of Ki-67 (8.9 ± 0.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) and the presence of apoptotic cells (8.3 ± 1.1 vs 5.3 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) were also increased

  14. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  15. Liraglutide alleviates H2O2-induced retinal ganglion cells injury by inhibiting autophagy through mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuefei; Lin, Wenjian; Lin, Zhenyu; Hao, Ming; Gao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Yue; Kuang, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    , partially by promoting mitochondrial generation and attenuating mitophagy. In conclusion, liraglutide attenuates H 2 O 2 induced RGC-5 cell injury by inhibiting autophagy through maintaining a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impalement brain injury from steel rod causing injury to jugular bulb: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grossbach, Andrew J; Abel, Taylor J; Smietana, Janel; Dahdaleh, Nader; Severson, Meryl A; Hasan, David

    2014-01-01

    The management of impalement penetrating brain injuries (IPBI) from non-missile objects is extremely challenging, especially when vascular structures are involved. Cerebral angiography is a crucial tool in initial evaluation to assess for vascular injury as standard non-invasive imaging modalities are limited by foreign body artifact, especially for metallic objects. This study reports a case of an IPBI caused by a segment of steel rebar resulting in injury to the left jugular bulb and posterior temporal lobe. It describes the initial presentation, radiology, management and outcome in this patient and reviews the literature of similar injuries.

  17. Hyperoxia Causes Mitochondrial Fragmentation in Pulmonary Endothelial Cells by Increasing Expression of Pro-Fission Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Beyer, Andreas M; Durand, Matthew; Clough, Anne V; Zhu, Daling; Norwood Toro, Laura; Terashvili, Maia; Ebben, Johnathan D; Hill, R Blake; Audi, Said H; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2018-03-01

    We explored mechanisms that alter mitochondrial structure and function in pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) function after hyperoxia. Mitochondrial structures of PECs exposed to hyperoxia or normoxia were visualized and mitochondrial fragmentation quantified. Expression of pro-fission or fusion proteins or autophagy-related proteins were assessed by Western blot. Mitochondrial oxidative state was determined using mito-roGFP. Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester estimated mitochondrial polarization in treatment groups. The role of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species in mt-fragmentation was investigated with mito-TEMPOL and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage studied by using ENDO III (mt-tat-endonuclease III), a protein that repairs mDNA damage. Drp-1 (dynamin-related protein 1) was overexpressed or silenced to test the role of this protein in cell survival or transwell resistance. Hyperoxia increased fragmentation of PEC mitochondria in a time-dependent manner through 48 hours of exposure. Hyperoxic PECs exhibited increased phosphorylation of Drp-1 (serine 616), decreases in Mfn1 (mitofusion protein 1), but increases in OPA-1 (optic atrophy 1). Pro-autophagy proteins p62 (LC3 adapter-binding protein SQSTM1/p62), PINK-1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1), and LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were increased. Returning cells to normoxia for 24 hours reversed the increased mt-fragmentation and changes in expression of pro-fission proteins. Hyperoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial structure or cell survival were mitigated by antioxidants mito-TEMPOL, Drp-1 silencing, or inhibition or protection by the mitochondrial endonuclease ENDO III. Hyperoxia induced oxidation and mitochondrial depolarization and impaired transwell resistance. Decrease in resistance was mitigated by mito-TEMPOL or ENDO III and reproduced by overexpression of Drp-1. Because hyperoxia evoked mt-fragmentation, cell survival and transwell resistance are prevented by ENDO

  18. Cold ischemia contributes to the development of chronic rejection and mitochondrial injury after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Stefan; Amberger, Albert; Mandl, Julia; Hautz, Theresa; Renz, Oliver; Obrist, Peter; Meusburger, Hugo; Brandacher, Gerald; Mark, Walter; Strobl, Daniela; Troppmair, Jakob; Pratschke, Johann; Margreiter, Raimund; Kuznetsov, Andrey V

    2010-12-01

    Chronic rejection (CR) remains an unsolved hurdle for long-term heart transplant survival. The effect of cold ischemia (CI) on progression of CR and the mechanisms resulting in functional deficit were investigated by studying gene expression, mitochondrial function, and enzymatic activity. Allogeneic (Lew→F344) and syngeneic (Lew→Lew) heart transplantations were performed with or without 10 h of CI. After evaluation of myocardial contraction, hearts were excised at 2, 10, 40, and 60 days for investigation of vasculopathy, gene expression, enzymatic activities, and mitochondrial respiration. Gene expression studies identified a gene cluster coding for subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain regulated in response to CI and CR. Myocardial performance, mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial marker enzyme activities declined in all allografts with time after transplantation. These declines were more rapid and severe in CI allografts (CR-CI) and correlated well with progression of vasculopathy and fibrosis. Mitochondria related gene expression and mitochondrial function are substantially compromised with the progression of CR and show that CI impacts on progression, gene profile, and mitochondrial function of CR. Monitoring mitochondrial function and enzyme activity might allow for earlier detection of CR and cardiac allograft dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  19. The ability of human nuclear DNA to cause false positive low-abundance heteroplasmy calls varies across the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Levent; Khanipov, Kamil; Pimenova, Maria; Golovko, George; Rojas, Mark; Pavlidis, Ioannis; Chumakov, Sergei; Aguilar, Gerardo; Chávez, Arturo; Widger, William R; Fofanov, Yuriy

    2016-12-12

    Low-abundance mutations in mitochondrial populations (mutations with minor allele frequency ≤ 1%), are associated with cancer, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders. While recent progress in high-throughput sequencing technology has significantly improved the heteroplasmy identification process, the ability of this technology to detect low-abundance mutations can be affected by the presence of similar sequences originating from nuclear DNA (nDNA). To determine to what extent nDNA can cause false positive low-abundance heteroplasmy calls, we have identified mitochondrial locations of all subsequences that are common or similar (one mismatch allowed) between nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Performed analysis revealed up to a 25-fold variation in the lengths of longest common and longest similar (one mismatch allowed) subsequences across the mitochondrial genome. The size of the longest subsequences shared between nDNA and mtDNA in several regions of the mitochondrial genome were found to be as low as 11 bases, which not only allows using these regions to design new, very specific PCR primers, but also supports the hypothesis of the non-random introduction of mtDNA into the human nuclear DNA. Analysis of the mitochondrial locations of the subsequences shared between nDNA and mtDNA suggested that even very short (36 bases) single-end sequencing reads can be used to identify low-abundance variation in 20.4% of the mitochondrial genome. For longer (76 and 150 bases) reads, the proportion of the mitochondrial genome where nDNA presence will not interfere found to be 44.5 and 67.9%, when low-abundance mutations at 100% of locations can be identified using 417 bases long single reads. This observation suggests that the analysis of low-abundance variations in mitochondria population can be extended to a variety of large data collections such as NCBI Sequence Read Archive, European Nucleotide Archive, The Cancer Genome Atlas, and International Cancer Genome

  20. Availability and quality of cause-of-death data for estimating the global burden of injuries

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James E; Shahraz, Saeid; Fingerhut, Lois A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the availability and quality of global death registration data used for estimating injury mortality. Methods The completeness and coverage of recent national death registration data from the World Health Organization mortality database were assessed. The quality of data on a specific cause of injury death was judged high if fewer than 20% of deaths were attributed to any of several partially specified causes of injury, such as “unspecified unintentional injury”. Findings Recent death registration data were available for 83 countries, comprising 28% of the global population. They included most high-income countries, most countries in Latin America and several in central Asia and the Caribbean. Categories commonly used for partially specified external causes of injury resulting in death included “undetermined intent,” “unspecified mechanism of unintentional injury,” “unspecified road injury” and “unspecified mechanism of homicide”. Only 20 countries had high-quality data. Nevertheless, because the partially specified categories do contain some information about injury mechanisms, reliable estimates of deaths due to specific external causes of injury, such as road injury, suicide and homicide, could be derived for many more countries. Conclusion Only 20 countries had high-quality death registration data that could be used for estimating injury mortality because injury deaths were frequently classified using imprecise partially specified categories. Analytical methods that can derive national estimates of injury mortality from alternative data sources are needed for countries without reliable death registration systems. PMID:21076564

  1. Clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial NAD kinase deficiency caused by a NADK2 start loss variant.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Daniel J; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Cogan, Joy; Cooper, David N; Reimschisel, Tyler; Robertson, Amy; Bican, Anna; McGregor, Tracy; Gauthier, Jackie; Millington, David S; Andrae, Jaime L W; Tschannen, Michael R; Helbling, Daniel C; Demos, Wendy M; Denis, Simone; Wanders, Ronald J A; Newman, John N; Hamid, Rizwan; Phillips, John A

    2018-03-01

    Mitochondrial NAD kinase deficiency (NADK2D, OMIM #615787) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of NADPH biosynthesis that can cause hyperlysinemia and dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency (DECRD, OMIM #616034). NADK2 deficiency has been reported in only three unrelated patients. Two had severe, unremitting disease; one died at 4 months and the other at 5 years of age. The third was a 10 year old female with CNS anomalies, ataxia, and incoordination. In two cases mutations in NADK2 have been demonstrated. Here, we report the fourth known case, a 15 year old female with normal intelligence and a mild clinical and biochemical phenotype presumably without DECRD. Her clinical symptoms, which are now stable, became evident at the age of 9 with the onset of decreased visual acuity, bilateral optic atrophy, nystagmus, episodic lower extremity weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and gait abnormalities. Plasma amino acid levels were within normal limits except for mean lysine and proline levels that were 3.7 and 2.5 times the upper limits of normal. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed homozygosity for a g.36241900 A>G p. Met1Val start loss mutation in the primary NADK2 transcript (NM_001085411.1) encoding the 442 amino acid isoform. This presumed hypomorphic mutation has not been previously reported and is absent from the v1000GP, EVS, and ExAC databases. Our patient's normal intelligence and stable disease expands the clinical heterogeneity and the prognosis associated with NADK2 deficiency. Our findings also clarify the mechanism underlying NADK2 deficiency and suggest that this disease should be ruled out in cases of hyperlysinemia, especially those with visual loss, and neurological phenotypes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel mitochondrial orf147 causes cytoplasmic male sterility in pigeonpea by modulating aberrant anther dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Gupta, Ranadheer; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep; Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Sameerkumar, C V; Saxena, Rachit Kumar; Sharma, Kiran K

    2018-05-01

    A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences. The bi/poly-cistronic transcripts cause gain-of-function variants in the mitochondrial genome of CMS pigeonpea lines having distinct processing mechanisms and transcription start sites. In presence of orf147, significant repression of Escherichia coli growth indicated its toxicity to the host cells and induced partial to complete male sterility in transgenic progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum where phenotype co-segregated with the transgene. The male sterile plants showed aberrant floral development and reduced lignin content in the anthers. Gene expression studies in male sterile pigeonpea, Arabidopsis and tobacco plants confirmed down-regulation of several anther biogenesis genes and key genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, indicative of regulation of retrograde signaling. Besides providing evidence for the involvement of orf147 in pigeonpea CMS, this study provides valuable insights into its function. Cytotoxicity and aberrant programmed cell death induced by orf147 could be important for mechanism underlying male sterility that offers opportunities for possible translation for these findings for exploiting hybrid vigor in other recalcitrant crops as well.

  3. UBIAD1 Mutation Alters a Mitochondrial Prenyltransferase to Cause Schnyder Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Michael L.; Kostiha, Brittany N.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Fredericks, William; Xu, Ke-Ping; Yu, Fu-Shin; Gold, Bert; Chodosh, James; Goldberg, Marc; Lu, Da Wen; Yamada, Masakazu; Tervo, Timo M.; Grutzmacher, Richard; Croasdale, Chris; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Sutphin, John; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wessjohann, Ludger; Kruth, Howard S.; Dean, Michael; Weiss, Jayne S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules. Conclusions/Significance Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations

  4. Ketamine Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tokujiro; Makita, Koshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ketamine toxicity has been demonstrated in nonhuman mammalian neurons. To study the toxic effect of ketamine on human neurons, an experimental model of cultured neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was examined, and the mechanism of its toxicity was investigated. Methods Human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were treated with 0, 20, 100 or 500 μM ketamine for 6 and 24 h. Ketamine toxicity was evaluated by quantification of caspase 3/7 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP concentration, neurotransmitter reuptake activity and NADH/NAD+ ratio. Mitochondrial morphological change was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results Twenty-four-hour exposure of iPSC-derived neurons to 500 μM ketamine resulted in a 40% increase in caspase 3/7 activity (P < 0.01), 14% increase in ROS production (P < 0.01), and 81% reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.01), compared with untreated cells. Lower concentration of ketamine (100 μM) decreased the ATP level (22%, P < 0.01) and increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio (46%, P < 0.05) without caspase activation. Transmission electron microscopy showed enhanced mitochondrial fission and autophagocytosis at the 100 μM ketamine concentration, which suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction preceded ROS generation and caspase activation. Conclusions We established an in vitro model for assessing the neurotoxicity of ketamine in iPSC-derived neurons. The present data indicate that the initial mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy may be related to its inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial electron transport system, which underlies ketamine-induced neural toxicity. Higher ketamine concentration can induce ROS generation and apoptosis in human neurons. PMID:26020236

  5. Mutation of the human mitochondrial phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase causes infantile-onset epilepsy and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Abdulraheem; Alston, Charlotte L; Parker, Alasdair; Simonic, Ingrid; Mehta, Sarju G; He, Langping; Reza, Mojgan; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential enzymes in protein synthesis since they charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. Mutations in the genes encoding mitochondrial aaRSs have been associated with a wide spectrum of human mitochondrial diseases. Here we report the identification of pathogenic mutations (a partial genomic deletion and a highly conserved p. Asp325Tyr missense variant) in FARS2, the gene encoding mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, in a patient with early-onset epilepsy and isolated complex IV deficiency in muscle. The biochemical defect was expressed in myoblasts but not in fibroblasts and associated with decreased steady state levels of COXI and COXII protein and reduced steady state levels of the mt-tRNA(Phe) transcript. Functional analysis of the recombinant mutant p. Asp325Tyr FARS2 protein showed an inability to bind ATP and consequently undetectable aminoacylation activity using either bacterial tRNA or human mt-tRNA(Phe) as substrates. Lentiviral transduction of cells with wildtype FARS2 restored complex IV protein levels, confirming that the p.Asp325Tyr mutation is pathogenic, causing respiratory chain deficiency and neurological deficits on account of defective aminoacylation of mt-tRNA(Phe). © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood Injuries--Causes, Preventive Theories and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Provides a priori historical experiences and illustrations of several roles played by health practitioners in applied injury prevention. Reviews various models and assesses their strengths and weaknesses. Suggests guidelines for program management. (Author/CW)

  7. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  8. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17163.001 PMID:27623147

  9. [Vasovagal syncope as a cause of serious body injury - two case reports].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a reflex reaction, leading to marked hypotension and/or bradycardia with transient loss of consciousness and the postural muscle tone. The recovery is spontaneous and usually rapid. Serious body injuries caused by fainting are rare. We present two patients with vasovagal syncope which caused serious injury. Different therapeutic options, including pacemaker implantation, are discussed.

  10. Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Noland, Robert C; Koves, Timothy R; Seiler, Sarah E; Lum, Helen; Lust, Robert M; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D; Hegardt, Fausto G; Muoio, Deborah M

    2009-08-21

    In addition to its essential role in permitting mitochondrial import and oxidation of long chain fatty acids, carnitine also functions as an acyl group acceptor that facilitates mitochondrial export of excess carbons in the form of acylcarnitines. Recent evidence suggests carnitine requirements increase under conditions of sustained metabolic stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that carnitine insufficiency might contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. Consistent with this prediction whole body carnitine diminution was identified as a common feature of insulin-resistant states such as advanced age, genetic diabetes, and diet-induced obesity. In rodents fed a lifelong (12 month) high fat diet, compromised carnitine status corresponded with increased skeletal muscle accumulation of acylcarnitine esters and diminished hepatic expression of carnitine biosynthetic genes. Diminished carnitine reserves in muscle of obese rats was accompanied by marked perturbations in mitochondrial fuel metabolism, including low rates of complete fatty acid oxidation, elevated incomplete beta-oxidation, and impaired substrate switching from fatty acid to pyruvate. These mitochondrial abnormalities were reversed by 8 weeks of oral carnitine supplementation, in concert with increased tissue efflux and urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine and improvement of whole body glucose tolerance. Acetylcarnitine is produced by the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). A role for this enzyme in combating glucose intolerance was further supported by the finding that CrAT overexpression in primary human skeletal myocytes increased glucose uptake and attenuated lipid-induced suppression of glucose oxidation. These results implicate carnitine insufficiency and reduced CrAT activity as reversible components of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Carnitine Insufficiency Caused by Aging and Overnutrition Compromises Mitochondrial Performance and Metabolic Control*

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Robert C.; Koves, Timothy R.; Seiler, Sarah E.; Lum, Helen; Lust, Robert M.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Hegardt, Fausto G.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its essential role in permitting mitochondrial import and oxidation of long chain fatty acids, carnitine also functions as an acyl group acceptor that facilitates mitochondrial export of excess carbons in the form of acylcarnitines. Recent evidence suggests carnitine requirements increase under conditions of sustained metabolic stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that carnitine insufficiency might contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. Consistent with this prediction whole body carnitine dimunition was identified as a common feature of insulin-resistant states such as advanced age, genetic diabetes, and diet-induced obesity. In rodents fed a lifelong (12 month) high fat diet, compromised carnitine status corresponded with increased skeletal muscle accumulation of acylcarnitine esters and diminished hepatic expression of carnitine biosynthetic genes. Diminished carnitine reserves in muscle of obese rats was accompanied by marked perturbations in mitochondrial fuel metabolism, including low rates of complete fatty acid oxidation, elevated incomplete β-oxidation, and impaired substrate switching from fatty acid to pyruvate. These mitochondrial abnormalities were reversed by 8 weeks of oral carnitine supplementation, in concert with increased tissue efflux and urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine and improvement of whole body glucose tolerance. Acetylcarnitine is produced by the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). A role for this enzyme in combating glucose intolerance was further supported by the finding that CrAT overexpression in primary human skeletal myocytes increased glucose uptake and attenuated lipid-induced suppression of glucose oxidation. These results implicate carnitine insufficiency and reduced CrAT activity as reversible components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19553674

  12. Evaluation of playground injuries based on ICD, E codes, international classification of external cause of injury codes (ICECI), and abbreviated injury scale coding systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, N C; Ang, A; Heng, D; Chen, J; Wong, H B

    2007-01-01

    The survey is aimed to describe the epidemiology of playground related injuries in Singapore based on the ICD-9, AIS/ ISS and PTS scoring systems, and mechanisms and causes of such injuries according to E codes and ICECI codes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey examined children (< 16 years old), who sought treatment for or died of unintentional injuries in the ED of three hospitals, two primary care centers and the sole Forensic Medicine Department of Singapore. A data dictionary was compiled using guidelines from CDC/WHO. The ISS, AIS and PTS, ICD-9, ICECI v1 and E codes were used to describe the details of the injuries. 19,094 childhood injuries were recorded in the database, of which 1617 were playground injuries (8.5%). The injured children (mean age=6.8 years, SD 2.9 years) were predo-minantly male (M:F ratio = 1.71:1). Falls were the most frequent in-juries (70.7%) using ICECI. 25.0% of injuries involved radial and ulnar fractures (ICD-9 code). 99.4% of these injuries were minor, with PTS scores of 9-12. Children aged 6-10 years, were prone to upper limb injuries (71.1%) based on AIS. The use of international coding systems in injury surveillance facilitated standardisation of description and comparison of playground injuries.

  13. A mitochondrial tRNA(His) gene mutation causing pigmentary retinopathy and neurosensorial deafness.

    PubMed

    Crimi, M; Galbiati, S; Perini, M P; Bordoni, A; Malferrari, G; Sciacco, M; Biunno, I; Strazzer, S; Moggio, M; Bresolin, N; Comi, G P

    2003-04-08

    We have identified a heteroplasmic G to A mutation at position 12,183 of the mitochondrial transfer RNA Histidine (tRNA(His)) gene in three related patients. These phenotypes varied according to mutation heteroplasmy: one had severe pigmentary retinopathy, neurosensorial deafness, testicular dysfunction, muscle hypotrophy, and ataxia; the other two had only retinal and inner ear involvement. The mutation is in a highly conserved region of the T(psi)C stem of the tRNA(His) gene and may alter secondary structure formation. This is the first described pathogenic, maternally inherited mutation of the mitochondrial tRNA(His) gene.

  14. General anesthetics cause mitochondrial dysfunction and reduction of intracellular ATP levels

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Inoue, Yuki; Fujikawa, Makoto; Nishimura, Kenji; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Imamura, Hiromi

    2018-01-01

    General anesthetics are indispensable for effective clinical care. Although, the mechanism of action of general anesthetics remains controversial, lipid bilayers and proteins have been discussed as their targets. In this study, we focused on the relationship between cellular ATP levels and general anesthetics. The ATP levels of nematodes and cultured mammalian cells were decreased by exposure to three general anesthetics: isoflurane, pentobarbital, and 1-phenoxy-2-propanol. Furthermore, these general anesthetics abolished mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. These results suggest that the observed decrease of cellular ATP level is a common phenomenon of general anesthetics. PMID:29298324

  15. Risk and Protective Factors for Cause-Specific Mortality After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Krause, James S; Cao, Yue; DeVivo, Michael J; DiPiro, Nicole D

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the association of multiple sets of risk and protective factors (biographic and injury, socioeconomic, health) with cause-specific mortality after spinal cord injury (SCI). Retrospective analysis of a prospectively created cohort. Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems facilities. Adults (N=8157) with traumatic SCI who were enrolled in a model systems facility after 1973 and received follow-up evaluation that included all study covariates (between November 1, 1995 and October 31, 2006). Not applicable. All-cause mortality was determined using the Social Security Death Index as of January 1, 2014. Causes of death were obtained from the National Death Index and classified as infective and parasitic diseases, neoplasms, respiratory system diseases, heart and blood vessel diseases, external causes, and other causes. Competing risk analysis, with time-dependent covariates, was performed with hazard ratios (HRs) for each cause of death. The HRs for injury severity indicators were highest for deaths due to respiratory system diseases (highest HR for injury level C1-4, 4.84) and infective and parasitic diseases (highest HR for American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade A, 5.70). In contrast, injury level and American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade were relatively unrelated to death due to neoplasms and external causes. Of the socioeconomic indicators, education and income were significantly predictive of a number of causes of death. Pressure ulcers were the only 1 of 4 secondary health condition indicators consistently related to cause of death. Injury severity was related to mortality due to infective disease and respiratory complications, suggesting that those with the most severe SCI should be targeted for prevention of these causes. Socioeconomic and health factors were more broadly related to a number of causes of death. Intervention strategies that enhance socioeconomic status and health may also result in reduced mortality

  16. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducted protein inhalation causes lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, T. A.; Kharbanda, K. K.; McCaskill, M. L.; Tuma, D. J.; Yanov, D.; DeVasure, J.; Sisson, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to cigarette smoking, alcohol exposure is also associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. However, little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and cigarette smoke on lungs. Previously, we have demonstrated in a mouse model that the combination of cigarette smoke and alcohol exposure results in the formation of a very stable hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-adducted protein in the lung. In in vitro studies, MAA-adducted protein stimulates bronchial epithelial cell interleukin-8 via the activation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). We hypothesized that direct MAA-adducted protein exposure in the lungs would mimic such a combination of smoke and alcohol exposure leading to airway inflammation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J female mice were intranasally instilled with either saline, 30 µL of 50 µg/mL BSA-MAA, or unadducted BSA for up to 3 wk. Likewise, human lung surfactant proteins A and D (SPA, SPD) were purified from human pulmonary proteinosis lung lavage fluid and successfully MAA-adducted in vitro. Similar to BSA-MAA, SPD-MAA was instilled into mouse lungs. Lungs were necropsied and assayed for histopathology, PKCε activation, and lung lavage chemokines. In control mice instilled with saline, normal lungs had few inflammatory cells. No significant effects were observed in un-adducted BSA- or SPD-instilled mice. However, when mice were instilled with BSA-MAA or SPD-MAA for 3 wk, a significant peribronchiolar localization of inflammatory cells was observed. Both BSA-MAA and SPD-MAA stimulated increased lung lavage neutrophils and caused a significant elevation in the chemokine, KC, which is a functional homologue to human interleukin-8. Likewise, MAA-adducted protein stimulated the activation of airway and lung slice PKCε. These data support that MAA-adducted protein induces a pro-inflammatory response in the lungs and that lung surfactant protein is a biologically

  17. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  18. [Anal sphincter injury caused by falling off a trampoline].

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    A girl of preschool age fell off a trampoline in a sitting position onto an iron bar sticking up from the ground. In addition to a laceration of the terminal portion of the rectum, she was found to have a severe sphincter injury. The sphincters were repaired by a surgeon the next morning. After one month from the surgery the anal canal pressure was found to be symmetrical with good contractile force of the sphincters. No abnormalities were found in a contrast study or in rectoscopy. The protective stoma was closed after three months from the injury and fecal continence was normal after one and a half years.

  19. Hemin causes mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells through promoting lipid peroxidation: the protective role of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Ashlee N.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Chacko, Balu K.; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Johnson, Michelle S.; Landar, Aimee; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The hemolysis of red blood cells and muscle damage results in the release of the heme proteins myoglobin, hemoglobin, and free heme into the vasculature. The mechanisms of heme toxicity are not clear but may involve lipid peroxidation, which we hypothesized would result in mitochondrial damage in endothelial cells. To test this, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in culture and exposed them to hemin. Hemin led to mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of autophagy, mitophagy, and, at high concentrations, apoptosis. To detect whether hemin induced lipid peroxidation and damaged proteins, we used derivatives of arachidonic acid tagged with biotin or Bodipy (Bt-AA, BD-AA). We found that in cells treated with hemin, Bt-AA was oxidized and formed adducts with proteins, which were inhibited by α-tocopherol. Hemin-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction was also attenuated by α-tocopherol. Protein thiol modification and carbonyl formation occurred on exposure and was not inhibited by α-tocopherol. Supporting a protective role of autophagy, the inhibitor 3-methyladenine potentiated cell death. These data demonstrate that hemin mediates cytotoxicity through a mechanism which involves protein modification by oxidized lipids and other oxidants, decreased respiratory capacity, and a protective role for the autophagic process. Attenuation of lipid peroxidation may be able to preserve mitochondrial function in the endothelium and protect cells from heme-dependent toxicity. PMID:22245770

  20. A mitochondrial mutator plasmid that causes senescence under dietary restricted conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Marc FPM; Hoekstra, Rolf F; Debets, Alfons JM

    2007-01-01

    Background Calorie or dietary restriction extends life span in a wide range of organisms including the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Under dietary restricted conditions, P. anserina isolates are several-fold longer lived. This is however not the case in isolates that carry one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. Results We show that the pAL2-1 homologues act as 'insertional mutators' of the mitochondrial genome, which may explain their negative effect on life span extension. Sequencing revealed at least fourteen unique plasmid integration sites, of which twelve were located within the mitochondrial genome and two within copies of the plasmid itself. The plasmids were able to integrate in their entirety, via a non-homologous mode of recombination. Some of the integrated plasmid copies were truncated, which probably resulted from secondary, post-integrative, recombination processes. Integration sites were predominantly located within and surrounding the region containing the mitochondrial rDNA loci. Conclusion We propose a model for the mechanism of integration, based on innate modes of mtDNA recombination, and discuss its possible link with the plasmid's negative effect on dietary restriction mediated life span extension. PMID:17407571

  1. Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Mitochondria Caused by Copper Deficiency May Be Insufficient to Damage Mitochondrial Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Copper (Cu) deficiency may promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondrial electron transport chain through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) and increased reduction of respiratory complexes upstream from CCO. In the present study, respiration, H2O2 production and...

  2. Cranial injury caused by penetrating non-missile foreign body: an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Toprak Ergönen, A; Gündogmus, U N

    2012-10-01

    Presented case was 32-year-old male marble worker, who underwent industrial accident at workplace. On gross physical examination; on forehead region round skin wound in 0.9 cm diameter was detected, radiological examination showed the image of metallic object. in the skull cavity. Brain dissection showed obvious brain injury, haemorrahge explaining the pattern of injury caused by the metallic bodys path, from left frontal lobe to the left cerebellar hemisphere was identified. We presented rare case of penetrating injury of the cranial region caused by non-missile foreign body. cranial injury - non-missile foreign body - autopsy.

  3. [Work injuries of 13-17-year-old Icelanders: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Einarsdottir, Margret; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate work injuries among 13-17-year-old teenagers in Iceland, their causes and seriousness. Firstly, the prevalence of work injuries among the age-group is examined, as is the length of their absence from work, as well as the gender and age differences of both factors. Secondly, the type and the cause of the injuries are investigated. Thirdly, the most serious injuries and their causes are studied further. A survey was carried out amongst 2000 teenagers, aged 13-17, randomly selected from the Registers Iceland. The response rate was 48.4%. The teenagers were asked in a closed question about whether they had had an accident at work, and in an open one about the type and cause of the injury. A Chi-square test was used to test statistical significance: 95% confidence interval (CI). A fifth of the young people had had an accident at work, one quarter of the injured workers were absent from work because of the injury of which 5.9% for more than a week. The percentage of injured workers increases with age and has reached 30,7% among the 17-year-olds. Cuts and sprains were the most common injuries, whereas back injuries and bone fractures caused the longest absences. Sharp instruments were the most common cause of an injury, but lifting/carrying a (heavy) object as well as a fall of an object caused the longest absences. The prevalence of young workers' injuries and the seriousness of some of these injuries are of concern. In addition to education on occupational health and safety (OHS) and OHS training, future research must analyse if their labour market position threaten the young people's safety, and if it is the case, how to prevent it.

  4. S-52, a novel nootropic compound, protects against β-amyloid induced neuronal injury by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Qin, Guo Wei; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may initiate and contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of S-52, a novel nootropic compound, on Aβ-induced mitochondrial failure. In an established paradigm of moderate cellular injury induced by Aβ, S-52 was observed to attenuate the toxicity of Aβ to energy metabolism, mitochondrial membrane structure, and key enzymes in the electron transport chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, S-52 also effectively inhibited reactive oxygen species accumulation dose dependently not only in Aβ-harmed cells but also in unharmed, normal cells. The role of S-52 as a scavenger of free radicals is involved in the antioxidative effect of this compound. The beneficial effects on mitochondria and oxidative stress extend the neuroprotective effects of S-52. The present study provides crucial information for better understanding the beneficial profiles of this compound and discovering novel potential drug candidates for AD therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Defective mitochondrial RNA processing due to PNPT1 variants causes Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matilainen, Sanna; Carroll, Christopher J; Richter, Uwe; Euro, Liliya; Pohjanpelto, Max; Paetau, Anders; Isohanni, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Anu

    2017-09-01

    Leigh syndrome is a severe infantile encephalopathy with an exceptionally variable genetic background. We studied the exome of a child manifesting with Leigh syndrome at one month of age and progressing to death by the age of 2.4 years, and identified novel compound heterozygous variants in PNPT1, encoding the polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Expression of the wild type PNPT1 in the subject's myoblasts functionally complemented the defects, and the pathogenicity was further supported by structural predictions and protein and RNA analyses. PNPase is a key enzyme in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, with suggested roles in mitochondrial RNA import and degradation. The variants were predicted to locate in the PNPase active site and disturb the RNA processing activity of the enzyme. The PNPase trimer formation was not affected, but specific RNA processing intermediates derived from mitochondrial transcripts of the ND6 subunit of Complex I, as well as small mRNA fragments, accumulated in the subject's myoblasts. Mitochondrial RNA processing mediated by the degradosome consisting of hSUV3 and PNPase is poorly characterized, and controversy on the role and location of PNPase within human mitochondria exists. Our evidence indicates that PNPase activity is essential for the correct maturation of the ND6 transcripts, and likely for the efficient removal of degradation intermediates. Loss of its activity will result in combined respiratory chain deficiency, and a classic respiratory chain-deficiency-associated disease, Leigh syndrome, indicating an essential role for the enzyme for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Leigh syndrome caused by a novel m.4296G>A mutation in mitochondrial tRNA isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rachel; Platt, Julia; Chen, Li Chieh; Tang, Sha; Wong, Lee-Jun; Enns, Gregory M

    2012-03-01

    Leigh syndrome is a severe neurodegenerative disease with heterogeneous genetic etiology. We report a novel m.4296G>A variant in the mitochondrial tRNA isoleucine gene in a child with Leigh syndrome, mitochondrial proliferation, lactic acidosis, and abnormal respiratory chain enzymology. The variant is present at >75% heteroplasmy in blood and cultured fibroblasts from the proband, <5% in asymptomatic maternal relatives, and is absent in 3000 controls. It is located in the highly conserved anticodon region of tRNA(Ile) where three other pathogenic changes have been described. We conclude that there is strong evidence to classify m.4296G>A as a pathogenic mutation causing Leigh syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Motorcycle accident is the main cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hasnah; Iqbal, Syed

    2011-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are among the commonest forms of body injuries. There are three divisions, namely, facial bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, and dentoalveolar injuries. Etiologies include motor vehicle accidents, assaults, falls, and sporting injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles including the causes of maxillofacial injuries seen in an urban government hospital in the mainland of Penang State, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited cases reported within a period of 1 year. The source population was maxillofacial injury patients presenting to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of an urban hospital in the Penang Mainland, North Malaysia between May 2007 and May 2008. Cases of patients involved in accidents that occurred outside the reference vicinity were excluded. A case report form was developed and completed by the attending clinicians. Data were analyzed using spss version 12.0. A total of 194 cases were studied, with the mean patient age being 27.8 (SD 15.20) years. The majority of patients were Malay men between 20 and 29 years of age. The main cause of injury was motorcycle accident (53.6%). The commonest injury (in isolation/combination with other injuries) involved the soft tissues (87.2%), dentoalveolar region (33.4%), and facial bones (23.9%). Laceration was the commonest soft tissue injury, and crown fracture was the most frequent dentoalveolar injury. The facial bone that was most highly involved in the injury was the zygoma. Subjects involved in motorcycle accidents had a significantly higher incidence of sustaining facial bone fractures. Motorcycle accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia. Most patients were young men. Hence, it is prudent to reinforce appropriate road safety and awareness interventions particularly focusing young male motorcyclists so as to reduce the risk of accidents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Overview of causes and costs of injuries in Massachusetts: a methodology for analysis of state data.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, M; Cohen, B B; Rodgers, C G; Walker, D K; Friedman, D J; Ozonoff, V V

    1995-01-01

    Massachusetts has developed the first State profile of the causes and costs of injury based on the national study, "Cost of Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress." Incidence of fatal injuries is based on Massachusetts data; nonfatal hospitalized injuries, on Massachusetts age and sex rates and U.S. cause data; and nonhospitalized injuries, on U.S. rates applied to Massachusetts census data. Lifetime costs per injured person are based on national data adjusted for higher personal health care expenditures and for higher mean annual earnings in Massachusetts. The estimated total lifetime cost for the 1.4 million injuries that occurred in 1989 is $4.4 billion--$1.7 billion for health care and $2.7 billion for lost earnings. Injuries attributed to motor vehicles and falls account for more than half of the total cost. The other cause categories are poisonings, fire-burns, firearms, drowings-near drownings, and other. For every person who dies from an injury, 17 people are hospitalized, and an estimated 535 people require outpatient treatment, consultation, or restricted activity. Development of a State-based cost report can be useful in monitoring the contribution of injuries to health status and in planning effective injury prevention strategies in a community-based health care system. The methodology described in this paper can be replicated by other States through accessing their State-specific mortality and hospital discharge data bases. PMID:7610211

  9. What are the Causes of Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a New Light An Honest Wheelchair Love Story Seven Helpful Smart Home Devices for People With Disabilities Can’t Work Because of a Spinal Cord Injury? Tags accessibility accident ADA adaptive adaptive equipment Adaptive technology Americans with Disabilities Act Ben Mattlin caregiver Cerebral ...

  10. Ursolic acid improves podocyte injury caused by high glucose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Fan, Qiuling; Wang, Xu; Li, Lin; Lu, Xinxing; Yue, Yuan; Cao, Xu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Lining

    2017-08-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of podocyte homeostasis. Reduced autophagy may result in limited renal cell function during exposure to high glucose conditions. In this study we investigated the effects of ursolic acid (UA) on autophagy and podocyte injury, which were induced by high glucose. Conditionally immortalized murine podocytes were cultured in media supplemented with high glucose and the effects of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and UA on protein expression were determined. miR-21 expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Activation of the PTEN-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, expression of autophagy-related proteins and expression of podocyte marker proteins were determined by western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to monitor the accumulation of LC3 puncta. Autophagosomes were also observed by transmission electron microscopy. During exposure to high glucose conditions, the normal level of autophagy was reduced in podocytes, and this defective autophagy induced podocyte injury. Increased miR-21 expression, decreased PTEN expression and abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were observed in cells that were cultured in high glucose conditions. UA and LY294002 reduced podocyte injury through the restoration of defective autophagy. Our data suggest that UA inhibits miR-21 expression and increases PTEN expression, which in turn inhibits Akt and mTOR and restores normal levels of autophagy. Our data suggest that podocyte injury is associated with reduced levels of autophagy during exposure to high glucose conditions, UA attenuated podocyte injury via an increase in autophagy through miR-21 inhibition and PTEN expression, which inhibit the abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-associated deoxysphingolipids cause neurotoxicity, acute calcium handling abnormalities and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma R; Kugathasan, Umaiyal; Abramov, Andrey Y; Clark, Alex J; Bennett, David L H; Reilly, Mary M; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2018-05-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism. In this study, we show that exogenous application of these deoxysphingoid bases causes dose- and time-dependent neurotoxicity in primary mammalian neurons, as determined by analysis of cell survival and neurite length. Acutely, deoxysphingoid base neurotoxicity manifests in abnormal Ca 2+ handling by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria as well as dysregulation of cell membrane store-operated Ca 2+ channels. The changes in intracellular Ca 2+ handling are accompanied by an early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in deoxysphingoid base-treated motor and sensory neurons. Thus, these results suggest that exogenous deoxysphingoid base application causes neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and Ca 2+ handling deficits, which may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HSN-1. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CaMKII determines mitochondrial stress responses in heart

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Koval, Olha M.; Jingdong, Li; He, B. Julie; Allamargot, Chantal; Gao, Zhan; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Hall, Duane D.; Fink, Brian D.; Chen, Biyi; Yang, Jinying; Moore, Steven A.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Strack, Stefan; Mohler, Peter J.; Sivitz, William I.; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial cell death is initiated by excessive mitochondrial Ca2+ entry, causing Ca2+ overload, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and dissipation of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm)1,2. However, the signaling pathways that control mitochondrial Ca2+ entry through the inner membrane mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU)3–5 are not known. The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated in ischemia reperfusion (I/R), myocardial infarction (MI) and neurohumoral injury, common causes of myocardial death and heart failure, suggesting CaMKII could couple disease stress to mitochondrial injury. Here we show that CaMKII promotes mPTP opening and myocardial death by increasing MCU current (IMCU). Mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibitory protein or cyclosporin A (CsA), an mPTP antagonist with clinical efficacy in I/R injury6, equivalently prevent mPTP opening, ΔΨm deterioration and diminish mitochondrial disruption and programmed cell death in response to I/R injury. Mice with myocardial and mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition are resistant to I/R injury, MI and neurohumoral injury, suggesting pathological actions of CaMKII are substantially mediated by increasing IMCU. Our findings identify CaMKII activity as a central mechanism for mitochondrial Ca2+ entry and suggest mitochondrial-targeted CaMKII inhibition could prevent or reduce myocardial death and heart failure dysfunction in response to common experimental forms of pathophysiological stress. PMID:23051746

  13. Fructose 1-6 bisphosphate versus University of Wisconsin solution for rat liver preservation: does FBP prevent early mitochondrial injury?

    PubMed

    de Fraga, R S; Heinen, P E T; Kruel, C R P; Molin, S D; Mota, S M; Cerski, C T S; Gasperin, G; Souto, A A; de Oliveira, J R; Alvares-da-Silva, M R

    2011-06-01

    Fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP) has been shown to exert therapeutic effects in models of ischemia-reperfusion in organs other than the liver. This study compared FBP and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution during cold storage and reperfusion, among mitochondria of adult male Wistar rat livers. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups according to the preservation solution used; UW or FBP Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT); and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in samples of the storage solution obtained at 2, 4 and 6 hours of preservation. After 6 hours of cold storage, we reperfused the liver, taking blood samples to measure AST, ALT, LDH, and throbarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Hepatic fragments were processed for histologic analysis; for determinations of TBARS, catalase, and nitric oxide as well as for mitochondrial evaluation by infrared spectroscopy. During cold preservation, levels of AST and LDH in the storage solution were lower among the FBP group, but after reperfusion, serum levels of AST, ALT, and LDH were higher in this group, as was catalase activity. TBARS and nitric oxide were comparable between the groups. In the UW group there was a higher amide I/amide II ratio than in the FBP group, suggesting an abnormal protein structure of the mitochondrial membrane. No signs of preservation injury were observed in any liver biopsy, but sinusoidal congestion was present in livers preserved with FBP. FBP showed a protective effect for preservation during cold storage seeming to protect the mitochondrial membrane although it did not prevent reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oncostatin M (OSM) protects against cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice by regulating apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Shuang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wei, Liping; Qin, Xing; Gao, Erhe

    2015-06-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) exhibits many unique biological activities by activating Oβ receptor. However, its role in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic mice remains unknown. The involvement of OSM was assessed in diabetic mice which underwent myocardial I/R injury by OSM treatment or genetic deficiency of OSM receptor Oβ. Its mechanism on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity were further studied. OSM alleviated cardiac I/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of inositol pyrophosphate 7 (IP7) production, thus activating PI3K/Akt/BAD pathway, decreasing Bax expression while up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in db/db mice. OSM enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in db/db mice subjected to cardiac I/R injury. On the contrary, OSM receptor Oβ knockout exacerbated cardiac I/R injury, increased IP7 production, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose homoeostasis and insulin sensitivity in cardiac I/R injured diabetic mice. Inhibition of IP7 production by TNP (IP6K inhibitor) exerted similar effects of OSM. The mechanism of OSM on cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice is partly associated with IP7/Akt and adenine mononucleotide protein kinase/PGC-1α pathway. OSM protects against cardiac I/R Injury by regulating apoptosis, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic mice through inhibition of IP7 production. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. [Leigh syndrome caused by the mitochondrial DNA G14459A mutation in a Mexican family].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Saldaña-Martínez, A; García-Ramírez, R; Rayo-Mares, D; Carreras, M; López-Pérez, M J; Ruiz-Pesini, E; Montoya, J; Montiel-Sosa, J F

    Leigh syndrome is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease that appears usually in childhood due to defects in nuclear or mitochondrial genome. The mutation G14459A in mitochondrial DNA has been associated previously to Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and recently to Leigh syndrome. A 10 months-old Mexican girl diagnosed of Leigh syndrome. Molecular-genetic studies detected the mutation G14459A in a percentage close to homoplasmy and in low heteroplasmy in her mother. The rest of the maternally related family members analyzed were negative. The G14459A mutation, although not very frequently associated to Leigh syndrome, should be analyzed in patients that do not present the most common point mutations.

  16. Lipoic acid synthetase deficiency causes neonatal-onset epilepsy, defective mitochondrial energy metabolism, and glycine elevation.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Fauth, Christine; Bergheim, Christa; Meierhofer, David; Radmayr, Doris; Zschocke, Johannes; Koch, Johannes; Sperl, Wolfgang

    2011-12-09

    Lipoic acid is an essential prosthetic group of four mitochondrial enzymes involved in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and branched chain amino acids and in the glycine cleavage. Lipoic acid is synthesized stepwise within mitochondria through a process that includes lipoic acid synthetase. We identified the homozygous mutation c.746G>A (p.Arg249His) in LIAS in an individual with neonatal-onset epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, lactic acidosis, and elevated glycine concentration in plasma and urine. Investigation of the mitochondrial energy metabolism showed reduced oxidation of pyruvate and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity. A pronounced reduction of the prosthetic group lipoamide was found in lipoylated proteins. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact Injury Caused by Linear Acceleration: Mechanisms, Prevention and Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-29

    lying in a ventral position to the flexion axis failed by fracture as a result of stress-loading. On the other hand, on the thoracic spinal column...the dorsal ligamentous structures showed signs of stress-1oading and the ventral bony structures showed signs of pressure-1oading. of the most...anguiation upon impact. Are you consider- ing different angulations of the neck-torso to get more cervical injuries which would be expected? AUTHOR’S

  18. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  19. Biotin starvation causes mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation and partial rescue by the SIRT3-like deacetylase Hst4p

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Christian T.; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B.; Young, Clifford; Larsen, Sara C.; Poulsen, Jon W.; Andersen, Marianne A.; Palmqvist, Eva A.; Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jensen, Per B.; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lisby, Michael; Nielsen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The essential vitamin biotin is a covalent and tenaciously attached prosthetic group in several carboxylases that play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism. Here we describe increased acetyl-CoA levels and mitochondrial hyperacetylation as downstream metabolic effects of biotin deficiency. Upregulated mitochondrial acetylation sites correlate with the cellular deficiency of the Hst4p deacetylase, and a biotin-starvation-induced accumulation of Hst4p in mitochondria supports a role for Hst4p in lowering mitochondrial acetylation. We show that biotin starvation and knockout of Hst4p cause alterations in cellular respiration and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that Hst4p plays a pivotal role in biotin metabolism and cellular energy homeostasis, and supports that Hst4p is a functional yeast homologue of the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3. With biotin deficiency being involved in various metabolic disorders, this study provides valuable insight into the metabolic effects biotin exerts on eukaryotic cells. PMID:26158509

  20. The mitochondrial DNA 10197 G > A mutation causes MELAS/Leigh overlap syndrome presenting with acute auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yinglin; Liu, Yuhe; Fang, Xiaojing; Li, Yao; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Yun; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes/Leigh (MELAS/LS) overlap syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder subtype with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that are characteristic of both MELAS and Leigh syndrome (LS). Here, we report an MELAS/LS case presenting with cortical deafness and seizures. Cranial MRI revealed multiple lesions involving bilateral temporal lobes, the basal ganglia and the brainstem, which conformed to neuroimaging features of both MELAS and LS. Whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and PCR-RFLP revealed a de novo heteroplasmic m.10197 G > A mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene (ND3), which was predicted to cause an alanine to threonine substitution at amino acid 47. Although the mtDNA m.10197 G > A mutation has been reported in association with LS, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia, it has never been linked with MELAS/LS overlap syndrome. Our patient therefore expands the phenotypic spectrum of the mtDNA m.10197 G > A mutation.

  1. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-02-01

    Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients' knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury.

  2. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. Objectives: This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients’ knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Conclusions: Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury. PMID:27218040

  3. Missiles in the heart causing coronary artery disease 44 years after injury.

    PubMed

    Seipelt, R G; Vazquez-Jimenez, J F; Messmer, B J

    2000-09-01

    We present a case of two missiles in the heart causing coronary artery disease with first onset 44 years after the injury. The missiles were close to the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery. The missiles initiated local arteriosclerosis in these vessels, with an extremely stretched time frame from injury to the onset of symptoms for coronary artery disease.

  4. Attitudes toward People with Disabilities Caused by Illness or Injury: Beyond Physical Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Heruti, Irit; Berkovitz, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in attitudes toward and reactions to individuals with comparable disabilities caused by injury or illness. Participants were students and healthcare professionals randomly assigned to read one of eight vignettes constructed in a between-subjects, full-factorial design: 2 (illness/injury)x2 (male/female)x2…

  5. Penetrating ballistic-like frontal brain injury caused by a metallic rod.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J M; Navas, M; Carrasco, R

    2009-06-01

    Penetrating non-missile intracranial injuries caused by metallic foreign bodies are very rare among the civilian population. We present a unique instance of a severe, high-energy, penetrating orbitocranial injury caused by a solid metallic rod that corresponded to the spray valve lever handle of a kitchen sink pre-rinse spray tap, which was fractured and projected at high speed for an unknown reason. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high-energy, penetrating brain injury caused by such an object. After careful radiological evaluation of the shape and position of the foreign object, a combined right frontal craniotomy and supraorbital osteotomy was performed in order to achieve safe removal of the metal bar. Successful surgical treatment of an orbitocranial injury caused by a similar object has not previously been reported.

  6. Penetrating maxillary sinus injury caused by a construction nail passing through the orbital cavity.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Tekin; Demir, Bulent; Yosma, Engin; Keles, Musa K; Abdullayev, Asef

    2014-03-01

    Because of its anatomic position, the orbit is frequently subject to trauma, leading to functional and cosmetic problems. After blunt trauma, orbital fractures can cause functional problems by trapping the periocular tissues without affecting the anatomic integrity of the globe. In comparison, high-energy penetrating injuries can cause serious consequences such as disrupting the lacrimal drainage system and causing loss of vision. In rare cases, however, penetration of the orbit by a foreign body can result in a treatable injury that causes no functional or cosmetic problems.This article presents a patient in whom a nail penetrated the orbit from the inferomedial margin and reached the maxillary sinus without damaging the globe, extraocular muscles, or lacrimal duct system. Reports of similar injuries are reviewed, focusing on the anatomic structures that might be traumatized, to guide the readers in considering the diagnosis and treatment of such injuries.

  7. The chicken or the egg: mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of toxicity in Huntington’s disease

    DOE PAGES

    Polyzos, Aris A.; McMurray, Cynthia T.

    2016-09-12

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing oxidative damage is typically thought to be a primary cause of Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson disease. There is little doubt that mitochondria (MT) become defective as neurons die, yet whether MT defects are the primary cause or a detrimental consequence of toxicity remains unanswered. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis provide sensitive and informative measures of the functional status MT and the cells metabolic regulation, yet these measures differ depending on the sample source; species, tissue type, age at measurement, and whether MT are measured in purified form or in a cell. The effectsmore » of these various parameters are difficult to quantify and not fully understood, but clearly have an impact on interpreting the bioenergetics of MT or their failure in disease states. A major goal of the review is to discuss issues and coalesce detailed information into a reference table to help in assessing mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of Huntington's disease.« less

  8. The chicken or the egg: mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of toxicity in Huntington’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Aris A.; McMurray, Cynthia T.

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing oxidative damage is typically thought to be a primary cause of Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson disease. There is little doubt that mitochondria (MT) become defective as neurons die, yet whether MT defects are the primary cause or a detrimental consequence of toxicity remains unanswered. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis provide sensitive and informative measures of the functional status MT and the cells metabolic regulation, yet these measures differ depending on the sample source; species, tissue type, age at measurement, and whether MT are measured in purified form or in a cell. The effectsmore » of these various parameters are difficult to quantify and not fully understood, but clearly have an impact on interpreting the bioenergetics of MT or their failure in disease states. A major goal of the review is to discuss issues and coalesce detailed information into a reference table to help in assessing mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of Huntington's disease.« less

  9. [Status quo and influencing factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province].

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin-fang; Dong, Xiao-mei; Song, Zhuo-ping; Jiang, Ming-xu; Wang, Chang; Wang, Sheng-yong

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the epidemiology status and risk factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to identify 1530 subjects with disabilities (among them, 415 disabilities caused by injury), in the villages or districts in the four regions of Guangzhou, Qingyuan, Zhaoqing and Huizhou in 2010. Subjects were interviewed by trained staff with self-made questionnaires about the status of the disabled, then 415 disabled caused by injury were interviewed about the process of the injury causing disability. The variables in this survey included gender, regions, rural (urban) residences, occupation, age and injury style. The difference of injury were analyzed through χ(2) test, and the influencing factors were explored through classification tree model. The top five causes of disability were road traffic injury, fall, work-related injury, medical accident, scald or burn, accounting for 32.53% (135/415), 21.45% (89/415), 12.77% (53/415), 8.43% (35/415) and 5.06% (21/415), respectively. The proportion of male was higher than female in all disabilities caused by injury (295 male, 117 female, 3 unknown). Female had higher proportion 8.55% (10/117) than male 3.05% (9/295) with the cause of scald or burn (χ(2) = 6.302, P = 0.012), the proportion of rural residents 38.89%(84/216)was also higher than urban residents 25.63% (51/199) in disabilities caused by traffic accident (χ(2) = 43.850, P < 0.001); and the proportion of rural residents 25.46%(55/216)was also higher than urban residents 8.55% (34/199) in disabilities caused by the fall (χ(2) = 8.257, P = 0.004). Different age groups and regions had different types of injury causing disability, 53.08% (69/130) traffic accident and 51.92% (27/52) work-injury mainly caused disability in 25 - 44 age group, 85.71% (30/35) medical accident and 76.20% (16/21) scald or burn mainly caused disability in 0 - 14 age group, the injury caused by the fall was 62.50% (5/8) in 65- age

  10. SIRT3 protects hepatocytes from oxidative injury by enhancing ROS scavenging and mitochondrial integrity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidences of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been recognized in most of clinical and experimental liver diseases. SIRT3, a member of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, is mainly localized in mitochondria. So far, the role of SIRT3 in protecting hepatocytes against oxidative stress rema...

  11. [Gangrene of the right colon after blast injury caused by abdominal gunshot wounds].

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Dragan; Misović, Sidor; Jevtić, Miodrag

    2005-06-01

    To present a patient with an indirect secondary non-perforating blast injury of the right colon following abdominal gunshot injury, which led to necrosis and the right colon gangrene, and was surgically managed. A 26-year-old male was shot in the abdomen by four projectiles causing the secondary indirect blast injury of the right colon that turned into gangrene after 24 hours. Two days after admission, laparotomy was performed, but the primary anastomosis was not done because of the stomach and pancreatic injury, and the resection of the colon with terminal ileostomy was done instead. Three months later, the reconstruction of the colon was performed using ileocolotransverso-terminolatetral anastomosis. Secondary blast injuries should be anticipated in gunshot injuries, and could be expected to any organs, particularly the air filled ones.

  12. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

  13. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research.

  14. A case of perforating injury of eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Han; Yichun, Kong

    2016-01-01

    Perforating globe injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness and vision loss. A 58-year-old male was injured by acupuncture needle during acupuncture treatment for his cerebral infarction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of perforating injury of the eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture. The patient was hospitalized due to diagnosis of perforating ocular injury, traumatic cataract, and corneal and iris perforating injury. Moreover, he had to accept treatments of phacoemulsification, anterior vitrectomy along with intraocular lens implantation in the sulcus to improve his visual acuity. As acupuncture therapy has been widely performed for various diseases and achieved highly approval, the aim of this report is to remind acupuncturists operating accurately to avoid unnecessary injury during the treatment process, or the cure can also become the weapon. PMID:27221689

  15. A case of perforating injury of eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Han; Yichun, Kong

    2016-04-01

    Perforating globe injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness and vision loss. A 58-year-old male was injured by acupuncture needle during acupuncture treatment for his cerebral infarction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of perforating injury of the eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture. The patient was hospitalized due to diagnosis of perforating ocular injury, traumatic cataract, and corneal and iris perforating injury. Moreover, he had to accept treatments of phacoemulsification, anterior vitrectomy along with intraocular lens implantation in the sulcus to improve his visual acuity. As acupuncture therapy has been widely performed for various diseases and achieved highly approval, the aim of this report is to remind acupuncturists operating accurately to avoid unnecessary injury during the treatment process, or the cure can also become the weapon.

  16. Activation of G protein‐coupled oestrogen receptor 1 at the onset of reperfusion protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yansheng; Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; da Cruz Junho, Carolina Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent evidence indicates that GPER (G protein‐coupled oestrogen receptor 1) mediates acute pre‐ischaemic oestrogen‐induced protection of the myocardium from ischaemia/reperfusion injury via a signalling cascade that includes PKC translocation, ERK1/2/ GSK‐3β phosphorylation and inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Here, we investigated the impact and mechanism involved in post‐ischaemic GPER activation in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. We determined whether GPER activation at the onset of reperfusion confers cardioprotective effects by protecting against mitochondrial impairment and mitophagy. Experimental Approach In vivo rat hearts were subjected to ischaemia followed by reperfusion with oestrogen (17β‐oestradiol, E2), E2 + G15, a GPER antagonist, or vehicle. Myocardial infarct size, the threshold for the opening of mPTP, mitophagy, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, proteins ubiquitinated including cyclophilin D, and phosphorylation levels of ERK and GSK‐3β were measured. Results We found that post‐ischaemic E2 administration to both male and female ovariectomized‐rats reduced myocardial infarct size. Post‐ischaemic E2 administration preserved mitochondrial structural integrity and this was associated with a decrease in ROS production and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial Ca2+ load required to induce mPTP opening via activation of the MEK/ERK/GSK‐3β axis. Moreover, E2 reduced mitophagy via the PINK1/Parkin pathway involving LC3I, LC3II and p62 proteins. All these post‐ischaemic effects of E2 were abolished by G15 suggesting a GPER‐dependent mechanism. Conclusion These results indicate that post‐ischaemic GPER activation induces cardioprotective effects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in males and females by protecting mitochondrial structural integrity and function and reducing mitophagy. PMID

  17. Astaxanthin attenuates early acute kidney injury following severe burns in rats by ameliorating oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-04-13

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  18. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade. PMID:25871290

  19. DoD Military Injury Prevention Priorities Working Group: Leading Injuries, Causes and Mitigation Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Based upon conservative estimates, lower extremity overuse injuries (e.g. pain , inflammation, and stress fractures) alone resulted in over three million...Injury Freq 1 Lower Extremity Overuse ( Pain , inflammation, & stress fractures) 3,803,512 34.5% 240,796 2 Torso Overuse ( Pain , inflammation, & stress...fractures) 2,165,562 19.6% 154,683 3 Upper Extremity Overuse ( Pain , inflammation, & stress fractures) 1,314,330 11.9% 93,750 4 Unspecified Location

  20. A prospective analysis of injury rates, patterns and causes in Cliff and Splash Diving.

    PubMed

    Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Runer, Armin; Siegert, Paul; Ernstbrunner, Matthäus; Becker, Johannes; Freude, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Moroder, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    Information about injuries and its differences in Cliff Diving (CD) and Splash Diving (SD) are unknown. It was the aim to analyse (1) injury rates, patterns and causes; (2) differences (in injuries) between both disciplines; and to (3) identify targets for future injury prevention interventions. From April to November 2013, 81 cliff and 51 splash divers were prospectively surveyed with an encrypted, monthly e-mail-based questionnaire. During a total of 7857h diving with an average diving height of 13 (±7)m, an overall injury rate of 7.9 injuries/1000h of sport exposure was reported. Cliff divers most commonly suffered from injuries of the foot and ankle (18%; n=24) and neck and cervical spine (14%; n=19). In SD, the lower limb (52%; n=43) and lower back (23%; n=19) were most frequently involved. In 79% (n=49) of the cases, the injury happened while entering the water. Cliff divers were in 52% (n=15) of the injuries in a feet-first and in 14% (n=4) in a head-first position. Splash divers were in 45% (n=9) of the injuries in a back- or buttocks-first position. Most of the injuries were bruises (47%; n=104) and muscle strains (13%; n=28). The injury risk during practice was significantly higher than in competition (11.3 vs. 4.5 injuries/1000h; OR 2.5; p=0.001). The injury risk of experts (15.4/1000h exposure) was significantly higher than in professionals (6.3/1000h exposure; OR 2.4; 95% CI, 3.3-1.9; p<0.001), although the average diving height was significantly higher in professionals (19m±8 vs. 12m±6; p<0.001). Significantly more professionals performed dryland training compared to experts (p=0.006). Most of the injuries are related to the water entry. The entry position plays a key role in injury patterns with pursuant differences comparing CD with SD. Although most of the injuries involved soft-tissue only, severe injuries have been reported. Targets for future injury prevention strategies include protection for the increased impaction at entry; adaption of the

  1. Nicotinamide riboside attenuates alcohol induced liver injuries via activation of SirT1/PGC-1α/mitochondrial biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufan; Wan, Ting; Ye, Mingtong; Qiu, Yun; Pei, Lei; Jiang, Rui; Pang, Nengzhi; Huang, Yuanling; Liang, Baoxia; Ling, Wenhua; Lin, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Yang, Lili

    2018-07-01

    Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) precursor which is present in foods such as milk and beer. It was reported that NR can prevent obesity, increase longevity, and promote liver regeneration. However, whether NR can prevent ethanol-induced liver injuries is not known. This study aimed to explore the effect of NR on ethanol induced liver injuries and the underlying mechanisms. We fed C57BL/6 J mice with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet with or without 400 mg/kg·bw NR for 16 days. Liver injuries and SirT1-PGC-1α-mitochondrial function were analyzed. In in vitro experiments, HepG2 cells (CYP2E1 over-expressing cells) were incubated with ethanol ± 0.5 mmol/L NR. Lipid accumulation and mitochondrial function were compared. SirT1 knockdown in HepG2 cells were further applied to confirm the role of SirT1 in the protection of NR on lipid accumulation. We found that ethanol significantly decreased the expression and activity of hepatic SirT1 and induced abnormal expression of enzymes of lipid metabolism in mice. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that NR activated SirT1 through increasing NAD + levels, decreased oxidative stress, increased deacetylation of PGC-1α and mitochondrial function. In SirT1 knockdown HepG2 cells, NR lost its ability in enhancing mitochondrial function, and its protection against lipid accumulation induced by ethanol. NR can protect against ethanol induced liver injuries via replenishing NAD + , reducing oxidative stress, and activating SirT1-PGC-1α-mitochondrial biosynthesis. Our data indicate that SirT1 plays an important role in the protection of NR against lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunctions induced by ethanol. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Injuries and fatalities caused by gas-/warning weapons].

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, H; Schneider, V

    1989-01-01

    Detailed report of 5 cases of violation with gas or warning firearms, 3 of them lethal. In one case a modified weapon (elongated barrel) and steel bullets were used, resulting in shot of the head with retained missile and lethal bleeding. In the other cases, regular weapons (8 or 9 mm cartridges) were used for contact shots; violation occurred only by the effect of powder gases. One of these cases was a suizide (lethal temporal gunshot), in the other cases shots by another person: a) shot against the arm with large soft-tissue damage (survived); b) and c) shot against the neck with exceeding rupture of the soft tissues, minimal damage of the neck arteries and in one cases bilateral tears of the hypopharynx. In this case a delayed death after primarily well operated injury occurred after 12 days by bleeding into the airways from ruptured external carotid artery.

  3. Bilateral ureteric stones: an unusual cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Daniel; Rehnberg, Lucas; Kler, Aaron

    2016-03-30

    A 49-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department, with a short history of vague abdominal pain, abdominal distension and two episodes of frank haematuria. A plain chest film showed dilated loops of large bowel and blood results on admission showed an acute kidney injury (stage 3). A diagnosis of bowel obstruction was made initially but a CT scan of the abdomen showed bilateral obstructing calculi. After initial resuscitation, the patient had bilateral ultrasound-guided nephrostomies and haemofiltration. He later underwent bilateral antegrade ureteric stenting. A decision will later be made on whether or not he is fit enough to undergo ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  5. Biallelic Mutations in LIPT2 Cause a Mitochondrial Lipoylation Defect Associated with Severe Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Habarou, Florence; Hamel, Yamina; Haack, Tobias B; Feichtinger, René G; Lebigot, Elise; Marquardt, Iris; Busiah, Kanetee; Laroche, Cécile; Madrange, Marine; Grisel, Coraline; Pontoizeau, Clément; Eisermann, Monika; Boutron, Audrey; Chrétien, Dominique; Chadefaux-Vekemans, Bernadette; Barouki, Robert; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Goudin, Nicolas; Boddaert, Nathalie; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Delahodde, Agnès; Kölker, Stefan; Rodenburg, Richard J; Korenke, G Christoph; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Prokisch, Holger; Rotig, Agnes; Ottolenghi, Chris; Mayr, Johannes A; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2017-08-03

    Lipoate serves as a cofactor for the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases functioning in energy metabolism (α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [α-KGDHc] and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDHc]), or amino acid metabolism (branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase). Mitochondrial lipoate synthesis involves three enzymatic steps catalyzed sequentially by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (LIPT2), lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1). Mutations in LIAS have been associated with nonketotic hyperglycinemia-like early-onset convulsions and encephalopathy combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. LIPT1 deficiency spares GCS deficiency and has been associated with a biochemical signature of combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency leading to early death or Leigh-like encephalopathy. We report on the identification of biallelic LIPT2 mutations in three affected individuals from two families with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Brain MRI showed major cortical atrophy with white matter abnormalities and cysts. Plasma glycine was mildly increased. Affected individuals' fibroblasts showed reduced oxygen consumption rates, PDHc, α-KGDHc activities, leucine catabolic flux, and decreased protein lipoylation. A normalization of lipoylation was observed after expression of wild-type LIPT2, arguing for LIPT2 requirement in intramitochondrial lipoate synthesis. Lipoic acid supplementation did not improve clinical condition nor activities of PDHc, α-KGDHc, or leucine metabolism in fibroblasts and was ineffective in yeast deleted for the orthologous LIP2. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The m.3291T>C mt-tRNALeu(UUR) mutation is definitely pathogenic and causes multisystem mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarham, John W.; Blakely, Emma L.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Roberts, Mark E.; Ealing, John; Pal, Piyali; Turnbull, Douglass M.; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial tRNA point mutations are important causes of human disease, and have been associated with a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. Definitively proving the pathogenicity of any given mt-tRNA mutation requires combined molecular, genetic and functional studies. Subsequent evaluation of the mutation using a pathogenicity scoring system is often very helpful in concluding whether or not the mutation is causing disease. Despite several independent reports linking the m.3291T>C mutation to disease in humans, albeit in association with several different phenotypes, its pathogenicity remains controversial. A lack of conclusive functional evidence and an over-emphasis on the poor evolutionary conservation of the affected nucleotide have contributed to this controversy. Here we describe an adult patient who presented with deafness and lipomas and evidence of mitochondrial abnormalities in his muscle biopsy, who harbours the m.3291T > C mutation, providing conclusive evidence of pathogenicity through analysis of mutation segregation with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency in single muscle fibres, underlining the importance of performing functional studies when assessing pathogenicity. PMID:23273904

  7. Lower limb injuries caused by improvised explosive devices: proposed 'Bastion classification' and prospective validation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, N; Rourke, K; Rutherford, J; Hicks, A; Smith, S R C; Templeton, P; Adams, S A; Jansen, J O

    2014-09-01

    Complex lower limb injury caused by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has become the signature wounding pattern of the conflict in Afghanistan. Current classifications neither describe this injury pattern well, nor correlate with management. There is need for a new classification, to aid communication between clinicians, and help evaluate interventions and outcomes. We propose such a classification, and present the results of an initial prospective evaluation. The classification was developed by a panel of military surgeons whilst deployed to Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. Injuries were divided into five classes, by anatomic level. Segmental injuries were recognised as a distinct entity. Associated injuries to the intraperitoneal abdomen, genitalia and perineum, pelvic ring, and upper limbs, which impact on clinical management and resources, were also accounted for. Between 1 November 2010 and 20 February 2011, 179 IED-related lower limb injuries in 103 consecutive casualties were classified, and their subsequent vascular and musculoskeletal treatment recorded. 69% of the injuries were traumatic amputations, and the remainder segmental injuries. 49% of casualties suffered bilateral lower limb amputation. The most common injury was class 3 (involving proximal lower leg or thigh, permitting effective above-knee tourniquet application, 49%), but more proximal patterns (class 4 or 5, preventing effective tourniquet application) accounted for 18% of injuries. Eleven casualties had associated intraperitoneal abdominal injuries, 41 suffered genital or perineal injuries, 9 had pelvic ring fractures, and 66 had upper limb injuries. The classification was easy to apply and correlated with management. The 'Bastion classification' is a pragmatic yet clinically relevant injury categorisation, which describes current injury patterns well, and should facilitate communication between clinicians, and the evaluation of interventions and outcomes. The validation cohort confirms that

  8. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T Dianne

    2009-01-01

    In Ethiopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include pathological diagnoses sparse. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted in 2006 at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathological observations, putative cause of death, age distribution, and gender ratios. Eighty-one percent of the cases were male, and the mean age was 38.9 (+/-15.5 years). Fifty-two percent of the individuals died from natural causes, including infections, and 48% died from injury-related events. In the natural deaths group, as determined by gross examination at autopsy pulmonary complications were the most commonly reported cause of death, with suspected tuberculosis accounting for 12%. Tuberculosis (21, 8%) and liver disease (14, 5%) were the most common histopathological findings in the natural and injury-related causes groups, respectively. In the injury-related group, automobile accident was the most common cause of accidental death (80%), and homicide by beating was the most common cause of death in the intentional injury group (31%). These data provide valuable unbiased analyses of causes of death among individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  9. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathological observations, putative cause of death, age distribution, and gender ratios. Eighty-one percent of the cases were male, and the mean age was 38.9 (±15.5 years). Fifty-two percent of the individuals died from natural causes, including infections, and 48% died from injury-related events. In the natural deaths group, pulmonary complications were the most commonly reported cause of death by gross examination at autopsy, with suspected tuberculosis accounting for 12%. Tuberculosis (21, 8%) and liver disease (14, 5%) were the most common histopathological findings in the natural and injury-related causes groups, respectively. In the injury-related group, automobile accident was the most common cause of accidental death (80%), and homicide by beating was the most common cause of death in the intentional injury group (31%). These data provide valuable unbiased analyses of causes of death among individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PMID:19321271

  10. Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2, and Myocardial Injury.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Sascha; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Gerke, Oke; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Data outlining the mortality and the causes of death in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and those with myocardial injury are limited. During a 1-year period from January 2010 to January 2011, all hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were prospectively studied. Patients with at least one cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31, 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly among categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 31.7%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62.2%, myocardial injury 58.7%, and 22.2% in patients with nonelevated troponin values (log-rank test; P < .0001). In patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, 61.3% died from cardiovascular causes, vs 42.6% in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (P = .015) and 41.2% in those with myocardial injury (P < .0001). The overall mortality and the causes of death did not differ substantially between patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and those with myocardial injury. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury exhibit a significantly higher long-term mortality compared with patients with type 1 myocardial infarction . However, most patients with type 1 myocardial infarction die from cardiovascular causes in contrast to patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury, in whom noncardiovascular causes of death

  11. Skin injuries caused by medical adhesive tape in older people and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Konya, Chizuko; Sanada, Hiromi; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Kamatani, Yuki; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sakaki, Kozue

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the status of skin injuries in older individuals caused by adhesive tape and the associated factors for skin injury. Older individuals are susceptible to skin injuries caused by medical adhesive tape. However, the current status of such skin injuries and the associated factors involved has not been clearly elucidated. Prospective cohort design, using comparative and descriptive statistical tests. The subjects were 155 patients aged 65 or older who were admitted to a long-term care facility and required the use of medical adhesive tape. Patients who showed no skin injuries were selected and the incidence rate and status of skin injuries that occurred during the eight-week study period were investigated. The skin injuries observed were classified by a dermatologist. The associated factors were examined statistically. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Skin injuries developed at 34 sites in 24 subjects. The cumulative incidence rate was 15.5%, and the incidence density was 38.0/1000 person-days. Many of the skin injuries occurred around pressure ulcers and intravenous hyperalimentation sites. Other prevalent areas included the buttocks and back, where tape is commonly used. The skin injuries were classified as contact dermatitis (70.6%), trauma (20.6%) and infection (8.8%). The ratio of skin contamination and skin mobility in patients with contact dermatitis was significantly higher than in patients without skin injury. The highest incidence rate was observed in the buttock area of patients with pressure ulcers. The incidence rate of contact dermatitis was the highest. Skin care to minimise contamination and more effective ways of applying medical adhesive tape may be needed to prevent contact dermatitis.

  12. Cause, prevalence, and response to occupational musculoskeletal injuries reported by physical therapists and physical therapist assistants.

    PubMed

    Holder, N L; Clark, H A; DiBlasio, J M; Hughes, C L; Scherpf, J W; Harding, L; Shepard, K F

    1999-07-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) are susceptible to occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the reported causes and prevalence of occupational musculoskeletal injuries to PTs and PTAs during a 2-year period. A questionnaire was mailed to 500 PTs and 500 PTAs randomly selected from the American Physical Therapy Association 1996 active membership list. Six hundred sixty-seven questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 67%. Based on a literature review and a pilot study, an occupational injury questionnaire was constructed and mailed. Self-reports of injuries were obtained. Thirty-two percent of the PTs and 35% of the PTAs reported sustaining a musculoskeletal injury. The highest prevalence of injury was to the low back (62% of injured PTs and 56% of injured PTAs). The PTs reported the upper back and the wrist and hand as having the second highest prevalence (23%). The PTAs reported the upper back as having the second highest prevalence (28%). The PTs and PTAs reported making changes in their work habits of improved body mechanics, increased use of other personnel, and frequent change of work position. The majority of PTs and PTAs reported they did not limit patient contact time or area of practice after sustaining an injury. Although PTs and PTAs are recognized to be knowledgeable in prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, they are susceptible to sustaining occupational musculoskeletal injuries because of performing labor-intensive tasks.

  13. [A new cause of ocular trauma due to "blast" injury].

    PubMed

    Chiriac, I

    1997-01-01

    Are presented five observations of ocular trauma caused by blast of plastic siphon-bottles during their loading. Two of them result in eyeball evisceration, in the three others the visual function was kept. We deem necessary the respecting of single use instruction for these plastic containers and possibly--the ban of theirs using like siphon.

  14. Fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy caused by fumarase deficiency: A molecular-genetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Gellera, C.; Cavadini, P.; Baratta, S.

    Fumarase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the citric acid cycle resulting in severe organic aciduria and encephalopathy. Mammalian cells contain two fumarase isoenzymes, one mitochondrial and one cytosolic. In rat, the two proteins are encoded by the same gene and are synthesized by alternative initiation of translation at two in-phase AUG codons. One single fumarase gene locus has been identified on human chromosome 1. In most of the patients so far described, the activities of both isozymes are severely affected, suggesting that mutations within a single gene may underlie the disease. Here, we report the molecular studymore » of fumarase deficiency in a patient exhibiting compound heterozygosity for two different allelic mutations affecting the amino acid composition of both isoforms. The proband, an Italian boy of nonconsanguineous parents, died at 7 months of age of a progressive encephalopathy. Immunoblot demonstrated absence of cross-reacting material in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction of all tissues examined. Molecular analysis of the patient`s fumarase cDNA amplified by RT-PCR showed the presence of two mutations affecting the amino acid composition of both isoforms, a missense mutation resulting in the nonconservative amino acid substitution at codon 190 (Arg190Cys) and an amino acid in-frame insertion at codon 434 (Lys434ins). SSCP analysis of genomic PCR fragments encompassing the mutations demonstrated that the patient was heterozygous for both mutations, having inherited the Arg-to-Cys substitution from the father and the in-frame insertion from the mother. Finally, the effects of the mutations on enzyme function were investigated by expressing both normal and mutated fumarase cDNAs in a fumarase-deficient ({delta}FUM1) S. cerevisiae strain.« less

  15. Mutations in the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase gene TXNRD2 cause dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sibbing, Dirk; Pfeufer, Arne; Perisic, Tamara; Mannes, Alexander M; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Unwin, Sarah; Sinner, Moritz F; Gieger, Christian; Gloeckner, Christian Johannes; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Schäfer, Zasie; Walch, Axel; Hinterseer, Martin; Näbauer, Michael; Kääb, Stefan; Kastrati, Adnan; Schömig, Albert; Meitinger, Thomas; Bornkamm, Georg W; Conrad, Marcus; von Beckerath, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac energy requirement is met to a large extent by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria that are highly abundant in cardiac myocytes. Human mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD2) is a selenocysteine-containing enzyme essential for mitochondrial oxygen radical scavenging. Cardiac-specific deletion of Txnrd2 in mice results in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to investigate whether TXNRD2 mutations explain a fraction of monogenic DCM cases. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of TXNRD2 in patients diagnosed with DCM (n = 227) and in DCM-free (n = 683) individuals from the general population sample KORA S4 was performed. The functional impact of observed mutations on Txnrd2 function was tested in mouse fibroblasts. We identified two novel amino acid residue-altering TXNRD2 mutations [175G > A (Ala59Thr) and 1124G > A (Gly375Arg)] in three heterozygous carriers among 227 patients that were not observed in the 683 DCM-free individuals. Both DCM-associated mutations result in amino acid substitutions of highly conserved residues in helices contributing to the flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain of TXNRD2. Functional analysis of both mutations in Txnrd2(-/-) mouse fibroblasts revealed that contrasting to wild-type (wt) Txnrd2, neither mutant did restore Txnrd2 function. Mutants even impaired the survival of Txnrd2 wt cells under oxidative stress by a dominant-negative mechanism. For the first time, we describe mutations in DCM patients in a gene involved in the regulation of cellular redox state. TXNRD2 mutations may explain a fraction of human DCM disease burden.

  16. Causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury-a 70-year British study.

    PubMed

    Savic, G; DeVivo, M J; Frankel, H L; Jamous, M A; Soni, B M; Charlifue, S

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective and prospective observational. Analyse causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) in persons surviving the first year post injury, and establish any trend over time. Two spinal centres in Great Britain. The sample consisted of 5483 patients with tSCI admitted to Stoke Mandeville and Southport spinal centres who were injured between 1943 and 2010, survived first year post injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents. Mortality information, including causes of death, was collected up to 31 December 2014. Age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for selected causes of death, and included trends over time and comparison with the general population. In total, 2322 persons (42.3% of the sample) died, with 2170 (93.5%) having a reliable cause of death established. The most frequent causes of death were respiratory (29.3% of all certified causes), circulatory, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (26.7%), neoplasms (13.9%), urogenital (11.5%), digestive (5.3%) and external causes, including suicides (4.5%). Compared to the general population, age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were higher for all causes, especially skin, urogenital and respiratory; rates showed improvement over time for suicides, circulatory and urogenital causes, no significant change for neoplasms, and increase for skin and respiratory causes. Leading causes of death after tSCI in persons surviving the first year post injury were respiratory, circulatory, neoplasms and urogenital. Cause-specific mortality rates showed improvement over time for most causes, but were still higher than the general population rates, especially for skin, urinary and respiratory causes.

  17. Mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction involved in reproductive toxicity of mice caused by endosulfan and protective effects of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Qian, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Xian-Qing; Li, Yan-Bo; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2012-08-01

    The experiment was designed to study the mechanism of reproductive toxicity caused by endosulfan in mice and protective effects of vitamin E. The experiment was composed of three groups: the control group did not receive any endosulfan and vitamin E; the endosulfan exposed group received 0.8 mg/kg/d endosulfan and 0mg/kg/d vitamin E; and the endosulfan+vitamin E group received 0.8 mg/kg/d endosulfan and 100mg/kg/d vitamin E. The results showed that vitamin E significantly reversed the decline of the concentration and motility rate of sperm, and inhibited the increase of sperm abnormality rate caused by endosulfan. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and lactate dehydrogenase-C4 (LDH-C4) and the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the endosulfan+vitamin E group were higher while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower than those of the endosulfan exposed group. The results from pathology and electron microscope observed showed vitamin E decreased the cavities formation by desquamating of spermatogenic cells, stopped the ruptures and disappearances of mitochondrial cristaes in spermatogenic cells, and prevented the breakages and partial dissolvings of sperm tails induced by endosulfan. It is likely that endosulfan could directly damage sperm structures by oxidative stress, leading to a decrease in sperm quantity and quality. It also could indirectly cause a decline in reproductive function by damaging the structure of mitochondria, resulting in energy metabolism dysfunction, which could be one of the mechanisms behind the reproductive toxicity induced by endosulfan. It was inferred that vitamin E helps maintain the structural integrities of sperm architecture and prevent mitochondrial dysfunction through inhibiting oxidative stress, and thereby prevent the reproductive dysfunctions caused by endosulfan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Over-expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase in the murine heart improves functional recovery and protects against injury following ischaemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Hannah J; Ostrowski, Philip J; McAndrew, Debra J; Cao, Fang; Shaw, Andrew; Eykyn, Thomas R; Lake, Hannah; Tyler, Jack; Schneider, Jurgen E; Neubauer, Stefan; Zervou, Sevasti; Lygate, Craig A

    2018-03-02

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) couples ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation to phosphocreatine in the cytosol, which acts as a mobile energy store available for regeneration of ATP at times of high demand. We hypothesised that elevating MtCK would be beneficial in ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were created overexpressing the sarcomeric MtCK gene with αMHC promoter at the Rosa26 locus (MtCK-OE) and compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. MtCK activity was 27% higher than WT, with no change in other CK isoenzymes or creatine levels. Electron microscopy confirmed normal mitochondrial cell density and mitochondrial localisation of transgenic protein. Respiration in isolated mitochondria was unaltered and metabolomic analysis by 1H-NMR suggests that cellular metabolism was not grossly affected by transgene expression. There were no significant differences in cardiac structure or function under baseline conditions by cine-MRI or LV haemodynamics. In Langendorff-perfused hearts subjected to 20min ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion, MtCK-OE exhibited less ischaemic contracture and improved functional recovery (Rate pressure product 58% above WT; P < 0.001). These hearts had reduced myocardial infarct size, which was confirmed in vivo: 55±4% in WT vs 29±4% in MtCK-OE; P < 0.0001). Isolated cardiomyocytes from MtCK-OE hearts exhibited delayed opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) compared to WT, which was confirmed by reduced mitochondrial swelling in response to calcium. There was no detectable change in the structural integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. Modest elevation of MtCK activity in the heart does not adversely affect cellular metabolism, mitochondrial or in vivo cardiac function, but modifies mPTP opening to protect against I/R injury and improve functional recovery. Our findings support MtCK as a prime therapeutic target in myocardial ischaemia.

  19. CoQ deficiency causes disruption of mitochondrial sulfide oxidation, a new pathomechanism associated with this syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luna-Sánchez, Marta; Hidalgo-Gutiérrez, Agustín; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Chaves-Serrano, Julio; Barriocanal-Casado, Eliana; Santos-Fandila, Ángela; Romero, Miguel; Sayed, Ramy Ka; Duarte, Juan; Prokisch, Holger; Schuelke, Markus; Distelmaier, Felix; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis C

    2017-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but it also has several other functions in the cellular metabolism. One of them is to function as an electron carrier in the reaction catalyzed by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which catalyzes the first reaction in the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Therefore, SQR may be affected by CoQ deficiency. Using human skin fibroblasts and two mouse models with primary CoQ deficiency, we demonstrate that severe CoQ deficiency causes a reduction in SQR levels and activity, which leads to an alteration of mitochondrial sulfide metabolism. In cerebrum of Coq9 R239X mice, the deficit in SQR induces an increase in thiosulfate sulfurtransferase and sulfite oxidase, as well as modifications in the levels of thiols. As a result, biosynthetic pathways of glutamate, serotonin, and catecholamines were altered in the cerebrum, and the blood pressure was reduced. Therefore, this study reveals the reduction in SQR activity as one of the pathomechanisms associated with CoQ deficiency syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Functional Mutation of SMAC/DIABLO, Encoding a Mitochondrial Proapoptotic Protein, Causes Human Progressive Hearing Loss DFNA64

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing; Zhu, Yuhua; He, Sudan; Lu, Yanping; Chen, Jing; Han, Bing; Petrillo, Marco; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O.; Yang, Shiming; Dai, Pu; Zhai, Suoqiang; Han, Dongyi; Zhang, Michael Q.; Li, Wei; Liu, Xuezhong; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Yuan, Huijun

    2011-01-01

    SMAC/DIABLO is a mitochondrial proapoptotic protein that is released from mitochondria during apoptosis and counters the inhibitory activities of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs. By linkage analysis and candidate screening, we identified a heterozygous SMAC/DIABLO mutation, c.377C>T (p.Ser126Leu, refers to p.Ser71Leu in the mature protein) in a six-generation Chinese kindred characterized by dominant progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss, designated as DFNA64. SMAC/DIABLO is highly expressed in human embryonic ears and is enriched in the developing mouse inner-ear hair cells, suggesting it has a role in the development and homeostasis of hair cells. We used a functional study to demonstrate that the SMAC/DIABLOS71L mutant, while retaining the proapoptotic function, triggers significant degradation of both wild-type and mutant SMAC/DIABLO and renders host mitochondria susceptible to calcium-induced loss of the membrane potential. Our work identifies DFNA64 as the human genetic disorder associated with SMAC/DIABLO malfunction and suggests that mutant SMAC/DIABLOS71L might cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21722859

  1. Leflunomide or A77 1726 protect from acetaminophen-induced cell injury through inhibition of JNK-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in immortalized human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Seah, Quee Ming; Tan, Rachel C.H.

    2006-11-15

    Leflunomide, a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, protects against T-cell-mediated liver injury by poorly understood mechanisms. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (teriflunomide) has been shown to inhibit stress-activated protein kinases (JNK pathway), which are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that leflunomide may protect from drugs that induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by blocking the JNK signaling pathway. To this end, we exposed cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to the standard protoxicant drug acetaminophen (APAP), which induces CsA-sensitive mPT-mediated cell death. We determined the effects of leflunomide on the extent of APAP-induced hepatocyte injury and themore » upstream JNK-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. We found that leflunomide or A77 1726 concentration-dependently protected hepatocytes from APAP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial permeabilization and lethal cell injury. This was not due to proximal inhibition of CYP-catalyzed APAP bioactivation to its thiol-reactive metabolite. Instead, we demonstrate that leflunomide (20 {mu}M) inhibited the APAP-induced early (3 h) activation (phosphorylation) of JNK1/2, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and preventing P-Bcl-2-mediated induction of the mPT. This greatly attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which we used as a marker for mitochondrial permeabilization. The specific JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 similarly protected from APAP-induced cell death. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that leflunomide protects from protoxicant-induced hepatocyte injury by inhibiting JNK signaling and preventing mPT induction.« less

  2. Environmental dermatology: skin manifestations of injuries caused by invertebrate aquatic animals*

    PubMed Central

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Contact between humans and coastal areas has increased in recent decades, which has led to an increase in injuries from aquatic animals. The majority of these present dermatological manifestations, and some of them show typical lesions. The highest percentages of injuries that occur in marine environments are associated with invertebrates such as sea urchins, jellyfish and Portuguese men-of-war (echinoderms and cnidarians). In this review, we discuss the clinical, therapeutic and preventive aspects of injuries caused by marine and freshwater invertebrates, focusing on first aid measures and diagnosis for dermatologists and professionals in coastal areas. PMID:24068119

  3. Coil embolization for pulmonary artery injury caused by chest tube drainage.

    PubMed

    Shigefuku, Shunsuke; Kudo, Yujin; Saguchi, Toru; Maeda, Junichi

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary artery injury caused by chest tube drainage is rare, but it requires prompt diagnosis to perform urgent surgical repair. We report that a 53-year-old man who suffered from pulmonary artery injury by chest tube drainage was successfully treated by coil embolization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Acquired deficiency of tafazzin in the adult heart: Impact on mitochondrial function and response to cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, Karol; Allegood, Jeremy; Aluri, Hema; Hu, Ying; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2016-04-01

    The content and composition of cardiolipin (CL) is critical for preservation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and inner membrane integrity. Tafazzin (Taz) is an enzyme responsible for remodeling of immature CL containing mixed acyl groups into the mature tetralinoleyl form (C18:2)4-CL. We hypothesized that acquired defects in Taz in the mature heart would impact remodeling of CL and augment cardiac injury. The role of acquired Taz deficiency was studied using the inducible Taz knockdown (TazKD) mouse. Taz-specific shRNA is induced by doxycycline (DOX). One day of DOX intake decreased Taz mRNA in the heart to 20% vs. DOX-treated WT. Knockdown was initiated at an adult age and was stable during long term feeding. CL phenotype was assessed by (C18:2)4-CL content and was reduced 40% vs. WT at two months of DOX. TazKD showed increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased susceptibility to permeability transition pore opening at baseline. However, OXPHOS measured using the rate of oxygen consumption was unchanged in the setting of acquired Taz deficiency. Infarct size, measured in isolated buffer-perfused Langendorff hearts following 25min. Stop flow ischemia and 60min. Reperfusion was not altered in TazKD hearts. Thus, impaired Taz-function with onset at adult age does not enhance susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A mutation in MT-TW causes a tRNA processing defect and reduced mitochondrial function in a family with Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duff, Rachael M; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J; Ermer, Judith; Rossetti, Giulia; Gooding, Rebecca; Richman, Tara R; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Thorburn, David R; Rackham, Oliver; Lamont, Phillipa J; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2015-11-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a progressive mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorder, whose symptoms most commonly include psychomotor delay with regression, lactic acidosis and a failure to thrive. Here we describe three siblings with LS, but with additional manifestations including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestatic hepatitis, and seizures. All three affected siblings were found to be homoplasmic for an m. 5559A>G mutation in the T stem of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded MT-TW by next generation sequencing. The m.5559A>G mutation causes a reduction in the steady state levels of tRNA(Trp) and this decrease likely affects the stability of other mitochondrial RNAs in the patient fibroblasts. We observe accumulation of an unprocessed transcript containing tRNA(Trp), decreased de novo protein synthesis and consequently lowered steady state levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins that compromise mitochondrial respiration. Our results show that the m.5559A>G mutation at homoplasmic levels causes LS in association with severe multi-organ disease (LS-plus) as a consequence of dysfunctional mitochondrial RNA metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  6. A Deafness- and Diabetes-associated tRNA Mutation Causes Deficient Pseudouridinylation at Position 55 in tRNAGlu and Mitochondrial Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Bobei; Zhou, Mi; Fan, Wenlu; Wang, Hen; Liang, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Xiaolong; Eriani, Gilbert; Jiang, Pingping; Guan, Min-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Several mitochondrial tRNA mutations have been associated with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. However, the pathophysiology of these tRNA mutations remains poorly understood. In this report, we identified the novel homoplasmic 14692A→G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNAGlu gene among three Han Chinese families with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness. The m.14692A→G mutation affected a highly conserved uridine at position 55 of the TΨC loop of tRNAGlu. The uridine is modified to pseudouridine (Ψ55), which plays an important role in the structure and function of this tRNA. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a Chinese family, we demonstrated that the m.14692A→G mutation caused loss of Ψ55 modification and increased angiogenin-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mutant tRNAGlu. The destabilization of base-pairing (18A-Ψ55) caused by the m.14692A→G mutation perturbed the conformation and stability of tRNAGlu. An approximately 65% decrease in the steady-state level of tRNAGlu was observed in mutant cells compared with control cells. A failure in tRNAGlu metabolism impaired mitochondrial translation, especially for polypeptides with a high proportion of glutamic acid codons such as ND1, ND6, and CO2 in mutant cells. An impairment of mitochondrial translation caused defective respiratory capacity, especially reducing the activities of complexes I and IV. Furthermore, marked decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ATP and membrane potential were observed in mutant cells. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increasing production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cells. Our findings may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of maternally inherited diabetes and deafness, which is primarily manifested by the deficient nucleotide modification of mitochondrial tRNAGlu. PMID:27519417

  7. Rethinking Airbag Safety: Airbag Injury Causing Bilateral Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint. PMID:24791116

  8. Childhood injuries in Ilesa, South-Western Nigeria: causes, pattern, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Ademola, A S; Dedeke, I O F; Oyelami, O A

    2010-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, infections and undernutrition are the leading causes of childhood death; however injuries are now contributing significantly to childhood morbidity and mortality. To determine the aetiology, morbidity and mortality associated with injuries in children in South-Western Nigeria. This was an observational cross-sectional study of consecutive childhood injury attendances and admissions into the hospital's Children Emergency Room (CHER) over a one-year period. Socio-demographic data as well as the data on the cause, site, and possible risks of injury; parts of the body affected and eventual outcome of the patients were documented. Injury accounted for 382 (10.6%) of the 3,604 attendances, 142 (11.9%) of 1193 admissions and 11 (20.4%) of 54 deaths in CHER. Their ages ranged from six weeks to 15 years, with a mean (SD) of 6.7 (3.9) years, and a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. Road traffic accidents, 130 (34.0%), were the most common cause, followed by falls 119 (31.2%), cuts 44 (11.5%), bits 26 (6.8%), and burns 24 (6.3%). Injuries occurred mostly at home 154 (40.1%), on the road 142 (37.4%), and at school 59 (15.2%). Lack of supervision and/or poor anticipation of potential dangers were the leading risks associated with childhood injuries. Injuries contribute significantly to childhood deaths in South-Western Nigeria. A well-orchestrated public enlightenment programme to improve home, school, and road supervision of children as well as concerted efforts to make these places safer could help ameliorate the situation.

  9. [SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS TRANSFER FOR TREATMENT OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY CAUSED BY TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY].

    PubMed

    Cao Jiangang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Huiwen; Liu, Jun

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semitendinous and gracilis transfer for the treatment of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury caused by total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between March 2009 and May 2014, 11 patients (11 knees) with MCL injuries caused by primary TKA were treated by semitendinous and gracilis transfer in primary TKA (injury group). Another 18 patients (21 knees) without MCL injury were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury sides, disease duration, body mass index, knee varus deformity, and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between 2 groups (P>0.05), with comparability. KSS score was used to evaluate the function after operation. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and no complications of joint instability and pain occurred. The follow-up time was-6-29 months in injury group and was 7-34 months in control group. At last follow-up, the KSS clinical score and ftinctional score were significantly increased to 89.82 +/- 3.76 and 89.54 +/- 3.50 in the injury group (P<0.05) and were significantly increased to 90.19 +/- 3.39 and 90.00 +/- 3.53 in the control group (P<0.05) respectively, but no significant difference was shown between 2 groups (t=0.158, P=0.877; t=0.820, P=0.432). X-ray films showed no prosthetic loosening or subsidence during follow-up. The semitendinous and gracilis transfer is reliable for the treatment of MCL injury caused by TKA. The insertions of semitendinous tendon and gracilis are close to that of the knee MCL, which can effectively improve knee function.

  10. Qualitative assessment of cause-of-injury coding in U.S. military hospitals: NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) 2050.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, P J; Smith, G S; Bell, N S

    2000-04-01

    Accurate injury cause data are essential for injury prevention research. U.S. military hospitals, unlike civilian hospitals, use the NATO STANAG system for cause-of-injury coding. Reported deficiencies in civilian injury cause data suggested a need to specifically evaluate the STANAG. The Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) was used to evaluate worldwide Army injury hospitalizations, especially STANAG Trauma, Injury, and Place of Occurrence coding. We conducted a review of hospital procedures at Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) including injury cause and intent coding, potential crossover between acute injuries and musculoskeletal conditions, and data for certain hospital patients who are not true admissions. We also evaluated the use of free-text injury comment fields in three hospitals. Army-wide review of injury records coding revealed full compliance with cause coding, although nonspecific codes appeared to be overused. A small but intensive single hospital records review revealed relatively poor intent coding but good activity and cause coding. Data on specific injury history were present on most acute injury records and 75% of musculoskeletal conditions. Place of Occurrence coding, although inherently nonspecific, was over 80% accurate. Review of text fields produced additional details of the injuries in over 80% of cases. STANAG intent coding specificity was poor, while coding of cause of injury was at least comparable to civilian systems. The strengths of military hospital data systems are an exceptionally high compliance with injury cause coding, the availability of free text, and capture of all population hospital records without regard to work-relatedness. Simple changes in procedures could greatly improve data quality.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase W748S Mutation: A Common Cause of Autosomal Recessive Ataxia with Ancient European Origin

    PubMed Central

    Hakonen, Anna H.; Heiskanen, Silja; Juvonen, Vesa; Lappalainen, Ilse; Luoma, Petri T.; Rantamäki, Maria; Goethem, Gert Van; Löfgren, Ann; Hackman, Peter; Paetau, Anders; Kaakkola, Seppo; Majamaa, Kari; Varilo, Teppo; Udd, Bjarne; Kääriäinen, Helena; Bindoff, Laurence A.; Suomalainen, Anu

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) have been found to be an important cause of neurological disease. Recently, we and collaborators reported a new neurodegenerative disorder with autosomal recessive ataxia in four patients homozygous for two amino acid changes in POLG: W748S in cis with E1143G. Here, we studied the frequency of this allele and found it to be among the most common genetic causes of inherited ataxia in Finland. We identified 27 patients with mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) from 15 Finnish families, with a carrier frequency in the general population of 1:125. Since the mutation pair W748S+E1143G has also been described in European patients, we examined the haplotypes of 13 non-Finnish, European patients with the W748S mutation. Haplotype analysis revealed that all the chromosomes carrying these two changes, in patients from Finland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Belgium, originate from a common ancient founder. In Finland and Norway, long, common, northern haplotypes, outside the core haplotype, could be identified. Despite having identical homozygous mutations, the Finnish patients with this adult- or juvenile-onset disease had surprisingly heterogeneous phenotypes, albeit with a characteristic set of features, including ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, dysarthria, mild cognitive impairment, involuntary movements, psychiatric symptoms, and epileptic seizures. The high carrier frequency in Finland, the high number of patients in Norway, and the ancient European founder chromosome indicate that this newly identified ataxia should be considered in the first-line differential diagnosis of progressive ataxia syndromes. PMID:16080118

  12. Mutations of human NARS2, encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, cause nonsyndromic deafness and Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mariella; Richard, Elodie M; Wang, Xinjian; Shahzad, Mohsin; Huang, Vincent H; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Potluri, Prasanth; Mahl, Sarah E; Davila, Antonio; Nazli, Sabiha; Hancock, Saege; Yu, Margret; Gargus, Jay; Chang, Richard; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Newman, William G; Abdenur, Jose; Starr, Arnold; Hegde, Rashmi; Dorn, Thomas; Busch, Anke; Park, Eddie; Wu, Jie; Schwenzer, Hagen; Flierl, Adrian; Florentz, Catherine; Sissler, Marie; Khan, Shaheen N; Li, Ronghua; Guan, Min-Xin; Friedman, Thomas B; Wu, Doris K; Procaccio, Vincent; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Wallace, Douglas C; Ahmed, Zubair M; Huang, Taosheng; Riazuddin, Saima

    2015-03-01

    Here we demonstrate association of variants in the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase NARS2 with human hearing loss and Leigh syndrome. A homozygous missense mutation ([c.637G>T; p.Val213Phe]) is the underlying cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB94) and compound heterozygous mutations ([c.969T>A; p.Tyr323*] + [c.1142A>G; p.Asn381Ser]) result in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency and Leigh syndrome, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by symmetric, bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. The severity of the genetic lesions and their effects on NARS2 protein structure cosegregate with the phenotype. A hypothetical truncated NARS2 protein, secondary to the Leigh syndrome mutation p.Tyr323* is not detectable and p.Asn381Ser further decreases NARS2 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. p.Asn381Ser also disrupts dimerization of NARS2, while the hearing loss p.Val213Phe variant has no effect on NARS2 oligomerization. Additionally we demonstrate decreased steady-state levels of mt-tRNAAsn in fibroblasts from the Leigh syndrome patients. In these cells we show that a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and electron transport chain (ETC) activity can be rescued by overexpression of wild type NARS2. However, overexpression of the hearing loss associated p.Val213Phe mutant protein in these fibroblasts cannot complement the OCR and ETC defects. Our findings establish lesions in NARS2 as a new cause for nonsyndromic hearing loss and Leigh syndrome.

  13. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (p<0.001).Patients involved in car accidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (p<0.001). Lower plexus palsy was significantly increased in patients after car accidents (9.3%,p<0.05). In the two main groups (car and motorcycle accidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was

  14. Leptin, Insulin, and Cinnamon Polyphenols Attenuate Glial Swelling and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Ischemic Injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a major risk factor for stroke, and tissue injury following a stroke may be more severe in the obese. A key feature of obesity is increased serum levels of obesity-related hormones including leptin and insulin, indicating a state of resistance to these hormones. Insulin resistance is gen...

  15. [Forensic medical characteristic of the thermal injury caused by inflammation of combustible fluids].

    PubMed

    Khushkadamov, Z K; Iskhizova, L N; Gornostaev, D V

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostics of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids should be based on the comprehensive assessment of the results of examination of the scene of the accident, autopsy studies, forensic chemical expertise, and analysis of the circumstances of the case and/or medical documentation. Special attention should be given to the choice of adequate methods for taking samples to be used in forensic chemical studies. The assessment of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids must take into consideration the time and conditions under which they were inflicted (e.g. closed or open space, vertical or horizontal position, etc.).

  16. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats by stabilizing mitochondrial and lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Akila, Palaniyandi; Asaikumar, Lourthurani; Vennila, Lakshmanan

    2017-01-01

    This study was deliberated to aspire the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) against myocardial infarction (MI) induced by Isoproterenol (ISO), in a rat model. In the pathology of MI, enzymes released due to the mitochondrial and lysosomal lipid peroxidation play an integral role. Induction of rats with ISO (85mg/kg BW) for 2 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of heart mitochondrial enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The activities of lysosomal enzymes (β- glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in the heart tissue. A prominent expression of LDH 1 and LDH 2 isoenzymes in the serum were observed and changes in the Electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns were also recorded in the ISO-induced rats. The prior administrations of CGA (40mg/kg BW) for 19days markedly ameliorated ISO induced alterations in ECG and significantly restored the activities of all the above enzymes in the heart of ISO-induced rats, which substantiates the stress stabilizing action of CGA. Oral administration of CGA (40mg/kg BW) to normal rats did not show any significant changes. These biochemical functional alterations were supported by the histology of heart (Massion's trichrome and Picrosirius red staining for collagen formation). Thereupon, this study shows that 40mg/kg BW of CGA gives protection against ISO-induced MI and demonstrates that CGA has a significant effect in the protection of heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Repair of DNA damage caused by cytosine deamination in mitochondrial DNA of forensic case samples.

    PubMed

    Gorden, Erin M; Sturk-Andreaggi, Kimberly; Marshall, Charla

    2018-05-01

    DNA sequence damage from cytosine deamination is well documented in degraded samples, such as those from ancient and forensic contexts. This study examined the effect of a DNA repair treatment on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from aged and degraded skeletal samples. DNA extracts from 21 non-probative, degraded skeletal samples (aged 50-70 years) were utilized for the analysis. A portion of each sample extract was subjected to DNA repair using a commercial repair kit, the New England BioLabs' NEBNext FFPE DNA Repair Kit (Ipswich, MA). MtDNA was enriched using PCR and targeted capture in a side-by-side experiment of untreated and repaired DNA. Sequencing was performed using both traditional (Sanger-type; STS) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods Although cytosine deamination was evident in the mtDNA sequence data, the observed level of damaged bases varied by sequencing method as well as by enrichment type. The STS PCR amplicon data did not show evidence of cytosine deamination that could be distinguished from background signal in either the untreated or repaired sample set. However, the same PCR amplicons showed 850 C → T/G → A substitutions consistent with cytosine deamination with variant frequencies (VFs) of up to 25% when sequenced using NGS methods The occurrence of base misincorporation due to cytosine deamination was reduced by 98% (to 10) in the NGS amplicon data after repair. The NGS capture data indicated low levels (1-2%) of cytosine deamination in mtDNA fragments that was effectively mitigated by DNA repair. The observed difference in the level of cytosine deamination between the PCR and capture enrichment methods can be attributed to the greater propensity for stochastic effects from the PCR enrichment technique employed (e.g., low template input, increased PCR cycles). Altogether these results indicate that DNA repair may be required when sequencing PCR-amplified DNA from degraded forensic case samples with NGS methods. Copyright

  18. [Prehospital emergency care injuries from external causes in a region of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Rafael; Bastidas, Daniel; Arteaga, Everilda; Bastidas, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 3 500 000 people die every year as a result of injuries from external causes, in Venezuela these arte the third leading cause of overall morbidity. Nevertheless, in the country there are no records of the defining aspects of prehospital emergency care as a tool to address this socio-health problem, the aim of this investigation. A descriptive, transversal, field study based on the information recorded daily for a year paramedics was performed. A total 1493 injured by external causes were reported, with a mean age of 29.5 ± 12 years, 84.5% male. Injuries mostly less-moderate (69.4%) were due to severe land transport accidents (70.9%) occurred during the day (75.9%), between monday and friday (72.9%), attended in 20 minutes or less, and transferred in 97.3% of cases. The economically productive young men in areas with higher population density and urbanism are mostly affected by injuries from external causes. In both genres land transport accidents are the most common causes of injury with lower-moderate severity. The care that paramedics provide can be considered adequate.

  19. Fall-induced spinal cord injury: External causes and implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuying; Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To document the demographic and clinical profile of persons who sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) as a result of accidental falls and to determine the usual circumstances surrounding the fall-induced SCI. Cohort study. 21 SCI Model Systems centers throughout the United States. 6,408 individuals with traumatic SCI between 2005 and 2014 were recruited from the National SCI Database. 1,877 (29%) of them were injuries caused by falls. Not applicable. External causes of injury documented by the International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). Falls on the same level from slipping, tripping, and stumbling were the most common cause of fall-induced SCI (20%), followed by falls from building (16%), stairs and steps (16%), and ladder (9%). People who were 61 years of age and older had the highest frequency of falls on the same level, while those aged 16-45 years had a higher percentage of falls from buildings, usually work-related. The mechanisms of falls also varied by sex and race. Associated injury and vertebral injury occurred frequently among falls from buildings and ladders. High falls were more likely to be work-related and result in thoracic and complete injury, while low falls were more commonly associated with cervical and motor functionally incomplete injury. The study findings of different mechanisms of falls by age, sex, race and medical consequences provide an insight for future interventions aimed at high risk persons, activities, and environmental factors for preventing or reducing fall-induced SCI.

  20. Fall-induced spinal cord injury: External causes and implications for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying; Allen, Victoria; DeVivo, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To document the demographic and clinical profile of persons who sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) as a result of accidental falls and to determine the usual circumstances surrounding the fall-induced SCI. Design Cohort study. Setting 21 SCI Model Systems centers throughout the United States. Participants 6,408 individuals with traumatic SCI between 2005 and 2014 were recruited from the National SCI Database. 1,877 (29%) of them were injuries caused by falls. Interventions Not applicable. Outcomes Measures External causes of injury documented by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). Results Falls on the same level from slipping, tripping, and stumbling were the most common cause of fall-induced SCI (20%), followed by falls from building (16%), stairs and steps (16%), and ladder (9%). People who were 61 years of age and older had the highest frequency of falls on the same level, while those aged 16–45 years had a higher percentage of falls from buildings, usually work-related. The mechanisms of falls also varied by sex and race. Associated injury and vertebral injury occurred frequently among falls from buildings and ladders. High falls were more likely to be work-related and result in thoracic and complete injury, while low falls were more commonly associated with cervical and motor functionally incomplete injury. Conclusion The study findings of different mechanisms of falls by age, sex, race and medical consequences provide an insight for future interventions aimed at high risk persons, activities, and environmental factors for preventing or reducing fall-induced SCI. PMID:25832327

  1. Mitochondrial Debris as a Discriminator Between Inflammatory and Infectious Complications of Blast Injuries: The Enemy Within

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    adult respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) occur after fractures in a sporadic entity often termed ‘‘ fat embolism syndrome.’’ Fat embolism ...We then went on to evaluate the role of fracture injuries in mobilizing mtDNA from human tissue trauma. As proposed, we used discarded human samples...to show that long bone fractures (very common in combatants) and their repair by clinical reamed nailing operations mobilized huge amounts of mtDNA

  2. Intracellular zinc flux causes reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anjali; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Mandal, Abhishek; Paswan, Ranjeet Kumar; Sinha, Preeti; Das, Pradeep; Ali, Vahab; Bimal, Sanjiva; Lal, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection. Zinc is crucial for cellular growth and disruption in its homeostasis hinders growth and survival in many cells. However, little is known about the role of zinc in Leishmania growth and survival. In this study, the effect of zinc on the growth and survival of L.donovani was analyzed by both Zinc-depletion and Zinc-supplementation using Zinc-specific chelator N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4). Treatment of parasites with TPEN rather than ZnSO4 had significantly affected the growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment of promastigotes with TPEN resulted into reduced host-parasite interaction as indicated by decreased association index. Zn depletion resulted into flux in intracellular labile Zn pool and increased in ROS generation correlated with decreased intracellular total thiol and retention of plasma membrane integrity without phosphatidylserine exposure in TPEN treated promastigotes. We also observed that TPEN-induced Zn depletion resulted into collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which is associated with increase in cytosolic calcium and cytochrome-c. DNA fragmentation analysis showed increased DNA fragments in Zn-depleted cells. In summary, intracellular Zn depletion in the L. donovani promastigotes led to ROS-mediated caspase-independent mitochondrial dysfunction resulting into apoptosis-like cell death. Therefore, cellular

  3. Myopathy caused by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inactivation is not reversed by restoring mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Romanino, Klaas; Mazelin, Laetitia; Albert, Verena; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Lin, Shuo; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Handschin, Christoph; Puigserver, Pere; Zorzato, Francesco; Schaeffer, Laurent; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Rüegg, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is central to the control of cell, organ, and body size. Skeletal muscle-specific inactivation of mTORC1 in mice results in smaller muscle fibers, fewer mitochondria, increased glycogen stores, and a progressive myopathy that causes premature death. In mTORC1-deficient muscles, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), which regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose homeostasis, is strongly down-regulated. Here we tested whether induction of mitochondrial biogenesis pharmacologically or by the overexpression of PGC-1α is sufficient to reverse the phenotype of mice deficient for mTORC1. We show that both approaches normalize mitochondrial function, such as oxidative capacity and expression of mitochondrial genes. However, they do not prevent or delay the progressive myopathy. In addition, we find that mTORC1 has a much stronger effect than PGC-1α on the glycogen content in muscle. This effect is based on the strong activation of PKB/Akt in mTORC1-deficient mice. We also show that activation of PKB/Akt not only affects glycogen synthesis but also diminishes glycogen degradation. Thus, our work provides strong functional evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction in mice with inactivated mTORC1 signaling is caused by the down-regulation of PGC-1α. However, our data also show that the impairment of mitochondria does not lead directly to the lethal myopathy. PMID:22143799

  4. [New exploration on clinical treatment of injuries caused by uncommon agents or in extraordinary regions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y

    2018-05-20

    Burns caused by uncommon agents means those caused by other agents except heating power, with special characteristics existing in traumatogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestation. With the development of social economy, various new techniques and new equipments are springing up. In the practical use, improper operations would become traumatogenic agents and cause various special types of trauma. In addition, some special injuries emerged with the changes in people's lifestyle. For battle injury, some new war wounds, which are different from fire-arm injuries in the past, appeared with the emergence of acoustic wave, light wave, electrical and magnetic weapons. Extraordinary regions are those located on body surface with anatomic and physiological particularity. Injuries caused by uncommon traumatogenic agent or in extraordinary region are different from those ordinary burns and trauma, and their clinical treatments have special characteristics. Clinical treatments were studied aiming at these special characteristics, and some achievements in treatment of high-voltage electrical burn, hydrofluoric acid burn, wounds on special regions, and new types of burns and trauma have been made. However, a doctor's duty is not only to cure the diseases and save the patients' lives, but also to prevent the diseases. The suitable treatment and precautionary measures for the new types of burns and trauma that differ from ordinary burns and trauma in the past remain to be explored.

  5. Telling Their Stories: Primary Care Practitioners' Experience Evaluating and Reporting Injuries Caused by Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Jones, Rise; Sege, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To learn about primary care physicians' experiences in identifying and reporting injuries caused by physical abuse. Method: Two qualitative analysts facilitated a focus group of six Chicago area, primary care physicians. Physicians representing diverse practice settings were selected to participate in the discussion. The analysts…

  6. [Causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events in Chile].

    PubMed

    Luengo, Carolina; Paravic, Tatiana; Valenzuela, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Objective To describe the causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events as identified in the international literature and by key informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Methods The study uses a qualitative descriptive approach. This includes a systematized literature review that follows the SALSA method (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) and is in line with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). In addition, interviews were conducted with informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Results The leading causes of underreporting of occupational injuries as described in the literature and by key informants were economic factors and ignorance. With regard to adverse events, the principal causes indicated were fear of sanctions, limited support provided by the authorities, lack of knowledge, and excessive workload. Conclusions It is important to continue working to strengthen the reporting of occupational injuries and adverse events and to implement measures aimed at minimizing factors that appear to be the leading causes of underreporting. In the case of occupational injuries, this means making sure that economic factors are not an impediment but rather an incentive to reporting. With respect to adverse events, steps should be taken to eliminate the fear of sanctions and to develop recommendations, focusing more on systemic improvements than on individuals, to promote joint learning. In both cases it will be necessary to combat ignorance through continuous, systematic training and support.

  7. Viewpoint: a comparison of cause-of-injury coding in U.S. military and civilian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, P J; Bell, N S; Smith, G S; Senier, L; Pickett, D

    2000-04-01

    Complete and accurate coding of injury causes is essential to the understanding of injury etiology and to the development and evaluation of injury-prevention strategies. While civilian hospitals use ICD-9-CM external cause-of-injury codes, military hospitals use codes derived from the NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2050. The STANAG uses two separate variables to code injury cause. The Trauma code uses a single digit with 10 possible values to identify the general class of injury as battle injury, intentionally inflicted nonbattle injury, or unintentional injury. The Injury code is used to identify cause or activity at the time of the injury. For a subset of the Injury codes, the last digit is modified to indicate place of occurrence. This simple system contains fewer than 300 basic codes, including many that are specific to battle- and sports-related injuries not coded well by either the ICD-9-CM or the draft ICD-10-CM. However, while falls, poisonings, and injuries due to machinery and tools are common causes of injury hospitalizations in the military, few STANAG codes correspond to these events. Intentional injuries in general and sexual assaults in particular are also not well represented in the STANAG. Because the STANAG does not map directly to the ICD-9-CM system, quantitative comparisons between military and civilian data are difficult. The ICD-10-CM, which will be implemented in the United States sometime after 2001, expands considerably on its predecessor, ICD-9-CM, and provides more specificity and detail than the STANAG. With slight modification, it might become a suitable replacement for the STANAG.

  8. Accuracy of external cause-of-injury coding in VA polytrauma patient discharge records.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kathleen F; Nugent, Sean M; Grill, Joseph; Sayer, Nina A

    2010-01-01

    Valid and efficient methods of identifying the etiology of treated injuries are critical for characterizing patient populations and developing prevention and rehabilitation strategies. We examined the accuracy of external cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data for a population of injured patients. Chart notes and E-codes were extracted for 566 patients treated at any one of four VHA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center sites between 2001 and 2006. Two expert coders, blinded to VHA E-codes, used chart notes to assign "gold standard" E-codes to injured patients. The accuracy of VHA E-coding was examined based on these gold standard E-codes. Only 382 of 517 (74%) injured patients were assigned E-codes in VHA records. Sensitivity of VHA E-codes varied significantly by site (range: 59%-91%, p < 0.001). Sensitivity was highest for combat-related injuries (81%) and lowest for fall-related injuries (60%). Overall specificity of E-codes was high (92%). E-coding accuracy was markedly higher when we restricted analyses to records that had been assigned VHA E-codes. E-codes may not be valid for ascertaining source-of-injury data for all injuries among VHA rehabilitation inpatients at this time. Enhanced training and policies may ensure more widespread, standardized use and accuracy of E-codes for injured veterans treated in the VHA.

  9. Spinal accessory nerve injury: A potentially missed cause of a painful, droopy shoulder.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Steven; Ross, Douglas C; Doherty, Timothy J; Doherty, Christopher D; Miller, Thomas A

    2016-11-21

    Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury can be an overlooked cause of scapular winging and shoulder dysfunction. The most common etiology is iatrogenic injury following surgical procedures at the posterior triangle of the neck. We present three cases of isolated injury to the SAN following trauma. To improve detection of SAN injuries through highlighting the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment via three cases in which the injuries were initially missed. Clinical case series and narrative review. Three (3) patients were evaluated by history, physical exam and electrodiagnostic study (EMG). Clinical symptoms included, a painful, droopy shoulder and difficulties with overhead activities. Clinical signs included the observation of scapular winging, and focal atrophy of the trapezius and in some cases the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). Novel clinical signs such as the active elevation lag sign and triangle sign were also helpful clinically to highlight the SAN as the site of pathology. EMG revealed denervation and reduced motor unit recruitment in the trapezius and SCM. Early detection of SAN injuries can be improved through appropriate clinical suspicion, a detailed history and careful physical exam. EMG testing can help guide prognosis, direct conservative and surgical treatment, and reduce patient morbidity.

  10. A methodological approach for the biomechanical cause analysis of golf-related lumbar spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Sim, Taeyong; Jang, Dong-Jin; Oh, Euichaul

    2014-01-01

    A new methodological approach employing mechanical work (MW) determination and relative portion of its elemental analysis was applied to investigate the biomechanical causes of golf-related lumbar spine injuries. Kinematic and kinetic parameters at the lumbar and lower limb joints were measured during downswing in 18 golfers. The MW at the lumbar joint (LJ) was smaller than at the right hip but larger than the MWs at other joints. The contribution of joint angular velocity (JAV) to MW was much greater than that of net muscle moment (NMM) at the LJ, whereas the contribution of NMM to MW was greater rather than or similar to that of JAV at other joints. Thus, the contribution of JAV to MW is likely more critical in terms of the probability of golf-related injury than that of NMM. The MW-based golf-related injury index (MWGII), proposed as the ratio of the contribution of JAV to MW to that of NMM, at the LJ (1.55) was significantly greater than those at other joints ( < 1.05). This generally corresponds to the most frequent occurrence of golf-related injuries around the lumbar spine. Therefore, both MW and MWGII should be considered when investigating the biomechanical causes of lumbar spine injuries.

  11. [Head injuries in childhood caused by skiing and their optimal prevention].

    PubMed

    Oh, S; Schmid, U D

    1983-04-01

    During the last three skiing seasons we have treated a total of 105 children in our clinical wards for skull-brain injuries caused by skiing accidents. 25 of these cases (25.2%) were operated on, mostly because of a depressed fracture (92%) with or without brain lesion/bleeding, which the children incurred by colliding with various obstacles. Uncontrolled excessive speed and careless skiing methods are the main reasons for these injuries. However, the responsibility for the increasing number of skisport-connected skull-brain injuries does not lie with the children alone, but more so with us grown-ups, i.e. the parents, teachers and physicians, as long as we do not preach and emphatically insist on the implementation of indirect and direct specific measures of accident prevention. Based on an analysis of typical injuries and their many causes we come to the conclusion that, aside from the usual precautions, only one simple, sensible and effective prevention of skull-brain injuries is feasible, namely the "protection helmet". Similar to the existing crash-helmet law for motorcylists and just like for the professional skiracers, whom the children try to imitate more and more with regard to style and speed, we earnestly urge legislation to make the wearing of a protective helmet compulsory for all skiers up to 17 years of age.

  12. [Facial nerve injuries cause changes in central nervous system microglial cells].

    PubMed

    Cerón, Jeimmy; Troncoso, Julieta

    2016-12-01

    Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

  13. Fatal occupational injuries in the Malaysian construction sector–causes and accidental agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayob, A.; Shaari, A. A.; Zaki, M. F. M.; Munaaim, M. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    The construction sector is associated with various accidents and fatal injuries. These occupational accidents are caused by numerous factors, such as lack of supervision; lack of adherence to safe work technique; failure to wear personal protective equipment; and failure to comply with the safe use of tools, vehicles, and machines. Using 2013–2016 secondary data from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health and Social Security Organization, this study conducted a descriptive exploration survey to identify common fatal occupational injuries associated with the Malaysian construction sector, as well as their causes and accidental agents. Results indicated that construction, followed by manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, logging, and fishery, are the riskiest job sectors in Malaysia. The highest incidences of occupational casualties were reported in Sarawak, Johor, and Selangor. These states accounted for approximately 13.33% to 18.18% of all cases of fatal occupational accidents. In these states, the lack of safety and health regulations and poor execution of risk management increased the risk of occupational accidents. Falls from heights accounted for 46.28% of fatal occupational injuries. Furthermore, being crushed by objects, materials, or vehicles accounted for 9.09% to 17.36% of fatal occupational injuries. Substandard work environment and transportation and lifting equipment, such as scaffolds, are primary accidental agents. Results of this study could enhance the knowledge and awareness of construction workers and management of job-related injuries to decrease the incidence of fatal occupational accidents.

  14. Inhibition of endogenous hydrogen sulfide formation reduces the organ injury caused by endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Marika; Anuar, Farhana B M; Murch, Oliver; Bhatia, Madhav; Moore, Philip K; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a naturally occurring gaseous transmitter, which may play important roles in normal physiology and disease. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the organ injury caused by severe endotoxemia in the rat. Male Wistar rats were subjected to acute endotoxemia (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 6 mg kg−1 intravenously (i.v.) for 6 h) and treated with vehicle (saline, 1 ml kg−1 i.v.) or DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 10–100 mg kg−1 i.v.), an inhibitor of the H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). PAG was administered either 30 min prior to or 60 min after the induction of endotoxemia. Endotoxemia resulted in circulatory failure (hypotension and tachycardia) and an increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (markers for hepatic injury), lipase (indicator of pancreatic injury) and creatine kinase (indicator of neuromuscular injury). In the liver, endotoxemia induced a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and in the expression and activity of the H2S-synthesizing enzymes CSE and cystathionine-β-synthase. Administration of PAG either prior to or after the injection of LPS dose-dependently reduced the hepatocellular, pancreatic and neuromuscular injury caused by endotoxemia, but not the circulatory failure. Pretreatment of rats with PAG abolished the LPS-induced increase in the MPO activity and in the formation of H2S and in the liver. These findings support the view that an enhanced formation of H2S contributes to the pathophysiology of the organ injury in endotoxemia. We propose that inhibition of H2S synthesis may be a useful therapeutic strategy against the organ injury associated with sepsis and shock. PMID:16100527

  15. Contact events in rugby union and their propensity to cause injury.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Cancea, Rebecca J; Hall, John; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of contact events in professional rugby union matches and to assess their propensity to cause injury. The study was a two-season (2003/2004 and 2005/2006) prospective cohort design. It included 645 professional rugby union players from 13 English Premiership rugby union clubs. The main outcome measures were: incidence of match contact events (events per game); incidence (injuries per 1000 player-hours and per 1000 contact events), risk (days lost per 1000 player-hours and per 1000 contact events) and diagnosis of injury; referee's decision. Risk factors were player-player contact, position on pitch and period of play. Tackles (221.0 events/game) and rucks (142.5 events/game) were the most common events and mauls (13.6%) and scrums (12.6%) the most penalised. Tackles (701.6 days/1000 player-hours) were responsible for the greatest loss of time but scrums (213.2 days lost/1000 events) and collisions (199.8 days lost/1000 events) presented the highest risk per event. Tackles were the game event responsible for the highest number of injuries and the greatest loss of time in rugby union because they were by far the most common contact event. Collisions were 70% more likely to result in an injury than a tackle and scrums carried a 60% greater risk of injury than a tackle. The relative propensities for contact events to cause injury were rated as: lineout--very low; ruck--low; maul and tackle--average; collision and scrum--high.

  16. Contact events in rugby union and their propensity to cause injury

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Cancea, Rebecca J; Hall, John; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of contact events in professional rugby union matches and to assess their propensity to cause injury. Design The study was a two‐season (2003/2004 and 2005/2006) prospective cohort design. It included 645 professional rugby union players from 13 English Premiership rugby union clubs. The main outcome measures were: incidence of match contact events (events per game); incidence (injuries per 1000 player‐hours and per 1000 contact events), risk (days lost per 1000 player‐hours and per 1000 contact events) and diagnosis of injury; referee's decision. Risk factors were player–player contact, position on pitch and period of play. Results Tackles (221.0 events/game) and rucks (142.5 events/game) were the most common events and mauls (13.6%) and scrums (12.6%) the most penalised. Tackles (701.6 days/1000 player‐hours) were responsible for the greatest loss of time but scrums (213.2 days lost/1000 events) and collisions (199.8 days lost/1000 events) presented the highest risk per event. Conclusions Tackles were the game event responsible for the highest number of injuries and the greatest loss of time in rugby union because they were by far the most common contact event. Collisions were 70% more likely to result in an injury than a tackle and scrums carried a 60% greater risk of injury than a tackle. The relative propensities for contact events to cause injury were rated as: lineout – very low; ruck – low; maul and tackle – average; collision and scrum – high. PMID:17513332

  17. Mortality and causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Sabre, Liis; Rekand, Tiina; Asser, Toomas; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    Study design Retrospective population-based study with mortality follow-up. Objective To study mortality, causes and risk factors for death in Estonian patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Setting All Estonian hospitals. Methods Medical records of patients with TSCI from all regional, central, general, and rehabilitation hospitals in Estonia from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality status was ascertained as of 31 December 2011. Causes of death were collected from the Estonian Causes of Death Registry. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire sample and for causes of death. A Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the risk indicators for death. Results During the observation period (1997–2011) 162 patients of 595 died. Nearly half of the patients (n = 76) died during the first year after TSCI. The main causes of death were external causes (30%), cardiovascular disease (29%). and suicide (8%). The overall SMR was 2.81 (95% confidence interval 2.40–3.28) and SMR was higher for women than for men (3.80 vs. 2.70). Cause-specific SMRs were markedly elevated for sepsis and suicide. Mortality was significantly affected by the age at the time of injury, neurological level, and extent of the injury as well as the year of TSCI and complications. Conclusion Life expectancy is significantly decreased in patients with TSCI in Estonia compared with the general population. Deaths during the first year after the injury have an important impact on statistics. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases, infections, and prevention of suicide are useful for reducing mortality in patients with TSCI. PMID:24090049

  18. TRMT5 Mutations Cause a Defect in Post-transcriptional Modification of Mitochondrial tRNA Associated with Multiple Respiratory-Chain Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Christopher A; Kopajtich, Robert; D'Souza, Aaron R; Rorbach, Joanna; Kremer, Laura S; Husain, Ralf A; Dallabona, Cristina; Donnini, Claudia; Alston, Charlotte L; Griffin, Helen; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Rodenburg, Richard J; Schottmann, Gudrun; Schuelke, Markus; Romain, Nadine; Haller, Ronald G; Ferrero, Ileana; Haack, Tobias B; Taylor, Robert W; Prokisch, Holger; Minczuk, Michal

    2015-08-06

    Deficiencies in respiratory-chain complexes lead to a variety of clinical phenotypes resulting from inadequate energy production by the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Defective expression of mtDNA-encoded genes, caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome, represents a rapidly growing group of human disorders. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified two unrelated individuals carrying compound heterozygous variants in TRMT5 (tRNA methyltransferase 5). TRMT5 encodes a mitochondrial protein with strong homology to members of the class I-like methyltransferase superfamily. Both affected individuals presented with lactic acidosis and evidence of multiple mitochondrial respiratory-chain-complex deficiencies in skeletal muscle, although the clinical presentation of the two affected subjects was remarkably different; one presented in childhood with failure to thrive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the other was an adult with a life-long history of exercise intolerance. Mutations in TRMT5 were associated with the hypomodification of a guanosine residue at position 37 (G37) of mitochondrial tRNA; this hypomodification was particularly prominent in skeletal muscle. Deficiency of the G37 modification was also detected in human cells subjected to TRMT5 RNAi. The pathogenicity of the detected variants was further confirmed in a heterologous yeast model and by the rescue of the molecular phenotype after re-expression of wild-type TRMT5 cDNA in cells derived from the affected individuals. Our study highlights the importance of post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs for faithful mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide Preconditioning Protects Rat Liver against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Activating Akt-GSK-3β Signaling and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Fengying; Zou, Zui; Liu, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury. PMID:24058562

  20. Deletion of protein kinase C-ε attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorates ischemic renal injury.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Grazyna; Takacsova-Bakajsova, Diana; Megyesi, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24 h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44 and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia. Respiratory control ratio coupled to glutamate/malate oxidation decreased 50% in WT but not in KO mice. Activities of complexes I, III, and IV were decreased 59, 89, and 61%, respectively, in WT but not in KO ischemic kidneys. Proteomics revealed increases in levels of ATP synthase (α-subunit), complexes I and III, cytochrome oxidase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase after ischemia in KO but not in WT animals. PKC-ε deletion prevented ischemia-induced increases in oxidant production. Plasma creatinine levels increased 12-fold in WT and 3-fold in KO ischemic mice. PKC-ε deletion reduced tubular necrosis, brush border loss, and distal segment damage in ischemic kidneys. PKC-ε activation in hypoxic RPTC in primary culture exacerbated, whereas PKC-ε inhibition reduced, decreases in: 1) complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations and 2) activities of complexes I, III, and IV. We conclude that PKC-ε activation mediates 1) dysfunction of complexes I and III of the respiratory chain, 2) oxidant production, 3) morphological damage to the kidney, and 4) decreases in renal functions after ischemia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Deletion of protein kinase C-ε attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorates ischemic renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Takacsova-Bakajsova, Diana; Megyesi, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24 h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44 and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia. Respiratory control ratio coupled to glutamate/malate oxidation decreased 50% in WT but not in KO mice. Activities of complexes I, III, and IV were decreased 59, 89, and 61%, respectively, in WT but not in KO ischemic kidneys. Proteomics revealed increases in levels of ATP synthase (α-subunit), complexes I and III, cytochrome oxidase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase after ischemia in KO but not in WT animals. PKC-ε deletion prevented ischemia-induced increases in oxidant production. Plasma creatinine levels increased 12-fold in WT and 3-fold in KO ischemic mice. PKC-ε deletion reduced tubular necrosis, brush border loss, and distal segment damage in ischemic kidneys. PKC-ε activation in hypoxic RPTC in primary culture exacerbated, whereas PKC-ε inhibition reduced, decreases in: 1) complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations and 2) activities of complexes I, III, and IV. We conclude that PKC-ε activation mediates 1) dysfunction of complexes I and III of the respiratory chain, 2) oxidant production, 3) morphological damage to the kidney, and 4) decreases in renal functions after ischemia. PMID:27760765

  2. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database. PMID:26347857

  3. Therapeutic Targeting of the Mitochondria Initiates Excessive Superoxide Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization Causing Decreased mtDNA Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L.; Biel, Thomas G.; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Rao, V. Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-targeted agent [(MTAs) conjugated to TPP+: mitoTEMPOL, mitoquinone and mitochromanol-acetate] on mitochondrial physiology and mtDNA integrity in breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (H23) cancer cells. The integrity of the mtDNA was assessed by quantifying the degree of mtDNA fragmentation and copy number, as well as by measuring mitochondrial proteins essential to mtDNA stability and maintenance (TFAM, SSBP1, TWINKLE, POLG and POLRMT). Mitochondrial status was evaluated by measuring superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification and mRNA or protein levels of the RC complexes along with TCA cycle activity. In this study, we demonstrated that all investigated MTAs impair mitochondrial health and decrease mtDNA integrity in MDA-MB-231 and H23 cells. However, differences in the degree of mitochondrial damage and mtDNA degradation suggest unique properties among each MTA that may be cell line, dose and time dependent. Collectively, our study indicates the potential for TPP+ conjugated molecules to impair breast and lung cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:28030582

  4. Therapeutic Targeting of the Mitochondria Initiates Excessive Superoxide Production and Mitochondrial Depolarization Causing Decreased mtDNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L; Biel, Thomas G; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Rao, V Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of mitochondria-targeted agent [(MTAs) conjugated to TPP+: mitoTEMPOL, mitoquinone and mitochromanol-acetate] on mitochondrial physiology and mtDNA integrity in breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (H23) cancer cells. The integrity of the mtDNA was assessed by quantifying the degree of mtDNA fragmentation and copy number, as well as by measuring mitochondrial proteins essential to mtDNA stability and maintenance (TFAM, SSBP1, TWINKLE, POLG and POLRMT). Mitochondrial status was evaluated by measuring superoxide production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxygen consumption, extracellular acidification and mRNA or protein levels of the RC complexes along with TCA cycle activity. In this study, we demonstrated that all investigated MTAs impair mitochondrial health and decrease mtDNA integrity in MDA-MB-231 and H23 cells. However, differences in the degree of mitochondrial damage and mtDNA degradation suggest unique properties among each MTA that may be cell line, dose and time dependent. Collectively, our study indicates the potential for TPP+ conjugated molecules to impair breast and lung cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial homeostasis.

  5. Nrf2-ARE activator carnosic acid decreases mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and neuronal cytoskeletal degradation following traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren M; Singh, Indrapal N; Wang, Juan A; Hall, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    The importance of free radical-induced oxidative damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been well documented. Despite multiple clinical trials with radical-scavenging antioxidants that are neuroprotective in TBI models, none is approved for acute TBI patients. As an alternative antioxidant target, Nrf2 is a transcription factor that activates expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) within DNA. Previous research has shown that neuronal mitochondria are susceptible to oxidative damage post-TBI, and thus the current study investigates whether Nrf2-ARE activation protects mitochondrial function when activated post-TBI. It was hypothesized that administration of carnosic acid (CA) would reduce oxidative damage biomarkers in the brain tissue and also preserve cortical mitochondrial respiratory function post-TBI. A mouse controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was employed with a 1.0mm cortical deformation injury. Administration of CA at 15 min post-TBI reduced cortical lipid peroxidation, protein nitration, and cytoskeletal breakdown markers in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h post-injury. Moreover, CA preserved mitochondrial respiratory function compared to vehicle animals. This was accompanied by decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins, suggesting the mechanistic connection of the two effects. Lastly, delaying the initial administration of CA up to 8h post-TBI was still capable of reducing cytoskeletal breakdown, thereby demonstrating a clinically relevant therapeutic window for this approach. This study demonstrates that pharmacological Nrf2-ARE induction is capable of neuroprotective efficacy when administered after TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, G-Y; Yang, L; Fu, Y-Q; Feng, J-H; Zhang, M-H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on dysfunction of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, the antioxidative enzyme system, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-eight 6-wk-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 groups and subsequently exposed to 25 (control), 32, 35, and 38 degrees C (RH, 70 +/- 5%) for 3 h, respectively. The rectal temperatures, activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and the activity of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes were determined. The results showed that exposure to high ambient temperature induced a significant elevation of rectal temperature, antioxidative enzyme activity, and formation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, as well as dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in comparison with control (P < 0.05). Almost all of the indicators changed in a temperature-dependent manner with the gradual increase of ambient temperature from 32 to 38 degrees C; differences in each parameter (except catalase) among the groups exposed to different high ambient temperatures were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that, in the broiler chicken model used here, acute exposure to high temperatures may depress the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This inactivation results subsequently in overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which ultimately results in oxidative injury. However, this hypothesis needs to be evaluated more rigorously in future studies. It has also been shown that, with the gradual increase in temperature, the oxidative injury induced by heat stress in broiler chickens becomes increasingly severe, and this stress response presents in a temperature-dependent manner in the temperature range of 32 to 38 degrees C.

  7. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged <1, 1 and 2 years were falls while being carried, burns by hot non-aqueous substances and poisoning by other and unspecified pharmaceutical substances, respectively. Falls involving playground equipment ranked first for children aged 3-4 years. Each leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Mitochondrial Modulation by Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Renal Injury through Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress, Inflammation and NF-kB in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueping; Wang, Ping; Fu, Guanghou; Meng, Hongzhou; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Baiye

    2015-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is known for its nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) can reduce cisplatin mediated side effect in kidney and to understand its mechanism of protection against tissue injury. We used a well-established 3-day cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity mice model where EGCG were administered. EGCG is a major active compound in Green Tea and have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG protected against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). EGCG improved cisplatin induced kidney structural damages such as tubular dilatation, cast formation, granulovaculoar degeneration and tubular cell necrosis as evident by PAS staining. Cisplatin induced kidney specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, impaired activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme complexes, impaired anti-oxidant defense enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mitochondria, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β), increased accumulation of NF-κB in nuclear fraction, p53 induction, and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation). Treatment of mice with EGCG markedly attenuated cisplatin induced mitochondrial oxidative/nitrative stress, mitochondrial damages to electron transport chain activities and antioxidant defense enzyme activities in mitochondria. These mitochondrial modulations by EGCG led to protection mechanism against cisplatin induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mice kidney. As a result, EGCG improved renal function in cisplatin mediated kidney damage. In addition to that, EGCG attenuated cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human kidney tubular cell line HK-2. Thus, our data suggest that EGCG may represent new promising adjunct candidate for

  9. Pulmonary function test findings in patients with acute inhalation injury caused by smoke bombs

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Zhang, Xin-Gang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Han-Bin; Chen, Yi-Bing; Zhao, Da-Hui; Shi, Wen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the effects of smoke bomb-induced acute inhalation injury on pulmonary function at different stages of lung injury. Methods We performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 15 patients with acute inhalation injury from days 3 to 180 after smoke inhalation. We measured the trace element zinc in whole blood on days 4 and 17, and correlations of zinc levels with PFTs were performed. Results In the acute stage of lung injury (day 3), 3 of 11 patients with mild symptoms had normal pulmonary function and 8 patients with restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity. Some patients also had mild obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (5 patients) and a decline in small airway function (6 patients). For patients with severe symptoms, PFT results showed moderate to severe restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity. PaCO2 was significantly higher (P=0.047) in patients with reduced small airway function compared with those with normal small airway function. Whole blood zinc levels in the convalescence stage (day 17) were significantly lower than those in the acute stage (day 4). Zinc in the acute stage was negatively correlated with DLCO/VA on days 3, 10, and 46 (r=−0.633, −0.676, and −0.675 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions Smoke inhalation injury mainly causes restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity, and causes mild obstructive ventilatory dysfunction and small airway function decline in some patients. Zinc is negatively correlated with DLCO/VA. Zinc levels may be able to predict prognosis and indicate the degree of lung injury. PMID:28066595

  10. Reducing the unexpectedly high rate of injuries caused by NOTES gastrotomy creation.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dae Kyung; Turner, Brian G; Gee, Denise W; Willingham, Field F; Sylla, Patricia; Cizginer, Sevdenur; Konuk, Yusuf; Brugge, William R; Rattner, David W

    2010-02-01

    Despite the wide range of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures reported to date using a transgastric endoscopic approach, complications associated with gastrotomy creation have not been described. This study was conducted to identify the incidence and types of complications related to gastrotomy creation with the needle knife puncture and balloon dilatation technique for NOTES access to the peritoneal cavity. Between May 2007 and August 2008, transgastric procedures were performed in 76 swine at a single institution. A total of 58 gastrotomies were created using the needle knife puncture and balloon dilatation technique without laparoscopic observation and 18 gastrotomies were created under laparoscopic visualization after CO(2) insufflation through a laparoscopic port. In all cases, a needle knife with an electrosurgical current of 25-W coagulation and/or 25-W cut and a wire-guided endoscopic balloon dilated to 20 mm were used to create the gastrotomy. All complications were collected prospectively and reviewed from laboratory medical records, operative reports, and necropsy findings. NOTES gastrotomy-related complications occurred in 10/76 (13.2%) animals. Major complications occurred in six animals (7.9%), including four splenic lacerations, a mesenteric tear, and a fatal diaphragmatic injury. Minor complications occurred in four animals (5.3%), including three abdominal wall injuries and minor gastrotomy site bleeding. When pregastrotomy laparoscopic guidance was used, only one injury occurred in 18 animals (5.5%), but 9/58 (15.5%) gastrotomies performed without laparoscopic visualization caused some type of injury. The difference in rate of injury did not achieve statistical significance. No learning curve effect could be identified. Injuries to adjacent viscera occur more often than is reported with the traditional transgastric needle knife NOTES access technique. Gastric punctures should be made either with laparoscopic

  11. Citrinin induces apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and inhibition of survival signals in embryonic stem cells, and causes developmental injury in blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    The mycotoxin CTN (citrinin), a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, has cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN is known to cause cell injury, including apoptosis, but the precise regulatory mechanisms of CTN action, particularly in stem cells and embryos, are currently unclear. In the present paper, I report that CTN has cytotoxic effects on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts, and is associated with defects in their subsequent development, both in vitro and in vivo. Experiments in embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5) showed that CTN induces apoptosis via ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of MMP (mitochondrial membrane potential), induction of cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase 3. In this model, CTN triggers cell death via inactivation of the HSP90 [a 90 kDa isoform of the HSP (heat-shock protein) family proteins]/multichaperone complex and subsequent degradation of Ras and Raf-1, further inhibiting anti-apoptotic processes, such as the Ras→ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signal transduction pathway. In addition, CTN causes early developmental injury in mouse ESCs and blastocysts in vitro. Lastly, using an in vivo mouse model, I show that consumption of drinking water containing 10 μM CTN results in blastocyst apoptosis and early embryonic developmental injury. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that CTN induces ROS and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic processes, inhibits Ras→ERK survival signalling via inactivation of the HSP90/multichaperone complex, and causes developmental injury in vivo. PMID:17331071

  12. Mutations in mitochondrial enzyme GPT2 cause metabolic dysfunction and neurological disease with developmental and progressive features

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qing; Nakayama, Tojo; Baytas, Ozan; Davidson, Shawn M.; Yang, Chendong; Schmidt, Michael; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Mishra, Sasmita; EI-Quessny, Malak; Niaz, Saima; Gul Butt, Mirrat; Imran Murtaza, Syed; Javed, Afzal; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Vaughan, Dylan J.; Hill, R. Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Yoo, Seung-Yun; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Nasir, Ramzi; Al-Saffar, Muna; Barkovich, A. James; Schwede, Matthew; Nagpal, Shailender; Rajab, Anna; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Housman, David E.; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that cause neurological phenotypes are highly informative with regard to mechanisms governing human brain function and disease. We report autosomal recessive mutations in the enzyme glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) in large kindreds initially ascertained for intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). GPT2 [also known as alanine transaminase 2 (ALT2)] is one of two related transaminases that catalyze the reversible addition of an amino group from glutamate to pyruvate, yielding alanine and α-ketoglutarate. In addition to IDD, all affected individuals show postnatal microcephaly and ∼80% of those followed over time show progressive motor symptoms, a spastic paraplegia. Homozygous nonsense p.Arg404* and missense p.Pro272Leu mutations are shown biochemically to be loss of function. The GPT2 gene demonstrates increasing expression in brain in the early postnatal period, and GPT2 protein localizes to mitochondria. Akin to the human phenotype, Gpt2-null mice exhibit reduced brain growth. Through metabolomics and direct isotope tracing experiments, we find a number of metabolic abnormalities associated with loss of Gpt2. These include defects in amino acid metabolism such as low alanine levels and elevated essential amino acids. Also, we find defects in anaplerosis, the metabolic process involved in replenishing TCA cycle intermediates. Finally, mutant brains demonstrate misregulated metabolites in pathways implicated in neuroprotective mechanisms previously associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Overall, our data reveal an important role for the GPT2 enzyme in mitochondrial metabolism with relevance to developmental as well as potentially to neurodegenerative mechanisms. PMID:27601654

  13. Injuries caused by firearms treated at Brazilian urgent and emergency healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the medical care given at Brazilian urgent and emergency healthcare services to people injured by firearms in 2014. A cross-sectional study was carried out on care given to patients with firearms injuries in 24 capital cities of Brazilian states and in the Brazilian Federal District, included in the VIVA Survey. Simple and relative frequencies of the variables related to the patients and to the event were calculated, and a logistic model for complex samples was applied adopting care for firearms injuries patients as outcome. The results show the following percentages of care events as caused by firearms: 0.7% for the category 'other accidents (other than transport-related accidents)', 1.5% for self-inflicted injuries, 15.9% for injuries due to assault, and 65.1% of cases arising from legal intervention. The care given was predominantly to young male adults (age 20-39), of mixed race and with a low level of schooling. The most common injuries were: to arms and legs; and to multiple organs. The paper concludes by discussing the efforts to control firearms held by the public in Brazil, and how they can lead to severe and lethal outcomes in quarrels and interpersonal disputes.

  14. Successfully treated transoral crossbow injury to the axial spine causing mild neurologic deficit: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Kovari, Viktor Zsolt

    2017-05-01

    To detail the management, complications and results of a crossbow arrow injury, where the broadhead went through the mouth, tongue, soft palate, C2 vertebra, spinal canal, dural sack, exiting the neck posteriorly and the arrow shaft lodged in the spine causing mild spinal cord injury. Case presentation. A penetrating axial cervical spine crossbow injury was treated successfully in spite of the following interdisciplinary complications: meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, re-bleeding, and cardiac arrest. The shaft was removed from the neck, and C1-3 dorsal stabilization was performed. Controlled Computed Tomography (CT) showed adequate implant position. After 4 months the patient's fine motor skills improved, and he became able to button his shirt on his own, and to eat and drink without any help. Additionally, he was able to walk without any support. At the time of control at the outpatient clinic his behavior was adequate: he cooperated with the examining doctor and answered with short sentences although his psychomotor skills were slightly slower. Although bow and crossbow spine injuries are rare nowadays they still occur. The removal of a penetrating missile resulting in such a spinal injury required a unique solution. General considerations, such as securing the airway, leaving the penetrating arrow in the neck and immobilizing both the arrow and neck for transport, thorough diagnostic imaging, preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage, administering prophylactic antibiotics with broad coverage and stabilizing the spine if required, are advised.

  15. Health locus of control and attributions of cause and blame in adjustment to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Waldron, B; Benson, C; O'Connell, A; Byrne, P; Dooley, B; Burke, T

    2010-08-01

    The Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assign participants to either a good adjustment group or a poor adjustment group. Group differences were analyzed with chi (2), t-tests and correlations on factors shown in previous research to be related to coping with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study examines health locus of control (HLC) and attributions of cause and blame in relation to SCI. The replication of study findings in multiple settings is a cornerstone of the evidence base for developing interventions. Previous studies do not show a consensus on the role of attributions of cause and blame in persons with SCI. Similarly, their relationship to adjustment after SCI is unclear. Another attribution, HLC, is similarly analyzed in relation to adjustment. Republic of Ireland. Thirty people with SCI participated. They rated scales measuring psychological adjustment, locus of control (LOC) for health and attributions of cause and blame for the injury. The well-adjusted group had a less external HLC. In addition, participants who were well adjusted endorsed the notion they could have avoided their accident significantly more than the poorly adjusted group. Similarly, they rated the belief that they could have caused the accident at a somewhat greater level. They did not, however, blame themselves any more or any less. Results are consistent with general LOC theory, and suggest an adaptive or protective internal LOC for accepting responsibility for the injury.

  16. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Lisanne C

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeksmore » after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated

  17. Osthole Enhances the Therapeutic Efficiency of Stem Cell Transplantation in Neuroendoscopy Caused Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Peng; Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Hong-Yan; Song, Jie; Yang, Jing-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendoscopy processes can cause severe traumatic brain injury. Existing therapeutic methods, such as neural stem cell transplantation and osthole have not been proven effective. Therefore, there is an emerging need on the development of new techniques for the treatment of brain injuries. In this study we propose to combine the above stem cell based methods and then evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of the new method. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 (brain injury alone); group 2 (osthole); group 3 (stem cell transplantation); and group 4 (osthole combined with stem cell transplantation). We carried out water maze task to exam spatial memory. Immunocytochemistry was used to test the inflammatory condition of each group, and the differentiation of stem cells. To evaluate the condition of the damaged blood brain barrier restore, we detect the Evans blue (EB) extravasation across the blood brain barrier. The result shows that osthole and stem cell transplantation combined therapeutic method has a potent effect on improving the spatial memory. This combined method was more effective on inhibiting inflammation and preventing neuronal degeneration than the single treated ones. In addition, there was a distinct decline of EB extravasation in the combined treatment groups, which was not observed in single treatment groups. Most importantly, the combined usage of osthole and stem cell transplantation provide a better treatment for the traumatic brain injury caused by neuroendoscopy. The collective evidence indicates osthole combined with neural stem cell transplantation is superior than either method alone for the treatment of traumatic brain injury caused by neuroendoscopy.

  18. Lawn mower injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment - Case reports.

    PubMed

    Jasielska, Monika; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Bieliński, Paweł; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-05-11

    [b]Abstract Objective.[/b] The aim of the study is to present four cases of lawn mowers injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. A retrospective study of four patients admitted in 2013-2015 to the Department of Vitreoretinal Surgery in Lublin with severe open or closed globe injury, one with an intraocular foreign body (IOFB). The presence of eye protective equipment was assessed, as well as visual acuity, eye tissue condition before and after treatment, and applied therapy. In all cases an improvement was achieved in local conditions. The intraocular foreign body was removed, wounds sutured and damaged tissues placed in position. All eyeballs were saved. In three cases, visual acuity was improved to a usable level. Three patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, one with IOFB removal from the vitreous cavity. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Lawn mower induced eye injuries are a significant cause of serious visual acuity impairment or blindness. The presented study shows that lawn mower eye injuries are still a therapeutic, social and economic problem, yet are very preventable with proper eye protection and patients' education. Current prevention strategies are inadequate, and therefore should be updated.

  19. Desensitizing Mitochondrial Permeability Transition by ERK-Cyclophilin D Axis Contributes to the Neuroprotective Effect of Gallic Acid against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Ren, Da-Dui; Wan, Jin-Yi; Chen, Chen; Chen, Dong; Yang, Huan; Feng, Chun-Lai; Gao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with complex pathophysiology. Much evidence confirms that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is related with mitochondrial dysfunction to apoptosis in ischemic stroke, thus elucidating its signaling mechanism and screening novel MPTP inhibitor is therefore of paramount importance. Our earlier studies identified that gallic acid (GA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, endows with effect on inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, which has significant neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction remain elusive. Here, we uncover a role of GA in protecting mitochondria via MPTP inhibition. In addition to inhibit CypD binding to adenine nucleotide translocator, GA potentiates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in cyclophilin D (CypD) expression, resulting in a desensitization to induction of MPTP, thus inhibiting caspase activation and ultimately giving rise to cellular survival. Our study firstly identifies ERK-CypD axis is one of the cornerstones of the cell death pathways following ischemic stroke, and confirms GA is a novel inhibitor of MPTP, which inhibits apoptosis depending on regulating the ERK-CypD axis. PMID:28428752

  20. TSA protects H9c2 cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis related to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Liu, Yan; Dai, Xinlun; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Liu, Xueli; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Xia

    2017-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives : To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation. Results : TSA is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase which could significantly inhibit H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by Thapsigargin (TG). It also intervene the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. By immunofluorescence staining, we have shown that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with ER. However, treatments with TG and TSA could let it overlap with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation also confirmed the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion. TSA decreases ERS-induced cell apoptosis and mitochondrial injury may related to enhance the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion.

  1. Mitochondrial Hsp60 Chaperonopathy Causes an Autosomal-Recessive Neurodegenerative Disorder Linked to Brain Hypomyelination and Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Daniella; Georgopoulos, Costa; Bross, Peter; Ang, Debbie; Segev, Yardena; Goldsher, Dorit; Nemirovski, Alexandra; Shahar, Eli; Ravid, Sarit; Luder, Anthony; Heno, Bayan; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Skorecki, Karl; Mandel, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HMLs) are disorders involving aberrant myelin formation. The prototype of primary HMLs is the X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) caused by mutations in PLP1. Recently, homozygous mutations in GJA12 encoding connexin 47 were found in patients with autosomal-recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD). However, many patients of both genders with PMLD carry neither PLP1 nor GJA12 mutations. We report a consanguineous Israeli Bedouin kindred with clinical and radiological findings compatible with PMLD, in which linkage to PLP1 and GJA12 was excluded. Using homozygosity mapping and mutation analysis, we have identified a homozygous missense mutation (D29G) not previously described in HSPD1, encoding the mitochondrial heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) in all affected individuals. The D29G mutation completely segregates with the disease-associated phenotype. The pathogenic effect of D29G on Hsp60-chaperonin activity was verified by an in vivo E. coli complementation assay, which demonstrated compromised ability of the D29G-Hsp60 mutant protein to support E. coli survival, especially at high temperatures. The disorder, which we have termed MitCHAP-60 disease, can be distinguished from spastic paraplegia 13 (SPG13), another Hsp60-associated autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, by its autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern, as well as by its early-onset, profound cerebral involvement and lethality. Our findings suggest that Hsp60 defects can cause neurodegenerative pathologies of varying severity, not previously suspected on the basis of the SPG13 phenotype. These findings should help to clarify the important role of Hsp60 in myelinogenesis and neurodegeneration. PMID:18571143

  2. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when

  3. Rectal injury caused by personal watercraft accident: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Descottes, Bernard; Lachachi, Fouzi; Moumouni, Issifou; Durand-Fontanier, Sylvaine; Geballa, Ramy

    2003-07-01

    A 16-year-old male riding as a passenger on a personal watercraft fell behind the jet nozzle while jumping waves. An unusual rectal injury caused by the accident and resulting in the death of the patient is presented. The surgical management and postoperative course is discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for adequate protective clothes for all passengers of personal watercraft and to the necessity of a complete examination for correct diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Pelvic fracture-related injuries of the bladder neck and prostate: their nature, cause and management.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Anthony R; Andrich, Daniela E

    2010-05-01

    To report our experience of bladder neck injuries, which are a well recognized but rare consequence of pelvic fracture-related trauma to the lower urinary tract, as we have been unable to find any reference in the English literature to their specific nature, cause and management in adults. In the last 10 years we have treated 15 men with bladder neck injuries after pelvic fracture. Two were treated at our centre by delayed primary repair. Thirteen were initially treated elsewhere and presented to us 3 months to 5 years after their injury with intractable incontinence and various other symptoms most notably recurrent urinary infection and gross haematuria. Twelve of the injuries were at or close to the anterior midline and associated with lateral compression fractures or 'open-book' injuries. Five of them were confined to the bladder neck and prostatic urethra; the other seven extended into the subprostatic urethra. Four of these were associated with a coincidental typical rupture of the posterior urethra. All had an associated cavity involving the anterior disruption of the pelvic ring. Two of the injuries, following particularly severe trauma, were a simultaneous complete transection of the bladder neck and of the bulbo-membranous urethra with a sequestered prostate between. We have seen this in children before but not in adults. Another injury, also after particularly severe trauma, was an avulsion of the anterior aspect of the prostate. We have not seen this described before. Fourteen patients underwent lower urinary tract reconstruction and one underwent a Mitrofanoff procedure. All of the 14 had a layered reconstruction of the prostate and bladder neck and in 13, this was supplemented with an omental wrap. In all patients with an anterior midline rupture, the primary injury appeared to be to the prostate and prostatic urethra with secondary involvement of the bladder neck and the subprostatic urethra. The Mitrofanoff procedure was successful. Of the 14

  5. Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Mack, Karin; Clapperton, Angela; Macpherson, Alison; Sleet, David; Newton, Donovan; Murdoch, James; Mackay, J Morag; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Wilkins, Natalie; Marr, Angela; Ballesteros, Michael; McClure, Roderick

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States. Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution. US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000-2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014. Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.

  6. Sevoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury is abolished in diet-induced obesity: role of brain mitochondrial KATP channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zecheng; Chen, Yunbo; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Fang, Xuedong; Xu, Jingwei

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased infarct volumes and adverse outcomes following ischemic stroke. However, its effect on anesthetic postconditioning‑induced neuroprotection has not been investigated. The present study examined the effect of sevoflurane postconditioning on focal ischemic brain injury in diet‑induced obesity. Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a high‑fat diet (HF; 45% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to develop obesity syndrome. Rats fed a low‑fat diet (LF; 10% kcal as fat) served as controls. The HF or LF‑fed rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia for 60 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Postconditioning was performed by exposure to sevoflurane for 15 min immediately at the onset of reperfusion. The involvement of the mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel was analyzed by the administration of a selective inhibitor of 5‑hydroxydecanoate (5‑HD) prior to sevoflurane postconditioning or by administration of diazoxide (DZX), a mitoKATP channel opener, instead of sevoflurane. The cerebral infarct volume, neurological score and motor coordination were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. The HF‑fed rats had larger infarct volumes, and lower neurological scores than the LF‑fed rats and also failed to respond to neuroprotection by sevoflurane or DZX. By contrast, sevoflurane and DZX reduced the infarct volumes and improved the neurological scores and motor coordination in the LF‑fed rats. Pretreatment with 5‑HD inhibited sevoflurane‑induced neuroprotection in the LF‑fed rats, whereas it had no effect in the HF‑fed rats. Molecular studies demonstrated that the expression of Kir6.2, a significant mitoKATP channel component, was reduced in the brains of the HF‑fed rats compared with the LF‑fed rats. The results of this study indicate that diet‑induced obesity eliminates the ability of anesthetic sevoflurane postconditioning to protect the brain against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury, most likely due to an impaired brain

  7. Interactive HIV-1 Tat and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury is triggered through focal disruptions in Na⁺ influx, mitochondrial instability, and Ca²⁺ overload.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Sylvia; Knapp, Pamela E; Zou, Shiping; Marks, William D; Bowers, M Scott; Akbarali, Hamid I; Hauser, Kurt F

    2014-09-17

    Synaptodendritic injury is thought to underlie HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and contributes to exaggerated inflammation and cognitive impairment seen in opioid abusers with HIV-1. To examine events triggering combined transactivator of transcription (Tat)- and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury systematically, striatal neuron imaging studies were conducted in vitro. These studies demonstrated nearly identical pathologic increases in dendritic varicosities as seen in Tat transgenic mice in vivo. Tat caused significant focal increases in intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) and calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in dendrites that were accompanied by the emergence of dendritic varicosities. These effects were largely, but not entirely, attenuated by the NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists MK-801 and CNQX, respectively. Concurrent morphine treatment accelerated Tat-induced focal varicosities, which were accompanied by localized increases in [Ca(2+)]i and exaggerated instability in mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Importantly, morphine's effects were prevented by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP and were not observed in neurons cultured from μ-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Combined Tat- and morphine-induced initial losses in ion homeostasis and increases in [Ca(2+)]i were attenuated by the ryanodine receptor inhibitor ryanodine, as well as pyruvate. In summary, Tat induced increases in [Na(+)]i, mitochondrial instability, excessive Ca(2+) influx through glutamatergic receptors, and swelling along dendrites. Morphine, acting via μ-opioid receptors, exacerbates these excitotoxic Tat effects at the same subcellular locations by mobilizing additional [Ca(2+)]i and by further disrupting [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis. We hypothesize that the spatiotemporal relationship of μ-opioid and aberrant AMPA/NMDA glutamate receptor signaling is critical in defining the location and degree to which opiates exacerbate the synaptodendritic injury commonly observed in neuro

  8. A novel mutation m.8561C>G in MT-ATP6/8 causing a mitochondrial syndrome with ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Kytövuori, Laura; Lipponen, Joonas; Rusanen, Harri; Komulainen, Tuomas; Martikainen, Mika H; Majamaa, Kari

    2016-11-01

    Defects in the respiratory chain or mitochondrial ATP synthase (complex V) result in mitochondrial dysfunction that is an important cause of inherited neurological disease. Two of the subunits of complex V are encoded by MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8 in the mitochondrial genome. Pathogenic mutations in MT-ATP6 are associated with the Leigh syndrome, the syndrome of neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP), as well as with non-classical phenotypes, while MT-ATP8 is less frequently mutated in patients with mitochondrial disease. We investigated two adult siblings presenting with features of cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, sensorineural hearing impairment, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. As the phenotype was suggestive of mitochondrial disease, mitochondrial DNA was sequenced and a novel heteroplasmic mutation m.8561C>G in the overlapping region of the MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8 was found. The mutation changed amino acids in both subunits. Mutation heteroplasmy correlated with the disease phenotype in five family members. An additional assembly intermediate of complex V and increased amount of subcomplex F 1 were observed in myoblasts of the two patients, but the total amount of complex V was unaffected. Furthermore, intracellular ATP concentration was lower in patient myoblasts indicating defective energy production. We suggest that the m.8561C>G mutation in MT-ATP6/8 is pathogenic, leads biochemically to impaired assembly and decreased ATP production of complex V, and results clinically in a phenotype with the core features of cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

  9. Resuscitation With 100% Oxygen Causes Intestinal Glutathione Oxidation and Reoxygenation Injury in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Erika; Bigam, David L.; Nakonechny, Quentin B.; Jewell, Laurence D.; Korbutt, Gregory; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare mesenteric blood flow, oxidative stress, and mucosal injury in piglet small intestine during hypoxemia and reoxygenation with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen. Summary Background Data: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a disease whose pathogenesis likely involves hypoxia-reoxygenation and the generation of oxygen-free radicals, which are known to cause intestinal injury. Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns with 100% oxygen has been shown to increase oxidative stress, as measured by the glutathione redox ratio, and thus may predispose to free radical-mediated tissue injury. Methods: Newborn piglets subjected to severe hypoxemia for 2 hours were resuscitated with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen while superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow and hemodynamic parameters were continuously measured. Small intestinal tissue samples were analyzed for histologic injury and levels of oxidized and reduced glutathione. Results: SMA blood flow decreased to 34% and mesenteric oxygen delivery decreased to 9% in hypoxemic piglets compared with sham-operated controls. With reoxygenation, SMA blood flow increased to 177%, 157%, and 145% of baseline values in piglets resuscitated with 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen, respectively. Mesenteric oxygen delivery increased to more than 150% of baseline values in piglets resuscitated with 50% or 100% oxygen, and this correlated significantly with the degree of oxidative stress, as measured by the oxidized-to-reduced glutathione ratio. Two of eight piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen developed gross and microscopic evidence of pneumatosis intestinalis and severe mucosal injury, while all other piglets were grossly normal. Conclusions: Resuscitation of hypoxemic newborn piglets with 100% oxygen is associated with an increase in oxygen delivery and oxidative stress, and may be associated with the development of small intestinal hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns with lower oxygen concentrations may help to decrease

  10. A case of acute kidney injury caused by granulomatous interstitial nephritis associated with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Horino, Taro; Matsumoto, Tatsuki; Inoue, Kosuke; Ichii, Osamu; Terada, Yoshio

    2018-05-01

    Sarcoidosis affects multiple organs including lung, heart and kidney. Sarcoidosis causes hypercalcemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and rarely, granulomatous interstitial nephritis, resulting in renal stromal damage. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is characterized as interstitial nephritis with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas. Diagnosing granulomatous interstitial nephritis before patient's death is challenging; hence, only few cases proven by renal biopsy have been reported till date. We present a case of acute kidney injury caused by granulomatous interstitial nephritis as a renal manifestation of sarcoidosis proven by renal biopsy, which can be confirmed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Glucocorticoid therapy was helpful for improving and maintaining her renal function over a 6-year period.

  11. Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, attenuates tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced endothelial cell injury through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Mao, Ping; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Chang-Hou

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) blockers protect against brain ischemia by mechanisms dependent on and independent of arterial blood pressure. However, the effects of AT1-R blockers on brain endothelial cell injury and detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study is to investigate whether azilsartan, an AT1-R blocker, could attenuate oxidative injury in endothelial cells via regulating mitochondrial function and inflammatory responses. We found that treatment with azilsartan suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) by increasing cell viability, decreasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Azilsartan significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on antioxidant system. We also detected preserved mitochondrial function after azilsartan treatment, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, preserved ATP synthesis and inhibited mitochondrial swelling. In addition, azilsartan differently regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines and increased the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Pretreatment with eNOS inhibitor L-NIO partially prevented the azilsartan-induced regulation of cytokines and protection. Furthermore, azilsartan-induced protection in our in vitro model was shown to be associated with protein stability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Overall, our data suggest that the AT1-R blocker azilsartan may have therapeutic values in treating endothelial dysfunction associated neurological disorders through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cutaneous exposure to lewisite causes acute kidney injury by invoking DNA damage and autophagic response.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ritesh K; Traylor, Amie M; Li, Changzhao; Feng, Wenguang; Guo, Lingling; Antony, Veena B; Schoeb, Trenton R; Agarwal, Anupam; Athar, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    Lewisite (2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine) is an organic arsenical chemical warfare agent that was developed and weaponized during World Wars I/II. Stockpiles of lewisite still exist in many parts of the world and pose potential environmental and human health threat. Exposure to lewisite and similar chemicals causes intense cutaneous inflammatory response. However, morbidity and mortality in the exposed population is not only the result of cutaneous damage but is also a result of systemic injury. Here, we provide data delineating the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cutaneous exposure to lewisite and its analog phenylarsine oxide (PAO) in a murine model. Both agents caused renal tubular injury, characterized by loss of brush border in proximal tubules and tubular cell apoptosis accompanied by increases in serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1. Interestingly, lewisite exposure enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney and resulted in the activation of autophagic and DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways with increased expression of beclin-1, autophagy-related gene 7, and LC-3A/B-II and increased phosphorylation of γ-H 2 A.X and checkpoint kinase 1/2, respectively. Terminal deoxyribonucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells were detected in renal tubules along with enhanced proapoptotic BAX/cleaved caspase-3 and reduced antiapoptotic BCL 2 . Scavenging ROS by cutaneous postexposure application of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced lewisite-induced autophagy and DNA damage. In summary, we provide evidence that topical exposure to lewisite causes AKI. The molecular mechanism underlying these changes involves ROS-dependent activation of autophagy and DDR pathway associated with the induction of apoptosis.

  13. RECOMBINANT FACTOR XIII DIMINISHES MULTIPLE ORGAN DYSFUNCTION IN RATS CAUSED BY GUT ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Zaets, Sergey B.; Xu, Da-Zhong; Lu, Qi; Feketova, Eleonora; Berezina, Tamara L.; Gruda, Maryann; Malinina, Inga V.; Deitch, Edwin A.; Olsen, Eva H. N.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma factor XIII (FXIII) is responsible for stabilization of fibrin clot at the final stage of blood coagulation. Because FXIII has also been shown to modulate inflammation and endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that FXIII diminishes multiple organ dysfunction caused by gut I/R injury. A model of superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) was used to induce gut I/R injury. Rats were subjected to 45-min SMAO or sham SMAO and treated with recombinant human FXIII A2 subunit (rFXIII) or placebo at the beginning of the reperfusion period. Lung permeability, lung and gut myeloperoxidase activity, gut histology, neutrophil respiratory burst, and microvascular blood flow in the liver and muscles were measured after a 3-h reperfusion period. The effect of activated rFXIII on transendothelial resistance of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was tested in vitro. Superior mesenteric artery occlusion–induced lung permeability as well as lung and gut myeloperoxidase activity was significantly lower in rFXIII-treated versus untreated animals. Similarly, rFXIII-treated rats had lower neutrophil respiratory burst activity and ileal mucosal injury. Rats treated with rFXIII also had higher liver microvascular blood flow compared with the placebo group. Superior mesenteric artery occlusion did not cause FXIII consumption during the study period. In vitro, activated rFXIII caused a dose-dependent increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer resistance to thrombin-induced injury. Thus, administration of rFXIII diminishes SMAO-induced multiple organ dysfunction in rats, presumably by preservation of endothelial barrier function and the limitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation. PMID:18948851

  14. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  15. Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Abates Hyperglycaemia-Induced Neuronal Injury in Experimental Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Effects on Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Autophagy and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Impaired adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) signalling under hyperglycaemic conditions is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic sensory neurons. Facilitation of AMPK signalling is previously reported to ameliorate inflammation and induce autophagic response in various complications related to diabetes. The present study assesses the role of AMPK activation on mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and neuroinflammation in experimental diabetic neuropathy (DN) using an AMPK activator (A769662). A769662 (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (250-270 g) for 2 weeks after 6 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ) injection (55 mg/kg, i.p.). Behavioural parameters (mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia) and functional characteristics (motor/sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) and sciatic nerve blood flow (NBF)) were assessed. For in vitro studies, Neuro2a (N2A) cells were incubated with 25 mM glucose to simulate high glucose condition and then studied for mitochondrial dysfunction and protein expression changes. STZ administration resulted in significant hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dl) in rats. A769662 treatment significantly improved mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia threshold and enhanced MNCV, SNCV and NBF in diabetic animals. A769662 exposure normalised the mitochondrial superoxide production, membrane depolarisation and markedly increased neurite outgrowth of N2A cells. Further, AMPK activation also abolished the NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation. A769662 treatment increased Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK results in stimulated PGC-1α-directed mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy induction. Our study supports that compromised AMPK signalling in hyperglycaemic conditions causes defective mitochondrial biogenesis ultimately leading to neuronal dysfunction and associated deficits in DN and activation of AMPK can be developed as an attractive therapeutic strategy for the management of DN.

  16. PreFix™ external fixator used to treat a floating shoulder injury caused by gunshot wound.

    PubMed

    Vogels, J; Pommier, N; Cursolle, J-C; Belin, C; Tournier, C; Durandeau, A

    2014-10-01

    Open fractures of the shoulder are extremely rare, and their treatment is a major challenge for surgeons. Only cases encountered in military settings have been reported thus far. Such fractures are often the result of ballistic trauma, which causes extensive damage to both bony and soft tissues. Since these injuries are associated with a high risk of infection and the presence of comminuted fractures, external fixation is necessary for repair. Use of external fixators and revascularization techniques has reduced the number of cases requiring shoulder amputation or disarticulation. Injury to the proximal extremity of the humerus, acromion, and clavicle further complicates the treatment. No published studies have described the assembly of external fixators for fractures in the scapular region with significant bone loss. In addition, no cases have been described in civilian settings. However, with an increase in urban violence and the traffic of illegal arms, civilian surgeons are now encountering an increasing number of patients with these injuries. In this report, we not only present a rare case of floating shoulder injury in a civilian setting but also provide an overview of the existing treatment strategies for this type of trauma, with special focus on the use of external fixators in elective shoulder arthrodesis and on military cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Dysphagia, malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems in patients with mitochondrial disease caused by the m3243A>G mutation.

    PubMed

    de Laat, P; Zweers, H E E; Knuijt, S; Smeitink, J A M; Wanten, G J A; Janssen, M C H

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dysphagia and gastrointestinal problems occur frequently in carriers of the m.3243A>G mutation; however, the exact frequency and severity have not been determined. We hypothesise that adult carriers have an increased risk for malnutrition. In this observational study we evaluated the presence of gastrointestinal problems and dysphagia in 92 carriers of the m.3243A>G mutation. The severity of the general disease involvement was classified using the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS). Gastrointestinal involvement, dysphagia and the risk for malnutrition were scored using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Gastrointestinal symptoms and anthropometrics were compared with healthy controls. Our results show that the height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of these carriers were lower than the national average (p < 0.05). Seventy-nine carriers (86%) suffered from at least one gastrointestinal symptom, mainly flatulence or hard stools. Both frequency and severity of symptoms were significantly increased compared with reference data of healthy Dutch adults. Of the carriers, 45% reported (mostly mild) dysphagia. Solid foods cause more problems than liquids. A negative correlation between BMI and heteroplasmy levels in urinary epithelial cells (UEC) was present (Spearman correlation coefficient = - 0.319, p = 0.003). Dysphagia and gastrointestinal problems, especially constipation, are common symptoms in the total m.3243A>G carriers cohort and are not related to heteroplasmy levels in UEC or disease severity. The severity of gastrointestinal problems as well as overall disease severity is associated with an increased risk for malnutrition.

  18. De Novo Mutations in SLC25A24 Cause a Craniosynostosis Syndrome with Hypertrichosis, Progeroid Appearance, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ehmke, Nadja; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Smorag, Lukasz; Koenig, Rainer; Segebrecht, Lara; Magoulas, Pilar; Scaglia, Fernando; Kilic, Esra; Hennig, Anna F; Adolphs, Nicolai; Saha, Namrata; Fauler, Beatrix; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Hennig, Friederike; Altmüller, Janine; Netzer, Christian; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Yigit, Gökhan; Jäger, Marten; Hecht, Jochen; Krüger, Ulrike; Mielke, Thorsten; Krawitz, Peter M; Horn, Denise; Schuelke, Markus; Mundlos, Stefan; Bacino, Carlos A; Bonnen, Penelope E; Wollnik, Bernd; Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Kornak, Uwe

    2017-11-02

    Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/P i carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H 2 O 2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/P i transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin protects cardiac microvasculature against ischemia/reperfusion injury via suppression of mitochondrial fission-VDAC1-HK2-mPTP-mitophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Shunying; Shi, Chen; Zhu, Pingjun; Ma, Qiang; Jin, Qinhua; Cao, Feng; Tian, Feng; Chen, Yundai

    2017-08-01

    The cardiac microvascular system, which is primarily composed of monolayer endothelial cells, is the site of blood supply and nutrient exchange to cardiomyocytes. However, microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following percutaneous coronary intervention is a woefully neglected topic, and few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects of melatonin on microcirculation IRI and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Melatonin markedly reduced infarcted area, improved cardiac function, restored blood flow, and lower microcirculation perfusion defects. Histological analysis showed that cardiac microcirculation endothelial cells (CMEC) in melatonin-treated mice had an unbroken endothelial barrier, increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, unobstructed lumen, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, and less endothelial damage. In contrast, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) deficiency abolished the beneficial effects of melatonin on microvasculature. In vitro, IRI activated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission, which subsequently induced voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) oligomerization, hexokinase 2 (HK2) liberation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, PINK1/Parkin upregulation, and ultimately mitophagy-mediated CMEC death. However, melatonin strengthened CMEC survival via activation of AMPKα, followed by p-Drp1 S616 downregulation and p-Drp1 S37 upregulation, which blunted Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission. Suppression of mitochondrial fission by melatonin recovered VDAC1-HK2 interaction that prevented mPTP opening and PINK1/Parkin activation, eventually blocking mitophagy-mediated cellular death. In summary, this study confirmed that melatonin protects cardiac microvasculature against IRI. The underlying mechanism may be attributed to the inhibitory effects of melatonin on mitochondrial fission-VDAC1-HK2-mPTP-mitophagy axis via activation

  20. Protective effect of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ against iron ion 56Fe radiation induced brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Wang, Zhenhua; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Ye, Yancheng; Zhang, Yanshan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Hong

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to iron ion 56 Fe radiation (IR) during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system and radiation exposure is intimately linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that has been shown to decrease oxidative damage and lower mitochondrial ROS in a number of animal models. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate role of the mitochondrial targeted antioxidant MitoQ against 56 Fe particle irradiation-induced oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in the mouse brains. Increased ROS levels were observed in mouse brains after IR compared with the control group. Enhanced ROS production leads to disruption of cellular antioxidant defense systems, mitochondrial respiration dysfunction, altered mitochondria dynamics and increased release of cytochrome c (cyto c) from mitochondria into cytosol resulting in apoptotic cell death. MitoQ reduced IR-induced oxidative stress (decreased ROS production and increased SOD, CAT activities) with decreased lipid peroxidation as well as reduced protein and DNA oxidation. MitoQ also protected mitochondrial respiration after IR. In addition, MitoQ increased the expression of mitofusin2 (Mfn2) and optic atrophy gene1 (OPA1), and decreased the expression of dynamic-like protein (Drp1). MitoQ also suppressed mitochondrial DNA damage, cyto c release, and caspase-3 activity in IR-treated mice compared to the control group. These results demonstrate that MitoQ may protect against IR-induced brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    PubMed Central

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio DF; Porto, Leonardo BO; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified. PMID:19555511

  2. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  3. Occupant Injury Severity and Accident Causes in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (1983-2014).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Macchiarella, Nickolas D

    2016-01-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transport critically ill patients to/between emergency care facilities and operate in a hazardous environment: the destination site is often encumbered with obstacles, difficult to visualize at night, and lack instrument approaches for degraded visibility. The study objectives were to determine 1) HEMS accident rates and causes; 2) occupant injury severity profiles; and 3) whether accident aircraft were certified to the more stringent crashworthiness standards implemented two decades ago. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident database was used to identify HEMS mishaps for the years spanning 1983-2014. Contingency tables (Pearson Chi-square or Fisher's exact test) were used to determine differences in proportions. A generalized linear model (Poisson distribution) was used to determine if accident rates differed over time. While the HEMS accident rate decreased by 71% across the study period, the fraction of fatal accidents (36-50%) and the injury severity profiles were unchanged. None of the accident aircraft fully satisfied the current crashworthiness standards. Failure to clear obstacles and visual-to-instrument flight, the most frequent accident causes (37 and 26%, respectively), showed a downward trend, whereas accidents ascribed to aircraft malfunction showed an upward trend over time. HEMS operators should consider updating their fleet to the current, more stringent crashworthiness standards in an attempt to reduce injury severity. Additionally, toward further mitigating accidents ascribed to inadvertent visual-to-instrument conditions, HEMS aircraft should be avionics-equipped for instrument flight rules flight.

  4. Relaxin protects against myocardial injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion in rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Bani, D.; Masini, E.; Bello, M. G.; Bigazzi, M.; Sacchi, T. B.

    1998-01-01

    Myocardial injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion comes from multiple pathogenic events, including endothelial damage, neutrophil extravasation into tissue, platelet and mast cell activation, and peroxidation of cell membrane lipids, which are followed by myocardial cell alterations resulting eventually in cell necrosis. The current study was designed to test the possible cardioprotective effect of the hormone relaxin, which has been found to cause coronary vessel dilation and to inhibit platelet and mast cell activation. Ischemia (for 30 minutes) was induced in rat hearts in vivo by ligature of the left anterior descending coronary artery; reperfusion (for 60 minutes or less if the rats died before this predetermined time) was induced by removal of the ligature. Relaxin (100 ng) was given intravenously 30 minutes before ischemia. The results obtained showed that relaxin strongly reduces 1) the extension of the myocardial areas affected by ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage, 2) ventricular arrhythmias, 3) mortality, 4) myocardial neutrophil number, 5) myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil accumulation, 6) production of malonyldialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, 7) mast cell granule release, 8) calcium overload, and 9) morphological signs of myocardial cell injury. This study shows that relaxin can be regarded as an agent with a marked cardioprotective action against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9588905

  5. Recombinant Buckwheat Trypsin Inhibitor Induces Mitophagy by Directly Targeting Mitochondria and Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Hep G2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuanhua; Li, Shanshan; Ren, Rong; Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong

    2015-09-09

    Mitochondria are essential targets for cancer chemotherapy and other disease treatments. Recombinant buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (rBTI), a member of the potato type I proteinase inhibitor family, was derived from tartary buckwheat extracts. Our results showed that rBTI directly targeted mitochondria and induced mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. This occurs through enhanced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation associated with the rise of the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) content, and changes in the GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio. Mild and transient ROS induced by rBTI were shown to be important signaling molecules required to induce Hep G2 mitophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria. Furthermore, rBTI could directly induce mitochondrial fragmentation. It was also noted that rBTI highly increased colocalization of mitochondria in treated cells compared to nontreated cells. Tom 20, a subunit of the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane complex responsible for recognizing mitochondrial presequences, may be the direct target of rBTI.

  6. A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C W; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2005-08-01

    To identify those risk factors that have the greatest impact on the incidence of head and neck injuries in international football. A case-control study of players sustaining head and neck injuries during 20 FIFA tournaments (men and women) from 1998 to 2004. Video recordings of incidents were used to identify a range of parameters associated with the incidents. Team physicians provided medical reports describing the nature of each injury. chi2 tests (p< or =0.01) and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess differences in distribution and incidence of injury, respectively. In total, 248 head and neck injuries were recorded of which 163 were identified and analysed on video sequences. The commonest injuries were contusions (53%), lacerations (20%), and concussions (11%). The incidence of all head and neck injuries was 12.5/1000 player hours (men 12.8, women 11.5) and 3.7 for lost-time injuries (men 3.5, women 4.1). The commonest causes of injury involved aerial challenges (55%) and the use of the upper extremity (33%) or head (30%). The unfair use of the upper extremity was significantly more likely to cause an injury than any other player action. Only one injury (a neck muscle strain) occurred as a result of heading the ball throughout the 20 tournaments equivalent to 0.05 injuries/1000 player hours. Players' actions most likely to cause a head or neck injury were the use of the upper extremity or the head but in the majority of cases these challenges were deemed to be fair and within the laws of the game.

  7. Hearing loss caused by a P2RX2 mutation identified in a MELAS family with a coexisting mitochondrial 3243AG mutation

    PubMed Central

    Moteki, Hideaki; Azaiez, Hela; Booth, Kevin T; Hattori, Mitsuru; Sato, Ai; Sato, Yoshihiko; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Sloan, Christina M; Kolbe, Diana L; Shearer, A Eliot; Smith, Richard J H; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective We present a family with a mitochondrial DNA 3243A>G mutation resulting in MELAS, of which some members have hearing loss where a novel mutation in the P2RX2 gene was identified. Methods One hundred ninety-four (194) Japanese subjects from unrelated families were enrolled in the study. Targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing of all known non-syndromic hearing loss genes were performed to identify the genetic causes of hearing loss. Results A novel mutation in the P2RX2 gene, that corresponded to c.601G>A (p.Asp201Tyr) was identified. Two patients carried the mutation, and had severe SNHL, while other members with MELAS (who did not carry the P2RX2 mutation) had normal hearing. Conclusion This is the first case report of a diagnosis of hearing loss caused by P2RX2 mutation in patients with MELAS. A potential explanation is that decreasing ATP production due to MELAS with mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation might suppress activation of P2X2 receptors. We also suggest that hearing loss caused by the P2RX2 mutation might be influenced by the decrease in ATP production due to MELAS, and that nuclear genetic factors may play a modifying role in mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25788561

  8. Concomitant Avulsion Injury of the Subclavian Vessels and the Main Bronchus Caused by Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dongsub; Lee, Chan-kyu; Hwang, Jung Joo

    2018-01-01

    Concomitant rupture of the subclavian vessels and the left main bronchus caused by blunt trauma is a serious condition. Moreover, the diagnosis of a tracheobronchial injury with rupture of the subclavian vessels can be difficult. This report describes the case of a 33-year-old man who suffered from blunt trauma that resulted in the rupture of the left subclavian artery and vein. The patient underwent an operation for vascular control. On postoperative day 3, the left main bronchus was found to be transected on a computed tomography scan and bronchoscopy. The transected bronchus was anastomosed in an end-to-end fashion. He recovered without any notable problems. Although the bronchial injury was not detected early, this case of concomitant rupture of the great vessels and the airway was successfully treated after applying extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:29662817

  9. Concomitant Avulsion Injury of the Subclavian Vessels and the Main Bronchus Caused by Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dongsub; Lee, Chan-Kyu; Hwang, Jung Joo; Cho, Hyun Min

    2018-04-01

    Concomitant rupture of the subclavian vessels and the left main bronchus caused by blunt trauma is a serious condition. Moreover, the diagnosis of a tracheobronchial injury with rupture of the subclavian vessels can be difficult. This report describes the case of a 33-year-old man who suffered from blunt trauma that resulted in the rupture of the left subclavian artery and vein. The patient underwent an operation for vascular control. On postoperative day 3, the left main bronchus was found to be transected on a computed tomography scan and bronchoscopy. The transected bronchus was anastomosed in an end-to-end fashion. He recovered without any notable problems. Although the bronchial injury was not detected early, this case of concomitant rupture of the great vessels and the airway was successfully treated after applying extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  10. Penetrating brain injury caused by nail guns: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Liu, Hai; Hao, Shuyu; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jingsheng; Liu, Baiyun

    2012-01-01

    To the best of the authors' knowledge, there are few case reports of penetrating brain injuries (PBI) caused by nail guns and these have usually involved incomplete penetration of the skull. Complete penetration of a nail into the intracranial cavity is extremely rare. Here, two such cases are presented. In the first, the nail entered through the right temporal bone, lodged in the right temporal lobe and was removed via craniotomy with intra-operative ultrasound guidance. In the second, the nail destroyed the left parietal bone, damaged the left internal capsule and lodged in the left temporal lobe near the left petrous apex and the brain stem. According to the latest literature retrieval, this is the first reported case of nail-gun injury to the internal capsule. The position of the nail precluded removal without further neurologic damage. Treatment strategies designed to optimize outcome, with or without surgery, and possible complications are discussed in this report.

  11. Drug induced liver injury with analysis of alternative causes as confounding variables.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Danan, Gaby

    2018-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare compared to the worldwide frequent acute or chronic liver diseases. Therefore, patients included in series of suspected DILI are at high risk of not having DILI, whereby alternative causes may confound the DILI diagnosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate published case series of DILI for alternative causes. Relevant studies were identified using a computerized search of the Medline database for publications from 1993 through 30 October 2017. We used the following terms: drug hepatotoxicity, drug induced liver injury, hepatotoxic drugs combined with diagnosis, causality assessment and alternative causes. Alternative causes as variables confounding the DILI diagnosis emerged in 22 published DILI case series, ranging from 4 to 47%. Among 13 335 cases of suspected DILI, alternative causes were found to be more likely in 4555 patients (34.2%), suggesting that the suspected DILI was probably not DILI. Biliary diseases such as biliary obstruction, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis were among the most missed diagnoses. Alternative causes included hepatitis B, C and E, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, ischemic hepatitis, cardiac hepatopathy, autoimmune hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. In more than one-third of published global DILI case series, alternative causes as published in these reports confounded the DILI diagnosis. In the future, published DILI case series should include only patients with secured DILI diagnosis, preferentially established by prospective use of scored items provided by robust diagnostic algorithms such as the updated Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Activation of a cryptic splice site in the mitochondrial elongation factor GFM1 causes combined OXPHOS deficiency☆

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Mariella T.; Ng, Bobby G.; Friederich, Marisa W.; Wang, Raymond Y.; Boyer, Monica; Kircher, Martin; Collard, Renata; Buckingham, Kati J.; Chang, Richard; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Van Hove, Johan L.K.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Abdenur, Jose E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in two brothers with encephalopathy and multi-systemic disease. Abnormal transferrin glycoforms were suggestive of a type I congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). While exome sequencing was negative for CDG related candidate genes, the testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the mitochondrial elongation factor G gene (GFM1). One of the mutations had been reported previously while the second, novel variant was found deep in intron 6, activating a cryptic splice site. Functional studies demonstrated decreased GFM1 protein levels, suggested disrupted assembly of mitochondrial complexes III and V and decreased activities of mitochondrial complexes I and IV, all indicating combined OXPHOS deficiency. PMID:28216230

  13. Molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA depletion diseases caused by deficiencies in enzymes in purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Staffan; Wang, Liya

    2008-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS), a reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number, often affects muscle or liver. Mutations in enzymes of deoxyribonucleotide metabolism give MDS, for example, the mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) genes. Sixteen TK2 and 22 dGK alterations are known. Their characteristics and symptoms are described. Levels of five key deoxynucleotide metabolizing enzymes in mouse tissues were measured. TK2 and dGK levels in muscles were 5- to 10-fold lower than other nonproliferating tissues and 100-fold lower compared to spleen. Each type of tissue apparently relies on de novo and salvage synthesis of DNA precursors to varying degrees.

  14. Assessment of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective potential of withaferin A on bromobenzene-induced injury in Swiss albino mice: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vedi, Mahima; Sabina, Evan Prince

    2016-10-01

    Bromobenzene is a well-known environmental toxin which causes liver and kidney damage through CYP450-mediated bio-activation to generate reactive metabolites and, consequently, oxidative stress. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible protective role of withaferin A against bromobenzene-induced liver and kidney damage in mice. Withaferin A (10 mg/kg) was administered orally to the mice for 8 days before intragastric intubation of bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg). As results of this experiment, the levels of liver and kidney functional markers, lipid peroxidation, and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) presented an increase and there was a decrease in anti-oxidant activity in the bromobenzene-treated group of mice. Pre-treatment with withaferin A not only significantly decreased the levels of liver and kidney functional markers and cytokines but also reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by improved anti-oxidant status. In addition, the mitochondrial dysfunction shown through the decrease in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 expression in the livers and kidneys of bromobenzene-treated mice was effectively prevented by pre-administration of withaferin A. These results validated our conviction that bromobenzene caused liver and kidney damage via mitochondrial pathway and withaferin A provided significant protection against it. Thus, withaferin A may have possible usage in clinical liver and kidney diseases in which oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may be existent.

  15. Management and outcome of low velocity penetrating head injury caused by impacted foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Abbas, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Penetrating head injuries with impacted foreign bodies are rare, associated with a high incidence of morbidity and potentially life-threatening. In this study, we aimed at investigating the outcome of these cases as well as analyzing the factors affecting the prognosis. A retrospective study in which the records of 16 patients who had penetrating head injuries caused by low-velocity impacted foreign bodies were revised. All patients were males with a mean age of 28.9 years (range, 18 to 50 years). The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 13 months with a mean of 8.1 months. Causes of injury were construction accidents in 6 (37.5 %) patients, assault in 6 (37.5 %) and road traffic accidents in 4 (25 %). The impacted objects included a bar of iron, a piece of wood, a nail, a sickle and a piece of glass. Diagnostic computerized tomography (CT) of the brain was carried out on admission in all patients. Thirteen (81.3 %) patients were submitted to surgery, and all had the appropriate management in the form of antibiotics and dehydrating measures as required. The primary outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at the end of follow-up. At the end of follow-up, ten (62.5 %) patients had a GOS score of 5, two (12.5 %) patients had a score of 4, and four (25 %) patients had a score of 1. Low-velocity penetrating head injuries are most common in young adult males. With the appropriate management, a majority of even the most severe cases can have a favorable outcome.

  16. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning reduces renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuquan; Xu, Zhibin; Chen, Haiwen; Gan, Weimin; Chong, Tie

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether low energy shock wave preconditioning could reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion. The right kidneys of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were removed to establish an isolated kidney model. The rats were then divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 was the sham treatment group; Group 2, received only low-energy (12 kv, 1 Hz, 200 times) shock wave preconditioning; Group 3 received the same low-energy shock wave preconditioning as Group 2, and then the left renal artery was occluded for 45 minutes; and Group 4 had the left renal artery occluded for 45 minutes. At 24 hours and one-week time points after reperfusion, serum inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), creatinine (Cr), and cystatin C (Cys C) levels were measured, malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue was detected, and changes in nephric morphology were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, serum iNOS, NGAL, Cr, Cys C, and MDA levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4; light and electron microscopy showed that the renal tissue injury in Group 3 was significantly lighter than that in Group 4. One week after reperfusion, serum NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys C levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning can reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion in an isolated kidney rat model.

  17. Indian Ginseng (Withania somnifera) supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Sood, Abhilasha; Mehrotra, Arpit; Dhawan, Devinder K; Sandhir, Rajat

    2018-04-18

    Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers. Ischemia reperfusion injury induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in terms of (i) reduced activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, (ii) reduced histochemical staining of complex-II and IV, (iii) reduced in-gel activity of mitochondrial complex-I to V, (iv) mitochondrial structural changes in terms of increased mitochondrial swelling, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ultrastructural changes. Additionally, an increase in the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was also observed, along with altered expression of apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in MCAO animals. MCAO animals also showed significant impairment in cognitive functions assessed using Y maze test. WS pre-supplementation, on the other hand ameliorated MCAO induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, apoptosis and cognitive impairments. The results show protective effect of WS pre-supplementation in ischemic stroke and are suggestive of its potential application in stroke management.

  18. Correction of the consequences of mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene causing the MELAS syndrome by tRNA import into mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Karicheva, Olga Z.; Kolesnikova, Olga A.; Schirtz, Tom; Vysokikh, Mikhail Y.; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Lombès, Anne; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Krasheninnikov, Igor A.; Martin, Robert P.; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA are often associated with incurable human neuromuscular diseases. Among these mutations, an important number have been identified in tRNA genes, including 29 in the gene MT-TL1 coding for the tRNALeu(UUR). The m.3243A>G mutation was described as the major cause of the MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). This mutation was reported to reduce tRNALeu(UUR) aminoacylation and modification of its anti-codon wobble position, which results in a defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes. In the present study, we have tested whether the mitochondrial targeting of recombinant tRNAs bearing the identity elements for human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase can rescue the phenotype caused by MELAS mutation in human transmitochondrial cybrid cells. We demonstrate that nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting of specifically designed transgenic tRNAs results in an improvement of mitochondrial translation, increased levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes subunits, and significant rescue of respiration. These findings prove the possibility to direct tRNAs with changed aminoacylation specificities into mitochondria, thus extending the potential therapeutic strategy of allotopic expression to address mitochondrial disorders. PMID:21724600

  19. Correction of the consequences of mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene causing the MELAS syndrome by tRNA import into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Karicheva, Olga Z; Kolesnikova, Olga A; Schirtz, Tom; Vysokikh, Mikhail Y; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Lombès, Anne; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Martin, Robert P; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA are often associated with incurable human neuromuscular diseases. Among these mutations, an important number have been identified in tRNA genes, including 29 in the gene MT-TL1 coding for the tRNA(Leu(UUR)). The m.3243A>G mutation was described as the major cause of the MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). This mutation was reported to reduce tRNA(Leu(UUR)) aminoacylation and modification of its anti-codon wobble position, which results in a defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes. In the present study, we have tested whether the mitochondrial targeting of recombinant tRNAs bearing the identity elements for human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase can rescue the phenotype caused by MELAS mutation in human transmitochondrial cybrid cells. We demonstrate that nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting of specifically designed transgenic tRNAs results in an improvement of mitochondrial translation, increased levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes subunits, and significant rescue of respiration. These findings prove the possibility to direct tRNAs with changed aminoacylation specificities into mitochondria, thus extending the potential therapeutic strategy of allotopic expression to address mitochondrial disorders.

  20. TiO2 nanoparticles cause mitochondrial dysfunction, activate inflammatory responses, and attenuate phagocytosis in macrophages: A proteomic and metabolomic insight.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Ningning; Zhu, Mingjiang; Lu, Jianhong; Zhong, Huiqin; Xue, Xinli; Guo, Shuoyuan; Li, Min; Wei, Xinben; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used in food and cosmetics but the health impact of human exposure remains poorly defined. Emerging evidence suggests that TiO 2 NPs may elicit immune responses by acting on macrophages. Our proteomic study showed that treatment of macrophages with TiO 2 NPs led to significant re-organization of cell membrane and activation of inflammation. These observations were further corroborated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments, which demonstrated that TiO 2 NPs were trapped inside of multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) through endocytotic pathways. TiO 2 NP caused significant mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreasing ATP generation, and decreasing metabolic flux in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle from 13 C-labelled glutamine using GC-MS-based metabolic flux analysis. Further lipidomic analysis showed that TiO 2 NPs significantly decreased levels of cardiolipins, an important class of mitochondrial phospholipids for maintaining proper function of electron transport chains. Furthermore, TiO 2 NP exposure activates inflammatory responses by increasing mRNA levels of TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2. Consistently, our targeted metabolomic analysis showed significantly increased production of COX-2 metabolites including PGD 2 , PGE 2 , and 15d-PGJ 2 . In addition, TiO 2 NP also caused significant attenuation of phagocytotic function of macrophages. In summary, our studies utilizing multiple powerful omic techniques suggest that human exposure of TiO 2 NPs may have profound impact on macrophage function through activating inflammatory responses and causing mitochondrial dysfunction without physical presence in mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effects of exogenous mitochondria against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin (Mel) enhances exogenous mitochondria (Mito) treatment against rodent hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study utilized three groups of hepatocytes (i.e. nontreatment, menadione, and menadione-melatonin treatment, 4.0 × 10(5) each), while in vivo study used adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) equally divided into sham-control (SC), IR (60-min left-lobe ischemia + 72-hr reperfusion), IR-Mel (melatonin at 30 min/6/8 hr after reperfusion), IR-Mito (mitochondria 15,000 μg/rat 30 min after reperfusion), and IR-Mel-Mito. Following menadione treatment in vitro, oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3/PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX/CD90/XRCC1), mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers, and mitochondrial permeability transition were found to be lower, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome c were found to be higher in hepatocytes with melatonin treatment compared to those without (all P < 0.001). In vivo study demonstrated highest liver injury score and serum AST in IR group, but lowest in SC group and higher in IR-Mito group than that in groups IR-Mel and IR-Mel-Mito, and higher in IR-Mel group than that in IR-Mel-Mito group after 72-hr reperfusion (all P < 0.003). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-1β/MMP-9), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/Bax), and mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern, whereas mitochondria integrity marker (mitochondrial cytochrome c) showed an opposite pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Microscopically, expressions of apoptotic nuclei, inflammatory (MPO(+) /CD68(+) /CD14(+) cells), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX(+) cells) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Melatonin-supported mitochondria treatment offered an additional

  2. The consequence of spatial visual processing dysfunction caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Padula, William V; Capo-Aponte, Jose E; Padula, William V; Singman, Eric L; Jenness, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A bi-modal visual processing model is supported by research to affect dysfunction following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI causes dysfunction of visual processing affecting binocularity, spatial orientation, posture and balance. Research demonstrates that prescription of prisms influence the plasticity between spatial visual processing and motor-sensory systems improving visual processing and reducing symptoms following a TBI. The rationale demonstrates that visual processing underlies the functional aspects of binocularity, balance and posture. The bi-modal visual process maintains plasticity for efficiency. Compromise causes Post Trauma Vision Syndrome (PTVS) and Visual Midline Shift Syndrome (VMSS). Rehabilitation through use of lenses, prisms and sectoral occlusion has inter-professional implications in rehabilitation affecting the plasticity of the bi-modal visual process, thereby improving binocularity, spatial orientation, posture and balance Main outcomes: This review provides an opportunity to create a new perspective of the consequences of TBI on visual processing and the symptoms that are often caused by trauma. It also serves to provide a perspective of visual processing dysfunction that has potential for developing new approaches of rehabilitation. Understanding vision as a bi-modal process facilitates a new perspective of visual processing and the potentials for rehabilitation following a concussion, brain injury or other neurological events.

  3. Flurbiprofen, a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Protects Mice from Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Chengcai; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Shi, Xueyin

    2012-01-01

    Flurbiprofen acts as a nonselective inhibitor for cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Mice were randomized into sham, I/R and flurbiprofen (Flurb) groups. The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and median liver lobes were occluded for 90 min and unclamped for reperfusion to establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Pretreatment of animals with flurbiprofen prior to I/R insult significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prevented hepatocytes from I/R-induced apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, flurbiprofen dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that flurbiprofen markedly inhibited glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, which, consequently, could modulate the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)–cyclophilin D (CyP-D) complex and the susceptibility to MPT induction. Therefore, administration of flurbiprofen prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through inhibition of MPT and inactivation of GSK-3β, and provides experimental evidence for clinical use of flurbiprofen to protect liver function in surgical settings in addition to its conventional use for pain relief. PMID:22714712

  4. Increased localization of APP-C99 in mitochondria-associated ER membranes causes mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Pera, Marta; Larrea, Delfina; Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; Montesinos, Jorge; Velasco, Kevin R; Agrawal, Rishi R; Xu, Yimeng; Chan, Robin B; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Mehler, Mark F; Perumal, Geoffrey S; Macaluso, Frank P; Freyberg, Zachary Z; Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Schon, Eric A; Area-Gomez, Estela

    2017-11-15

    In the amyloidogenic pathway associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β-secretase to generate a 99-aa C-terminal fragment (C99) that is then cleaved by γ-secretase to generate the β-amyloid (Aβ) found in senile plaques. In previous reports, we and others have shown that γ-secretase activity is enriched in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM) and that ER-mitochondrial connectivity and MAM function are upregulated in AD We now show that C99, in addition to its localization in endosomes, can also be found in MAM, where it is normally processed rapidly by γ-secretase. In cell models of AD, however, the concentration of unprocessed C99 increases in MAM regions, resulting in elevated sphingolipid turnover and an altered lipid composition of both MAM and mitochondrial membranes. In turn, this change in mitochondrial membrane composition interferes with the proper assembly and activity of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes, thereby likely contributing to the bioenergetic defects characteristic of AD. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. Loss of VPS13C Function in Autosomal-Recessive Parkinsonism Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Increases PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Suzanne; Drouet, Valérie; Majounie, Elisa; Deramecourt, Vincent; Jacoupy, Maxime; Nicolas, Aude; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Pujol, Claire; Ciura, Sorana; Erpapazoglou, Zoi; Usenko, Tatiana; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Sahbatou, Mourad; Liebau, Stefan; Ding, Jinhui; Bilgic, Basar; Emre, Murat; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Guven, Gamze; Tison, François; Tranchant, Christine; Vidailhet, Marie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Krack, Paul; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Gasser, Thomas; Durr, Alexandra; Deleuze, Jean-François; Tazir, Meriem; Destée, Alain; Lohmann, Ebba; Kabashi, Edor; Singleton, Andrew; Corti, Olga; Brice, Alexis; Lesage, Suzanne; Tison, François; Vidailhet, Marie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Agid, Yves; Anheim, Mathieu; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Borg, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Damier, Philippe; Destée, Alain; Dürr, Alexandra; Durif, Franck; Krack, Paul; Klebe, Stephan; Lohmann, Ebba; Martinez, Maria; Pollak, Pierre; Rascol, Olivier; Tranchant, Christine; Vérin, Marc; Viallet, François; Brice, Alexis; Lesage, Suzanne; Majounie, Elisa; Tison, François; Vidailhet, Marie; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Dürr, Alexandra; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berg, Daniela; Bettella, Francesco; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Lesage, Suzanne; Tison, François; Vidailhet, Marie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Agid, Yves; Anheim, Mathieu; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Borg, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Damier, Philippe; Destée, Alain; Dürr, Alexandra; Durif, Franck; Krack, Paul; Klebe, Stephan; Lohmann, Ebba; Martinez, Maria; Pollak, Pierre; Rascol, Olivier; Tranchant, Christine; Vérin, Marc; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Deloukas, Panos; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Dong, Jing; Durif, Frank; Edkins, Sarah; Escott-Price, Valentina; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Harris, Clare; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michèle; Huang, Xuemei; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Kilarski, Laura L.; Jansen, Iris E.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Lubbe, Steven; Lungu, Codrin; Martinez, María; Mätzler, Walter; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morrison, Karen E.; Mudanohwo, Ese; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Owen, Michael J.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Schulte, Claudia; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Shulman, Joshua; Sidransky, Ellen; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Stockton, Joanna D.; Strange, Amy; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wurster, Isabel; Williams, Nigel; Morris, Huw R.; Heutink, Peter; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Gasser, Thomas; Singleton, Andrew B.; Brice, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The genetic causes of approximately 50% of autosomal-recessive early-onset forms of Parkinson disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. Homozygozity mapping and exome sequencing in 62 isolated individuals with early-onset parkinsonism and confirmed consanguinity followed by data mining in the exomes of 1,348 PD-affected individuals identified, in three isolated subjects, homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in vacuolar protein sorting 13C (VPS13C). VPS13C mutations are associated with a distinct form of early-onset parkinsonism characterized by rapid and severe disease progression and early cognitive decline; the pathological features were striking and reminiscent of diffuse Lewy body disease. In cell models, VPS13C partly localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Silencing of VPS13C was associated with lower mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial fragmentation, increased respiration rates, exacerbated PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy, and transcriptional upregulation of PARK2 in response to mitochondrial damage. This work suggests that loss of function of VPS13C is a cause of autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism with a distinctive phenotype of rapid and severe progression. PMID:26942284

  6. Loss of VPS13C Function in Autosomal-Recessive Parkinsonism Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Increases PINK1/Parkin-Dependent Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Suzanne; Drouet, Valérie; Majounie, Elisa; Deramecourt, Vincent; Jacoupy, Maxime; Nicolas, Aude; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Pujol, Claire; Ciura, Sorana; Erpapazoglou, Zoi; Usenko, Tatiana; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Sahbatou, Mourad; Liebau, Stefan; Ding, Jinhui; Bilgic, Basar; Emre, Murat; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Guven, Gamze; Tison, François; Tranchant, Christine; Vidailhet, Marie; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Krack, Paul; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Nalls, Michael A; Hernandez, Dena G; Heutink, Peter; Gibbs, J Raphael; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W; Gasser, Thomas; Durr, Alexandra; Deleuze, Jean-François; Tazir, Meriem; Destée, Alain; Lohmann, Ebba; Kabashi, Edor; Singleton, Andrew; Corti, Olga; Brice, Alexis

    2016-03-03

    Autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The genetic causes of approximately 50% of autosomal-recessive early-onset forms of Parkinson disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. Homozygozity mapping and exome sequencing in 62 isolated individuals with early-onset parkinsonism and confirmed consanguinity followed by data mining in the exomes of 1,348 PD-affected individuals identified, in three isolated subjects, homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations in vacuolar protein sorting 13C (VPS13C). VPS13C mutations are associated with a distinct form of early-onset parkinsonism characterized by rapid and severe disease progression and early cognitive decline; the pathological features were striking and reminiscent of diffuse Lewy body disease. In cell models, VPS13C partly localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Silencing of VPS13C was associated with lower mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial fragmentation, increased respiration rates, exacerbated PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy, and transcriptional upregulation of PARK2 in response to mitochondrial damage. This work suggests that loss of function of VPS13C is a cause of autosomal-recessive early-onset parkinsonism with a distinctive phenotype of rapid and severe progression. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drp1-dependent mitophagy protects against cisplatin-induced apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells by improving mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jia; Duan, Suyan; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Chengning; Wu, Lin; Zeng, Ming; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Ningning; Mao, Huijuan; Zhang, Aihua; Xing, Changying; Yuan, Yanggang

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin chemotherapy often causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Degradation of damaged mitochondria is carried out by mitophagy. Although mitophagy is considered of particular importance in protecting against AKI, little is known of the precise role of mitophagy and its molecular mechanisms during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Also, evidence that activation of mitophagy improved mitochondrial function is lacking. Furthermore, several evidences have shown that mitochondrial fission coordinates with mitophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether activation of mitophagy protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and renal proximal tubular cells injury during cisplatin treatment. The effect of mitochondrial fission on mitophagy was also investigated. In cultured human renal proximal tubular cells, we observed that 3-methyladenine, a pharmacological inhibitor of autophagy, blocked mitophagy and exacerbated cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cells injury. In contrast, autophagy activator rapamycin enhanced mitophagy and protected against the harmful effects of cisplatin on mitochondrial function and cells viability. Suppression of mitochondrial fission by knockdown of its main regulator dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) decreased cisplatin-induced mitophagy. Meanwhile, Drp1 suppression protected against cisplatin-induced cells injury by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results provide evidence that Drp1-depedent mitophagy has potential as renoprotective targets for the treatment of cisplatin-induced AKI. PMID:28423497

  8. Evidence for involvement of nonesterified fatty acid-induced protonophoric uncoupling during mitochondrial dysfunction caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Feldkamp, Thorsten; Weinberg, Joel M.; Hörbelt, Markus; Von Kropff, Christina; Witzke, Oliver; Nürnberger, Jens; Kribben, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background. Proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia in vitro under conditions relevant to ischaemia in vivo develop an energetic deficit that is not corrected even after full reoxygenation. We have provided evidence that accumulation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) is the primary reason for this energetic deficit. In this study, we have further investigated the mechanism for the NEFA-induced energetic deficit. Methods. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) was measured in digitonin-permeabilized, freshly isolated proximal tubules by safranin O uptake. Addition of the potassium/proton exchanger nigericin enables the determination of the mitochondrial proton motive force (Δp) and the proton gradient (ΔpH). ATP was measured luminometrically and NEFA colorimetrically. Results. Tubule ATP content was depleted after hypoxia and recovered incompletely, even after full reoxygenation. Mitochondrial safranin O uptake was decreased in proximal tubules after hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). This decrease was attenuated by delipidated bovine serum albumin (dBSA) or citrate. Addition of nigericin increased safranin O uptake of mitochondria in normoxic proximal tubules, but not in proximal tubules after H/R. Addition of dBSA restored the effect of nigericin to increase mitochondrial safranin O uptake. Addition of the NEFA oleate had the same impact on mitochondrial safranin O uptake as subjecting proximal tubules to H/R. Conclusion. The mechanism of the NEFA-induced energetic deficit in freshly isolated rat proximal tubules induced by H/R is characterized by impaired ATP production after full reoxygenation, impaired recovery of Δψ and Δp, abrogation of ΔpH and sensitivity to citrate, consistent with involvement of the tricarboxylate carrier. The data support the concept that protonophoric uncoupling by NEFA movement on anion carriers plays a critical role in proximal tubule mitochochondrial dysfunction after H/R. PMID:18678559

  9. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez

    Ozone (O{sub 3})-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O{sub 3} can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O{sub 3}-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O{sub 3} pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. Tomore » determine if O{sub 3} exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10.0% O{sub 2}), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O{sub 3} exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O{sub 3} exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O{sub 3} exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O{sub 3}-induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic

  10. Uric acid causes kidney injury through inducing fibroblast expansion, Endothelin-1 expression, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Romi, Muhammad Mansyur; Arfian, Nur; Tranggono, Untung; Setyaningsih, Wiwit Ananda Wahyu; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna

    2017-10-31

    Uric acid (UA) plays important roles in inducing renal inflammation, intra-renal vasoconstriction and renal damage. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a well-known profibrotic factor in the kidney and is associated with fibroblast expansion. We examined the role of hyperuricemia conditions in causing elevation of ET-1 expression and kidney injury. Hyperuricemia was induced in mice using daily intraperitoneal injection of uric acid 125 mg/Kg body weight. An NaCl injection was used in control mice. Mice were euthanized on days-7 (UA7) and 14 (UA14). We also added allopurinol groups (UAL7 and UAL14) with supplementation of allopurinol 50 mg/Kg body weight orally. Uric acid and creatinine serum were measured from blood serum. Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Sirius Red staining were done for glomerulosclerosis, tubular injury and fibrosis quantification. mRNA expression examination was performed for nephrin, podocin, preproEndothelin-1 (ppET-1), MCP-1 and ICAM-1. PDGFRβ immunostaining was done for quantification of fibroblast, while α-SMA immunostaining was done for localizing myofibroblast. Western blot analysis was conducted to quantify TGF-β1, α-SMA and Endothelin A Receptor (ETAR) protein expression. Uric acid and creatinine levels were elevated after 7 and 14 days and followed by significant increase of glomerulosclerosis and tubular injury score in the uric acid group (p < 0.05 vs. control). Both UA7 and UA14 groups had higher fibrosis, tubular injury and glomerulosclerosis with significant increase of fibroblast cell number compared with control. RT-PCR revealed down-regulation of nephrin and podocin expression (p < 0.05 vs. control), and up-regulation of MCP-1, ET-1 and ICAM-1 expression (p < 0.05 vs. control). Western blot revealed higher expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA protein expression. Determination of allopurinol attenuated kidney injury was based on reduction of fibroblast cell number, inflammation mediators and ppET-1 expression with reduction of TGF

  11. [Anterior uveitis caused by electrical discharge in whole body injuries (fifteen years study)].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Brož, L; Kripner, J

    2013-10-01

    To inform about clinical analysis of early ophthalmologic complication (uveitis) in patients sustained electric discharge injury. The authors refer about fifteen years follow-up of pediatric patients at the Department of Burns Medicine, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, E.U., with electric discharge injury, in which the anterior uveitis was detected. Out of 43 patients after electric discharge injury, the always-unilateral iritis (iridocyclitis) was diagnosed in four (9 %) patients according to thorough going follow-up after first accidental diagnosis in the year 1998. Out of four boys aged 12 - 15 years, the first two were injured during the "play" - due to the contact with electrical trolley wire while running on railroad wagons roofs, and the two others were stuck by lighting under a tree by secondary electrical discharge. More serious skin burns were noticed in high-voltage current injury - 69 % or 55 % of body surface respectively, with the necessity of skin transplantation. The same was necessary in one boy injured by lighting with burns of 25 % of body surface, while the last one had on the skin the lighting signs only. In most of the patients, the resuscitation care due to unconsciousness and posttraumatic shock was necessary. The anterior uveitis was diagnosed subsequently, after initial preliminary diagnoses as conjunctivitis, episcleritis, or ophthalmia electrical. The iritis without visual function decrease was discovered in few days after the injury in three patients. Treatment and results: The inflammation was in these cases treated with short-term application of mydriatic and corticosteroid eye drops. Once only, the uveitis appeared after two months during the patients hospitalization and then the signs of iridocyclitis in the anterior chamber worsened and caused visual acuity decrease to hand movement in front of the eye. The condition was successfully treated by means of parabulbar betamethasone injection and long

  12. Watch Out for Wild Animals: A Systematic Review of Upper Extremity Injuries Caused by Uncommon Species.

    PubMed

    Israel, Jacqueline S; McCarthy, James E; Rose, Katherine R; Rao, Venkat K

    2017-11-01

    Across the world, many species of nondomesticated animals dwell among humans in metropolitan areas. Rare animal bites pose a dilemma for hand surgeons, as they often result in operative injuries and recalcitrant infections. The authors treated an 85-year-old man who experienced severe cellulitis of the index finger following an opossum bite. This case prompted a systematic review of upper extremity injuries caused by species other than dogs, cats, snakes, and insects. The authors conducted a systematic review of PubMed and Scopus databases to identify relevant articles published between 1980 and 2016. Two reviewers critically appraised the studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The hand infection in the man who sustained an opossum bite at the authors' institution was successfully treated with targeted antibiotic therapy, hand elevation, and splinting. Seventy-one articles met inclusion criteria for and were included in this systematic review. The vast majority of existing articles represent level IV and level V evidence. The relevant literature suggests that the majority of hand infections attributable to animal bites and stings are polymicrobial. Injuries secondary to aquatic animals appear to be the most frequently described in the literature, and hot water immersion should be used for the majority of envenomation attributable to aquatic species. Infections can often be treated with an aminopenicillin antibiotic combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Given the variability in presentation and potential for sequelae such as soft-tissue necrosis and systemic reactions, hand surgeons should approach such upper extremity injuries with a high degree of caution.

  13. Kickboxing sport as a new cause of traumatic brain injury-mediated hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Coksevim, Bekir; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2007-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury, which is a frequent and a worldwide important public health problem, may result in pituitary dysfunction. Concussion, a common type of lesion after traumatic brain injury, is an injury associated with sports including boxing and kickboxing. Kickboxing is one of the most popular martial arts and approximately 1-million people around the world participate in kickboxing sport. Head is the most common site of injury in amateur and professional kickboxers. Pituitary consequences of chronic repetitive head trauma in kickboxing have not been investigated until now. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the pituitary function in both retired and active amateur kickboxers. Twenty-two amateur kickboxers who have boxed in national and international championships (16 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 27.3 +/- 7.1 years, and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Basal hormone levels were obtained from the participants. To assess GH-IGF-I axis, GHRH + GHRP-6 test and glucagon stimulation tests were used. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis was assessed by glucagon stimulation test. When mean basal hormone levels were compared between kickboxers and the controls, IGF-I level was significantly lower in kickboxers (P < 0.05). Five (22.7%) and two (9.1%) of the 22 kickboxers had GH deficiency had ACTH deficiency, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between IGF-I levels and age, duration of sports and number of bouts (P < 0.05). Present data clearly demonstrate for the first time that amateur kickboxing is a novel cause of hypopituitarism and kickboxers are at a risk for hypopituitarism especially isolated GH deficiency. Therefore, participants of the combative sports who were exposed to chronic repetitive head trauma need to be screened.

  14. Gunshot wound causing complete spinal cord injury without mechanical violation of spinal axis: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rahul; Jaiswal, Gaurav; Gupta, Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating spine injury (PSI) forms the third most common cause of spine injury, only next to road traffic accidents and fall. Gunshot wound (GSW) forms the major bulk of PSI. Due to easy availability of firearms and antisocial behavior, GSW which were predominant in military population is now increasingly seen in civilized society. Here, we present a detail case review of unique case of civilian GSW indirectly causing complete spinal cord injury due to shock wave generated by the bullet, along with its systematic management. PMID:26692690

  15. External cause-specific summaries of occupational fatal injuries. Part II: an analysis of years of potential life lost.

    PubMed

    Bailer, A John; Bena, James F; Stayner, Leslie T; Halperin, William E; Park, Robert M

    2003-03-01

    Fatal injury surveillance data provide an opportunity to assess the impact of occupational injuries and may indicate which industries or occupations are appreciably more hazardous than others, and thus should be given priority in public health intervention. Fatalities from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality surveillance system served as the basis for examining external cause (E-code) specific impact summaries. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) were calculated for fatal injuries in the years 1983-1994. Industries and occupations were compared with respect to frequency of fatal injuries. In addition, injuries in categories of external causes are examined across all industries and occupations. Machinery, electric current, homicide, falls, and transportation-related are the external cause groups highlighted by high frequency/rate of occurrence. Electric current event groups are also characterized by high average YPLL. Poisoning, conflagration, and lightning were also identified in several occupations as having high associated average YPLL. The external-cause-specific analysis of average YPLL identified industries and occupations where, on average, younger workers were dying in fatal injuries. Noteworthy in this assessment were homicides and falls. The YPLL measure coupled with more commonly employed indices (e.g., rates) may provide a fuller description of the impact of occupational fatal injuries.

  16. Traumatic brain injuries caused by traffic accidents in five European countries: outcome and public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Majdan, Marek; Mauritz, Walter; Wilbacher, Ingrid; Janciak, Ivan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rusnak, Martin; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have been identified by public health organizations as being of major global concern. Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are among the most severe injuries and are in a large part caused by RTA. The objective of this article is to analyse the severity and outcome of TBI caused by RTA in different types of road users in five European countries. The demographic, severity and outcome measures of 683 individuals with RTA-related TBI from Austria, Slovakia, Bosnia, Croatia and Macedonia were analysed. Five types of road users (car drivers, car passengers, motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestrians) were compared using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Short-term outcome [intensive care unit (ICU) survival] and last available long-term outcome of patients were analysed. In our data set, 44% of TBI were traffic related. The median age of patients was 32.5 years, being the lowest (25 years) in car passengers. The most severe and extensive injuries were reported in pedestrians. Pedestrians had the lowest rate of ICU survival (60%) and favourable long-term outcome (46%). Drivers had the highest ICU survival (73%) and car passengers had the best long-term outcome (59% favourable). No differences in the outcome were found between countries with different economy levels. TBI are significantly associated with RTA and thus, tackling them together could be more effective. The population at highest risk of RTA-related TBI are young males (in our sample median age: 32.5 years). Pedestrians have the most severe TBI with the worst outcome. Both groups should be a priority for public health action.

  17. Transcriptional profiling suggests that Nevirapine and Ritonavir cause drug induced liver injury through distinct mechanisms in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Terelius, Ylva; Figler, Robert A; Marukian, Svetlana; Collado, Maria S; Lawson, Mark J; Mackey, Aaron J; Manka, David; Qualls, Charles W; Blackman, Brett R; Wamhoff, Brian R; Dash, Ajit

    2016-08-05

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI), a major cause of pre- and post-approval failure, is challenging to predict pre-clinically due to varied underlying direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor, are antiviral drugs that cause clinical DILI with different phenotypes via different mechanisms. Assessing DILI in vitro in hepatocyte cultures typically requires drug exposures significantly higher than clinical plasma Cmax concentrations, making clinical interpretations of mechanistic pathway changes challenging. We previously described a system that uses liver-derived hemodynamic blood flow and transport parameters to restore primary human hepatocyte biology, and drug responses at concentrations relevant to in vivo or clinical exposure levels. Using this system, primary hepatocytes from 5 human donors were exposed to concentrations approximating clinical therapeutic and supra-therapeutic levels of Nevirapine (11.3 and 175.0 μM) and Ritonavir (3.5 and 62.4 μM) for 48 h. Whole genome transcriptomics was performed by RNAseq along with functional assays for metabolic activity and function. We observed effects at both doses, but a greater number of genes were differentially expressed with higher probability at the toxic concentrations. At the toxic doses, both drugs showed direct cholestatic potential with Nevirapine increasing bile synthesis and Ritonavir inhibiting bile acid transport. Clear differences in antigen presentation were noted, with marked activation of MHC Class I by Nevirapine and suppression by Ritonavir. This suggests CD8+ T cell involvement for Nevirapine and possibly NK Killer cells for Ritonavir. Both compounds induced several drug metabolizing genes (including CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and UGT1A1), mediated by CAR activation in Nevirapine and PXR in Ritonavir. Unlike Ritonavir, Nevirapine did not increase fatty acid synthesis or activate the respiratory electron chain

  18. Local TNF causes NFATc1-dependent cholesterol-mediated podocyte injury