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Sample records for cave system italy

  1. Extremely acidic, pendulous cave wall biofilms from the Frasassi cave system, Italy.

    PubMed

    Macalady, Jennifer L; Jones, Daniel S; Lyon, Ezra H

    2007-06-01

    The sulfide-rich Frasassi cave system hosts an aphotic, subsurface microbial ecosystem including extremely acidic (pH 0-1), viscous biofilms (snottites) hanging from the cave walls. We investigated the diversity and population structure of snottites from three locations in the cave system using full cycle rRNA methods and culturing. The snottites were composed primarily of bacteria related to Acidithiobacillus species. Other populations present in the snottites included Thermoplasmata group archaea, bacteria related to Sulfobacillus, Acidimicrobium, and the proposed bacterial lineage TM6, protists, and filamentous fungi. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization population counts, Acidithiobacillus are key members of the snottite communities, accompanied in some cases by smaller numbers of archaea related to Ferroplasma and other Thermoplasmata. Diversity estimates show that the Frasassi snottites are among the lowest-diversity natural microbial communities known, with one to six prokaryotic phylotypes observed depending on the sample. This study represents the first in-depth molecular survey of cave snottite microbial diversity and population structure, and contributes to understanding of rapid limestone dissolution and cave formation by microbially mediated sulfuric acid speleogenesis.

  2. Metabolic Strategies in Energy-Limited Microbial Communities in the Anoxic Subsurface (Frasassi Cave System, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, R. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Steinberg, L.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two major sources of energy, light and chemical potential, are available to microorganisms. However, energy is not always abundant and is often a limiting factor in microbial survival and replication. The anoxic, terrestrial subsurface offers a unique opportunity to study microorganisms and their potentially novel metabolic strategies that are relevant for understanding biogeochemistry and biosignatures as related to the non-photosynthetic, energy-limited environments on the modern and ancient Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. Geochemical data collected in a remote stratified lake 600 m below ground surface in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system (Italy) suggest that little redox energy is available for life, consistent with low signal from domain-specific FISH probes. The carbon isotope signatures of biofilms (-33‰) and DIC (-9‰) in the anoxic water suggest in situ production by lithoautotrophs using RuBisCO. 16S rDNA libraries constructed from the biofilm are dominated by diverse sulfate reducing bacteria. The remaining bacterial and archaeal clones affiliate with more than 11 major uncultivated or novel prokaryotic lineages. Diverse dsrAB gene sequences are consistent with high sulfate concentrations and undetectable or extremely low oxygen, nitrate, and iron concentrations. However, the electron donor for sulfate reduction is unclear. Methane is detectable in the anoxic water although no 16S rDNA sequences associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were retrieved. mcrA gene sequences retrieved from the biofilm by cloning are not related to cultivated methanogens or to known anaerobic methane oxidizers. Non-purgable organic carbon (NPOC) is below detection limits (i.e. <42 μM acetate) suggesting that alternative electron donors or novel metabolisms may be important. A sample collected by cave divers in October 2009 was pyrosequenced at the Pennsylvania State University Genomics Core Facility using Titanium chemistry (454 Life

  3. Dominant Microbial Populations in Limestone-Corroding Stream Biofilms, Frasassi Cave System, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Macalady, Jennifer L.; Lyon, Ezra H.; Koffman, Bess; Albertson, Lindsey K.; Meyer, Katja; Galdenzi, Sandro; Mariani, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Waters from an extensive sulfide-rich aquifer emerge in the Frasassi cave system, where they mix with oxygen-rich percolating water and cave air over a large surface area. The actively forming cave complex hosts a microbial community, including conspicuous white biofilms coating surfaces in cave streams, that is isolated from surface sources of C and N. Two distinct biofilm morphologies were observed in the streams over a 4-year period. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were constructed from samples of each biofilm type collected from Grotta Sulfurea in 2002. β-, γ-, δ-, and ɛ-proteobacteria in sulfur-cycling clades accounted for ≥75% of clones in both biofilms. Sulfate-reducing and sulfur-disproportionating δ-proteobacterial sequences in the clone libraries were abundant and diverse (34% of phylotypes). Biofilm samples of both types were later collected at the same location and at an additional sample site in Ramo Sulfureo and examined, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The biomass of all six stream biofilms was dominated by filamentous γ-proteobacteria with Beggiatoa-like and/or Thiothrix-like cells containing abundant sulfur inclusions. The biomass of ɛ-proteobacteria detected using FISH was consistently small, ranging from 0 to less than 15% of the total biomass. Our results suggest that S cycling within the stream biofilms is an important feature of the cave biogeochemistry. Such cycling represents positive biological feedback to sulfuric acid speleogenesis and related processes that create subsurface porosity in carbonate rocks. PMID:16885314

  4. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  5. Sulfur isotope values in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, central Italy: A case study of a chemolithotrophic S-based ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Farquhar, James; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide oxidation forms a critical step in the global sulfur cycle, although this process is notoriously difficult to constrain due to the multiple pathways and highly reactive intermediates involved. Multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S and Δ33S) can provide a powerful tool for unravelling sulfur cycling processes in modern (and ancient) environments, although they have had limited application to systems with well-resolved oxidative S cycling. In this study, we report the major (δ34S) and minor (Δ33S) isotope values of sulfur compounds in streams and sediments from the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, Marche Region, Italy. These microaerophilic cave streams host prominent white biofilms dominated by chemolithotrophic organisms that oxidize sulfide to S0, allowing us to estimate S isotope fractionations associated with in situ sulfide oxidation and to evaluate any resulting isotope biosignatures. Our results demonstrate that chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation produces 34S enrichments in the S0 products that are larger than those previously measured in laboratory experiments, with 34εS0-H2S of up to 8‰ calculated. These small reverse isotope effects are similar to those produced during phototrophic sulfide oxidation (⩽7‰), but distinct from the small normal isotope effects previously calculated for abiotic oxidation of sulfide with O2 (∼-5‰). An inverse correlation between the magnitude of 34εS0-H2S effects and sulfide availability, along with substantial differences in Δ33S, both support complex sulfide oxidation pathways and intracellular recycling of S intermediates by organisms inhabiting the biofilms. At the ecosystem level, we calculate fractionations of less than 40‰ between sulfide and sulfate in the water column and in the sediments. These fractionations are smaller than those typically calculated for systems dominated by sulfate reduction (>50‰), and contrast with the commonly held assumption that oxidative recycling of sulfide generally

  6. Micropedological Study of Early Neolithic Deposit in Scaloria Cave (South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rellini, Ivano; Firpo, Marco; Ciampalini, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The cave is located at about 1 km NE of Manfredonia (FG). The entrance is about 45 m above present sea level, it overlooks the actual coastal plain. Today Scaloria is a part of a widest karstic system. Scaloria cave was accidentally discovered in 1932 during the construction of an underground aqueduct. The first archaeological excavations were performed in 1978 by University of Genoa and Los Angeles, but in 2007 and 2008 an sampling programme was implemented to investigate the physical character of the cave and the stratigraphic succession. The geoarchaeological study was undertaken using a descriptive approach and so far has included a morphological description and the stratigraphic study of the site by micromorphological analysis. High priority goal is an understanding of the relationships between anthropic and non-anthropic dynamics, paying special attention to site formation processes. The new micromorphological observations of the anthropogenic layers opened a new dimension in the interpretation and assessment of cave use during the Early Neolithic in Puglia (Italy). Data and the presence of occupation layers suggest that the interior of the Scaloria Cave was habited during the Early Neolithic, period of largest expansion of the Neolithic sites in Manfredonia Gulf inland. In addition, the presence of well preserved multi sequence of burnt remains (undistributed hearts), along with several other features, attests the use of this area as a household. In contrast, the upper and the deeper part of the cave don't preserve a clear stratigraphy, this fact suggests that the deposits had been frequently disturbed, but, according to the micromorphological evidences, the cave entrance is an area where dung was frequently accumulated and burnt. It is, thus, reasonable to think that this area was used as a pen (stabling of ovicaprines). These evidences, combined with the identification of archaeological findings (pottery, lithics, bones) suggest the existence of an

  7. Limestone Corrosion and Sulfur Cycling by Biofilms in the Frasassi Caves, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. S.; Macalady, J. L.; Druschel, G. K.; Eastman, D. D.; Albertson, L. K.

    2006-12-01

    In the Frasassi cave system, central Italy, a microbial-based ecosystem thrives on chemolithoautotrophic energy derived from hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Microbial life is prolific near the watertable, and biofilms cover nearly all subaerial and subaqueous surfaces. Subaerial biofilms are dominated by acidophilic members of the archaeal lineage Thermoplasmales and bacterial genus Acidithiobacillus. Subaqueous biofilms are diverse and are dominated by sulfide oxidizing, sulfate reducing, and sulfur disproportionating Proteobacteria. The morphology, abundance, and distribution of biofilms is controlled by physical and chemical factors such as seasonal changes in the cave hydrologic regime. In situ microelectrode voltammetry has revealed that stream biofilms speciate sulfur in diverse ways, with implications for acid production and limestone dissolution rates. Hydrogen sulfide loss from the streams cannot be accounted for solely by volatilization. Based on degassing measurements and abiotic sulfide oxidation rate calculations, stream biofilms are responsible for the majority of sulfide disappearance in streams. Rates of limestone corrosion are comparable in subaerial and subaqueous cave regions, indicating that subaerial microbial communities also have an important role in speleogenesis. Metagenomic studies targeting subaerial biofilms have confirmed that they have extremely low diversity, and offer glimpses into the physiology and biogeochemistry of extreme acidophiles in sulfidic cave communities.

  8. Cave clastic sediments and implications for speleogenesis: New insights from the Mugnano Cave (Montagnola Senese, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    The study of cave clastic sediments has been considered one of the hottest topics during the last years because of their importance in paleoclimatic reconstructions and archaeological surveys. This paper focuses on clastic deposits of the Mugnano Cave, a small cave located in the Siena district (Northern Apennines, Italy), showing unique features regarding the sedimentary fill, mostly made of grey-blue dolomitic silts. The sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological analysis aimed at a better understanding of sedimentary processes active during the deposition. The entire succession was subsequently reinterpreted through an allostratigraphic approach: the recognition of an important erosional surface, associated with a significant change in sedimentation, allowed the distinguishing of two main allounits labelled MG1 and MG2. Furthermore, the different kinds of sediments collected in the cave were analysed using the XRF and XRD techniques, in order to establish their chemical and mineralogical compositions. The integration of lithological, sedimentological, allostratigraphic and mineralogical data permits formulation of an interesting hypothesis about speleogenetic processes that influenced the cave, with particular reference to the processes capable of generating the underground space. In this context, most of the current available space results from a complex interplay between different processes: disintegration of a particular lithofacies of the bedrock, consequent production of sediments and deposition into a subterranean lake. These sediments were removed from the cave during some non-depositional and erosive phases, which led to a positive balance in the available space.

  9. Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: Examples from central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdenzi, S.; Menichetti, M.

    1995-07-01

    The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur.

  10. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  11. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  12. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  13. Holocene climate variability from Rio Martino cave (Western Alps, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Isola, Ilaria; Drysdale, Russell; Hellstrom, John; Dallai, luigi; Baneschi, Ilaria; Magri, Federico

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine region currently experiences complex climatic conditions (Efthymidias et al., 2007). Such a complexity is also apparent during the Holocene, as revealed by the isotopic composition of speleothems (e.g. Spötl et al., 2010). However, virtually no speleothem data are available from the western Alps, which are dominated by North Atlantic synoptic systems. With this in mind, several flowstone cores were retrieved in Rio Martino Cave (Piemonte, Northern Italy, ca. 1530 m asl). A large part of the cave's catchment was substantially glaciated until the end of the Younger Dryas. U/Th dating of three different flowstones indicates that deposition started at the beginning of the Holocene and covered a thick deposit of cemented sand and gravels probably related to the last deglaciation. The combined δ18O record of different flowstones shows substantial variability through the Holocene, both on millennial and century time scales. Relatively low δ18O values last until ca. 6 ka. From 6 to 3 ka, the δ18O increases gradually before decreasing again from 3 ka to the present. This long-term trend may be related to changes in the seasonal patterns of precipitation, as suggested for the lake level record at Ledro (Magny et al., 2012). Superimposed on this trend there are several short-term oscillations which may reflect alternating periods of drier and wetter conditions. Some of these episodes are also in agreement with changes documented at Ledro. Efthymidias D., et al., 2007. Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on climate variability in the Greater Alpine Region of Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D12104. Magny M. et al., 2012. Holocene palaeohydrological changes in the northern Mediterranean borderlands as reflected by the lake-level record of Lake Ledro, northeastern Italy. Quaternary Research, 77, 382-396 Spötl, C., et al., 2010. Humid climate during deposition of sapropel 1 in the Mediterranean Sea: Assessing the influence on the Alps

  14. Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Galli, Ermanno; Polyak, Victor J.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Montecchio cave (Grosseto province, Tuscany, Italy) opens at 320 m asl, in a small outcrop of Jurassic limestone (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), close to the Albegna river. This area is characterised by the presence of several thermal springs and the outcropping of travertine deposits at different altitudes. The Montecchio cave, with passage length development of over 1700 m, is characterised by the presence of several sub-horizontal passages and many medium- and small-scale morphologies indicative of sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS). The thermal aquifer is intercepted at a depth of about 100 m below the entrance: the water temperature exceeds 30 °C and sulphate content is over 1300 mg l- 1. The cave hosts large gypsum deposits from 40 to 100 m below the entrance that are by-products of the reaction between sulphuric acid and the carbonate host rock. The lower part of the cave hosts over 1 m thick calcite cave raft deposits, which are evidence of long-standing, probably thermal, water in an evaporative environment related to significant air currents. Sulphur isotopes of gypsum have negative δ34S values (from - 28.3 to - 24.2‰), typical of SAS. Calcite cave rafts and speleogenetic gypsum both yield young U/Th ages varying from 68.5 ka to 2 ka BP, indicating a rapid phase of dewatering followed by gypsum precipitation in aerate environment. This fast water table lowering is related to a rapid incision of the nearby Albegna river, and was followed by a 20-30 m fluctuation of the thermal water table, as recorded in the calcite raft deposits and gypsum crusts.

  15. Upper Pleistocene interstratal piping-cave speleogenesis: The Seso Cave System (Central Pyrenees, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, M.; Sancho, C.; Moreno, A.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Belmonte, Á.; Bastida, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Seso Cave System (SCS, South Central Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain) develops in poorly soluble marly interstratum between limestone beds of Eocene age. We propose an innovative and singular pseudokarstic speleogenetic model under vadose conditions based on cave morphological evidence, physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the Eocene marly host rock, U-Th dating of cave deposits, and local geological and geomorphological information. Eocene marls are shown to be sensitive to dispersion processes supported by their high clay content and the high concentration of sodium and low electrical conductivity in the seepage water. Runoff inside the cave results from water that infiltrates through joints and seepage water in cave walls. Thereby piping processes become very active, triggering mechanical scouring and outwashing mechanisms. The hydraulic gradient required to develop piping activity is determined by regional fluvial incision. The base level controlling water discharge during opening of the SCS coincides with a terrace of the Ara River dated at 65 ka BP. Considering this age, as well as the U-Th age of the oldest speleothems dated in the cave at 38 ka BP, the timing of the SCS interstratal piping-cave speleogenesis is constrained to the Upper Pleistocene; very likely at the end of Marine Isotope Stage 4 during a period characterized by high water availability following glacial retreat in northern Iberian mountains.

  16. Community structure of subsurface biofilms in the thermal sulfidic caves ofAcquasanta Terme, Italy.

    PubMed

    Jones, D S; Tobler, D J; Schaperdoth, I; Mainiero, M; Macalady, J L

    2010-09-01

    We performed a microbial community analysis of biofilms inhabiting thermal (35 to 50 degrees C) waters more than 60 m below the ground surface near Acquasanta Terme, Italy. The groundwater hosting the biofilms has 400 to 830 microM sulfide, <10 microM O(2), pH of 6.3 to 6.7, and specific conductivity of 8,500 to 10,500 microS/cm. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the biofilms have low species richness, and lithoautotrophic (or possibly mixotrophic) Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria are the principle biofilm architects. Deltaproteobacteria sequences retrieved from the biofilms have <90% 16S rRNA similarity to their closest relatives in public databases and may represent novel sulfate-reducing bacteria. The Acquasanta biofilms share few species in common with Frasassi cave biofilms (13 degrees C, 80 km distant) but have a similar community structure, with representatives in the same major clades. The ecological success of Sulfurovumales-group Epsilonproteobacteria in the Acquasanta biofilms is consistent with previous observations of their dominance in sulfidic cave waters with turbulent water flow and high dissolved sulfide/oxygen ratios. PMID:20639361

  17. The evolution of cave systems from the surface to subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Handford, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    Many carbonate reservoirs are the result of cave-forming processes. The origin and recognition of fractures, breccias, and sediment fills associated with paleocaves were determined through the study of modern and paleocaves systems. Cave formation and destruction are the products of near-surface processes. Near-surface processes include solutional excavation, clastic and chemical sedimentation, and collapse of cave walls and ceilings. Cave sediment is derived from inside and/or outside the system. Depositional mechanisms include suspension, tractional, mass-flow and rock-fall. Collapse of ceilings and walls from chaotic breakdown breccias. These piles can be tens of meters thick and contain large voids and variable amounts of matrix. Cave-roof crackle breccia forms from stress-and tension-related fractures in cave-roof strata. As the cave-bearing strata subside into the subsurface, mechanical compaction increases and restructures the existing breccias and remaining cavities. Fracture porosity increases and breccia and vug porosity decreases. Large cavities collapse forming burial chaotic breakdown breccias. Differentially compacted strata over the collapsed chamber fracture and form burial cave-roof crackle breccias. Continued burial leads to more extensive mechanical compaction causing previously formed clasts to fracture and pack closer together. The resulting product is a rebrecciated chaotic breakdown breccia composed predominantly of small clasts. Rebrecciated blocks are often overprinted by crackling. Subsurface paleocave systems commonly have a complex history with several episodes of fracturing and brecciation. The resulting collapsed-paleocave reservoir targets are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across.

  18. The evolution of cave systems from the surface to subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G. ); Handford, C.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Many carbonate reservoirs are the result of cave-forming processes. The origin and recognition of fractures, breccias, and sediment fills associated with paleocaves were determined through the study of modern and paleocaves systems. Cave formation and destruction are the products of near-surface processes. Near-surface processes include solutional excavation, clastic and chemical sedimentation, and collapse of cave walls and ceilings. Cave sediment is derived from inside and/or outside the system. Depositional mechanisms include suspension, tractional, mass-flow and rock-fall. Collapse of ceilings and walls from chaotic breakdown breccias. These piles can be tens of meters thick and contain large voids and variable amounts of matrix. Cave-roof crackle breccia forms from stress-and tension-related fractures in cave-roof strata. As the cave-bearing strata subside into the subsurface, mechanical compaction increases and restructures the existing breccias and remaining cavities. Fracture porosity increases and breccia and vug porosity decreases. Large cavities collapse forming burial chaotic breakdown breccias. Differentially compacted strata over the collapsed chamber fracture and form burial cave-roof crackle breccias. Continued burial leads to more extensive mechanical compaction causing previously formed clasts to fracture and pack closer together. The resulting product is a rebrecciated chaotic breakdown breccia composed predominantly of small clasts. Rebrecciated blocks are often overprinted by crackling. Subsurface paleocave systems commonly have a complex history with several episodes of fracturing and brecciation. The resulting collapsed-paleocave reservoir targets are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across.

  19. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally.

  20. A reassessment of the presumed Neandertal remains from San Bernardino Cave, Italy.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Talamo, Sahra; Fu, Qiaomei; Mannino, Marcello A; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In 1986-1987, three human remains were unearthed from macro-unit II of San Bernardino Cave (Berici Hills, Veneto, Italy), a deposit containing a late Mousterian lithic assemblage. The human remains (a distal phalanx, a lower right third molar and a lower right second deciduous incisor) do not show diagnostic morphological features that could be used to determine whether they were from Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens. Despite being of small size, and thus more similar to recent H. sapiens, the specimens were attributed to Neandertals, primarily because they were found in Mousterian layers. We carried out a taxonomic reassessment of the lower right third molar (LRM3; San Bernardino 4) using digital morphometric analysis of the root, ancient DNA analysis, carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, and direct accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating of dentine collagen. Mitochondrial DNA analysis and root morphology show that the molar belongs to a modern human and not to a Neandertal. Carbon 14 ((14)C) dating of the molar attributes it to the end of the Middle Ages (1420-1480 cal AD, 2 sigma). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses suggest that the individual in question had a diet similar to that of Medieval Italians. These results show that the molar, as well as the other two human remains, belong to recent H. sapiens and were introduced in the Mousterian levels post-depositionally. PMID:24331083

  1. An Ochered Fossil Marine Shell From the Mousterian of Fumane Cave, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peresani, Marco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Quaggiotto, Ermanno; Queffelec, Alain; d’Errico, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A scanty but varied ensemble of finds challenges the idea that Neandertal material culture was essentially static and did not include symbolic items. In this study we report on a fragmentary Miocene-Pliocene fossil marine shell, Aspamarginata, discovered in a Discoid Mousterian layer of the Fumane Cave, northern Italy, dated to at least 47.6-45.0 Cal ky BP. The shell was collected by Neandertals at a fossil exposure probably located more than 100 kms from the site. Microscopic analysis of the shell surface identifies clusters of striations on the inner lip. A dark red substance, trapped inside micropits produced by bioeroders, is interpreted as pigment that was homogeneously smeared on the outer shell surface. Dispersive X-ray and Raman analysis identify the pigment as pure hematite. Of the four hypotheses we considered to explain the presence of this object at the site, two (tool, pigment container) are discarded because in contradiction with observations. Although the other two (“manuport”, personal ornament) are both possible, we favor the hypothesis that the object was modified and suspended by a ‘thread’ for visual display as a pendant. Together with contextual and chronometric data, our results support the hypothesis that deliberate transport and coloring of an exotic object, and perhaps its use as pendant, was a component of Neandertal symbolic culture, well before the earliest appearance of the anatomically modern humans in Europe. PMID:23874677

  2. San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the Appearance of Levallois Technology in Europe: Results of a Radiometric and Technological Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Picin, Andrea; Peresani, Marco; Falguères, Christophe; Gruppioni, Giulia; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene. PMID:24146836

  3. Monitoring of cave air temperature and humidity in the Niedźwiedzia Cave system (Sudetes, Poland) - a key to understanding tourists activity impact to cave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiorowski, M.; Hercman, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Niedźwiedzia Cave is located in Śnieżnik Massif (the Easter Sudetes, SW Poland) at 800 m a.s.l. The length of known passages is ~3000 m and denivelation is 69 m. The system is composed of 3 levels of passages and chambers. It is a show cave with ~80,000 visitors every year. In 2010 we started monitoring program of cave air temperature and humidity, drip rate, stable isotopes and Uranium and Polonium content in water in selected sites inside the cave and in its vicinity. Changes in dropping rate in upper level are well correlated with precipitation. However, a response of dripping to rainfall depends on former precipitation frequency and intensity - during the humid period the dripping reacts immediately and after long dry period dripping responses with two-weeks delay. There is not so direct correlation between precipitation and dripping in lower level of the system. Air temperature inside the cave is almost stable in lower level (mean annual ~5.3 °C, and annual variation up to 0.7 °C) and more dynamic in the middle level (mean annual ~6.4 °C, and mean annual amplitude up to 4 °C). Daily and weekly measured changes of cave air temperature demonstrate extremely well correlation with number of visitors. In show cave passages (the middle level of the system) temperature increase 0.1-0.2 °C during every day when the cave is open for tourists and such changes is not observed during days without visitors and in lower level of the system closed for tourists. But even short visits of 3-4 cavers are recorded by temperature sensors exposed in the lower level (~0.02 °C increase). It proves very high sensitivity of cave environment to human activity. This study is funded by the National Science Centre and Higher Education grant no. N N306 131038.

  4. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  5. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  6. Anthropogenic sinkholes susceptibility and underground caves density of Naples (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Guarino, Paolo Maria; Nisio, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    A study of historical anthropogenic sinkholes, the underground caves and related susceptibility in the municipality of Naples is presented. The goals of the research is to construct an inventory of historical sinkholes (events from 1960 to 2015), to identify and analyze their predisposing and triggering factors, and to evaluate the related susceptibility. A fairly complete assessment of historical events occurred up to December 2015 has been carried out. The analysis related to the last sinkholes phenomena is presented, especially regarding those caused by the collapse of subterranean lapillus quarries. The genetic mechanisms of the surveyed sinkholes appear sufficiently clear; the knowledge of how the predisposing factors vary within the study area is adequate as far as the sewage system is considered, whereas it is still defective as concerns the role of the cavity network. The obtained susceptibility map could be a useful contribution to further detailed zoning maps in a densely urbanized area, such as the city of Naples. In addition to the need of further increasing the knowledge on the subsoil of the Neapolitan area, a key issue remains the use of temporal information on historical events for the purposes of hazard evaluation; further studies in this regard are still in progress.

  7. Detrital cave sediments as recorders of environmental changes, the Seso Cave System (Huesca, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Gil-Romera, Graciela; Sancho, Carlos; Muñoz, Arsenio; Osácar, Cinta

    2014-05-01

    The sedimentological study of a waterlaid detrital sequence of ~ 240 cm thick within the Seso Cave System (West-Central Pyrenees) reveals two types of sedimentary environments, the lower part (first 100 cm) is made of autochthonous (piping detached material from the Eocene marls host rock inside of the cavity) and the upper part, which is mixed with the pond deposits from 100 to 190 cm, is made of allochthonous (stream transported sediments from the outside) sediments. In these sediments, seven charcoal samples were dated using 14C AMS ranging from 2080 to 650 cal yr BP (130 BC-1300 AD). Two levels of human occupation of the cave have been recognized by ceramics associated to the Iberian Period and to the Roman Period, respectively. The autochthonous material is made up of fine grain laminated sediments (lutites and marls) and corresponds to pond facies, whereas the allochthonous material is lutites and sands and corresponds to stream facies. The increase in sedimentation rate towards the end of the sequence points to an intensification of the alluvial activity as a possible consequence of a more arid climate during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. In addition to the sedimentological and chronological studies, magnetic analyses were performed in 44 standard samples taken along the profile. The magnetic signature of the samples confirm the difference in the provenance of the studied sequence, with lower values in the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility in the pond facies than in the stream facies due to the lower quantity of ferromagnetic minerals in the former. The rock magnetic analyses reveal that the ferromagnetic mineral is a soft coercive mineral with Curie temperatures of 580ºC, i.e., magnetite. In addition, the direction of the paleomagnetic record of the sediments is modified by the two human settlements.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lampenflora Chlorobium limicola Strain Frasassi in a Sulfidic Cave System.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Muammar; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Chlorobium limicola strain Frasassi was assembled from metagenomic sequencing of a green mat in an artificially lighted aquarium inside the Frasassi caves in Italy. The genome is 2.08 Mbp in size and contains the necessary genes for anoxygenic photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. PMID:27174272

  9. Corrosion of calcite crystals by metal-rich mud in caves: Study case in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Forti, Paolo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Rull, Fernando; Sanz, Aurelio

    2013-09-01

    Unusual orange ochre crusts were recently discovered in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (San Giovanni Mine, SW Sardinia). These speleothems appear covering the cave walls on hydrothermal calcite spars as well as filling widened spaces between calcite crystals. Planar crusts display geometrical forms following the boundaries between the calcite spars. EDX-SEM microanalyses reveal that these deposits comprise substances of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and O that occur as solid inclusions in pits on the surface of altered calcite microcrystals. Micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses suggest the presence of calcite and ferromanganese oxides with a low degree of crystallinity. The genetic mechanism proposed for these speleothems describes an initial stage of precipitation of euhedral calcite crystals from warm water under subaqueous conditions. The crystal surfaces were eroded and corroded by colder aggressive water that smoothed the surfaces of the crystals and slightly widened the spaces between calcite spars. Metal-rich mud coming from alteration of bedrock and ore bodies filled the cave, also penetrating along the spaces between the calcite spars. When the water table fell below the cave level, part of the sediments was eroded but the cave walls remained covered with metal-rich clayey sediments. Under aerobic conditions, metals - which were reduced in previous stages - oxidized to oxides, lowering the pH and thus the crystal surface and the calcite planes between the spars were corroded. Subsequently, the polymetallic crusts became harder through evaporation within the cave, "fossilizing" the products of this process within the planes between spars. Finally, the exposed calcite surfaces continued to be altered due to CO2 diffusion into condensation water, while the boundaries between crystals were preserved against corrosion thanks to the crust coating. As a result, the external crystal edges protrude by several centimeters from the current cave wall, while the crystal surfaces are

  10. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers wa...

  11. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  12. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-Hua

    2005-03-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  13. A stable isotope study of fossil mammal remains from the Paglicci cave, Southern Italy. N and C as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacumin, P.; Bocherens, H.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Mariotti, A.; Longinelli, A.

    1997-04-01

    A set of 102 tooth and bone samples of Pleistocene age (32,600-13,300 yr BP) belonging to the species Cervus elaphus, Bos primigenius and Equus caballus and coming from the Paglicci cave (Southern Italy) was studied for the carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotopic composition of bone and dentine collage and for the carbon (δ 13C c) isotopic composition of tooth enamel carbonate. The amount of collagen extracted from bone and tooth samples (mg/g) was rather variable, representing approximately only 0.5-15% of the collagen present in a fresh bone. However, the loss of an important fraction of the original collagen during diagenesis did not change the in vivo isotopic composition. In general, when the δ 13C of both collagen and carbonate and the δ 15N of collagen obtained from each level for the three species are compared, wild ox shows the most increased values, deer the most decreased values and horse shows intermediate results. These differences are probably related to distinct diets or to differences in their physiological behaviour. However, the isotopic results suggest that the three species considered lived in an open environment with a diet based on C 3 plants. The stratigraphic sequence of light and heavy nitrogen isotope values between 19,000 and 15,000 may be related to shifts from arid to humid conditions, while the overall trend shown by δ 13C toward lighter values may be related to a progressive development of a forest habitat.

  14. Study of the formation of biogenic speleothems found in submarine caves at the cape of Otranto, Italy, by 14C AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, M.; Quarta, G.; Calcagnile, L.; Belmonte, G.

    2007-06-01

    Submarine caves at the Cape of Otranto, Italy, contain eccentric stalactites that were recently identified as entirely biogenic. One of these stalactites was sectioned along its longitudinal axis in order to select samples for radiocarbon dating. 14C AMS measurements provided fundamental information for the interpretation of the biogenic process and revealed that the formation of the stalactite continued for approximately 5000 years with a decrease in the longitudinal growth rate over time. Measurements of modern organisms were performed to assess the accuracy of the radiocarbon determinations, calibrated in calendar years by measuring the local marine reservoir age.

  15. Connecting Metabolic Potential with Thermodynamic Reality: Lithotrophic Microbial Communities of the Frasassi Cave System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, R. L.; Macalady, J. L.; Schaperdoth, I.

    2013-12-01

    If Martian life evolved during the Noachian period, it likely would have retreated to liquid water refuges where redox chemistry provided metabolically viable substrates. Present-day Mars appears to have such a refuge with data suggesting that liquid water may persist in the subsurface, however limited data is available with regards to subsurface Martian geochemistry and hydrogeology. On Earth, we find microbial communities thriving in subsurface environments utilizing a multitude of lithoautotrophic metabolisms. The Frasassi cave system in Italy hosts many such lithotrophic microbial communities, which are isolated from surface carbon, sunlight, and oxygen similar to possible Martian microbial populations. By studying the community structure, geochemistry and thermodynamics of the system, as well as the metabolic capabilities using metagenomics, we hope to discover microbes are capable of thriving in so-called 'energy-limited' environments and inform the search for life in the solar system. Two subsurface cave lakes in the Frasassi cave system, Lago Infinito and Lago dell'Orsa, have anoxic waters that host rope-like biofilm communities dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes clades. Thermodynamic calculations based on in situ geochemistry of waters surrounding the biofilms suggest very few metabolisms are energetically-feasible including: 1) anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled with sulfate reduction 2) anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) coupled with sulfate reduction 3) methanogenesis (Lago dell'Orsa only) 4) chemotrophic sulfate reduction AOM and anammox were only recently discovered and appear to have low energy yields associated with slow growth rates. AOM coupled with sulfate reduction has been shown to occur in a syntrophy between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanotrophic Archaea. However, these rope-like biofilms have a small (<10%) Archaeal population, which are not closely related to the syntrophic

  16. Can subterranean cave systems affect soil CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajnc, Bor; Ferlan, Mitja; Ogrinc, Nives

    2015-04-01

    Main factors affecting soil CO2 fluxes in most ecosystems are soil temperature and soil moisture. Nevertheless occasionally high soil CO2 fluxes were observed at carst areas, which could result from ventilation of subterranean cavities (Ferlan et al., 2011). The aim of this work was to determine the influence of cave ventilation to soil CO2 fluxes. Research was done in a dead-end passage of Postojna cave (Pisani rov) and on the surface area above the passage (Velika Jeršanova dolina) in south-western Slovenia. Inside the cave we measured CO2 concentrations, its carbon (13C) stable isotope composition, 222Rn activity concentrations, temperatures and air pressure. At the surface we had chosen two sampling plots; test plot above the cave and control. At both plots we measured soil CO2 fluxes with automatic chambers, CO2 concentrations, temperatures and carbon stable isotope composition of soil air at three different depths (0.2 m, 0.5 m and 0.8 m) and different meteorological parameters such as: air temperature, air pressure, wind speed an precipitation. To detect the cave influence, we compared two surface CO2 flux measurements with air temperatures and changes of CO2 concentrations in the cave atmosphere. Our results on CO2 concentrations in the gallery of the cave indicated that the ventilation of this particular gallery also depends on outside air temperatures. Outside temperature increased and corresponded to higher CO2 concentrations, whereas at lower temperatures (T < 9 oC) cave started to ventilate and exhaled CO2 reach air through unknown fissures and cracks. At the control plot the soil CO2 fluxes were in a good correlation with soil temperatures (r = 0.789, p =0.01), where greater soil temperatures correspond to greater soil CO2 fluxes. Soil CO2 fluxes at the plot above the cave did not show statistically significant correlations with soil temperatures or soil moisture indicating that other factors possibly cave ventilation could influence it. References

  17. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  18. Sulfur Cycling and Microbial Community Structure in Cave Environment: some geomicrobiological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulecal, Y.; Temel, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, cave microbiology has emerged as a growing interdisciplinary field. Because of caves provides a unique subsurface environment for the exploration of microbial life and their roles on biogeochemical cycling under extreme condition. Sulfidic caves form in carbonate rocks where sulfide-rich waters interact with oxygen at the water table or at subterranean springs (1). Terrestrial sulfidic caves and springs are abundant and diverse, as assessed by efforts to characterize cave microbial ecosystems and to understand large scale geochemical processes (2). In this study we examined the geochemical features, microbial community and capacity of sulfur cycling in sulfidic cave ( Kaklik Cave, Turkey ) and its two hot springs. Pyrosequencing were used to understand bacterial diversity and community structure in this study area with contrasting hydrochemial and geological properties. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for sulfur cycling. The microbial community displayed a high level of microbial diversity, representing 22 phylum of the Bacteria and 5 phylum of the Archaea. Our results provide a comparative view of the microbial communities and processes involved in sulfur cycling in sulfidic cave environments. 1- Macalady et al. (2007) Extremely acidic, pendulous cave wall biofilms from the Frasassi cave system, Italy. Env.Mic. 9(6), 1402-1414 2- Rossmassler et al. Drivers of epsilonproteobacterial community composition in sulfidic caves and springs.

  19. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  20. Reconstruction of the Neanderthal and Modern Human landscape and climate from the Fumane cave sequence (Verona, Italy) using small-mammal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; dalla Valle, Chiara; Cremaschi, Mauro; Peresani, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Fumane cave, located at an altitude of 350 m.a.s.l. in the Monti Lessini in the Veneto Pre-Alps, northeastern Italy, is a reference site for southern Europe for the study of the behaviour of Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) from Marine Isotope Stages 5 to 2 (MIS5-MIS2). It is one of the few well-dated and closely studied sites in the Italian Peninsula, with a finely layered sedimentary sequence from the Mousterian to Gravettian. In this paper we present for the first time a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the MIS3 and MIS2 sequence based on the small mammal (insectivore, bat and rodent) assemblages. The environmental and climatic results, coupled with the radiocarbon dating together with previous studies on large mammals, birds and charcoal and other studies on small mammals and pollen for the same time-span in Italy, enable us clearly to identify distinct climatic periods within our data: Heinrich Event 5 in units A7 to A6, Greenland Interstadial 12 in units A5 + A6 to A4, Heinrich Event 4 in units A3 to A1, and Heinrich Event 3 in unit D1e. Finally, the study shows that Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans were well adapted to the different climatic and environmental conditions of MIS3 at the foot of the Alps.

  1. Understanding of δ13C behavior and its significance in the Furong Cave system through a 10-year cave monitoring study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Li, H. C.; Li, T.; Li, X.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how speleothem δ13C to reflect paleoclimate and paleovegetation changes calls for understanding of δ13C behavior in a cave system. We have conducted a monitoring study in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China since 2005 involving multiple sites in the overlying soil and inside the cave. The measured proxies include pCO2 of the atmosphere, soil and cave air; dripping rate, pH, electronic conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3-, d13CDIC of the dripwaters; and deposition rate, d13C of seasonally selected carbonate deposits. The many observations from this study are: (1) Soil pCO2 is close to the atmospheric pCO2 in winter and reaches >10000 ppm during the summer due to high productivity under warm and wet climates. (2) The pCO2 in cave air is slightly higher than Soil pCO2 and atmospheric pCO2 in winter (400~900 ppm), but elevates up to ~2000 ppm around October due to seepage of soil CO2 into the cave. The cave air pCO2 exhibits double peaks following the seasonal rainfall (1st peak in April-June controlled by Indian monsoon and 2nd peak in July-September influenced by the North Western Pacific monsoon). The cave air pCO2 has about 2-3 month lag to the soil pCO2. (3) Under the influence of soil CO2 and rainfall, the d13CDIC of drpiwaters are depleted in the summer and enriched during the winter. During 2009-2011, southwestern China experienced extremely drought due to summer monsoon failure. The d13CDIC of dripwater in Furong Cave was strongly enriched because of low soil CO2 productivity, less transportation of soil CO2 into the cave, and high CO2 ratio from bedrock input. Dripping rate does not affect the d13CDIC significantly. (4) The d13C of speleothems is controlled by the open/closed system of the seepage pathway on the first order. Monitoring site MP1 owns a relatively open system shown by fast dripping rates, low Ca and HCO3- contents, and low carbonate deposition rate. The d13C of modern deposits from this site not only shows the seasonal variation following

  2. The process of ghost-rock karstification and its role in the formation of cave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.; Quinif, Y.; Baele, J.-M.; Barriquand, L.; Bini, A.; Bruxelles, L.; Dandurand, G.; Havron, C.; Kaufmann, O.; Lans, B.; Maire, R.; Martin, J.; Rodet, J.; Rowberry, M. D.; Tognini, P.; Vergari, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of the process of ghost-rock karstification and highlights its role in the formation of cave systems. The process integrates chemical weathering and mechanical erosion and extends a number of existing theories pertaining to continental landscape development. It is a two stage process that differs in many respects from the traditional single-stage process of karstification by total removal. The first stage is characterised by chemical dissolution and removal of the soluble species. It requires low hydrodynamic energy and creates a ghost-rock feature filled with residual alterite. The second stage is characterised by mechanical erosion of the undissolved particles. It requires high hydrodynamic energy and it is only then that open galleries are created. The transition from the first stage to the second is driven by the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The process is illustrated by detailed field observations and the results of the laboratory analyses of samples taken from the karstotype area around Soignies in southern Belgium. Thereafter, a series of case studies provide a synthesis of field observations and laboratory analyses from across western Europe. These studies come from geologically distinct parts of Belgium, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The process of ghost-rock karstification challenges a number of axioms associated with the process of karstification by total removal. On the basis of the evidence presented it is argued that it is no longer acceptable to use karst morphologies as a basis with which to infer specific karstogenetic processes and it is no longer necessary for a karst system to relate to base level as ghost-rock karstification proceeds along transmissive pathways in the rock. There is also some evidence to suggest that ghost-rock karstification may be superseded by karstification by total removal, and vice versa, according to the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system

  3. Determination and Assessment of Parameters Influencing Rock Mass Cavability in Block Caving Mines Using the Probabilistic Rock Engineering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ramin; Ataei, Mohammad; Khalokakaie, Reza; Jalali, Seyed Mohammad Esmaeil; Sereshki, Farhang

    2015-05-01

    Mining methods such as block caving or sublevel caving rely on the characteristics of the rock mass to cave efficiently to fulfill an economical production. The identification of influencing parameters and cavability assessment are, thus, a prime geotechnical focus for all potential caving projects. In the caving operation, many factors, such as natural and induced factors, affect the caving performance. In this study, after discussing the caving process and identifying all effective parameters, the interaction matrix based on the rock engineering system (RES) is introduced to study the influencing parameters in rock mass cavability. The interaction matrix analyzes the interrelationship between the parameters affecting rock engineering activities. As the interaction matrix codes are not unique, probabilistic coding can be performed non-deterministically, allowing consideration of uncertainties in the RES analysis. As a result, the parameters with the highest probability of being dominant or subordinate, and also the parameters with the highest probability of being interactive, are introduced. The proposed approach could be a simple but efficient tool in the evaluation of the parameters affecting the cavability of rock mass in block caving mines and, hence, useful in decision-making under uncertainties.

  4. Chemical erosion of the Lilburn Cave system, Kings Canyon National Park, California.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jaber, N; Hess, J W; Howcroft, W

    2001-01-01

    Multi-year instrumental records for input, throughflow and output waters of the Lilburn Cave system provide control on denudation rates as they respond to seasonal and spatial variability. Data suggest that maximum denudation is in the late fall and early winter. This is when non-snowmelt discharge is at its maximum. At lower discharge rates the volume of water moving through the cave system is the limiting control on the volume of denudation. During periods of snowmelt the limiting control is the rate at which the calcite dissolves. This is probably the result of water flowing through wider channels during these times. Based on instrumental measurements, there is considerable variation in terms of where denudation occurs inside the cave. The loci of dissolution change from year to year. This is to be expected in the dynamic environment of the cave where materials shift routinely. This variability should be studied over longer periods of time in order to more fully understand its extent. The relatively small area of carbonate exposure relative to the area of the drainage basin gives rise to relatively high denudation rates. The carbonate is being removed at a rate of about 5000 metric tons per year, or at about 830 mm/y. This is about five times the rate reported in the humid karst regions of Malaysia. This information indicates that the relative proportion of carbonate in the drainage basin needs to be considered when trying to estimate denudation in other areas.

  5. Hypogenic contribution to speleogenesis in a predominant epigenic karst system: A case study from the Venetian Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bruijn, Rolf H. C.; De Waele, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Buso della Rana and Buso della Pisatela are two karstic caves located in north-east Italy. They are part of the same karst system and are developed in the Castelgomberto calcarenitic marine sediments, which were deposited in a shallow Caribbean-type sea during the Eocene. The Buso della Rana-Pisatela system developed mostly at the contact between the Castelgomberto calcarenite and underlying volcanic rocks. The system of caves is ~ 37 km long and has only three entrances, two of which are semi-artificial. The overlying karst plateau is not directly connected to the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system and, with the exception of one deep abyss, exhibits a rather poorly developed karst. This is unexpected considering the presence at depth of such a large and long cave. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has locally been observed on the walls of the Buso della Pisatela cave. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveals the presence of sulfur-bearing minerals within the host rock. Gypsum was formed by oxidation of these minerals as indicated by negative δ34S values. The oxidation of sulfide minerals forms a sulfuric-acid solution that dissolves the Castelgomberto calcarenite and, once it is oversaturated in calcium, precipitates as gypsum. The lack of well-developed karst on top of the plateau and the analyses suggest that the formation mechanisms for the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system differ from classical epigenic speleogenesis. The "pyrite-effect" has been recognized in other caves and described in literature. In our case pyrite is responsible of two hypo-speleogenetic processes: i) the dissolution of a portion of the host rock and ii) the enlargement of the karst voids as a consequence of the haloclastic effect.

  6. Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Microbial ecology in subterranean systems has yet to be fully studied. Cave systems present highly unusual and extreme habitats, where microbial activity can potentially play a major role in nutrient cycling and possibly contribute to the formation of characteristic subaerial structures. How microorganisms actually function in cave systems, and what ecological roles they may perform, has yet to be widely addressed, although recent studies using molecular techniques combined with analytical geochemistry have begun to answer some questions surrounding subterranean microbial ecology (Northup et al., 2003). Moonmilk has a ‘cottage-cheese' like consistency, comprised of fine crystal aggregates of carbonate minerals, commonly calcite, hydromagnesite and gypsum, and is believed to be at least partially precipitated by microbial activity (Baskar et al., 2006). Microbial metabolic processes have been implicated in the formation of moonmilk, probably a result of biochemical corrosion of bedrock under high moisture conditions. Mineral weathering via bacterial activity has become accepted as a major influence on subsurface geochemistry and formation of belowground structures (Summers-Engel et al., 2004). While many studies focus on bacterial communities in subterranean systems, fungal community structure is also likely to be important in cave systems, given the important role fungi play in the transformations of organic and inorganic substrates (Gadd, 2004) and the significant role of fungi in mineral dissolution and secondary mineral formation (Burford et al., 2003). In general, it is agreed that both biotic and abiotic processes influence moonmilk formation, yet the diversity of the microbial community associated with moonmilk formations has not been characterised to date. Ballinamintra Cave (Waterford County, Ireland) is largely protected from human influence due to accessibility difficulties and thereby offers an opportunity to study microbial community structure that

  7. The archaeal diversity in a cave system and its implications for life on other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Bessone, Loredana; Sauro, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. At this point in time, we are not able to send manned missions to other planets, but to be ready and prepared for the day, training today is pivotal. Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2008, these CAVES missions (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills), prepare astronauts to work safely and effectively and solve problems as a multicultural team while exploring uncharted underground natural areas (i.e. caves) using space procedures. The hypogean environment is also of great interest for astrobiological research as cave conditions may resemble those in extra-terrestrial environments. Besides the main focus of exploration and skill training, future astronauts are also trained in taking microbiological samples for analysis during the exploration and for further analysis in the lab. During the 2013 mission, astronauts collected soil samples and employed flocked swaps to sample areas with little or no visible soil. Microscopic analysis back in the lab revealed a diverse spectrum of different cell shapes and sizes. Samples were further analysed employing molecular tools such as RFLP analysis, 16s rRNA clone libraries and sequence analysis. RFLP pattern analysis revealed that the community can be divided in 9 main groups and several single patterns. The largest group (40% of all analysed clones) belong to the clade of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrosopumilus spp.. Dividing the results by sampling point, it showed that the highest diversity of organisms was located on the flocked swaps, which is interesting as the sample was taken from a rock surface with no visible organic matter. By analysis low energy systems like a cave, we may be able to find clues for what could be necessary to survive on a

  8. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  9. Well production system to prevent cave-in and sloughing in unconsolidated formations

    SciTech Connect

    Widmyer, R.H.

    1982-09-21

    A well production system is disclosed for controlling ingress and egress of high pressure fluid through the annuli formed between the well and a screen support tube internally thereof. The screen support tube and an internal high pressure wash pipe with valves maintain constant high fluid pressure against the overburden during work in the well, as during drilling of an enlarged cavity therein for preventing cave-in and sloughing of the unconsolidated formation well walls until a sand pack is formed and the well producing.

  10. Hydraulics of Reka-Timavo system, Classical Karst (Carso), Slovenia-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovsek, Franci; Kaufmann, Georg; Peric, Borut

    2016-04-01

    In tectonically active areas, karst systems continuously adapt to the relatively rapid changes of the structural and boundary conditions. The flow pathways in such systems are characterised by high variability of channel cross-sections and breakdowns, which restrict the flow and cause high fluctuations of groundwater level, particularly if the recharge variations are high. One of the world's most prominent karst systems with such characteristics is the Kras/Carso plateau (Classical Karst), which extends between SW Slovenia and NE Italy. The ground water dynamics is mainly influenced by the allogenic input of Reka river which sinks at the Škocjanske jame (Škocjan caves) and emerges about 40 km north-west at the coast of Adria near Duino in springs of Timavo. The ratio between highest and lowest flow of Reka reaches 1700 with the maximum measured discharge 305 m3/s, and minimum 0.18 m3/s. This work is based on the long-term continuous monitoring of basic physical parameters of underground flow within six active caves of the Reka-Timavo system. Using stage, temperature and specific electric conductivity hydrographs, following questions were addressed: How do different signals (flood pulse, temperature, SEP) propagate through the system? How does the known geometry relate to the recorded hydrographs in caves? Can we infer on the structure of unknown parts of the system from the recorded hydrographs ? Where are the restrictions causing floods in different parts of the system? The data analysis includes heuristic and statistical analysis of the hydrographs and optimisation based hydraulic modelling. The response to recharge events is vigorous; high flow variability causes extreme stage variations along the whole observed system, with more than 100 m difference between the base and highest water levels at rising and recession rates reaching almost 10 m/h. By analysing large recharge events, we show that high floods in the two most upstream caves (Škocjanske jame and Ka

  11. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  12. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  13. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  14. Geology of Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. E.; Morgan, I. M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in the study of caves (speleology) with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine types of caves, how caves form, cave features, minerals found in caves, uses of caves, and caves as natural underground laboratories.…

  15. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply, and Federal improvements. The land has been and will remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System land and...

  16. Development of a deep karst system within a transpressional structure of the Dolomites in north-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Zampieri, Dario; Filipponi, Marco

    2013-02-01

    The Piani Eterni karst system is one of the longest and deepest caves of Italy situated in the southern sector of the Dolomiti mountain range. The area where the cave was formed displays peculiar structural settings confined in a tectonic transpressive corridor between two regional thrusts (Belluno and Valsugana). During Miocene uplift of the range the inheritance of Mesozoic structures led to the formation of a deep and wide upward-branching flower (or palm tree) structure cutting the carbonate sequence and exposing the surrounding surface to karst processes after erosion. The relative lowering of the hydrologic base level, due both to the uplift of the area and then to the carving of deep glacial valleys in the Quaternary, allowed the formation of paleo-phreatic conduits at subsequently deeper levels, interconnected by vadose shafts and canyons. This work gives a detailed tectonic interpretation of the transpressive structure and picks out the tectonic features most favorable to the karst development. A detailed statistical analysis of the distribution and orientation of the karst conduits was performed using 31 km of 3D surveys showing that the development of the cave was strictly guided by a few favorable surfaces of stratigraphic and tectonic origin. These features are known in the literature as inception horizons and tectonic inception features, respectively. Cave levels are usually related to lithologic favorable conditions associated with standings of the paleo-water table. Here we suggest that some tectonic surface geometries could have led to the opening of voids in the active tectonic phase leading to the formation of the original proto-conduit network. Different types of tectonic inception features identified in the cave were described in terms of geometry and kinematics. Tensional fractures, as well as fault plane undulations and flexural slip surfaces between beds, are described as the most favorable tectonic surfaces for the development of the

  17. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  18. Recovering data from historical collections: stratigraphic and spatial reconstruction of the outstanding carnivoran record from the Late Pleistocene Equi cave (Apuane Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzo, Elena; Palchetti, Alessandro; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    Equi Terme is a hamlet located in northern Tuscany, in Apuan Alps regional Park. An outstanding fossil vertebrate collection housed in Florence is the result of excavations in the Equi cave and shelter during the period 1911-1919. This faunal assemblage (associated with Mousterian artefacts) may be correlated with the middle of MIS 3. All of the specimens recovered at Equi early in the last century were collected with attention to their stratigraphical positions. Detailed field annotation for nearly every specimen allowed us to organize them and attempt a stratigraphical and spatial reconstruction of the fossiliferous deposits. We present the results of the study of the spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the carnivoran species in the Equi cave and shelter, and re-evaluate the taphonomic agents of accumulation and the fossil distribution within the stratigraphic record. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of Panthera pardus, which, unusually for Europe, is abundant in the Equi cave assemblage. This analysis highlights the importance of the re-evaluation of historical collections and allows for future comparisons with data from more recent excavations at the Equi site. The analysis also provides an account of the distribution of carnivorans throughout the stratigraphic record. The constant presence and the predominance of leopards and wolves over lions and smaller carnivorans, allow for evaluations of their ethology and may be related to a short period of sediment accumulation.

  19. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  20. Caving in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Holly

    2010-01-01

    During Cave Week, more than 200 students explore a simulated cave environment and participate in cave-related activities. Active cavers from a local club bring in equipment and photos and speak about their caving experiences. As student groups explore the simulated cave, other groups participate in different activities where they can create bat…

  1. Delineating recharge areas for Onondaga and Cathedral Caves using groundwater tracing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave are two large, significant cave systems with active streams located along the Meramec River in the Ozarks ecoregion of Missouri. Groundwater dye tracing has delineated recharge areas for both caves in order to aid in the management of the cave systems by Onondaga Cav...

  2. Italy: A Study of the Educational System of Italy and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Italy in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Joseph P.

    The educational system of Italy is described, and placement recommendations concerning students who want to study in the United States are presented. After a description of preschool, elementary, and middle school education, the different types of upper-secondary education system are considered (i.e., the lyceums, teacher training, and technical…

  3. Illumina sequencing of fungi associated with manganese oxide deposits in cave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, B. T.; Santelli, C. M.; Carmichael, S. K.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Roble, L.; Carmichael, M.; Bräuer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The environmental cycling of manganese (Mn) remains relatively poorly characterized when compared with other metals such as iron. However, fungi have been observed to produce Mn(III/IV) oxides resembling buserite, birnessite, and todorokite on the periphery of vegetative hyphae, hyphal branching points and at the base of fruiting bodies. Recent studies indicate that some of these oxides may be generated by a two-stage reaction with soluble Mn(II) and biogenic reactive oxygen species for some groups of fungi, in particular the Ascomycota. These oxides can provide a versatile protective barrier or aid in the capture of trace metals in the environment, although the exact evolutionary function and trigger is unclear. In this study, two caves in the southern Appalachians, a pristine cave and an anthropogenically impacted cave, were compared by analyzing fungal community assemblages in manganese oxide rich deposits. Quantitative PCR data indicated that fungi are present in a low abundance (<1%) in all locations sampled within the caves. Among amplified DNA sequences retrieved in an 18S rDNA clone library, over 88% were representative of the phylum Basidiomycota (predominantly Agaricomycetes), 2.74% of Ascomycota, 2.28% of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, 0.46% of Zygomycota, and 3.65% of Eukarya or Fungi incertae sedis. Using Illumina's MiSeq to sequence amplicons of the fungal ITS1 gene has yielded roughly 100,000-200,000 paired-end reads per sample. These data are currently being analyzed to compare fungal communities before and after induced Mn oxidation in the field. In addition, sites within the pristine cave are being compared with analogous sites in the impacted cave. Culturing efforts have thus far yielded Mn oxide producing members of the orders Glomerales and Pleosporales as well as two Genus incertae sedis (Fungal sp. YECT1, and Fungal sp. YECT3, growing on discarded electrical tape) that do not appear to be closely related to any other known Mn

  4. Monitoring present day climatic conditions in tropical caves using an Environmental Data Acquisition System (EDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondag, Francis; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Soubiès, François; Santos, Roberto; Somerhausen, André; Seidel, Alexandre; Boggiani, Paulo

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents data from automatic stations which have been installed for monitoring climatic parameters in caves in two areas of Brazil. These devices, initially developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium to monitor environmental parameters in geophysical observatories, were adapted in our study to operate under tropical cave conditions and to measure temperature, atmospheric pressure and drip rate of stalactites. Similar devices were installed at the surface near to the caves to measure air temperature, atmospheric pressure and rainfall. The results reveal that the drip rate at the tip of stalactites is related to the effective rainfall (water excess). The stable drip regime observed during the dry season seems to be reproducible from one year to the other and could be related to the infiltration of water which has a long residence time in the aquifer. Regular pressure oscillations, with amplitude ranging between 1 and 2 mb, are observed in both of the monitored caves. Spectral analysis of the data suggests that these oscillations are linked to the diurnal and semi-diurnal solar tides (S1 and S2). In one cave, very small temperature variations (0.02-0.05 °C) are also observed with a similar diurnal and semi-diurnal pattern, and we argue that the generating process of the thermal components of the S1 and S2 frequencies is a mixture of thermal convection produced by the surface meteorological variations and of an adiabatic induction of the S2 atmospheric pressure modulation. A very large annual thermal amplitude (13 °C) is observed in the other cave; this is a great motivation to study the stable isotope geochemistry of its speleothems as they probably have recorded past temperature fluctuations linked to paleoclimate variations in this area of south-western Brazil.

  5. 76 FR 28388 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Mammoth Cave National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Cave National Park is the core of the largest, most complex, and best known karst area in the world. Karst is a geologic term which refers to areas of irregular limestone in which erosion has produced... preserve the extensive limestone caverns and associated karst topography, scenic river-ways,...

  6. The Establishment of an Operational Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Casarotti, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    Just after the Mw 6.2 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, on April 6 2009, the Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) that paved the way to the development of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF), defined as the "procedures for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazards to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes". In this paper we introduce the first official OEF system in Italy that has been developed by the new-born Centro di Pericolosità Sismica at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The system provides every day an update of the weekly probabilities of ground shaking over the whole Italian territory. In this presentation, we describe in detail the philosophy behind the system, the scientific details, and the output format that has been preliminary defined in agreement with Civil Protection. To our knowledge, this is the first operational system that fully satisfies the ICEF guidelines. Probably, the most sensitive issue is related to the communication of such a kind of message to the population. Acknowledging this inherent difficulty, in agreement with Civil Protection we are planning pilot tests to be carried out in few selected areas in Italy; the purpose of such tests is to check the effectiveness of the message and to receive feedbacks.

  7. Modelling carbon isotopes of carbonates in cave drip water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, J.; Scholz, D.; Kromer, B.; Mangini, A.

    2011-09-01

    C isotopes in cave drip water are affected by both the C isotope composition of soil air and host rock carbonate. Furthermore, the C isotope composition of cave drip water strongly depends on the calcite dissolution system, i.e., open, closed and intermediate conditions. Here, we present a calcite dissolution model, which calculates the 14C activity and δ 13C value of the dissolved inorganic carbon of the drip water. The model is based on the chemical equations describing calcite dissolution ( H2O+CaCO+CO⇔Ca+2HCO3-). The most important improvement, relative to previous models, is the combination of the open and closed system conditions in order to simulate the C isotope composition during intermediate states of calcite dissolution and the application to carbon isotope measurements on cave drip waters from Grotta di Ernesto, Italy. The major changes in the C isotope composition of the drip water occur in response to variations in the open-closed system ratio. Additionally, the 14C activity and the δ 13C value of the drip water depend on changes in the partial pressure of soil CO 2. Radiocarbon and δ 13C values of the Grotta di Ernesto drip water are well reproduced by the model.

  8. Do cave features affect underground habitat exploitation by non-troglobite species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Many biospeleological studies focus on organisms that are exclusive inhabitants of the subterranean realm, but organisms that are not obligate cave-dwellers are frequent in caves, and may account for a substantial portion of biomass. Moreover, several taxa that are usually epigeous are regularly found inside caves, but for most of them it is unknown whether they accidentally enter them, or whether they actively select caves for specific environmental features. In this study we analysed the community of non-strict cave-dwelling organisms (amphibians, gastropods, spiders and orthopterans) in 33 caves from Central Italy, to assess how environmental factors determine community structure. Cave features strongly affected the distribution of the taxa considered. The combined effect of cave morphology and microclimate explained nearly 50% of the variation of community structure. Most of community variation occurred along a gradient from deep, dark and humid caves, to dry caves with wider entrances and extended photic areas. Most of species were associated with humid, deep and dark caves. Most of the non-troglobiont amphibians and invertebrates did not occur randomly in caves, but were associated to caves with specific environmental features. Analysing relationships between cave-dwelling species and environmental variables can allow a more ecological and objective classification of cave-dwelling organisms.

  9. Benthic Foraminifera and Testate Amoebae (Thecamoebians) as Hydrologic Proxies of Subterranean Water Masses: Evidence from Aktun Ha (Carwash) Cave System, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hengstum, P. J.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Beddows, P. A.; Schwarcz, H. P.; Gabriel, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    For the first time, foraminifera and testate amoebae have been systematically examined in a coastal phreatic cave system-a 'subterranean estuary'. Abundant communities of modern testate amoebae and relict foraminifera were recovered from the anchialine cave Aktun Ha (Carwash) Mexico. During the Sangamon Interglacial (MIS 5e) highstand, saline water flooded the cave passages to host a Marine Assemblage of the foraminifera Bolivina sp. (mean 73 percent) and Elphidium sp. (mean 11 percent) with a mean δ13C = -5.5‰ and δ18O = -2.7‰. In vadose cave conditions of the Pleistocene lowstands, travertine precipitated over sediments containing the Marine Assemblage. Holocene sea level rise re-flooded the cave with freshwater, allowing for colonization of a Freshwater Assemblage dominated by testate amoebae Centropyxis aculeata (mean 38 percent) and Arcella vulgaris (mean 10 percent) with a mean δ13C = -10.8‰ and δ18O = -4.9‰ measured on Cytheridella ilosvayi ostracods. These results demonstrate that subterranean void spaces are a suitable environment for colonization by shelled protists. Since climatic and sea level shifts alter hydrologic and geochemical composition of coastal groundwater masses, these results provide promise that shelled protists can be longer-term proxies for monitoring hydrologic and geochemical variables in subterranean coastal water systems.

  10. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peresani, Marco; Fiore, Ivana; Gala, Monica; Romandini, Matteo; Tagliacozzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A large and varied avifaunal bone assemblage from the final Mousterian levels of Grotta di Fumane, northern Italy, reveals unusual human modifications on species that are not clearly relatable to feeding or utilitarian uses (i.e., lammergeier, Eurasian black vulture, golden eagle, red-footed falcon, common wood pigeon, and Alpine chough). Cut, peeling, and scrape marks, as well as diagnostic fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of large feathers by Neandertals. The species involved, the anatomical elements affected, and the unusual type and location of the human modifications indicate an activity linked to the symbolic sphere and the behavioral modernity of this European autochthonous population. PMID:21368129

  11. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  12. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  13. The Science of Exploring Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to the science of speleology is presented. Discussed is why people explore caves--for the physical challenge, the thrill of discovery, and the joy of viewing their beauty. Cave conservation, cave biology, caving safety, and caving equipment are topics of discussion. A reading list on caves is included. (KR)

  14. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  15. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  16. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  17. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  18. Martian Ice Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, R. D.; Billings, T. L.; McGown, R. D.; Walden, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Ice in Martian lava tube caves would have scientific and developmental value. These natural channels in rock may hold keys to Mars' past as well as potential resources for humanity's futures. Terrestrial lava tube caves are natural receptacles for accumulations of water. Often, due to lower temperatures coupled with the superior insulation properties of the surrounding rock, these accumulations are in the form of ice. Historically, ice was mined from some lava tube caves. Many of the lava tubes in the Central Oregon area sport such names as "Arnolds Ice Cave," "Surveyors Ice Cave," "South Ice Cave," etc. These caves are not caves in ice, but rather common lava tubes with seasonal, and sometimes perennial ice deposits. Locating and cataloging similar features on Mars, could be of value for the colonization of Mars and the search for life. Such features may also prove useful in helping to determine past climatic conditions on the Red Planet.

  19. Come to our Cave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity for first-grade students in which they learn about cave paintings and become spelunkers, or people who explore caves as a hobby, making their own paper head-lanterns. Explains that students draw animals on the walls of their "cave" (a dark hallway lined with brown kraft paper). (CMK)

  20. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  1. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the

  2. Selected caves and lava-tube systems in and near Lava Beds National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, Aaron Clement; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Rogers, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the north and south flanks of the Medicine Lake shield were built from molten lava transmitted through lava tubes. These tubes formed beneath the congealing surface of basalt flows in somewhat the same way that a brook may continue to flow beneath a cover of its own winter ice. As molten lava emerges from a vent and flows downslope, congealing lava from the top and sides of the central channel often forms a bridge over the lava stream. The sticking together of bits of lava spatter and fragile lava crusts strengthens the bridge in the manner that thin crusts of floating ice raft together to cover a brook during early stages of a winter freeze. Eruption of basalt lava, however, is a much more violent and spasmodic process than the steady gathering of water that feeds a brook. If liquid lava stops rising from its source deep within the earth, the still-molten lava moving beneath the crusted-over top of a lava flow will continue to drain downhill and may ultimately leave an open lavatube cave-often large enough for people to walk through. It is rare, however, to find such a simple scenario recorded intact among the hundreds of lava-tube caves in the monument. Even before the top and walls of a lava flow have time to cool during a pause in lava supply, a new and violent eruption of lava may refill the open tube, overflow its upper end, and spread a new lava flow beside or on top of the first flow. Even if the original tube is large enough to contain the renewed supply of lava, this tube must deliver the new lava beyond the end of its original flow and thus the lava field extends farther and farther downslope. If the gradient of flow flattens, the tube may subdivide into a number of smaller distributaries, which spread laterally over the more gently sloping ground. 

  3. The conservation of Britain's limestone cave resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, P.; Gunn, J.

    1996-10-01

    Limestone caves are an important scientific and recreational resource in Britain. During the mid- to late 1970s, cavers and statutory conservation bodies cooperated in a review of cave resources which resulted in the designation of 48 caves or cave areas as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). During the same period, the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 was introduced to provide more effective planning controls on activities such as agriculture carried out within SSSI boundaries. In one case, at Priddy in the Mendip Hills of Somerset, landowners prevented access to a number of caves in protest over the new, tougher restrictions on agriculture. Faced with the closure, and perceiving that their recreational use of caves might also be controlled, local cavers joined the landowners in opposing the proposals for SSSI designation. As a result the proposals were reviewed, three caves were excluded from the site and controls on the remaining area were relaxed. The case emphasized a need for an effective system to take account of all factors affecting cave conservation, a need which has led to a more constructive dialogue between nature conservation bodies, caver organizations and other interested parties.

  4. Reed bed systems for sludge treatment: case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Masciandaro, G; Iannelli, R; Chiarugi, M; Peruzzi, E

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, reed bed systems (RBSs) have been widely considered as a valid technology for sludge treatment. In this study are presented results about sludge stabilization occurring within beds in four RBSs, situated in Tuscany (Italy). The results showed that stabilization of the sludge over time occurred in all RBSs, as shown by the low content of water-soluble carbon and dehydrogenase activity, which measures indirectly the overall microbial metabolism, and by the re-synthesis of humic-like matter highlighted by the pyrolytic indices of mineralization and humification. Results about heavy metal fractionation, an appropriate technique to estimate the heavy metal bioavailability and sludge biotoxicity, showed that the process of sludge stabilization occurring in RBSs retains metals in fractions related to the stabilized organic matter, making metals less bioavailable. Moreover, the concentrations of various toxic organic compounds were below the limit of concentration suggested by the European Union's Working Document on Sludge, for land application. The effectiveness of the stabilization processes in RBs was hence clearly proven by the results that measured mineralization and humification processes, and by the low levels of bioavailable heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in stabilized sludges.

  5. Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells

  6. Methane concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4) in the Nerja Cave system (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Etiope, Giuseppe; Benavente, José; Ojeda, Lucia; Liñán, Cristina; Carrasco, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Air in underground caves often has methane (CH4) concentrations below the atmospheric level, due to methanotrophic or other unkown CH4 consuming processes. Caves are thus considered a potential sink for atmospheric methane. If globally important, this underground CH4 oxidation should be taken into account in the atmospheric methane budget, in addition to the known soil methanotrophy and tropospheric/stratospheric sinks. A large set of data is however necessary to understand how and how much methane from external atmospheric air is consumed in the caves. While methane concentration data are available for several caves worldwide, its isotopic composition and variations in space and time are poorly documented. We measured methane concentration and stable C isotope composition (δ13C) in the Nerja cave (Southern Spain) air during two surveys in March and April 2015. CH4 concentration decreases progressively from the more external cave rooms, with atmospheric levels of 1.9 ppmv, to the more internal and isolated rooms down to 0.5 ppmv. δ13C increases correspondingly from -47 ‰ to -41 ‰ (VPDB). CH4 is systematically 13C-enriched (δ13C > -45) in areas of the cave where the concentration is below 1.4 ppmv. This combination of concentration decrease and 13C-enrichment towards the more internal and isolated zones of the cave confirms the importance of CH4 oxidation, likely driven by methanotrophic bacteria. Further data, including stable H isotope composition of sub-atmospheric CH4 concentrations, CO2 and microbial analyses, shall be acquired over time to assess the actual role of methanotrophic bacteria and seasonal controls in the CH4 consumption process.

  7. Magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments, Wyandotte Ridge, Crawford County, southern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, P.P.; Gomez, B. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Schmidt, V.A. . Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science)

    1992-01-01

    The field polarities of 42 sediment samples obtained from 21 sites in Wyandotte Cave, and five smaller satellite caves in Wyandotte Ridge, southern Indiana, have been determined and correlated with magnetostratigraphic data from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. In Wyandotte Cave sediment samples obtained between 137 m and 162 m in elevation possessed a normal field polarity, while samples obtained between 168 m and 171 m exhibited a field reversal. The reversal was interpreted to represent the most recent polarity change, dating the sediment fill and the end of the active period of the upper level of Wyandotte Cave at ca 0.788 Ma. There is a temporal correlation between the active period of the upper level in Wyandotte Cave and the C-level in Mammoth Cave, which lies at a similar elevation. Such a correlation is most likely a consequence of the contemporaneous abandonment of passages in the two cave systems during the early Pleistocene reconstruction of the Ohio River system, which acts as the base level control in both caves. Samples from two caves near the top of Wyandotte Ridge, located between elevations of 236 m and 241 m, exhibited a normal polarity. These caves are located at a higher elevation than any of the sample sites in Mammoth Cave and their location suggests that the fill predates sediments from that system. It appears most likely that the fill in these caves is a minimum of ca 2.48 Ma. old and correlates with the residuum of the upper Mitchell Plain surface, not with the fill in the upper (A- or B-levels) in Mammoth Cave.

  8. Ca Isotope Fractionation During Gypsum Precipitation in a Sulfidic Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantle, M. S.; Macalady, J. L.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2009-12-01

    In sulfidic caves, limestone dissolution above the water table is assocated with sulfuric acid corrosion and attendant precipitation of CaSO4 crusts. Since sulfuric acid is produced by microbially-mediated sulfide oxidation, such systems present unique opportunities to study the effects of microbial processes on Ca isotope systematics. The current study presents preliminary measurements of the Ca isotopic composition of gypsum, calcite, and water samples collected in and around Grotta Bella cave in the Frasassi cave system (central Italy). The environment sampled in this limestone-hosted cave is situated close to flowing sulfidic groundwater (air [H2S]meas ~3 ppm) and is actively forming gypsum in close association with microbial communities ("snottites") dominated by Acidithiobacillus sp [1]. The pH ranges from >2.3 in gypsum crust accumulating on the cave walls to 0-2 at the surface of snottites, while pH in waters sampled outside the cave is between 7 and 8. The current rate of limestone dissolution is ~0.15 mmol CaCO3/cm2/a [2]. This study reports the Ca isotopic composition (δ44Ca, rel. to bulk Earth) of stream and seep water, limestone, and gypsum samples in and around Grotta Bella. Calcium isotopes were measured on a Finnigan Triton TI thermal ionization mass spectrometer at GEOMAR using a 43Ca-48Ca double spike. Field-acidified stream waters and dissolved gypsum were chromatographically purified using MCI Gel (Biorad) while bulk limestone samples were dissolved in nitric acid and loaded onto single Re filaments without additional purification. The δ44Ca values of stream waters and springs are relatively restricted (~0.2‰) and generally the same as bulk limestone. Actively-precipitating CaSO4 minerals, however, show a range of δ44Ca values from limestone-like to values almost 1‰ lighter than corresponding wallrock. Decreasing δ44Ca values in these gypsum minerals correspond to gradients in pH and mineral grain size. The smallest gypsum grains

  9. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  10. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  11. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Empowering Women through Caving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabert, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an introductory horizontal caving experience for college-age women who were uncomfortable with their bodies, insecure with movement, and unwilling to take big risks. The darkness and quiet of the cave released inhibitions and promoted group cohesion, feelings of intimacy and safety, self-discovery, and self-confidence. (SV)

  13. Cave Water Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

  14. Carbon and oxygen isotope study of the active water-carbonate system in a karstic Mediterranean cave: Implications for paleoclimate research in semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Matthews, Alan; Sass, Eytan; Halicz, Ludwik

    1996-01-01

    In a semiarid climatic zone, such as the Eastern Mediterranean region, annual rainfall variations and fractionation processes in the epikarst zone exert a profound influence on the isotopic compositions of waters seeping into a cave. Consequently, the isotopic compositions of speleothems depositing from cave waters may show complex variations that need to be understood if they are to be exploited for paleoclimate studies. This is confirmed by a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system in the Soreq cave (Israel). The δ18O (SMOW) values of cave waters range from -6.3 to -3.5%.. The highest δ18O values occur at the end of the dry season in waters dripping from stalactites, and reflect evaporation processes in the epikarst zone, whereas the lowest values occur in rapidly dripping (fast-drip) waters at the peak of the rainy seasons. However, even fast-drip waters are about 1.5%. heavier than the rainfall above the cave, which is taken to reflect the mixing of fresh with residual evaporated water in the epikarst zone. δ13C (PDB) values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) vary from -15.6 to -5.4%., with fast-drip waters having lower δ13C values (mostly -15.6 to -12%.) and higher DIC concentrations relative to pool and stalactite-drip water. The low δ13C values of fast-drip waters and their supersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate indicates that the seepage waters have dissolved both soil-CO 2 derived from overlying C 3-type vegetation and marine dolomite host rock. The δ18O (PDB) values of various types of present-day low-magnesium calcite (LMC) speleothems range from -6.5 to -4.3%. and δ13C values from -13 to -5.5%. and are not correlated with speleothem type. An analysis of δ18O values of present-day calcite rafts and pool waters shows that they form in oxygen isotope equilibrium. Similarly, the measured ranges of δ13C and δ18O values for all types of present-day speleothems are consistent with equilibrium deposition at cave temperatures

  15. Southwest Caves Reveal New Forms of Life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J. Judson; Drost, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Caves in northern Arizona and western New Mexico are being researched and inventoried by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. Southwestern caves have been little studied, and scientists are now finding that these lightless and nutrient-poor natural systems are home to life forms found nowhere else on Earth. This research has identified unique communities of arthropods (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans) that include 3 new genera, or groups of species, and at least 15 new species - some only known to exist in a single cave. This exciting research is yielding information that will be used by resource managers to better understand and protect fragile and important Southwestern cave ecosystems.

  16. Carroll Cave: a Missouri legend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carroll Cave is one of the premiere caves of Missouri and the Ozarks region. At over 20 miles of surveyed passage, it is the 2nd longest cave in the state and 33rd longest in the nation. It is also the largest known cave formed in the Ordovician aged (443-485 million years ago) Gasconade Dolomite o...

  17. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  18. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  19. 76 FR 19129 - Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... information collection requirements contained in the Standard on Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection... approved by a registered professional engineer. The design information must include the magnitude and... compliance officer with information needed to determine if the selection and design of a protective...

  20. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotope study of the active water-carbonate system in a karstic Mediterranean cave: Implications for paleoclimate research in semiarid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Matthews, M.; Ayalon, A.; Halicz, L.

    1996-01-01

    In a semiarid climatic zone, such as the Eastern Mediterranean region, annual rainfall variations and fractionation processes in the epikarst zone exert a profound influence on the isotopic compositions of waters seeping into a cave. Consequently, the isotopic compositions of speleothems depositing from cave waters may show complex variations that need to be understood if they are to be exploited for paleoclimate studies. This is confirmed by a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system in the Soreq cave (Israel). The {sigma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) values of cave waters range from -6.3 to - 3.5{per_thousand}. The highest {sigma}{sup 18}O values occur at the end of the dry season in waters dripping from stalactites, and reflect evaporation processes in the epikarst zone, whereas the lowest values occur in rapidly dripping (fast-drip) waters at the peak of the rainy seasons. However, even fast-drip waters are about 1.5{per_thousand} heavier than the rainfall above the cave, which is taken to reflect the mixing of fresh with residual evaporated water in the epikarst zone. {sigma}{sup 13}C (PDB) values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) vary from -15.6 to -5.4{per_thousand}, with fast-drip waters having lower {sigma}{sup 13}C values (mostly-15.6 to -12{per_thousand}) and higher DIC concentrations relative to pool and stalactite-drip water. The los {sigma}{sup 13}C values of fast-drip waters and their supersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate indicates that the seepage waters have dissolved both soil-CO{sub 2} derived from overlying C{sub 3}-type vegetation and marine dolomite host rock. The 10{per_thousand} variation in the {sigma}{sup 13}C values associated with contemporaneous speleothems in order to clarify the effects of degassing from those due to differing vegetation types. 55 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Meter-long microbial ropes from euxinic cave lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macalady, J. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Bloom, D.; McCauley, R.

    2008-12-01

    Cave divers exploring a remote conduit in the Frasassi cave system (Italy) discovered unusual 1 to 2 meter- long, rope-like microbial biofilms in the anoxic layer of a permanently stratified cave lake. Organic carbon in the rope-like biofilm has a delta 13C value of -33 per mil, indicating in situ lithautotrophic primary production and little or no input from surface-derived plant carbon. SEM/EDS of critical point dried samples showed interlocking strands of microbial-sized filaments with trapped mineral particles including S, CaCO3, silicate clays, and sulfate and phosphate minerals. Staining with the nucleic acid dye DAPI further showed that the ropes are composed of closely packed, intact microbial cells. Geochemical profiles of the stratified lake (conductivity, pH, ORP, T, oxygen, sulfide, sulfate, ammonium) delineate a sharp chemocline at ~2.3 m water depth, several meters above the ropes. Geochemical data for the water surrounding the microbial ropes suggest that little redox energy is available, and that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis should be the most favorable reactions. Radiocarbon ages for the ropes are associated with a large uncertainty due to potentially changing contributions of radiocarbon-dead limestone carbonate over time. However, the data suggest that the ropes are thousands of years older than animals in the cave system, consistent with extreme energy limitation and slow growth. Based on phylogenetic analyses of archaeal, bacterial and universal 16S rDNA clone libraries from the microbial ropes, approximately 50 percent of bacterial clones affiliate with sulfur-reducing deltaproteobacteria. Approximately 61 percent of archaeal clones (20 percent of all clones) are associated with an environmental clade of euryarchaeota commonly retrieved from deep sea sediments (MBG-D). Most other clones in the libraries grouped in clades without cultivated representatives. No clones associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were

  3. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  4. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  5. Bubble-Induced Cave Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned “natural” instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a “collapse”. We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  6. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    PubMed

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  7. Acoustic module of the Acquabona (Italy) debris flow monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgaro, A.; Tecca, P. R.; Genevois, R.; Deganutti, A. M.

    2005-02-01

    Monitoring of debris flows aimed to the assessment of their physical parameters is very important both for theoretical and practical purposes. Peak discharge and total volume of debris flows are crucial for designing effective countermeasures in many populated mountain areas where losses of lives and property damage could be avoided. This study quantifies the relationship between flow depth, acoustic amplitude of debris flow induced ground vibrations and front velocity in the experimental catchment of Acquabona, Eastern Dolomites, Italy. The analysis of data brought about the results described in the following. Debris flow depth and amplitude of the flow-induced ground vibrations show a good positive correlation. Estimation of both mean front velocity and peak discharge can be simply obtained monitoring the ground vibrations, through geophones installed close to the flow channel; the total volume of debris flow can be so directly estimated from the integral of the ground vibrations using a regression line. The application of acoustic technique to debris flow monitoring seems to be of the outmost relevance in risk reduction policies and in the correct management of the territory. Moreover this estimation is possible in other catchments producing debris flows of similar characteristics by means of their acoustic characterisation through quick and simple field tests (Standard Penetration Tests and seismic refraction surveys).

  8. Early warning system to forecast rainfall-induced landslides in Italy (SANF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Harmful landslide events are frequent in Italy. In this Country, in 2009 rainfall-induced landslides have caused at least 208 casualties, in multiple landslide events. In the period 1950-2009, the average yearly number of harmful landslide events has exceeded 35, most of which rainfall-induced landslide events. These figures indicate the impact that rainfall-induced landslides have on the population of Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC), an Office of the Prime Minister, and the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), are designing and implementing a prototype system to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Italy. The system is based on two components. The first component consists of: (i) a set of national, regional, and local rainfall thresholds (of the intensity-duration (ID) type) for possible landslide imitation, (ii) a database of sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained by a network of 1950 rain gauges in Italy, and (iii) quantitative rainfall forecasts acquired through numerical modelling. Every day, and for each individual rain gauge, the system compares the measured and the forecasted rainfall amounts against pre-defined thresholds, and assigns to each rain gauge a probability for possible landslide occurrence. This information is used to prepare synoptic-scale maps showing where rainfall-induced landslides are expected, in a period of time. The second component of the system consists of synoptic assessments of landslide hazard and risk in Italy, including small-scale zoning maps. The assessments are obtained through statistical modelling of thematic and environmental information, including national catalogues of historical landslides and of historical landslides with human consequences in Italy, in the period 1900-2005. Combination of the hazard and risk zonations with the daily forecasts for possible landslide occurrence, allows

  9. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  10. Reconstruction of Late Quaternary Climate in Central Europe - A Comparison of Stable Isotope and Trace Element Variations in Speleothems From Different Cave Systems in Germany.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhoff, P.; Wiegand, B.; Simon, K.; Rosendahl, W.; Hansen, B. T.; Kempe, S.

    2003-12-01

    Speleothems (stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones) are important archives for Late Quaternary continental climatic and paleo-environmental reconstruction. Speleothems form when calcium carbonate precipitates from solutions seeping into caves hosted e.g. in limestone or dolomite complexes. Information of past climate variability and changes in local environmental conditions can be obtained from signatures of the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon as well as trace element pattern recorded in speleothems. Reconstruction of paleo-temperature and past environmental conditions from stable isotopes, however, require isotopic equilibrium between the drip water and the precipitating calcium carbonate. Results from Dietzel et al. (1992) and Johnson and Ingram (2001) indicate that the formation of modern travertine and speleothem calcite occurs under isotopic equilibrium. Factors that influence the stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition during speleothem precipitation include e.g. the moisture source and precipitation, photosynthetic pathways, the bedrock proportion, and the drip rate. This often leads to a situation with several variables. However, a specific interpretation is possible when dealing with environments where only one of the factors is dominant, or specific settings are assumed to be invariant, or further proxies like trace element variations help to define the frame conditions during speleothem formation. Concentrations of trace elements (e.g. Sr, Mg) which are co-precipitated with calcite are related to changes in the composition of the solution and strongly depend on the dissolution/precipitation dynamics along drip water flow paths. In a multiproxy approach they are a valuable tool for the interpretation of the recorded stable isotope variations. We present first results from different cave systems located in the Swabian Alps and the Harz Mountains (Germany). Our study includes a high-resolution multiproxy approach, using U/Th-TIMS data, stable

  11. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution. PMID:23580903

  12. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  13. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the public archeological exhibit without prior written permission of the Superintendent is prohibited. (2) Permits....

  15. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  16. A prototype mass spectrometer for in situ analysis of cave atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Edward L.; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mitchell, Evelynn J.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Younkin, Kerri N.; Seifert, Clarissa M.; Williams, Gregg C.

    2012-10-01

    Research in cave environments has many applications: studying local hydrogeologic activity, paleoclimate studies, analyzing white nose syndrome in bat populations, analogs for underground atmospheres in mining facilities, carbon sequestration efforts, and terrestrial analogs for planetary caves. The atmospheres of many caves contain tracers of current geological and biological activity, but up to this point, in situ studies have been limited to sensors that monitor individual components of the cave atmosphere. A prototype cave mass spectrometer system was assembled from commercial off-the-shelf parts to conduct surveys of atmospheric compositions inside four local Texas caves and to perform atmospheric analysis of two aquifer wellheads to a depth of 60 m. We found increased levels of CO2 in all caves and, surprisingly, increased levels of O2 in Bracken Bat Cave. Aquifer wellhead measurements showed indications of methane, other hydrocarbons, and other constituents not anticipated.

  17. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  18. The occupational health and safety services of the national health system in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bodini, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Working conditions have been addressed by laws in Italy since the 1950s, but the revision of the penal sanction laws in 1994 gave greater responsibility to those who had for many years been the de facto "police" of occupational health and safety services, allowing them to carry out inspections and to formulate rules for safety. Current preventive services for OHS within the Italian National Health Service are described, and their main features and developments and perspectives for the near future are situated in relation to EU legislation. There is a growing dichotomy in services between Northern and Southern Italy. The shift towards deregulation and decentralization of the current Government jeopardizes the prevention system. An efficient service will require a strong information system based on reliable notification; communication, training and assistance; and control and surveillance.

  19. CAVE: A computer code for two-dimensional transient heating analysis of conceptual thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathjen, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight trajectory or can optionally be calculated external to the code and then entered as input data. The code computes the network conduction and convection links, as well as capacitance values, given basic geometrical and mesh sizes, for four generations (leading edges, cooled panels, X-24C structure and slabs). Input and output formats are presented and explained. Sample problems are included. A brief summary of the hybrid analytical-numerical technique, which utilizes eigenvalues (thermal frequencies) and eigenvectors (thermal mode vectors) is given along with aerodynamic heating equations that have been incorporated in the code and flow charts.

  20. The function of the cercal sensory system in escape behavior of the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus Krauss.

    PubMed

    Schrader, S

    2000-01-01

    Long cerci of cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus Krauss (Rhaphidophoridae, Orthoptera) are, in contrast to other investigated species, oriented perpendicularly to the ground. Behavioural experiments indicated that cave crickets detect wind direction and respond to stimulation by jumping away from the stimulus. Directed wind puffs deflect filiform sensory hairs on the cerci, trigger physiological responses of their sensory neurons and change activity of interneurons that control the escape direction. Two local interneuron pairs, one non-spiking and one spiking, were identified using intracellular recording and subsequent dye injection techniques. The non-spiking interneuron responds to the puffs from sides with a large depolarization and to the puffs from the front and back of the animal with a small depolarization. After stimulation from the ipsilateral side the spiking interneuron responds with a burst of spikes at the onset of stimulation and, after stimulation from the contralateral side, it responds with a burst of spikes at the onset and at the end of the stimulation.

  1. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  2. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  3. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  4. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  5. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  6. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    high alpine regions the leopard Panthera pardus seem to have used the ecological niche of the absent hyenas (Diedrich 2009d, in review a). At open air sites cave bear scavenging by the largest Late Quaternary predators were proven, too (Diedrich 2006, 2009e). The predation stress caused by the three main and largest Late Quaternary predators seem to have provided cave bears to hibernate often deeply in many European caves, and here especially in larger and longer cave systems (e.g. Diedrich et al 2009, in review, Diedrich and Moldovan 2010) to protect themselves against the largest Quaternary predators. In conflicts with those large felids must have been killed by adult cave bears, which explains why those predator carcasses remained as complete skeletons or as partly disarticulated ones even deep in caves all over Europe which were finally not scavenged by the herbivorous cave bears (Diedrich in review). In such cave bear den caves the amount of lion bones generally take only 1-3% of the total bone amount being highly dominated by cave bear bones (Diedrich 2009c, in review). Lions and hyenas seem to have focussed onto the hunt of cave bears all over Europe, especially with the reduction of the biomass in the open environments at the maximum cold period during around 26.000-24.000 BP (Solutrean). The slow extinction of their largest prey was an important motor of the predation pressure onto cave bears. This might be one reason for the cave bear extinction in the final Late Quaternary (early Late Weichselian, maximum cold period) at least in northern Europe, but it seem to have happened in a combination of climatic change, and also human impact (cf. Diedrich, this volume). References Diedrich, C., 2005. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg, 45, 73

  7. Vision-mediated interaction with the Nottingham caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, Ahmed; Bayomi, Sahar; Green, Jonathan; Pridmore, Tony; Benford, Steve

    2003-05-01

    The English city of Nottingham is widely known for its rich history and compelling folklore. A key attraction is the extensive system of caves to be found beneath Nottingham Castle. Regular guided tours are made of the Nottingham caves, during which castle staff tell stories and explain historical events to small groups of visitors while pointing out relevant cave locations and features. The work reported here is part of a project aimed at enhancing the experience of cave visitors, and providing flexible storytelling tools to their guides, by developing machine vision systems capable of identifying specific actions of guides and/or visitors and triggering audio and/or video presentations as a result. Attention is currently focused on triggering audio material by directing the beam of a standard domestic flashlight towards features of interest on the cave wall. Cameras attached to the walls or roof provide image sequences within which torch light and cave features are detected and their relative positions estimated. When a target feature is illuminated the corresponding audio response is generated. We describe the architecture of the system, its implementation within the caves and the results of initial evaluations carried out with castle guides and members of the public.

  8. Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal Systems in the Aeolian Volcanic Arc, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Thomas; Petersen, Sven; Lackschewitz, Klas; Hügler, Michael; Hannington, Mark D.; Gemmell, J. Bruce

    2009-03-01

    The majority of known high-temperature hydrothermal vents occur at mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centers, typically at water depths from 2000 to 4000 meters. Compared with 30 years of hydrothermal research along spreading centers in the deep parts of the ocean, exploration of the approximately 700 submarine arc volcanoes is relatively recent [de Ronde et al., 2003]. At these submarine arc volcanoes, active hydrothermal vents are located at unexpectedly shallow water depth (95% at <1600-meter depth), which has important consequences for the style of venting, the nature of associated mineral deposits, and the local biological communities. As part of an ongoing multinational research effort to study shallow submarine volcanic arcs, two hydrothermal systems in the submerged part of the Aeolian arc have been investigated in detail during research cruises by R/V Poseidon (July 2006) and R/V Meteor (August 2007). Comprehensive seafloor video surveys were conducted using a remotely operated vehicle, and drilling to a depth of 5 meters was carried out using a lander-type submersible drill. This research has resulted in the first detailed, three-dimensional documentation of shallow submarine hydrothermal systems on arc volcanoes.

  9. Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of δ 18O and δ 13C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, Darrel M.; Froelich, Philip N.; Wang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the relationships between speleothem stable isotopes (δ 13C δ 18O) and in situ cave forcing mechanisms is important to interpreting ancient stalagmite paleoclimate records. Cave studies have demonstrated that the δ 18O of inorganically precipitated (low temperature) speleothem calcite is systematically heavier than the δ 18O of laboratory-grown calcite for a given temperature. To understand this apparent offset, rainwater, cave drip water, groundwater, and modern naturally precipitated calcite (farmed in situ) were grown at multiple locations inside Hollow Ridge Cave in Marianna, Florida. High resolution micrometeorological, air chemistry time series and ventilation regimes were also monitored continuously at two locations inside the cave, supplemented with periodic bi-monthly air gas grab sample transects throughout the cave. Cave air chemistry and isotope monitoring reveal density-driven airflow pathways through Hollow Ridge Cave at velocities of up to 1.2 m s -1 in winter and 0.4 m s -1 in summer. Hollow Ridge Cave displays a strong ventilation gradient in the front of the cave near the entrances, resulting in cave air that is a mixture of soil gas and atmospheric CO 2. A clear relationship is found between calcite δ 13C and cave air ventilation rates estimated by proxies pCO 2 and 222Rn. Calcite δ 13C decreased linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ 13C CaCO3 = -7‰. A whole-cave "Hendy test" at multiple contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ 13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and calcite precipitated on the edge or out of flow paths. This interpretation of the "Hendy test" has implications for interpreting δ 13C records in ancient speleothems. Calcite δ 13C CaCO3 may be a proxy not only for atmospheric CO 2 or overlying vegetation shifts but also for

  10. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  11. Exploring the feasibility of a nationwide earthquake early warning system in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.

    2015-04-01

    When accompanied by appropriate training and preparedness of a population, Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are effective and viable tools for the real-time reduction of societal exposure to seismic events in metropolitan areas. The Italian Accelerometric Network, RAN, which consists of about 500 stations installed over all the active seismic zones, as well as many cities and strategic infrastructures in Italy, has the potential to serve as a nationwide early warning system. In this work, we present a feasibility study for a nationwide EEWS in Italy obtained by the integration of the RAN and the software platform PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem (PRESTo). The performance of the RAN-PRESTo EEWS is first assessed by testing it on real strong motion recordings of 40 of the largest earthquakes that have occurred during the last 10 years in Italy. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to regions that did not experience earthquakes by considering a nationwide grid of synthetic sources capable of generating Gutenberg-Richter sequences corresponding to the one adopted by the seismic hazard map of the Italian territory. Our results indicate that the RAN-PRESTo EEWS could theoretically provide for higher seismic hazard areas reliable alert messages within about 5 to 10 s and maximum lead times of about 25 s. In case of large events (M > 6.5), this amount of lead time would be sufficient for taking basic protective measures (e.g., duck and cover, move away from windows or equipment) in tens to hundreds of municipalities affected by large ground shaking.

  12. Role of Tectonics in Forming of the Kalahrood Cave, North Isfahan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi, A.; Sohrabi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Caves are perhaps the most spectacular examples of the combined effects of weathering and erosion by groundwater. As groundwater percolate through carbonate rocks, it dissolves and enlarges fractures and openings to form a complex interconnecting system of crevices, caves, caverns and underground streams. Caves and caverns form as a result of the dissolution of carbonate rocks by weakly acidic groundwater. Groundwater percolating through the zone of aeration slowly dissolves the carbonate rock and enlarges its fractures and bedding planes. During dissolving and deposition of calcite, many various dripstone deposits, stalactite and stalagmite structures form. There are many caves in Iran that have formed with the above procedure. Opposite of the procedure, the Kalahrood Cave, in the north of Isfahan has another scenario for its forming. The cave located in southwestern boundary of high mountains of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Belt of Central Iran. It has formed in Lower Cretaceous grey limestones. There are many NW-SE-trending faults in the study area. The faults have thrust and dextral strike-slip motions. The Kalahrood cave formed in footwall of the Kalahrood thrust. Structural studies and filed observations in the Kalahrood area and in the cave indicated that the Kalahrood cave has formed during thrusting and dropping the cave roof in footwall and littering the floor with fallen debris. We have considered three episodes for forming the Kalahrood cave: 1- Thrusting and motion of hangingwall. There are many traces of faulting on the walls and roofs of the cave. 2- Dropping of crushed rocks and separated blocks of the roof in footwall and creating the cave space. Maximum distance between floor and roof has measured about 15 m. 3- Affect of groundwater on the rock units and increase of disbandment and enlarging the fractures. Some small stalagmite and stalactite structures have formed in internal part of the cave.

  13. International comparison of cave radon concentrations identifying the potential alpha radiation risks to British cave users

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, R.; Gunn, J.

    1994-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of {sup 222}Rn have been recorded in many limestone caves throughout the world. As prolonged exposure to high radon concentrations has been linked to cancer and tumors, particularly of the lung, a national survey of radon in British caves was undertaken. Passive radon detectors were exposed at 250 sites in 47 caves over four 7-d sampling periods. Mean concentrations ranging from 454-8,868 Bq m{sup {minus}3} were recorded. In one system, in the Peak District, radon concentrations of 155,000 Bq m{sup {minus}3} were recorded. The results indicate that the potential radiation dose from a single 4-h trip could exceed the national average annual background radiation dose (for the UK) from radon of 1.25 mSv. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the occurrence, the extent and the magnitude of a drought can be delicate, requiring detection of depletions of supplies and increases in demand. Drought indices, particularly the meteorological ones, can describe the onset and the persistency of droughts, especially in natural systems. However they have to be used cautiously when applied to water supply systems. They show little correlation with water shortage situations, since water storage, as well as demand fluctuation, play an important role in water resources management. For that reason a more dynamic indicator relating supply and demand is required in order to identify situations when there is risk of water shortages. In water supply systems there is great variability on the natural water resources and also on the demands. These quantities can only be defined probabilistically. This great variability is faced defining some threshold values, expressed in probabilistic terms, that measure the hydrologic state of the system. They can identify specific actions in an operational context in different levels of severity, like the normal, pre-alert, alert and emergency scenarios. They can simplify the decision-making required during stressful periods and can help mitigate the impacts of drought by clearly defining the conditions requiring actions. The threshold values are defined considering the probability to satisfy a given fraction of the demand in a certain time horizon, and are calibrated through discussion with water managers. A simplified model of the water resources system is built to evaluate the threshold values and the management rules. The threshold values are validated with a long term simulation that takes into account the characteristics of the evaluated system. The levels and volumes in the different reservoirs are simulated using 20-30 years time series. The critical situations are assessed month by month in order to evaluate optimal management rules during the year and avoid conditions

  15. Caves: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jan

    Middle school students from The College School, a private school in Webster Groves (Missouri) have completed a class called "Caves and Crystallography." A thematic approach was used in the course in which students and teachers read books telling how caves were formed, saw movies which explained the delicate balance of life underground, made…

  16. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    .1(1000/T) - 24.6 We analyzed anions, cations, and trace elements in dripwater, bedrock, and farmed calcite to examine the relationships between net rainfall, drip rates, drip water chemistry, and calcite chemistry. Dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios fall on coherent mixing lines between three geochemical endmembers: rainwater, dissolved dolomite, and dissolved limestone. Dripwater Sr/Ca vs. Mg/Ca ratios are also influenced by evaporative enrichment within the epikarst as a function of net rainfall amount [3]. Farmed calcite trace Cation/Ca ratios faithfully track short-term seasonal variations in dripwater chemistry for Na, Mg, Sr, Ba and U. However, speleothem calibrations are unique to each drip site regardless of proximity to one another, suggesting that individual speleothems are unlikely to be useful as a whole-cave hydrologic proxy. [1] Kowalczk, A. J., Froelich, P. N., 2010. Cave air ventilation and CO2 outgassing by radon-222 modeling: How fast do caves breathe? Earth & Planet. Sci. Lett. 289, 209-219. [2] Tremaine, D. M., Froelich, P. N., Wang, Y., 2011. Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of δ18O and δ13C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 4929-4950. [3] Tremaine, D. M., Froelich, P. N., 2012. Speleothem trace element signatures: A modern hydrologic geochemical study of cave drip waters and farmed calcite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (submitted)

  17. Important caves to be identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criteria to identify significant caves on federal land are being developed by the Interior Department's Bureau of Land Management and the Agriculture Department's Forest Service under requirements of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. The departments gave advance notice of proposed rulemaking March 3 and invited suggestions and comments from the public for 30 days.The law requires protection, to the extent practical, of significant caves on lands administered by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Interior and includes authority to issue and revoke permits for collection and removal of cave resources and special provisions for regulation of cave resources on Indian lands. Final regulations must be published by August 18, 1989.

  18. Nitrogen fixation in distinct microbial niches within a chemoautotrophy-driven cave ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mahesh S; Assig, Karoline; Dattagupta, Sharmishtha

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfur and carbon cycles in ecosystems driven by chemoautotrophy—present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sulfidic caves—have been studied to some extent, yet little is known about nitrogen fixation in these systems. Using a comprehensive approach comprising of 15N2 isotope labeling, acetylene reduction assay and nitrogenase gene expression analyses, we investigated nitrogen fixation in the sulfide-rich, chemoautotrophy-based Frasassi cave ecosystem (Italy). Nitrogen fixation was examined in three different microbial niches within the cave waters: (1) symbiotic bacterial community of Niphargus amphipods, (2) Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms, which occur at the sulfide–oxygen interface, and (3) sulfidic sediment. We found evidence for nitrogen fixation in all the three niches, and the nitrogenase gene (homologs of nifH) expression data clearly show niche differentiation of diazotrophic Proteobacteria within the water streams. The nifH transcript originated from the symbiotic community of Niphargus amphipods might belong to the Thiothrix ectosymbionts. Two abundantly expressed nifH genes in the Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms are closely related to those from Beggiatoa- and Desulfovibrio-related bacteria. These two diazotrophs were consistently found in Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms collected at various time points, thus illustrating species-specific associations of the diazotrophs in biofilm formation, and micron-scale niche partitioning of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria driven by steep redox gradients within the biofilm. Finally, putative heterotrophs (Geobacter, Azoarcus and Desulfovibrio related) were the active diazotrophs in the sulfidic sediment. Our study is the first to shed light on nitrogen fixation in permanently dark caves and suggests that diazotrophy may be widespread in chemosynthetic communities. PMID:23924780

  19. Potential effects of recurrent low oxygen conditions on the Illinois Cave amphipod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Kelly, W.R.; Hwang, H.-H.; Wilhelm, F.M.; Taylor, S.J.; Stiff, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    The caves of Illinois' sinkhole plain are the sole habitat of the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes), a federally endangered species. The sinkhole plain is a hydrologically-connected sequence of karstified limestone that constitutes an extensive karst aquifer which serves as an important source of potable water for area residents. During this investigation, we examined the ground-water quality in caves within two ground-water basins: 1) Illinois Caverns, where the amphipod is now present after previously reported to have been extirpated from the lower reaches, and 2) Stemler Cave, where the amphipod is reported to have been extirpated. The chemical composition of cave streams in Illinois Caverns and Stemler Cave were compared to determine which parameters, if any, could have contributed to the loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave. Stream water in Stemler Cave contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, potassium, silica, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iron and manganese than Illinois Caverns. Perhaps most importantly, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Stemler Cave were, during periods of low flow, substantially lower than in Illinois Caverns. Based on land use, there are probably at least eight times more private septic systems in the Stemler Cave ground-water basin than in the Illinois Caverns ground-water basin. Low DO concentrations were likely the result of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter and wastewater treatment system effluent, and the oxidation of pyrite in bedrock. The near-hypoxic DO in Stemler Cave that occurred during low-flow conditions, and, we speculate, a limited range of G. acherondytes within the Stemler Cave ground-water basin due to a metabolic advantage of the stygophilic aquatic invertebrates over the stygobitic G. acherodytes, resulted in the apparent loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave.

  20. The biogeochemistry of anchialine caves: Progress and possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohlman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of anchialine caves and sinkholes have identified complex food webs dependent on detrital and, in some cases, chemosynthetically produced organic matter. Chemosynthetic microbes in anchialine systems obtain energy from reduced compounds produced during organic matter degradation (e.g., sulfide, ammonium, and methane), similar to what occurs in deep ocean cold seeps and mud volcanoes, but distinct from dominant processes operating at hydrothermal vents and sulfurous mineral caves where the primary energy source is mantle derived. This review includes case studies from both anchialine and non-anchialine habitats, where evidence for in situ chemosynthetic production of organic matter and its subsequent transfer to higher trophic level metazoans is documented. The energy sources and pathways identified are synthesized to develop conceptual models for elemental cycles and energy cascades that occur within oligotrophic and eutrophic anchialine caves. Strategies and techniques for testing the hypothesis of chemosynthesis as an active process in anchialine caves are also suggested.

  1. Survey and hydrogeology of Carroll Cave

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carroll Cave, located in Camden County, Missouri, is the largest known cave formed in the Gasconade Dolomite of the Salem Plateau. Despite extensive visitation over the last 50 years and multiple survey efforts, a comprehensive map of the cave has never been produced. In 2002, the Carroll Cave Conse...

  2. Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on Golgotha Cave dripwater chemistry, southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, Pauline C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Griffiths, Alan; Baker, Andy; Meredith, Karina T.; Wood, Anne; McGuire, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem trace element chemistry is an important component of multi-proxy records of environmental change but a thorough understanding of hydrochemical processes is essential for its interpretation. We present a dripwater chemistry dataset (PCO2, alkalinity, Ca, SIcc, Mg and Sr) from an eight-year monitoring study from Golgotha Cave, building on a previous study of hydrology and dripwater oxygen isotopes (Treble et al., 2013). Golgotha Cave is developed in Quaternary aeolianite and located in a forested catchment in the Mediterranean-type climate of southwest Western Australia. All dripwaters from each of the five monitored sites become supersaturated with respect to calcite during most of the year when cave ventilation lowers PCO2 in cave air. In this winter ventilation mode, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) signals of increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in dripwater are attributed to stalactite deposition. A fast-dripping site displays less-evolved carbonate chemistry, implying minimal stalactite growth, phenomena which are attributed to minimal degassing because of the short drip interval (30 s). We employ hydrochemical mass-balance modelling techniques to quantitatively investigate the impact of PCP and CO2 degassing on our dripwater. Initially, we reverse-modelled dripwater solutions to demonstrate that PCP is dominating the dripwater chemistry at our low-flow site and predict that PCP becomes enhanced in underlying stalagmites. Secondly, we forward-modelled the ranges of solution Mg/Ca variation that potentially can be caused by degassing and calcite precipitation to serve as a guide to interpreting the resulting stalagmite chemistry. We predict that stalagmite trace element data from our high-flow sites will reflect trends in original dripwater solutes, preserving information on biogeochemical fluxes within our system. By contrast, stalagmites from our low-flow sites will be dominated by PCP effects driven by cave ventilation. Our poorly karstified system allows us

  3. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments.

  4. High-Resolution Isotopic Monitoring of Cave Air CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower isotopic compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable isotope data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and short-lived ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based isotope ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.

  5. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  6. Study of a cave's air exchange pattern based on radon concentration and the time dependence of radon concentration in Pál-völgy Cave (Budapest, Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, H. E.; Horvath, A.; Jordan, Gy.; Szabo, Cs.; Kiss, A.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term (one year and a half), high resolution, with an integration time of one hour, radon concentration monitoring was carried out in Pál-völgy Cave (Budapest, Hungary). Our major goal was to determine the time dependence of radon concentration in the cave and to understand the exchange pattern of the cave air with the outdoor air based on radon concentrations, and to determine the factors that affect the radon concentration in the cave air. Pál-völgy Cave is situated in the Buda Hills, which is the NE part of the Transdanubian Central Range. The wall rock of the cave is dominantly Eocene Szépvölgy Limestone Formation. Above the limestone Eocene Buda Marl and Oligocene Tard Clay are deposited. A huge multiphase hydrothermal cave system developed in the Szépvölgy Limestone and partially in the Buda Marl resulted in a long-term complex paleokarstic evolution from the Late Eocene to the Quaternary. The radon concentration in the cave air was measured continuously by an AlphaGuard radon monitor, and meteorological parameters outside the cave were also collected simultaneously. The arithmetic mean of the annual radon concentration was 1.9 kBq/m3 and the radon concentration varied between 104-7,776 Bq/m3. In addition, the results indicate a clear seasonal variability of radon concentration in the cave air: in winter the radon concentration fluctuates around a low mean value of 253 Bq/m3, in summer it oscillates around a high mean value of 5,504 Bq/m3, whereas in spring and autumn the radon level varies between the winter and summer values. The summer to winter radon concentration ratio (radon concentration in summer/radon concentration in winter) was high, 21.8. The outside air temperature showed the strongest correlation with the radon concentration in the cave, Pierson's linear correlation coefficient is 0.76. If the outdoor air temperature is lower than the cave air temperature (12 °C), especially in autumn and winter the air flows from outside into the

  7. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  8. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    high alpine regions the leopard Panthera pardus seem to have used the ecological niche of the absent hyenas (Diedrich 2009d, in review a). At open air sites cave bear scavenging by the largest Late Quaternary predators were proven, too (Diedrich 2006, 2009e). The predation stress caused by the three main and largest Late Quaternary predators seem to have provided cave bears to hibernate often deeply in many European caves, and here especially in larger and longer cave systems (e.g. Diedrich et al 2009, in review, Diedrich and Moldovan 2010) to protect themselves against the largest Quaternary predators. In conflicts with those large felids must have been killed by adult cave bears, which explains why those predator carcasses remained as complete skeletons or as partly disarticulated ones even deep in caves all over Europe which were finally not scavenged by the herbivorous cave bears (Diedrich in review). In such cave bear den caves the amount of lion bones generally take only 1-3% of the total bone amount being highly dominated by cave bear bones (Diedrich 2009c, in review). Lions and hyenas seem to have focussed onto the hunt of cave bears all over Europe, especially with the reduction of the biomass in the open environments at the maximum cold period during around 26.000-24.000 BP (Solutrean). The slow extinction of their largest prey was an important motor of the predation pressure onto cave bears. This might be one reason for the cave bear extinction in the final Late Quaternary (early Late Weichselian, maximum cold period) at least in northern Europe, but it seem to have happened in a combination of climatic change, and also human impact (cf. Diedrich, this volume). References Diedrich, C., 2005. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg, 45, 73

  9. Comprehensive geophysical prediction and treatment measures of karst caves in deep buried tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. C.; Zhou, Z. Q.; Ye, Z. H.; Li, L. P.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-05-01

    While tunneling in karst terrains, engineers may encounter hazardous geotechnical structures such as faults, karst caves and collapse columns which may induce geohazards and seriously endanger the construction safety. Geological processes significantly affect the varieties and characteristics of karst caves, and therefore engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions of Shangjiawan Tunnel were analyzed firstly. In order to accurately predict the geometric characteristics of karst caves and their spatial relationship with the tunnel, the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geological Drilling (Geo-D) were applied comprehensively in the present study. The Tunnel Seismic Prediction (TSP) system was also applied to forecast whether any karst cave existed in front of the tunnel face and the detection results generally agree well with the field investigation. Furthermore, the Beam-Slab method was carried out for the treatment of the karst cave which situated under the tunnel floor, while the Backfill method was applied for the karst cave which was exposed during the construction.

  10. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  11. The Earthquake Early Warning System In Southern Italy: Performance Tests And Next Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is the software platform for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Southern Italy, that integrates recent algorithms for real-time earthquake location, magnitude estimation and damage assessment, into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation based on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet). PRESTo processes the live streams of 3C acceleration data for P-wave arrival detection and, while an event is occurring, promptly performs event detection and provides location, magnitude estimations and peak ground shaking predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation. At each time step, it uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. Magnitude estimation exploits an empirical relationship that correlates it to the filtered Peak Displacement (Pd), measured over the first 2-4 s of P-signal. Peak ground-motion parameters at any distance can be finally estimated by ground motion prediction equations. Alarm messages containing the updated estimates of these parameters can thus reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. Using the real-time data streaming from the ISNet network, PRESTo has produced a bulletin for about a hundred low-magnitude events occurred during last two years. Meanwhile, the performances of the EEW system were assessed off-line playing-back the records for moderate and large events from Italy, Spain and Japan and synthetic waveforms for large historical events in Italy. These tests have shown that, when a dense seismic network is deployed in the fault area, PRESTo produces reliable estimates of earthquake location and size within 5-6 s from the event origin time (To). Estimates are provided as probability density functions whose uncertainty typically decreases with time

  12. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  13. Verification of a probabilistic flood forecasting system for an Alpine Region of northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, P.; Gabellani, S.; Rebora, N.; Rudari, R.; Ferraris, L.; Ratto, S.; Stevenin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting chains are increasingly becoming an operational tool used by civil protection centres for issuing flood alerts. One of the most important requests of decision makers is to have reliable systems, for this reason an accurate verification of their predictive performances become essential. The aim of this work is to validate a probabilistic flood forecasting system: Flood-PROOFS. The system works in real time, since 2008, in an alpine Region of northern Italy, Valle d'Aosta. It is used by the Civil Protection regional service to issue warnings and by the local water company to protect its facilities. Flood-PROOFS uses as input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) derived from the Italian limited area model meteorological forecast (COSMO-I7) and forecasts issued by regional expert meteorologists. Furthermore the system manages and uses both real time meteorological and satellite data and real time data on the maneuvers performed by the water company on dams and river devices. The main outputs produced by the computational chain are deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts in different cross sections of the considered river network. The validation of the flood prediction system has been conducted on a 25 months period considering different statistical methods such as Brier score, Rank histograms and verification scores. The results highlight good performances of the system as support system for emitting warnings but there is a lack of statistics especially for huge discharge events.

  14. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  15. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  16. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Joseph R; Becker, Carol; Hensley, Steve; Stark, Richard; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and beta-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surface-water site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewater-associated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  17. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Joseph R; Becker, Carol; Hensley, Steve; Stark, Richard; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and beta-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surface-water site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewater-associated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  18. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  20. Cave development by frost weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberender, Pauline; Plan, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the description and genesis of a special type of shelter cave. In German they are termed Auswitterungshöhlen which goes back to the 19th century and the genesis is supposed to be related to frost weathering, but to our knowledge, detailed studies are missing so far. This type of cave is very common in the area of investigation that comprises pre-Alpine and Alpine regions in the north-eastern part of the Eastern Alps: They make up 32% of the 5138 registered caves but surprisingly they entirely developed in carbonate rocks. Although most of them are smaller than a dozen metres, some have lengths of more than 50 m and entrances can be more than 100 m wide or similarly high. Besides general observations that lead to a list of characteristics for these caves, two of them in a pre-Alpine setting were studied in-depth. A detailed map, descriptions, and measurements concerning cave morphology, host rock geology, and climate are given. The thickness and composition of clastic sediments were investigated by small trenches and electric resistivity measurements. Sediment thicknesses reach up to 2 m inside the caves and below the entrances. For one year nets were installed to measure rockfall in both caves. In warm periods generally less than 5 g/month of debris could be collected, but a few 100 g/month for frost periods. This strong correlation and the significant amount of debris together with other observations suggest that frost weathering is an on-going and very important process for the formation of these caves. Grain-size distribution of the collected debris argues for the activity of both microgelivation and ice segregation. Therefore we suggest that the term frost weathering caves should be used for shelter caves whose genesis is related to frost weathering. As dissolution seems to be of marginal importance for the genesis they are a paradox as they develop in karstic rock but have pseudokarst features.

  1. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  2. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  3. First evidences of the occurrence of polycyclic synthetic musk fragrances in surface water systems in Italy: spatial and temporal trends in the Molgora River (Lombardia Region, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Assi, Laura; Ippolito, Alessio; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Finizio, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The polycyclic synthetic musks (PCMs) such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and celestolide (ABDI) are important ingredients in fragrances for consumer products because of their typical musky scent. In EU, PCMs are classified as HPVC (High Production Volume Chemicals). Furthermore, it has been recognized that these substances are only partially degraded in domestic sewers. For both reasons these chemicals are considered ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic systems. Monitoring data are available for the Northern region of the EU, but it is not known whether they are also representative for the Southern EU countries. The lack of data upon the environmental exposure in Southern EU can be significant, since use patterns and volumes differ from country to country. This is particularly true for Italy that has the largest detergent consumption per capita in EU. Due to this, the objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of selected PCMs in the Molgora River (Lombardia region, Italy). To our knowledge it represents the first overview of PCM occurrence in the Italian water bodies. Water samples were collected seasonally in seven sampling stations located before and after the 3 sewage treatment plants present along the river, which serve about 300,000 inhabitants. The spatial and temporal profiles of contamination are described. A comparison of the results with existing monitoring data of other European regions indicated a significant higher level of PCM pollution of the Molgora River and the need to extend the monitoring campaigns to other Italian water bodies, in order to achieve a better knowledge of the levels of PCM contamination in this country.

  4. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  5. Exploring old caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luana Belli, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Quarries, caves and mines often contain fossils. During the '30s in Rome, the urban expansion needs for building materials such as gravel, sand and clay were extracted from quarries that surrounded the city. One of these quarries in particular, in the area of Saccopastore (Nomentana area 3 km from the University Sapienza Roma) returned an ancient human fossil skull belonging to a Neanderthal (most likely a female) who lived in Latium about 120,000 years ago. Detailed studies of this fossil were carried out by Sergio Sergi, the son of the founder of the Museum of Anthropology in Rome, Giuseppe Sergi. The museum was founded in 1884 and was later transferred to the University City (1934) where it is still located. Professor Maria Luana Belli, a science teacher in the Liceo Scientifico "G. Keplero" is a volunteer and collaborator with the Museum "G. Sergi", and she and her students retrace the places of the discovery on the trail of the Neanderthals, for understanding the evolution of the territory in a perspective of interdisciplinary teaching.

  6. Phylogeography of Sardinian Cave Salamanders (Genus Hydromantes) Is Mainly Determined by Geomorphology

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M.; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems. PMID:22427830

  7. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  8. Paleontology. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) was designated as a national park in 1941 because of its beautiful hills and valleys, scenic rivers, and the vast cave system located within its boundaries. Outstanding physiographic features include karst terrains, sandstone capped plateaus, and bluffs overlooking rivers and streams, which provide an unusually wide variety…

  9. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems. PMID:22427830

  10. Unique Biosignatures in Caves of All Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Schubert, K. E.; Gomez, E.; Conrad, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    Unique maze-like microbial communities on cave surfaces on all lithologies all over the world are an excellent candidate biosignatures for life detection missions into caves and other extraterrestrial environments.

  11. Microbial Diversity in Ozark Region Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M.; Powers, M.; McQueen, V. M.; Kuehl, M. M.; Ong, H. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2010-04-01

    We are trying isolate and identify photosynthetic, chemosynthetic and other microorganisms in cave environments using metagenetic and classical microbiological methods. Cave environments are potential analogs to extant and extinct extraterrestrial environments.

  12. Catastrophic breakdown of the Caves model for quantum noise in some phase-insensitive linear amplifiers or attenuators based on atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2016-03-01

    When considering the effect of quantum noise (QN) in a phase-insensitive linear amplifier or attenuator, it is customary to use the single-channel Caves model (SC-CM). Although this model is valid in simple situations, such as the presence of a beam splitter, it is not necessarily valid when a system with many degrees of freedom is involved. In order to address this issue, we consider in this paper various atomic transitions corresponding to amplification or attenuation using the master-equation- (ME-) based approach to model the QN and to compare the results with the SC-CM. For a four-level system that consists of a transition producing a broad gain peak and a transition producing an absorption dip, which results in perfect transparency at the center, we observe a catastrophic breakdown of the SC-CM. We also show that for a general two-level atomic system, the SC-CM does not apply, except in the limiting case when only either amplification or attenuation exists. A special case where the two models predict the same result is a Λ-type three-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system in which the QN at zero detuning vanishes while the system is in the dark state. We also study an optically pumped five-level gain EIT system which has a perfect transparency dip superimposed on a gain profile and yields the negative dispersion suitable for use in enhancing the sensitivity-bandwidth product of an interferometric gravitational wave detector. In this case, we find that, for some set of parameters, the QN is vanishingly small at the center of the dip, and the SC-CM agrees closely with the ME model. However, we also find that for some other set of parameters, the SC-SM model disagrees strongly with the ME model. All these cases illustrate a wide range of variations in the degree of disagreement between the predictions of the SC-CM and the ME approaches.

  13. Structural compartmentalisation of a geothermal system, the Torre Alfina field (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Pinton, Annamaria; De Benedetti, Arnaldo A.; Giordano, Guido; Rossetti, Federico; Soligo, Michele; Berardi, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Recent surging of renewed industrial interest in the exploration of low and medium enthalpy geothermal fields makes the accurate assessment of the geothermal potential essential to minimise uncertainties during both exploration and exploitation. The Torre Alfina field is a case of abandoned, but promising, geothermal field of central Italy where the roles of the internal structural setting and of the recharge areas on the hydrothermal circulation are largely unconstrained. In this paper, field structural data integrated with geomorphic lineament analysis document the occurrence of post-orogenic deformation structures controlling the compartmentalisation of the Torre Alfina geothermal field. Strike-slip and subordinate normal fault systems (with associated network fractures) cut and dislocate the internal architecture of the reservoir and prevent its hydraulic connection with Mount Cetona, considered to be the recharge area and where hydrothermal manifestation, including travertine deposition, occurs. 230Th/234U radiometric dating of superposed travertine units gives 200, 120 and 90 ka respectively, inferred to correspond to the age of the fossil hydrothermal circulation during tectonic activity. The results have been used for illustrating a new geological conceptual model for the Torre Alfina area where the geothermal system is composed of different compartments. Tectonic structures define the main boundaries between compartments, helping the understanding of why productive and non-productive wells were found in apparently similar structural settings within the Torre Alfina field.

  14. Imaging the complexity of an active normal fault system: The 1997 Colfiorito (central Italy) case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiaraluce, L.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocco, M.

    2003-01-01

    Six moderate magnitude earthquakes (5 < Mw < 6) ruptured normal fault segments of the southern sector of the North Apennine belt (central Italy) in the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake sequence. We study the progressive activation of adjacent and nearby parallel faults of this complex normal fault system using ???1650 earthquake locations obtained by applying a double-difference location method, using travel time picks and waveform cross-correlation measurements. The lateral extent of the fault segments range from 5 to 10 km and make up a broad, ???45 km long, NW trending fault system. The geometry of each segment is quite simple and consists of planar faults gently dipping toward SW with an average dip of 40??-45??. The fault planes are not listric but maintain a constant dip through the entire seismogenic volume, down to 8 km depth. We observe the activation of faults on the hanging wall and the absence of seismicity in the footwall of the structure. The observed fault segmentation appears to be due to the lateral heterogeneity of the upper crust: preexisting thrusts inherited from Neogene's compressional tectonic intersect the active normal faults and control their maximum length. The stress tensor obtained by inverting the six main shock focal mechanisms of the sequence is in agreement with the tectonic stress active in the inner chain of the Apennine, revealing a clear NE trending extension direction. Aftershock focal mechanisms show a consistent extensional kinematics, 70% of which are mechanically consistent with the main shock stress field.

  15. Microbial diversity in a Venezuelan orthoquartzite cave is dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Hazel A.; Giarrizzo, Juan G.; Suarez, Paula; Robertson, Charles E.; Broering, Mark J.; Banks, Eric D.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthisuri

    2014-01-01

    The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave (RSC), an orthoquartzite (SiO4) cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrates the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82–84%) by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%), which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in RSC is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems. PMID:25505450

  16. Microbial diversity in a Venezuelan orthoquartzite cave is dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    PubMed

    Barton, Hazel A; Giarrizzo, Juan G; Suarez, Paula; Robertson, Charles E; Broering, Mark J; Banks, Eric D; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Venkateswaran, Kasthisuri

    2014-01-01

    The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave (RSC), an orthoquartzite (SiO4) cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrates the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84%) by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%), which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in RSC is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems. PMID:25505450

  17. Cave Art: Reflections of Early Human Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Brother Nicholas

    1981-01-01

    Discusses Paleolithic and Neolithic cave art and artifacts, stressing the degree of intellectual ability exhibited by the creators of this art. Topics discussed include some misunderstandings about cave art intellect shown by cave artists and the use of light and color. (DS)

  18. Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spötl, Christoph; Desch, Angelika; Dublyansky, Yuri; Plan, Lukas; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, meso- and micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone, marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table. Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system, but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in limestone and dolomite.

  19. 4D modelling of the Alto Tiberina Fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara; Mirabella, Francesco; Lupattelli, Andrea; Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) in the Northern Apennines of Italy is a low-angle normal fault dipping to the East and accommodating up to 10 km of extension. The fault is ~70 km long and is the detachment for the SW-dipping Gubbio normal fault. The ATF fault system has been dramatically exhumed and the ATF footwall has evolved in a horst bounded to the east by ATF synthetic faults and to the west by the Corciano west-dipping normal fault. The fault has been widely studied over the last years in order to understand its mechanical behaviour, its present-day deformation rate and its seismological role. By using a wide data-set including subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes) and surface geological data (new maps of the CARG project of Italy), we have reconstructed the 3D geometry of both the fault and of the main lithostratigraphic boundaries at the fault hanging-wall and foot-wall. The CARG map data were integrated by local observations and mapping using mobile GIS software (BeeGIS) and Android app (Geopaparazzi). Surface data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and wells interpretation and other data from available literature. The large amount of information were combined in MOVE software (Midland Valley Exploration ltd). Our reconstruction allows to i) build up a three-dimensional geological model of the subsurface including the main faults and lithostratigraphic boundaries; ii) identify a set of east-west trending faults the role of which was previously underestimated; iii) test a 3D-restoration of extension for the visualization of the time evolution and for the validation of the structural reconstruction. The restored structures are the main normal faults in the region. The sequential restoration was performed by taking into account the timing of deformation as derived from the literature. The model was sequentially restored according to the following chronological order from the latest to the oldest: 1a) last deformational event

  20. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  1. [How to implement a unique triage system in the emergency departments of Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Francia, C; Gabriele, S; Guasticchi, G

    2008-01-01

    Triage is an efficient system that emergency departments (EDs) use to sort out presenting patients on the basis of the speed with which they need treatment. Because triage is not used consistently in the EDs of Latium, a region in central Italy, the regional Public Health Agency (PHA) planned and implemented a regional model of triage in all EDs. This manuscript describe the regional implementation strategy. The PHA activated the "Regional Triage Program--RTP" including: development and testing of a "triage section" in the computerized EDs clinical chart; production of an operational handbook for the RTP for triage health professionals (HPs); implementation of an continuum educational program on the "RTP" in all EDs of Latium. The computerized triage section was tested and implemented in all EDs in the region. The handbook for triage HPs was produced. The educational program, has been ongoing since 2008 in all regional EDs. Selected HPs, identified as "facilitators", were trained on how to implement the RTP. They will organize, in their own EDs, small groups of nurses to conduct on-site training of the RTP. The RTP was received with enthusiasm by most HPs, however its introduction into current practice could be hampered by organizational/structural problems and conflicts between nurses and doctors. Next actions of the regional program will be to overcome the possible above mentioned troubles.

  2. Pattern of geochemical variations within the volcanic system of Mt Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.

  3. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  4. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  5. THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.; Wynne, J.J.; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Seven possible skylight entrances into Martian caves were observed on and around the flanks of Arsia Mons by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Distinct from impact craters, collapse pits or any other surface feature on Mars, these candidates appear to be deep dark holes at visible wavelengths while infrared observations show their thermal behaviors to be consistent with subsurface materials. Diameters range from 100 m to 225 m, and derived minimum depths range between 68 m and 130 m. Most candidates seem directly related to pitcraters, and may have formed in a similar manner with overhanging ceilings that remain intact. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  7. Molecular Characterization of Aquatic Bacterial Communities in Dinaric Range Caves.

    PubMed

    Pleše, Bruna; Pojskić, Naris; Ozimec, Roman; Mazija, Mirna; Ćetković, Helena; Lukić-Bilela, Lada

    2016-07-01

    Dinaric limestone cave systems, recognized as a hotspot of subterranean biodiversity, inhabit composite microbial communities whose structure, function and importance to ecosystems was poorly considered until the last few years. Filamentous microbial biofilms from three caves in Dinaric karst were assessed using 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic approach combined with universally protein coding genes/proteins. Studied clone libraries shared divisions but phylogenetic distribution of the obtained phylotypes differed: in Veternica and Vjetrenica clone libraries, Nitrospirae prevailed with 36% and 60% respectively, while in Izvor Bistrac the most abundant were Alphaproteobacteria (41%) followed by Firmicutes (32%). Moreover, three phylotypes were associated with novel uncultured candidate divisions OP3, WS5 and OD1 revealing the diversity and uniqueness of the microbial world in caves. Deeply understanding subterranean habitats could elucidate many new aspects in phylogeny and evolution of microorganisms as well as animal taxa, adjacent to their energy suppliers in microbial communities and biofilms. PMID:27329058

  8. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  9. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  10. Measurements of aerosol particles in the Škocjan Caves, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Irena; Iskra, Ivan; Podkrajšek, Boštjan; Gerjevič, Vanja Debevec

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, continuous aerosol measurements were performed in the Škocjan Caves, one of the most important cave systems in the world, and listed by UNESCO as a natural and cultural world heritage site since 1986. Measurements of PM10 were performed during three different periods: (1) in December 2011, the average background concentration was found to be about 4 μg m(-3); (2) in June 2012, a higher concentration was measured (8 μg m(-3)); and (3) from 8 to 20 August 2012, the highest concentration of 15.3 μg m(-3) was measured. Based on the PM10 measurement results, and as compared to similar measurements outside the cave, it can be hypothesized that the increase in the cave's aerosol concentration during the summer was connected to both the higher number of visitors and the polluted atmospheric air entering the cave upon entering of the cave system. Additional measurement of nanoparticles with scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (size between 14.1 and 710.5 nm) confirmed these findings; during the summer period, a severe raise in the total aerosol concentration of 30-50 times was found when groups of visitors entered the cave. Our results on nanoparticles demonstrated that we were able to detect very small changes and variations in aerosol concentration inside the cave. To our knowledge, these are the first results on nanoaerosol measurements in a cave, and we believe that such measurements may lead to the implementation of better protection of delicate cave systems.

  11. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  12. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  13. Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

    2012-06-30

    The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of

  14. Holocene glacier history from alpine speleothems, Milchbach cave, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Frisia, S.; Spötl, C.

    2011-02-01

    Mountain glaciers and their sediments are prominent witnesses of climate change, responding sensitively to even small modifications in meteorological parameters. Even in such a classical and thoroughly studied area as the European Alps the record of Holocene glacier mass-balance is only incompletely known. Here we explore a novel and continuous archive of glacier fluctuations in a cave system adjacent to the Upper Grindelwald Glacier in the Swiss Alps. Milchbach cave became partly ice-free only recently and hosts Holocene speleothems. Four coeval stalagmites show consistent petrographic and stable isotopic changes between 9.2 and 2.0 ka which can be tied to abrupt modifications in the cave environment as a result of the closing and opening of multiple cave entrances by the waxing and waning of the nearby glacier. During periods of Holocene glacier advances, columnar calcite fabric is characterized by δ18O values of about -8.0‰ indicative of speleothem growth under quasi-equilibrium conditions, i.e. little affected by kinetic effect related to forced degassing or biological processes. In contrast, fabrics formed during periods of glacier minima are typical of bacterially mediated calcite precipitation within caves overlain by an alpine soil cover. Moreover, δ18O values of the bacterially mediated calcite fabrics are consistent with a ventilated cave system fostering kinetic fractionation. These data suggest that glacier retreats occurred repeatedly before 5.8 ka, and that the amplitudes of glacier retreats became substantially smaller afterwards. Our reconstruction of the Upper Grindelwald Glacier fluctuations agrees well with paleoglaciological studies from other sites in the Alps and provides a higher temporal resolution compared to traditional analyses of peat and wood remains found in glacier forefields.

  15. Microbial Diversity and Population Structure of Extremely Acidic Sulfur-Oxidizing Biofilms From Sulfidic Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Stoffer, T.; Lyon, E. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1) microbial biofilms called snottites form on the walls of sulfidic caves where gypsum replacement crusts isolate sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from the buffering action of limestone host rock. We investigated the phylogeny and population structure of snottites from sulfidic caves in central Italy using full cycle rRNA methods. A small subunit rRNA bacterial clone library from a Frasassi cave complex snottite sample contained a single sequence group (>60 clones) similar to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Bacterial and universal rRNA clone libraries from other Frasassi snottites were only slightly more diverse, containing a maximum of 4 bacterial species and probably 2 archaeal species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of snottites from Frasassi and from the much warmer Rio Garrafo cave complex revealed that all of the communities are simple (low-diversity) and dominated by Acidithiobacillus and/or Ferroplasma species, with smaller populations of an Acidimicrobium species, filamentous fungi, and protists. Our results suggest that sulfidic cave snottites will be excellent model microbial ecosystems suited for ecological and metagenomic studies aimed at elucidating geochemical and ecological controls on microbial diversity, and at mapping the spatial history of microbial evolutionary events such as adaptations, recombinations and gene transfers.

  16. Monitoring of Bunker Cave (NW Germany): Assessing the complexity of cave environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana Fc; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Richter, Detlev K.; Mangini, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    Bunker Cave (N 51° 22'03', E 7° 39'53') is located in the Rhenish Slate Mountains in the western part of Germany and is part of a giant cave system in the area of Iserlohn (Hammerschmidt et al., 1995).As part of the DAPHNE (Dated Speleothems - archives of the paleoenvironment) project Bunker Cave is being monitored since the end of 2006. The ongoing monitoring program is performed on a monthly base. Surface climate parameters are measured and samples of rain water, cave air, drip water at eight different drip sites and modern calcite precipitates from watch glasses placed beneath drip sites are collected. Data sets include temperature, precipitation, calculated infiltration, drip rates, electric conductivity, pH, alkalinity, cations, anions and stable isotopes. Bunker Cave shows a constant temperature throughout the year. Active calcite precipitation is higher in winter than in summer, which is due to lower cave pCO2 in winter. The generally low pCO2 values, however, support almost continuous calcite precipitation throughout the whole year. Drip water δ18O values reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of the rainfall in this area with no or less contribution of the summer rain. The slope of the MWL for local precipitation is close to the slope of both the global MWL and the local MWL at the nearby station Bad Salzuflen. The karst aquifer is well mixed as shown by the uniform drip water δ18O values. Hence, the site is well suited to detect multi-annual climate trends using stalagmite stable isotope records. In order to test the potential influence of kinetic isotope fractionation on the stable isotope signals at Bunker Cave, stable isotope data of modern calcite precipitated on watch glasses were compared to predicted values. Comparison of the δ18O values of in situ modern calcite precipitates with the δ18O values expected from equilibrium isotope fractionation suggests a small kinetic influence, which is probably related to the variability in drip rate

  17. Geostatistical description of lithofacies distribution in the aquifer system of Cremona, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagnini, L.; Riva, M.; Salmaso, M.; Saraceni, F.; Straface, S.; Guadagnini, A.

    2009-04-01

    We develop two alternative conceptual models to describe the heterogeneous spatial distribution of geomaterials within the groundwater system in the proximity of the city of Cremona, Italy. The key hydrogeologic feature of the region is the occurrence of the Springs Belt which develops across the entire Lombardia region and provides a major source of fresh water for agricultural needs. During recent years the natural springs of the Cremona aquifer have been increasingly threatened by over-abstraction and contamination by agricultural fertilizers. The area investigated includes the main natural springs in the region, and is located between the Adda and the Serio rivers, covering a surface of approximately 785 km2. The groundwater system is constituted by two main productive aquifers, which are separated by a locally discontinuous aquitard. The vertical variability of geomaterials distribution inferred from available well logs suggests that the system is relatively heterogeneous on the given observation scale. Lithofacies distribution within each identified aquifer is estimated upon considering two alternative conceptual models: (a) a composite medium scheme, and (b) a multiple-continua approach. In the former scenario, the system is conceptualized as composed by disjoint blocks of different materials, the boundaries of which can be uncertain. The latter approach assumes that the porous medium is composed by a set of overlapping continua, whose relative fraction at a given location can be uncertain. We start by classifying available sedimentological information and group the various identified lithotypes into five separate clusters. An extension of the indicator-based approach of Guadagnini et al. [2004] is then developed in order to provide a geostatistical chracterization of lithotypes distribution when the system is described as a composite medium. A multi-continua description is achieved by means of multiple indicator Kriging techniques. With the aid of formal

  18. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude.

    The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination.

    Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  19. Glacioclimatological study of Perennial Ice in the Fuji Ice Cave, Japan. Part I. Seasonal variation and mechanism of maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohata, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Teruo; Higuchi, Keiji )

    1994-08-01

    Perennial cave ice in a cave located at Mt. Fuji in central Japan was studied to investigate the basic characteristics and the cause for existence of such ice under warm ground-level climate considering the ice cave as a thermal and hydrological system. Fuji Ice Cave is a lava tube cave 150 m in length with a collapsed part at the entrance. Measurements from 1984 to 1986 showed that the surface-level change of floor ice occurred due to freezing and melting at the surface and that melting at the bottom of the ice was negligible. The annual amplitude of change in surface level was larger near the entrance. Meterological data showed that the cold air inflow to the cave was strong in winter, but in summer the cave was maintained near 0[degrees]C with only weak inflow of warm air. The predominant wind system was from the entrance to the interior in both winter and summer, but the spatial scale of the wind system was different. Heat budget consideration of the cave showed that the largest component was the strong inflow of subzero dry air mass in winter. Cooling in winter was compensated for by summer inflow of warm air, heat transport from the surrounding ground layer, and loss of sensible heat due to cooling of the cave for the observed year. Strong inflow of cold air and weak inflow of warm air, which is extremely low compared to the ground level air, seemed to be the most important condition. Thus the thermal condition of the cave is quasi-balanced at the presence condition below 0[degrees]C with ice. It can be said that the interrelated result of the climatological and special structural conditions makes this cave very cold, and allows perennial ice to exist in the cave. Other climatological factors such as precipitation seem to be minor factors. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Bacterial Activity and Geochemical Reactions in Submerged Cave Development -- Impact on Karst Aquifers in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. S.; Franklin, R. B.; Mills, A. L.; Giannotti, A. L.; Tysall, T. N.

    2008-05-01

    Elucidation of coupled mechanisms of sulfide oxidation and biomass generation supports an improved understanding the driving forces behind acid production, calcite dissolution, cave development, and karst aquifers characterization. Wekiwa Springs Cave and DeLeon Springs Cave, located in central Florida, both contain prolific bacterial mats from which sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have been identified. Wekiwa Springs Cave, a submerged cave developed in the Hawthorne Formation and located near Orlando, Florida, has groundwater discharge from the Floridian aquifer system, with some contribution from surficial and intermediate aquifers. The spring is the headwater of the Wekiwa River and releases a total of 170,000 m3 of water per day. The ceiling and walls are heavily covered (10 cm thick) with three morphologically distinct types of microbial mats largely comprising sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of nearby groundwater collected from wells confirms sulfide concentrations in the regional groundwater of ~ 1.5 mg/L, though sulfide concentrations for water collected in the cave are below detection. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the water is low (<0.5 mg/L). DeLeon Springs Cave, a submerged cave located in Volusia County, Florida, is a single conduit with an average discharge of ~ 70,000 m3 of water per day, and water chemistry data suggest the presence of a saline seep in the system. Dense microbial mats cover the rock surfaces of the cave; the mats are highly filamentous, with long white streamers that often extend 1-2 feet from the cave wall. Microscopic analysis has confirmed the presence of sulfur granules within these bacterial cells, similar to those observed in the Wekiwa cave organisms. The water chemistry in DeLeon Springs Cave, however, is distinct from that of Wekiwa Springs Cave. Though DO, Fetotal, and HS- values are similar for the two sites, the concentration of ions such as Cl-, Na+, and SO42- are considerably higher at DeLeon. A similar contrast

  1. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  2. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tebo, Bradley M; Davis, Richard E; Anitori, Roberto P; Connell, Laurie B; Schiffman, Peter; Staudigel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth's surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs) are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth's surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S) ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO) genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO), including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the nutritional limits on

  3. Changes in the inhabitation of the Biśnik Cave during the Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrek, Krzysztof; Sudoł, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The Biśnik Cave lies on the left western slope of the Wodąca Valley, which is part of the Niegownice-Smoleń hills, situated in the central part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The cave consists of several chambers joined by corridors, and a number of entrances. Interdisciplinary research (archaeology, sedimentology, geomorphology and paleozoology) carried out since 1992 has dealt with the exploration of the following elements of the cave system: the main chamber, side shelter, side chamber and the area underneath the overhang. The Biśnik Cave is currently the oldest cave site in Poland with a well-preserved cross-section of sediments formed in separate stages of climatic changes, starting with the period preceding the Odra Glaciation to the Holocene. The oldest traces of settlement of Palaeolithic man go as far back as over 400,000 years ago. The most interesting mid-Palaeolithic sequence of the cave inhabitation comprises 17 cultural levels preserved in the form of stone and bone artefacts' concentrations, hearth remains and fragments of animal bones of post-consumption character. The attempts to date separate levels using the uranium-thorium dating method, electronic paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence method are very relevant. Scientific value of the Biśnik Cave turns it into a sample mid-Palaeolithic site in this part of Europe. A three-dimensional localisation of all finds made it possible to prepare a detailed map of the artefacts' distribution in the consecutive sedimentary layers. This, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of changes of the cave inhabitation by man. The correlation of those changes with the description of climatic conditions in the period of formation of sedimentary layers helped link the cave inhabitation methods with natural conditions dominating the area of the Biśnik Cave at that time.

  4. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tebo, Bradley M; Davis, Richard E; Anitori, Roberto P; Connell, Laurie B; Schiffman, Peter; Staudigel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth's surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs) are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth's surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S) ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO) genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO), including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the nutritional limits on

  5. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Tebo, Bradley M.; Davis, Richard E.; Anitori, Roberto P.; Connell, Laurie B.; Schiffman, Peter; Staudigel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth's surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs) are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth's surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S) ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO) genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO), including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the nutritional limits on

  6. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave early warning and measuring system. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an early warning system (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train without stopping passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organization allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  7. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  8. Gas discharges in fumarolic ice caves of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Curtis, A. G.; Kyle, P. R.; Sano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fumarolic ice caves and towers on Erebus are the surface expression of flank degassing on the world's southernmost active volcano. The caves are formed by warm gases and steam escaping from small vents on the lava flow floors that melts the overlying ice and snow. Extremophiles in the caves may be analogues for extraterrestrial environments. Over the past four Austral summers, mapping, gas and thermal monitoring conducted under the Erebus Caves Project has provided insights into the ice cave formation processes and the relationships between cave structures, magmatic processes, and weather. Gas samples were collected during the 2012 - 2013 field season in 4 ice caves (Warren, Harry's Dream, Sauna, Haggis Hole) as well as the thermal ground at Tramway Ridge. The vents at all of these sites are characterized by diffuse degassing through loose lava or cracks in the lava flow floor. Vent temperatures ranged from 5 to 17°C in most caves and at Tramway Ridge. In Sauna cave the temperature was 40°C. Gases were sampled by inserting a perforated 1 m long, 5 mm diameter stainless steel tube, into the vents or hot ground. Giggenbach bottles, copper tubes and lead glass bottles were connected in series. The gases were pumped at a slow rate (about 20 ml per minute) using a battery pump for 12-24 hours to flush the system. After flushing samples were collected for later analyses. All samples are dominated by atmospheric components, however, carbon dioxide (0.1 to 1.9%), methane (0.005 to 0.01%), hydrogen (0.002 to 0.07%), and helium (0.0009 to 0.002 %) are above air background. Nitrogen (average 74%) and oxygen (23.5%) are slightly below and above air values, respectively. Helium isotopes show minor input of mantle derived helium-3 with 3He4He ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18 RA (where RA is the ratio of air). This represents the first detection of hydrogen and helium in the caves. Methane could be produced by anaerobic respiration of subsurface microbes or hydrothermal

  9. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  10. Monitoring Bunker Cave (NW Germany): A prerequisite to interpret geochemical proxy data of speleothems from this site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana Felicitas Christine; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Fohlmeister, Jens; Spötl, Christoph; Richter, Detlev Konrad; Mangini, Augusto

    2011-11-01

    SummaryMonitoring cave environments is important to understand processes in karst systems. If stalagmites from a specific cave are used as archives of past climate variability, a quantitative understanding of the soil-karst-speleothem system is crucial. The monitoring program performed in Bunker Cave (NW Germany), which includes monthly collection of climatological data as well as air and water samples from the cave and the overlying soil since 2006, is a prerequisite for the interpretation of speleothem data from the cave in terms of climate variability. The results show that Bunker Cave is a homogeneously ventilated cave with rather low pCO 2 values of 580-1200 ppmv, which lacks strong seasonal variations. The δ18O value of cave drip water reflects the mean annual composition of the rain water, and the seasonal variability is strongly attenuated indicating a well-mixed karst aquifer. Hence, stalagmites from Bunker Cave should be well suited to record interannual/decadal climate trends. Seven drip sites in two cave chambers show three different types of discharge behaviour including slow seasonal drip, fast seasonal drip, and seepage-flow. The drip-rate patterns of most drip sites are consistent with the main infiltration events, taking into account a delay of several months. An instantaneous response to precipitation (i.e., piston-flow) is not observed for any drip site indicating a specific water capacity threshold in the soil/karst aquifer. Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) was also identified especially during times of low discharge. Though PCP is not as pronounced at Bunker Cave as in other caves, it probably has an influence on the Mg/Ca ratios of the stalagmites.

  11. CAVE-CL: An OpenCL version of the package for detection and quantitative analysis of internal cavities in a system of overlapping balls: Application to proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buša, Ján; Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2015-05-01

    Here we present the revised and newly rewritten version of our earlier published CAVE package (Buša et al., 2010) which was originally written in FORTRAN. The package has been rewritten in C language, the algorithm has been parallelized and implemented using OpenCL. This makes the program convenient to run on platforms with Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). Improvements include also some modifications/optimizations of the original algorithm. A considerable improvement in the performance of the code has been achieved. A new tool called input_structure has been added which helps the user to make the data input and conversion more easier and universal.

  12. CAVE-CL: An OpenCL version of the package for detection and quantitative analysis of internal cavities in a system of overlapping balls: Application to proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buša, Ján; Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2015-05-01

    Here we present the revised and newly rewritten version of our earlier published CAVE package (Buša et al., 2010) which was originally written in FORTRAN. The package has been rewritten in C language, the algorithm has been parallelized and implemented using OpenCL. This makes the program convenient to run on platforms with Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). Improvements include also some modifications/optimizations of the original algorithm. A considerable improvement in the performance of the code has been achieved. A new tool called input_structure has been added which helps the user to make the data input and conversion more easier and universal.

  13. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  14. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  15. Stable carbon isotope analysis in a South Texas cave: Investigating sources of CO2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reece

    Studies of interactions between modern local climate, cave atmosphere, and ?13C ratios are needed to determine sources of CO2 in caves, and the cycles of seasonal variations that alter karst geochemistry. A seasonal study, focusing on the analysis of stable isotopes collected from a modern cave system, was conducted in Robber Baron Cave (RBC) in order to identify sources of CO2 in its atmosphere. Determining what conditions affect cave morphology and the transfer path of carbon through a cave system is necessary in order to assess the role of caves in the carbon cycle and correctly interpret past ecological changes. This study investigates the extent that stable isotopic values of carbon in CO2 are affected by CO2 sourced from soils, bedrock, atmospheric air, and vegetation, and how ?13C signals are transmitted in a modern cave system. This study also measures how ventilation affects CO2 concentration and ?13C on seasonal scales. In-cave air grab samples were collected monthly at various transects located in RBC in order to measure CO2 composition in addition to factors such as temperature, and barometric pressure. Soil gas and limestone bedrock were also collected and tested for ?13C composition. Air samples were analyzed using an Ambient Air-Model G2101-I Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer for both the concentration and ?13C isotopic value of CO2. These values were then compared to isotopic values of known sources of CO2 in order to determine possible sources of CO2 that result in high CO2 concentrations found in RBC. The background stable isotopic value of carbon from CO2 measured in RBC is -19.1‰ VPDB.

  16. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  17. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  18. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  19. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  20. Evolution of Hang Son Doong, Vietnam: the largest cave passage in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    -analyses underway will hopefully improve dating precision. Based on the breccia-filled passage, the age of HSD is at least 2 My, and possibly much older. This is consistent with ages from other large caves around the world, such as the Mammoth Cave system and large caves of the Cumberland Plateau in the southeastern United States, which date to the Pliocene and late Miocene. The very large cave passages of Hang Son Doong and the Ke Bang massif thus likely formed slowly over millions of years with only moderately large discharge, and owe their preservation primarily to rock strength.

  1. Forensic Fluid Dynamics and the Indian Spring (1991) cave collapse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, D.

    2013-05-01

    The collapse of the Indian spring cave (Florida) in 1991 was unique because it occurred while cave divers were in the cave. For the most part, the submerged cave is large enough to accommodate a passing truck so the cave divers were not in touch with its walls and it is hard to imagine why would it naturally collapse just when the divers were in it. Recently, Nof and Paldor (2010) resolved this apparent paradox by suggesting that resonance in the air pockets in the cavern, created by breathing (open circuit) divers, may have contributed to the collapse. In this scenario, divers present in the cavern during the dive may have (unknowingly) caused the collapse through the pressurized air/gas that they release with each breath. When the breathing period of the diver(s) matches the natural oscillations period of the "cave oscillator", the ensuing resonance causes the air pressure in the pockets to increase uncontrollably. Here, we place the above theory on a more solid ground. To do so, we first extended the resonance theory from our original two-pockets, symmetrical U-tube model (with two identical branches that were not specifically identified within the cave system) to a one (identified) pocket in the cavern and a very broad basin (identified, of course) that serves as the other branch of the U-tube. Our methodology is to apply familiar fluid dynamics principles to the situation that occurred in the cave. We did so, step-by-step, on the basis of our interviews with four out of the five surviving cave-divers. Namely, we dissected their testimonies to arrive at a physically plausible scenario determined on basis of a fluid dynamics application to the natural flow in the cave and the flow induced by the compressed air released by the divers as well as the collapsed mud. We found that the oscillation period was larger than what we earlier calculated (still relevant to the case, nevertheless), and that, in contrast to what most cave divers believe, there was a temporary

  2. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  3. Energetics of potential heterotrophic metabolisms in the marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karyn L.; Amend, Jan P.

    2006-12-01

    Values of overall Gibbs free energy of 144 organic oxidation (respiration) and disproportionation (fermentation) reactions are calculated at the temperatures and chemical compositions that exist in nine submarine vents, sediment seeps and geothermal wells in the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island, Italy. The organic compounds considered here include four carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propanoic and lactic), two C 5 aldoses (arabinose and xylose), three C 6 aldoses (galactose, glucose and mannose), and 15 protein-forming amino acids (Ala, Arg, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr, and Val). Oxidation of these compounds is coupled to five redox pairs: O 2/H 2O, SO42-/HS, S 0/H 2S, NO3-/NH4+ and Fe 3O 4/Fe 2+. Energy yields from potential respiration reactions range from 6 to 118 kJ/mol of electrons transferred and show systematic behavior with respect to the terminal electron acceptor. Overall, respiration with O 2 yields the most energy (98-118 kJ/mol e -), followed by reactions with NO3- (53- 86 kJ/mol e -), magnetite (29-91 kJ/mol e -), S 0 (11-33 kJ/mol e -) and SO42- (6-34 kJ/mol e -). Energy yields show little correlation with organic compound family, but are correlated with fluid pH. Variability in energy yields across the nine sites is greatest for Fe(III) reduction and is primarily influenced by pH and the activity of Fe 2+. In addition to the potential respiration reactions, the energetics of 24 potential fermentation reactions are also calculated. As expected, fermentation reactions generally yield much less energy than respiration. Normalized to the number of moles of carbon transferred, fermentation yields-8 to 71 kJ/mol C, compared with 16 to 531 kJ/mol C for respiration reactions. All respiration and fermentation reactions, except for methionine (Met) fermentation, are exergonic under the in situ hydrothermal conditions and represent a plethora of potential metabolisms for Vulcano's diverse thermophilic heterotrophs.

  4. Hydrobiogeochemical Description of Remipede Habitat in a Coastal Karst Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Talamante, O.; Escobar Briones, E.

    2007-05-01

    In anchialine caves, the marine water layer beneath the density interface is usually hypoxic limiting the presence of fauna. Remipede Crustaceans survive under the limiting conditions of the hypoxic marine water mass in addition of being restricted in food supply. The primary objective of this study is to describe the hydrobiogeochemical conditions of the Crustacea anchialine cave system where large numbers of individuals of cave adapted crustaceans occur, increasing our understanding this coastal groundwater habitat and helping conservation strategies by providing basic information to foretell changes by coastal development in the remipede habitat. The Crustacea anchialine cave system is located inland at 1 km from the coast and links 3626 m of surveyed passages with 3 sinkholes. The system is characterized by a two level configuration with a shallow 2 m deep fresh to brackish water (n=40, 16.1±0.0 g/L; n=40, 24.7±0.0°C) passage and an 18 m deep full of salt water (n=11, 35.7±0.1 g/L, n=11, 25.3±0.0°C, pH 7.7±0.0) passage. A halocline (n=7, 25.1±8.6 g/L; n=7, 24.9±0.2°C) occurs at 12 to 14 m depth. These passages are connected by vertical pipes. A preliminary census of the crustacean fauna along the cave main line, identified that shrimps congregate close to the ceiling and the halocline of the deep passages, remipedes are restricted to bottom water mass. Three different types of bacterial mats (brown, orange and white) were recorded to cover the sediment of the passages. Other information is being processed and will be available during the presentation.

  5. Application of an integrated geotechnical and topographic monitoring system in the Lorano marble quarry (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Vanneschi, Claudio; Riccucci, Silvia; Francioni, Mirko; Gullì, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    Accurate slope stability analysis is essential for human activity in high-risk geological contexts. This may, however, not be enough in the case of quarrying where the dynamic and evolving environment also requires effective monitoring. A well-designed monitoring system requires the acquisition of a huge dataset over time, improving knowledge of the study area and helping to refine prediction from stability analysis. This paper reports the implementation of an integrated monitoring system in a marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy) and some of the results obtained. The equipment consists of a traditional geotechnical monitoring system (extensometers, crackmeters and clinometers) and two modern topographic monitoring systems (a terrestrial interferometer and a robotic total station). This work aims to provide in-depth knowledge of the large scale rock mass behaviour as a result of marble exploitation, thereby allowing continuous excavation. The results highlight the importance of integrating different monitoring systems.

  6. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Bethany A.; Gross, Joshua B.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.; Patel, Nipam H.; Gould, Douglas B.; Protas, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26462237

  7. RISICO: A decision support system (DSS) for dynamic wildfire risk evaluation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Negro, Dario

    2010-05-01

    chain of the RISICO system is considerably changed. In the first release the system run daily making use of observations only to define the initial state of the dead fine fuel moisture content. The new version of the system is able to run each 3-h making use of observations at each time step. In order to validate the RISICO system, the information obtained from the analysis of really occurred fires has been compared with the information generated by RISICO system. In particular, a data set of more than 11000 wildland fires occurred in Italy between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2008 has been considered in the validation procedure. The performance indexes selected in order to measure the system effectiveness are relevant to the capability of identifying the correct danger classes with reference to the extension and duration of the fire. In this connection, a comparison between the performance obtained by the new release of the RISICO system and the previous one has been carried out highlighting separately the improvement given by the higher resolution, the model structure and the operational chain. The system RISICO is able to integrate the main Fire Hazard Indexes present in the literature providing a suitable tool for testing the different indexes on the same platform in different environmental and climatic conditions. Risico represents an operational approach to forest fires management both during the prevention and fire fighting phases. The prevention phase represents the main goal for the DPC. Prevention starts with a daily bulletin issue. The bulletin is based on RISICO data, forecast, meteorological data and other observed data such as active fires. The bulletin is dispatched to all operative bodies employed both in fire fighting and civil protection activities. During the fire fighting activities Risico support decision maker to define the best strategies. The objective of the paper is to promote the use of Fire Hazard Forecast as operational tool in fire risk prevention

  8. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic airborne microorganisms as tracers of microclimatic changes in the underground (Postojna Cave, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Mulec, Janez; Vaupotič, Janja; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-10-01

    Bioaerosols in cave air can serve as natural tracers and, together with physical parameters, give a detailed view of conditions in the cave atmosphere and responses to climatic changes. Airborne microbes in the Postojna Cave system indicated very dynamic atmospheric conditions, especially in the transitory seasonal periods between winter and summer. Physical parameters of cave atmosphere explained the highest variance in structure of microbial community in the winter and in the summer. The airborne microbial community is composed of different microbial groups with generally low abundances. At sites with elevated organic input, occasional high concentrations of bacteria and fungi can be expected of up to 1,000 colony-forming units/m(3) per individual group. The most abundant group of airborne amoebozoans were the mycetozoans. Along with movements of air masses, airborne algae also travel deep underground. In a cave passage with elevated radon concentration (up to 60 kBq/m(3)) airborne biota were less abundant; however, the concentration of DNA in the air was comparable to that in other parts of the cave. Due to seasonal natural air inflow, high concentrations of biological and inanimate particles are introduced underground. Sedimentation of airborne allochthonous material might represent an important and continuous source of organic material for cave fauna. PMID:22570119

  9. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  10. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  11. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Centerr (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provided general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  12. Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall SPace Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  13. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability providedgeneral visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  14. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  15. Identification of flood events inside karst cavities: Fria Cave (Asturias - NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial records may be well preserved in subterranean karst drainage networks and fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems may provide good chronology of past flood events. In several karst systems in Asturias (NW. Spain), moments of extreme precipitation events produce deposits from flood events in the bed and walls of caves which we propose are also recorded in the calcium carbonate stalagmites growing in the cave. The final stretch of the studied cave (Fria Cave), with a development of 360 m in length, intersects a small perennial stream which in our observation has maintained a minimum discharge of about 0.022 m3/s but periodically overflows into the vadose cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks and foam detritus are visible at various levels on the cave walls and corresponding to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events deposit sand on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. These extreme events leave a long-term record in i) wall coloration or water marks on the cave walls; and ii) detrital particles preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites. Throughout this cave, it is possible to recognize chromatic changes in the walls, such as manganese oxide stains, which coincide with one of the water marks left during a recent flood event. The most salient manganese oxide on the walls rises up to 1.5 m measured from the thalweg and we interpreted it as the result of a frequent process of wetting - drying related to frequent flooding of the cave. Since 3-4 ka, drapery flowstone has been deposited over this oxide coating in some parts of the cave and the drapery remains free of oxide coating. We interpret this as indicating a reduction in the frequency and/or duration of flooding to this height, coincident with a regional drying trend in late Holocene. Stalagmites growing in the bed of the cave appear to trap fluvial sediments like sand or silts particles, which

  16. Development of an experimental geographic information system for bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Spagnuolo, Loreta Maria

    2007-01-01

    Bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy is an ancient tradition. Besides the production of honey and other products of the apiary (wax, propolis, royal jelly, bee bread and venom), bees also play a fundamental role in the pollination of cultivated and natural plants. For these reasons, and to update information on the status of apiculture in the Territorial Zone 7 (TZ 7) of the Marche Region of Italy, a survey was conducted in 2005 using geographic information system (GIS) technology. A CD-Rom was developed in html; this tool enables the visualisation of data using any operating system and browser. We collected information on the health status of 57 apiaries out of 169 for a total of 1 570 hives. Samples of honey were tested for the presence of antibiotics and pesticides. The data collected on American foulbrood showed that this disease is endemic in the area and the extent of spread appears to be largely under-estimated. No antibiotics were detected in any of the honey samples tested using the bacterial growth inhibition method. Similarly, high performance liquid chromatography did not detect any pesticide residues. Further research will be conducted by geo-referencing all apiaries in the same area and in apiaries located in other territorial zones of the Marche region. PMID:20422519

  17. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the

  18. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  19. Modelling a strike-slip fault system affecting porous carbonates in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilona, A.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Johnson, G.; Shackleton, R.

    2012-12-01

    Investigating the deformation processes as well as the characteristics and distribution of their end-products is a crucial issue to improve geo-fluid exploitation in carbonate reservoirs (≈50% of natural geo-fluids). Indeed, besides the primary controls on the petrophysical properties of limestones, which are due to nature and organization/shape of the constituent elements (i.e. grains, pores, cement, clay minerals), both containment and migration of fluids in these rocks are influenced by fault zones and fractures. In this contribution we integrate quantitative structural analysis and numerical modelling approaches aiming at testing a new workflow useful to create a 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) model of a reservoir starting from outcrop data collected in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy). The presence of several quarries in the Island provides 3D exposures of ≈25 m-thick Lower-Pleistocene high-porosity grainstones crosscut by two conjugate sets of strike-slip faults. This fault system, documented by Tondi et al. (2012), is comprised of three types of structure: single compactive shear bands (CSB); zones of bands (ZB); and, faults. CSBs are narrow tabular features with porosity less than the surrounding host rocks, and have thicknesses and displacements on the order of a few mm. The growth process for these structures involves localizing further deformation within zones of closely-spaced CSBs and, possibly, along continuous slip surfaces within fault rocks overprinting older ZBs. The transitions from one growth step to another are recorded by different values of the dimensional parameters (i.e. length, thickness and displacement) for the structures. These transitions are also reflected by the ratios and distributions of the dimensional parameters. The DFN model was built by means of the Fracture Modelling module of the commercial software package Move from Midland Valley©. The analysis of an aerial photo was performed firstly to delimit the

  20. High Resolution Analysis of the Pollino Mts. Seisimc Sequence (south Italy): Unraveling the Fault System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, Cristina; Seeber, Leonardo; Waldhauser, Felix; Steckler, Michael; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora

    2014-05-01

    The Pollino Mts. region is located in a junction area between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennines domains (south Italy) and has been proposed, according to paleoseismological evidences, as a seismic gap capable to generate earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-7. In this area a seismic crisis of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes, with maximum magnitude Ml 5.0, has been occurring since Spring 2010 (Totaro & al., SRL 2013). We investigate the space-time evolution of the seismic activity in order to unravel the fault system architecture and its mechanical behaviour. We first obtained hi-precision hypocenter locations by applying the double-difference method and then refined them by relative timing by cross-correlation of seismograms (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, BSSA 2000; Schaff & al., BSSA 2004; Waldhauser & Schaff, JGR 2008). We also computed focal mechanisms by applying the waveform inversion "Cut And Paste" method (Zhao & Helmberger, BSSA 1994; Zhu & Helmberger, BSSA 1996). The combined use of high-resolution seismic catalogue, information on clusters of similar earthquakes and high quality focal mechanisms plus comparison with surface geology allow us to highlight important aspects of the mechanical behaviour of major and minor faults in the Pollino area. Seismicity defines multiple clusters, but the one furthest west is by far the most intense and is the main subject of our interpretation so far. The 3D pattern of hypocenters and focal mechanisms are consistent and image a NNW-striking and west-dipping fault zone between 5 and 10 km deep and 10 km along strike, with predominantly normal motion. This fault kinematics fits the overall pattern of active faults in the Mercure Basin and western Pollino area, although the strike of this currently seismogenic fault is more northerly than most faults highlighted in the area (Ghisetti & Vezzani, 1983; Brozzetti & al., Tectonophysics 2009). The cluster has a sharp floor at a depth of about 10 km and most of the

  1. Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): a new entomopathogenic nematode from an Italian cave.

    PubMed

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carletti, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Claudia; Roversi, Pio Federico; Fanelli, Elena; De Luca, Francesca; Troccoli, Alberto; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2015-01-01

    Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) was isolated from a karst cave soil of Central Italy. Molecular and morphological analyses were performed. Total DNA was extracted from individual nematodes and the mitochondrial COI, the ITS containing region, the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA gene and the 18S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. BLAST search at NCBI by using all molecular markers revealed that this taxon is similar to Oscheius species. Phylogenetic trees of ITS, 28S and 18S rDNA revealed that O. onirici sp. n. belongs to Dolichura-group. Oscheius onirici sp. n. is characterized by small body size and stoma rhabditoid type. Female reproductive system is amphidelphic. Males are rare with peloderan bursa, spicules slender and small, nine pairs of papillae of different lengths, arranged in a 1+1+1/3+3 pattern. Entomopathogenicity bioassay revealed that this nematode is capable of infecting larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor. PMID:25947484

  2. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leucci, G.; de Giorgi, L.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM) characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity) and the detection of discontinuities (fractures) in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  3. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  4. From rain to cave drip water: Hydraulic response time and water transfer time at Bunker Cave (NW Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Richter, Detlev K.; Mangini, Augusto; Frank, Norbert; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    temporal offset between the hydraulic response time and the water transfer time exists. This may lead to difficulties when comparing respective proxies in cases of seasonally or annually laminated speleothems. Conversely, this offset is negligible for speleothems with decadal or lower resolution such as present in Bunker Cave. In NW Germany, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of rain water display a clear dependency on the atmospheric temperature and both isotope systems correlate significantly in soil waters and fast dripping drip water, but in the case of oxygen not with the slow dripping ones due to alteration. The hydrogen isotopic composition, however, is unaffected by these processes and the hydrogen isotopic composition of fluid inclusions can therefore be used to reconstruct palaeotemperatures from Bunker Cave speleothems. The interpretation of the oxygen isotope signature of fluid inclusions and calcium carbonate, however, is more difficult. Since winter temperature and precipitation are influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and long-term variations of temperature and precipitation are recorded in drip water of Bunker Cave, it is most likely that NAO variability is recorded in Bunker Cave speleothems.

  5. Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) in Fumarolic Ice Caves of Mt. Erebus Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Anitori, R.; Davis, R.; Connell, L.; Tebo, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) in the earth's crust may host substantial biomass sustained by chemolithoautotrophic metabolic reactions. It may serve as the base of the foodweb at the surface via hydrothermal circulation, venting pore fluids, cold seeps or gases, and offer a means for primary carbon fixation. When compared to other crustal oligotrophic environments, DOVEs are particularly relevant due to their considerable reductive potential, high permeability and the substantial chemical exchange facilitated by their hydrothermal systems. We studied terrestrial DOVEs in fumarolic ice caves on the summit plateau of Mt Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island, Antarctica (http://erebuscaves.nmt.edu/). Most of the ice caves on Mt Erebus are relatively shallow and illuminated by natural light, but some are deep enough to afford complete darkness. Fumarole gases forming these caves are mostly atmospheric, enriched with water vapor and CO2. The fumaroles were studied in three caves, Warren, Warren West and Harry's Dream; these displayed, respectively, temperatures of 18°C, 2°C and 11°C at our sampling sites. Both Warren caves were completely dark, while Harry's Dream received continuous indirect light during the Austral summer, and offered a control to the two dark caves. The composition of the resident microbial communities was assessed using 16S rRNA and ITS libraries, while metabolic and functional characteristics were analyzed by culturing. The latter results are presented by Anitori et al. (this session). The three cave soils displayed very low (Warren, Warren West) or moderate division-level diversity, with distinct communities in each environment. Acidobacteria was the only phylum detected in all three caves, and was a major component of each library. The phototroph-containing phyla Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Chlorophyta (latter eukaryotic) were only seen in Harry's Dream. A number of phyla whose members are known to oxidize Mn(II) or Fe

  6. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    possibly aerosols. This highly aggressive alteration of the carbonate rock (known as sulfuric acid speleogenesis) extends from the ceiling of the cave downward to, or slightly below, the water table and is responsible for further enlargement of cave passages. Given the availability of SO42-, gypsum replacement crusts form in the subaerial part of the cave, as well as thin gypsum rafts at the water surface. The presence of tamarugite indicates sufficiently strong acid conditions in the steam-condensate film to dissolve clay minerals, releasing Na+ and Al3+ into the geochemical system. Conditions conducive to tamarugite precipitation in carbonate caves seem to be the presence of: 1) thermo-mineral water, which through surface evaporation and condensation on the cold cave walls causes steam-condensate alteration processes, 2) sulfuric acid, and 3) a constant source of Al3+ and Na+. Such conditions are seldom fulfilled in any ordinary limestone caves. The bedrock geology and the particular tectonics and hydrogeology of the Băile Herculane area seem to be the essential prerequisites, not only for the development of hypogene karst, but also for producing an outstanding cave mineral assemblage.

  7. Increased cave dwelling reduces the ability of cave crickets to resist dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Benoit, Joshua B; LaCagnin, Michael J; Hobbs, Horton H

    2011-07-01

    Differential strategies for maintaining water balance are reported for female adults of three cave crickets Hadenoecus cumberlandicus, H. opilionoides and H. jonesi, a species replacement series along the Cumberland Plateau in the southeastern United States. The distribution of H. cumberlandicus is much broader than the range of H. opilionoides, which is much smaller in body size, and that of H. jonesi, which possesses enhanced troglomorphic (cave dwelling) characteristics. Due to high net transpiration (water loss) rates and increased activation energies, H. jonesi and H. opilionoides are more susceptible to dehydration than H. cumberlandicus. To avoid dehydration, H. opilionoides and H. jonesi require more moisture than H. cumberlandicus to counter their higher rates of water loss. The heightened reliance on moisture likely indicates that the more troglomorphic H. jonesi and smaller H. opilionoides are required to spend more time in the moist cave region. Reliance on the cave for H. cumberlandicus is presumably less, allowing them to function in epigean habitats for longer periods and disperse to nearby caves, likely accounting for the more expansive distribution of this cricket. While in the cave habitat, cave crickets are exposed to water-saturated conditions, reducing the pressure of dehydration stress the longer a species remains in this wet environment. This reduced pressure leads to higher water loss rates as cave confinement increases. We conclude that increasing water loss rates associated with increasing troglomorphic adaptation in cave crickets is a side effect of extended residence in stable moist cave environments. PMID:21327632

  8. The cave that holds clues to life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Nelson, P

    1996-01-01

    Deep in Lechuguilla Cave, a researcher ponders slots carved millions of years ago by dripping sulfuric acid. Though the cave was formed by acid bubbling up from below, here gases condensed on the chamber's ceiling and then rained down as acid. Scientists think Mars may also hold caves carved by sulfuric acid. On Earth, almost all other caves are formed by flowing water.

  9. Evaluation of the SIMI system, an experimental computerised network for the surveillance of communicable diseases in Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, M P; Salmaso, S; Bella, A; D'Ancona, F; Demicheli, V; Marongiu, C; Niglio, T; Sellitri, C

    2000-01-01

    In Italy, the current communicable disease notification system is organised as follows: in each region, Local Health Units (LHU) fill in and forward case report forms (CRF) to the Regional Health Authority, which send aggregated and individual notifications to several central-level institutions. In most regions, all data are recorded manually on hardcopy. Although most relevant data from CRFs are eventually entered into a computerised database at the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), the national database is only available 3-4 years later and no data-quality control is performed at that time. To improve the quality and timeliness of notification, in 1994, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (the National Institute of Health) began to develop an experimental computerised surveillance network for communicable diseases (referred to as 'SIMI'). Specifically, a software was created and distributed to the LHUs and the Regional Health Authorities; staff training was performed; and feedback and analyses of collected data was promoted. SIMI was evaluated in the 13 regions that were participating in 1997 (out of a total of 20 regions in Italy), using criteria commonly used for surveillance systems (i.e., completeness and coherence of data, case definitions, costs, timeliness, and feedback). SIMI was implemented at a limited cost and the data collected were observed to have had a high degree of completeness and internal consistency. The SIMI system has since been adopted for the routine notification of communicable diseases in nearly all regions. Similar evaluations will be necessary for assessing the performance of the various notification systems used across Europe and to include them in a European network.

  10. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  11. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  12. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  13. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments. PMID:27003837

  14. Field test of a calcite dissolution rate law: Fort's Funnel Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Slunder, J.S. ); Groves, C.G. . Center for Cave and Karst Studies)

    1994-03-01

    The laboratory-derived calcite dissolution rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) is the most widely used and mechanistically detailed expression currently available for predicting dissolution rates as a function of water chemistry. Such rate expressions are of great use in understanding timescales associated with limestone karst development. Little work has gone into the field testing of the rate law under natural conditions. This work measured dissolution rates by a crystal weight loss experiment in Buffalo Creek within Fort's funnel Cave, which lies within a pristine, forested catchment of Mammoth Cave National Park. Continuous water chemistry sampling over the same period allowed a time-integrated prediction of the dissolution based on the Plummer et al. (1978) expression. Results indicate that the rate law overpredicted dissolution by a factor of about ten. This concurs with earlier laboratory work suggesting that the law tends to overpredict rates in solutions close to equilibrium with respect to calcite, as were the waters within this part of the groundwater flow system.

  15. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    PubMed

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  16. Fracture Networks from a deterministic physical model as 'forerunners' of Maze Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferer, M. V.; Smith, D. H.; Lace, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    'Fractures are the chief forerunners of caves because they transmit water much more rapidly than intergranular pores.[1] Thus, the cave networks can follow the fracture networks from which the Karst caves formed by a variety of processes. Traditional models of continental Karst define water flow through subsurface geologic formations, slowly dissolving the rock along the pathways (e.g. water saturated with respect to carbon dioxide flowing through fractured carbonate formations). We have developed a deterministic, physical model of fracturing in a model geologic layer of a given thickness, when that layer is strained in one direction and subsequently in a perpendicular direction. It was observed that the connected fracture networks from our model visually resemble maps of maze caves. Since these detailed cave maps offer critical tools in modeling cave development patterns and conduit flow in Karst systems, we were able to test the qualitative resemblance by using statistical analyses to compare our model networks in geologic layers of four different thicknesses with the corresponding statistical analyses of four different maze caves, formed in a variety of geologic settings. The statistical studies performed are: i) standard box-counting to determine if either the caves or the model networks are fractal. We found that both are fractal with a fractal dimension Df ≈ 1.75 . ii) for each section inside a closed path, we determined the area and perimeter-length, enabling a study of the tortuosity of the networks. From the dependence of the section's area upon its perimeter-length, we have found a power-law behavior (for sufficiently large sections) characterized by a 'tortuosity' exponent. These exponents have similar values for both the model networks and the maze caves. The best agreement is between our thickest model layer and the maze-like part of Wind Cave in South Dakota where the data from the model and the cave overlie each other. For the present networks from

  17. Clumped isotope thermometry of cryogenic cave carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Affek, Hagit P.; Zhang, Yi Ge; Dublyansky, Yuri; Spötl, Christoph; Immenhauser, Adrian; Richter, Detlev K.

    2014-02-01

    Freezing of cave pool water that is increasingly oversaturated with dissolved carbonate leads to precipitation of a very specific type of speleothems known as cryogenic cave carbonates (CCC). At present, two different environments for their formation have been proposed, based on their characteristic carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Rapidly freezing thin water films result in the fast precipitation of fine-grained carbonate powder (CCCfine). This leads to rapid physicochemical changes including CO2 degassing and CaCO3 precipitation, resulting in significantly 13C-enriched carbonates. Alternatively, slow carbonate precipitation in ice-covered cave pools results in coarse crystalline CCC (CCCcoarse) yielding strongly 18O-depleted carbonate. This is due to the formation of relatively 18O-enriched ice causing the gradual depletion of 18O in the water from which the CCC precipitates. Cryogenic carbonates from Central European caves were found to have been formed primarily during the last glacial period, specifically during times of permafrost thawing, based on the oxygen isotope ratios and U-Th dating. Information about the precise conditions of CCCcoarse formation, i.e. whether these crystals formed under equilibrium or disequilibrium conditions with the parent fluid, however, is lacking. An improved understanding of CCCcoarse formation will increase the predictive value of this paleo-permafrost archive. Here we apply clumped isotopes to investigate the formation conditions of cryogenic carbonates using well-studied CCCcoarse from five different cave systems in western Germany. Carbonate clumped isotope measurements yielded apparent temperatures between 3 and 18 °C and thus exhibit clear evidence of isotopic disequilibrium. Although the very negative carbonate δ18O values can only be explained by gradual freezing of pool water accompanied by preferential incorporation of 18O into the ice, clumped isotope-derived temperatures significantly above expected freezing

  18. South-France caves monitoring : present day cave air dynamics characterization,paleoclimatic and archaeological interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourges, F.; Genty, D.; Genthon, P.; Mangin, A.; D'Hulst, D.

    2012-04-01

    Cave climatic environment survey covers different sort of analyses on air and water, and has various interests from the conservation of prehistoric caves to the study of paleoclimates. Depending on the purpose, the cave monitoring can be entirely automatic or combine both automatic and manual data acquisitions. Apparatus are adapted to cave environment to measure specific parameters (i.e. drip rate, air humidity, CO2) and during the long-term monitorings, several generations of techniques have been used. We present here examples of cave monitoring (1996 →) from South-France: Chauvet, Orgnac (Ardèche), Esparros (Hautes-Pyrénées) and Villars (Dordogne). In all these sites, we obtained among the longest series of climatic parameters of inside the caves, coupled sometimes with geochemical and isotopic analyses on air and seepage water, which allow to better understand cave air circulation behaviour and their sensitivity to the external climatic and environmental variations. High precision temperature measurements in Orgnac and Chauvet caves, coupled with pCO2 and radon analyses, allowed the reconstruction of seasonal air circulation patterns in each cave. While the Chauvet and Esparros caves are quite confined environments with temperature changes mainly controlled by air pressure variations, the Orgnac cave, like most caves, shows a well marked summer/winter regime alternation. Quantification of air flows of known CO2 concentration allowed the calculation of carbon fluxes toward the earth atmosphere which is estimated to about 340 gm-2yr-1. Since 15 years, the monitoring made in the Villars cave at two different levels has shown that the air temperature displays small seasonal variations in the upper galleries while it is not detectable in the lower ones. Average annual temperature difference between these two levels is of more than 1°C, showing that local differences in a single cave can be significant. A global warming trend likely correlated with local

  19. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  20. Extensional deformation structures within a convergent orogen: The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    A low-angle extensional fault system affecting the non metamorphic rocks of the carbonate dominated Tuscan succession is exposed in the Lima valley (Northern Apennines, Italy). This fault system affects the right-side-up limb of a kilometric-scale recumbent isoclinal anticline and is, in turn, affected by superimposed folding and late-tectonic high-angle extensional faulting. The architecture of the low-angle fault system has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and paleofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses. Our results show that the low-angle fault system was active during exhumation of the Tuscan succession at about 180°C and 5 km depth, with the involvement of low-salinity fluids. Within this temperature - depth framework, the fault zone architecture shows important differences related to the different lithologies involved in the fault system and to the role played by the fluids during deformation. In places, footwall overpressuring influenced active deformation mechanisms and favored shear strain localization. Our observations indicate that extensional structures affected the central sector of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge during the orogenic contractional history, modifying the fluid circulation through the upper crust and influencing its mechanical behavior.

  1. Drip-Water Temperatures in Caves: Surface Signals or Cave Processes? - Implications for Speleothem Deposits and Paleoclimate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. S.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Baker, A.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C.; Markowska, M.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.

    2013-12-01

    of infiltration events will be modified to that of the soil and rock at the time of the event and that single precipitation event temperature anomalies will not have an effect on speleothem archives for most cave systems. However, cooling of stalagmite drip waters by 1-2 °C, relative to the cave air temperature, was observed for the three events that did produce inflow. This cooling only happened when the drip rate dropped below a certain threshold. We believe this is due to the onset of evaporative cooling rather than the inflow of cool irrigation water. This evaporative cooling has not been observed previously. Since the 18O climate proxy in carbonate precipitation is temperature dependent this effect could have potentially global implications on the palaeoclimate interpretation based on speleothem analysis.

  2. [Evaluation of customer satisfaction with the hospital catering system in the city of Palermo (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Firenze, Alberto; Morici, Mariagrazia; Calamus, Giuseppe; Gelsomino, Viviana; Aprea, Luigi; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Muangala, Muana A Luila; Centineo, Giovanni; Romano, Nino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patients' customer satisfaction with the hospital catering services of two public hospitals and one private sector hospital in the city of Palermo (Italy). A multiple choice questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 207 of 227 hospitalized patients. Positive responses regarding the perceived quality of food were given especially by patients of the private sector hospital, 80% of which reported being satisfied with the catering service. A higher percentage of patients in the private sector hospital were satisfied with the food distribution modalities with respect to the two public hospitals. Only 3% of patients in the private sector hospital required their families to bring food from home, with respect to 7.9% and 30% respectively in the two public hospitals. Private sector patients also reported appreciating the wide availability of food and the help given by health care workers (79% vs a mean of 55% in the two public hospitals). No differences were found amongst hospitals with regards to the hygienic characteristics of meals. The results of this study indicate the need to make changes in the management of the catering service of one of the involved public hospitals especially.

  3. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021.

  4. [Evaluation of customer satisfaction with the hospital catering system in the city of Palermo (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Firenze, Alberto; Morici, Mariagrazia; Calamus, Giuseppe; Gelsomino, Viviana; Aprea, Luigi; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Muangala, Muana A Luila; Centineo, Giovanni; Romano, Nino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patients' customer satisfaction with the hospital catering services of two public hospitals and one private sector hospital in the city of Palermo (Italy). A multiple choice questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 207 of 227 hospitalized patients. Positive responses regarding the perceived quality of food were given especially by patients of the private sector hospital, 80% of which reported being satisfied with the catering service. A higher percentage of patients in the private sector hospital were satisfied with the food distribution modalities with respect to the two public hospitals. Only 3% of patients in the private sector hospital required their families to bring food from home, with respect to 7.9% and 30% respectively in the two public hospitals. Private sector patients also reported appreciating the wide availability of food and the help given by health care workers (79% vs a mean of 55% in the two public hospitals). No differences were found amongst hospitals with regards to the hygienic characteristics of meals. The results of this study indicate the need to make changes in the management of the catering service of one of the involved public hospitals especially. PMID:19494921

  5. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. PMID:25960271

  6. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  7. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  8. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  9. Raman spectroscopy in the study of hydrothermal cave minerals: Implications for research on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Sanz, Aurelio; Audra, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Regarding that the ExoMars mission of the ESA, scheduled for launch in 2018 will be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, investigations by Raman spectroscopy on Earth's minerals are essential to interpret data coming from this further mission to Mars. Among terrestrial minerals, cave minerals represent an opportunity to better understand the genesis of Martian minerals and the evolution of Mars itself, in particular by studying minerals formed in hydrothermal conditions, as well as those generated due to hydrothermal alteration of previous materials. The absence of solar radiation, practically constant temperature at daily and seasonal scale and the presence of liquid water are some of the attractions which make caves interesting for Martian research. In the present work, we have studied a great variety of cave minerals from hypogenic/thermal mine-caves like the Giant Geode of Pulpí (south-eastern Spain), the caves of the Naica mine (northern Mexico), the caves of the San Giovanni Mountain (Sardinia, Italy) and Baume Galinière Cave (south-eastern France). Carbonate, sulphate, sulphurs and polymetallic oxyhydroxides are the most common minerals found in these cavities. Among them, it is worth noting the presence of several minerals of the jarosite group and gypsum, since these minerals have been recently discovered on the Mars surface. Both of them are hydrated minerals, which genetic mechanisms are linked to the presence of liquid water. In the case of jarosite minerals, identification of species like argentojarosite and plumbojarosite confers worth to the Raman technique against other methodologies, like XRD by which the characterization of the jarosite group minerals is difficult. As a consequence of the recent discovery of Ca-rich sulphates (probably gypsum) on the surface of Mars, attention has been focused on the terrestrial gypsiferous formations. The gypsum samples from the Giant Geode of Pulpí and the caves of the Naica mine, which are subject of this

  10. Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of

  11. Source characteristics of 2000 small earthquakes nucleating on the Alto Tiberina fault system (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Tinti, E.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Valoroso, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is a 60 km long east-dipping low-angle normal fault, located in a sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy) undergoing active extension since the Quaternary. The ATF has been imaged by analyzing the active source seismic reflection profiles, and the instrumentally recorded persistent background seismicity. The present study is an attempt to separate the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation, in order to focus on the mechanics of the seismic sources on the ATF, as well on the synthetic and the antithetic structures within the ATF hanging-wall (i.e. Colfiorito fault, Gubbio fault and Umbria Valley fault). In order to compute source spectra, we perform a set of regressions over the seismograms of 2000 small earthquakes (-0.8 < ML< 4) recorded between 2010 and 2014 at 50 permanent seismic stations deployed in the framework of the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO) and equipped with three-components seismometers, three of which located in shallow boreholes. Because we deal with some very small earthquakes, we maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with a technique based on the analysis of peak values of bandpass-filtered time histories, in addition to the same processing performed on Fourier amplitudes. We rely on a tool called Random Vibration Theory (RVT) to completely switch from peak values in the time domain to Fourier spectral amplitudes. Low-frequency spectral plateau of the source terms are used to compute moment magnitudes (Mw) of all the events, whereas a source spectral ratio technique is used to estimate the corner frequencies (Brune spectral model) of a subset of events chosen over the analysis of the noise affecting the spectral ratios. So far, the described approach provides high accuracy over the spectral parameters of earthquakes of localized seismicity, and may be used to gain insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake processes.

  12. Cave-soils, the soils forming underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Endre; Bertóti, Diána; Kovács, Károly; Vadnai, Péter

    2015-04-01

    Limestone cave sediments of the Bükk-mountain in the North-Eastern part of Hungary were described, analysed and classified using WRB soil classification system. Cave sediments can be considered as soils, partly on the basis of their origin, partly of processes taking place in them. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cave soils are often shallow, lying directly above the continuous rock. In general they are layered, with clearly distinct layers of alluvial origin. Their organic matter content depends on the nature of the sediment. They often contain considerable quantities of undecomposed organic sediment, acting as the basis for very intensive soil life, which can be detected in the soil structure and may in some cases result in Vermic characteristics. The texture is very variable, ranging from clay to rough gravelly sand. Almost 100% of the soils are calcareous, the lime content is of secondary origin and its amount is at least 2%. Therefore, the pH values fluctuate from neutral to 8.5, mostly having a value around 8. In rare cases gley formation also occurs, especially on poorly drained areas, where there is no water flow to refresh the dissolved oxygen content. In the "oxy-aquic" state, characterized by high dissolved oxygen content, the iron is not reduced, so gley formation is not induced. From pedological point of view, cave sediments show a very diverse picture. Besides sedimentary layers, numerous soil formation processes can be detected, which can be considered analogue with surface processes, therefore they definitely need to be classified as soils. According to all these, in the Hungarian classification cave soils are primarily classified as alluvial, colluvial or lithomorphic soils. The WRB classification places them mainly in the Fluvisol and Leptosol Reference Groups, and according to the soils examined in the present work, they can be described with the Leptic (Epileptic), Fluvic (in rare cases Colluvic), Vermic, Calcaric, Eutric, Gleyic

  13. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  14. Structural control in sinkhole development and speleogenesis: a case study from the High Murge karst landscape (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, M.; Parise, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Murge plateau is the main karst sector of Apulia, an almost entirely carbonate region of SE Italy. It can be, in turn, subdivided into two sectors: High Murge, the inland plateau, where remnants of an ancient tropical karst are still recognizable; and Low Murge, closer to the Adriatic Sea, with smoother karst morphologies and landforms, but, at the same time, hosting some of the longest underground karst system in the region (Parise, 1998, 2006). Even though showing low energy relief, the landscape of High Murge is very articulated when examined at greater detail, with several interesting karst features. Among these, sinkholes are definitely the most significant, showing a variety of typologies and, at the same time, a high frequency, both as individual features and as coalescent landforms, giving origin to more complex depressions (Parise, 2011). Previous studies carried out in the High Murge through morphometric analysis of the main sinkholes identified on the 1:25,000 scale topographic maps from the Italian Army Geographical Institute indicated their likely genesis in a low relief cockpit karst (Sauro, 1991). Over such landscape, developed in Upper Tertiary, a hydrographic pattern was superimposed, that partly opened some of the depressions, also dismantling sectors of the karst relief and producing talus deposits (Caldara & Ciaranfi, 1988). In the present work we take into consideration the southern countryside of Ruvo di Puglia. Choice of the area, which extends over 15 km2, was dictated by presence of a high number of sinkholes, and of several important caves with prevailing vertical development, including the deepest pit ever explored in Apulia (Grave della Ferratella, depth - 320 m). The cave is nowadays not accessible, due to clogging caused by land use changes during the 80's. Based upon extensive field surveys and interpretation of multi-year aerial photographs (time range 1955-2003), integrated by surveying in selected caves, the main hydro

  15. Sediment transport during recent cave flooding events and characterization of speleothem archives of past flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lemos, Saúl; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Stoll, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a disproportionate impact on landscape evolution and on human constructions, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events may vary with changes in mean climate in the past and in the future. We document the potential for cave sediment archives to record past changes in the frequency of flooding events by characterizing the modern processes responsible for sediment deposition and mobilization during floods and linking these to their incorporation in speleothem deposits. We focus on the Cueva Fria cave system in NW Spain, which like other caves in the region features abundant sandy sediments sourced from dominant sandstone lithologies in the catchment area, in this case delineated by our dye trace study. In this system, the extreme flood conditions in June 2010 caused overflow of the cave stream and deposition of nearly 1 m of sand in sectors near the cave stream and resulted in burial of some stalagmites in > 30 cm of sand in more distal sectors. All sectioned stalagmites growing < 1 m above the overflow channels in these three caves feature sand and silt layers deposited during flood events. Although the high detrital content of these recent materials precludes U/Th dating, radiocarbon dating (especially of actively growing stalagmites) may provide suitable chronologies for reconstruction of past flood chronologies. The basal dates of stalagmites formed in the main overflow channels in Cueva Fria and two other caves in the region cluster around 4 ka. We infer that stalagmite growth in channels was favored by a reduced incidence of flooding in the late Holocene, concomitant with regional drying recorded in numerous terrestrial and marine archives.

  16. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  17. Islands within islands: Diversification of tailless whip spiders (Amblypygi, Phrynus) in Caribbean caves.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Lauren A; Bloom, Trevor; Caicedo-Quiroga, Laura; Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Sánchez-Ruíz, Jose A; May-Collado, Laura J; Binford, Greta J; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-12-01

    Islands have played a key role in understanding species formation ever since Darwin's work on the Galapagos and Wallace's work in the Malay Archipelago. Like oceanic islands, habitat 'islands', such as mountaintops and caves similarly may drive diversification. Here we examine patterns of diversification in the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Larmarck, 1809 (Amblypygida: Phrynidae) a system that shows evidence of diversification under the influence of 'islands within islands'. We estimate phylogeographic history and measure genetic diversity among representatives of three nominal Phrynus species from epigean and cave systems of Puerto Rico and nearby islands. Data from five loci (mitochondrial 12S, 16S, Cox1; nuclear H3, 28S) were used to generate phylogenetic hypotheses and to assess species monophyly and phylogeographic relationships. Genetic divergences and population limits were estimated and assessed using the Geneious barcoding plugin and the genealogical sorting index. We find that mtDNA sequence divergences within each of the three Phrynus species range between 15% and 20%. Genetic divergence is structured at three spatial scales: among islands in a manner consistent with the GAARlandia hypothesis, among bedrock formations within Puerto Rico, and among caves within these formations. Every isolated cave system contains a unique mtDNA genetic lineage of Phrynus, with divergence among cave systems far exceeding that within. In some localities epigean specimens nest among cave taxa, in others caves are monophyletic. Remarkably, clades that show up to 20% mtDNA sequence divergence show little or no variation in the nuclear markers. We interpret this pattern as resulting from extreme conservation of our nuclear markers rather than male sex-biased dispersal, based on high conservation of 28S and H3 between our individuals and other amblypygid genera that are restricted to Africa. While this study includes but a tiny fraction of Caribbean caves, our findings

  18. Patterns of Cave Biodiversity and Endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee’s troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee’s subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee

  19. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee.

  20. NASA Aircraft Aids Earth-Mars Cave Detection Study

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most likely location for discovering potential primitive life forms on Mars to be in caves. A recent NASA-funded airborne and ground study designed to aid in detection of caves on the Earth, th...

  1. Preservation of Microbial-Mineral Biosignatures in Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Alexander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Earth caves are wonderful preservation environments for distinctive in situ biopatterns and biominerals. Several thousand volcanic caves have been detected on Mars and may contain biosignatures or extant life and are valuable future mission targets.

  2. PATTERNS OF ENDEMISM OF THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN CAVE FAUNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 250 species of obligate terrestrial cave-dwelling animals (troglobionts) are known from single caves in the eastern United States. We investigate their geographic distribution, especially in relation to other troglobionts. We relate these patterns to taxonomic group, oppor...

  3. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  4. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  5. Coastal monitoring through video systems: best practices and architectural design of a new video monitoring station in Jesolo (Veneto, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, Renata; Vacchi, Matteo; Carniel, Sandro; Benetazzo, Alvise

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the location of the shoreline and monitoring foreshore changes through time represent a fundamental task for correct coastal management at many sites around the world. Several authors demonstrated video systems to be an essential tool for increasing the amount of data available for coastline management. These systems typically sample at least once per hour and can provide long-term datasets showing variations over days, events, months, seasons and years. In the past few years, due to the wide diffusion of video cameras at relatively low price, the use of video cameras and of video images analysis for environmental control has increased significantly. Even if video monitoring systems were often used in the research field they are most often applied with practical purposes including: i) identification and quantification of shoreline erosion, ii) assessment of coastal protection structure and/or beach nourishment performance, and iii) basic input to engineering design in the coastal zone iv) support for integrated numerical model validation Here we present the guidelines for the creation of a new video monitoring network in the proximity of the Jesolo beach (NW of the Adriatic Sea, Italy), Within this 10 km-long tourist district several engineering structures have been built in recent years, with the aim of solving urgent local erosion problems; as a result, almost all types of protection structures are present at this site: groynes, detached breakwaters.The area investigated experienced severe problems of coastal erosion in the past decades, inclusding a major one in the last November 2012. The activity is planned within the framework of the RITMARE project, that is also including other monitoring and scientific activities (bathymetry survey, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamics and morphodynamic modeling). This contribution focuses on best practices to be adopted in the creation of the video monitoring system, and briefly describes the

  6. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  7. An integrated web system to support veterinary activities in Italy for the management of information in epidemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, S; Savini, L; Palma, D; Calistri, P; Natale, F; Di Lorenzo, A; Cerella, A; Giovannini, A

    2014-03-01

    The management of public health emergencies is improved by quick, exhaustive and standardized flow of data on disease outbreaks, by using specific tools for data collection, registration and analysis. In this context, the National Information System for the Notification of Outbreaks of Animal Diseases (SIMAN) has been developed in Italy to collect and share data on the notifications of outbreaks of animal diseases. SIMAN is connected through web services to the national database of animals and holdings (BDN) and has been integrated with tools for the management of epidemic emergencies. The website has been updated with a section dedicated to the contingency planning in case of epidemic emergency. EpiTrace is one such useful tool also integrated in the BDN and based on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) and on network epidemiological models. This tool gives the possibility of assessing the risk associated to holdings and animals on the basis of their trade, in order to support the veterinary services in tracing back and forward the animals in case of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

  8. An integrated web system to support veterinary activities in Italy for the management of information in epidemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, S; Savini, L; Palma, D; Calistri, P; Natale, F; Di Lorenzo, A; Cerella, A; Giovannini, A

    2014-03-01

    The management of public health emergencies is improved by quick, exhaustive and standardized flow of data on disease outbreaks, by using specific tools for data collection, registration and analysis. In this context, the National Information System for the Notification of Outbreaks of Animal Diseases (SIMAN) has been developed in Italy to collect and share data on the notifications of outbreaks of animal diseases. SIMAN is connected through web services to the national database of animals and holdings (BDN) and has been integrated with tools for the management of epidemic emergencies. The website has been updated with a section dedicated to the contingency planning in case of epidemic emergency. EpiTrace is one such useful tool also integrated in the BDN and based on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) and on network epidemiological models. This tool gives the possibility of assessing the risk associated to holdings and animals on the basis of their trade, in order to support the veterinary services in tracing back and forward the animals in case of outbreaks of infectious diseases. PMID:24485707

  9. Solution weathering rate and origin of karst landforms and caves in the quartzite of Auyan-tepui (Gran Sabana, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Leonardo; Mecchia, Marco

    2009-05-01

    The paper reports the results of SiO 2 analyses in the Aonda Cave system, located on the Auyán-tepui, one of the widest table-mountains of the Gran Sabana (South Venezuela), characterised by karst landforms developed in siliceous rock. Chemical analyses underline the very low concentration of SiO 2 of the surface water. Percolation and cave drip waters have a SiO 2 concentration of about 1 mg/l. The mean silica load of the cave stream is 184 mg/s, mainly derived from surface solution removal in the allogenic recharge area. In the Aonda Cave system, the mean SiO 2 dissolved load is 40 mg/s, in part from surface solution (15%) and mainly from underground processes (85%). The low solubility of SiO 2 in slightly acidic water implies the importance of the time factor in the formation of cave systems. With the present dissolution rate, about 10 Ma would be necessary to form the known karst system. This estimation can be significant only if we assume that climate has been stable in the last few tens of millions of years. Furthermore, this age can be taken as a minimum estimate, while, according to the geomorphic evolution of the area, the origin of the Aonda Cave system could be reasonably dated back to at least 20-30 Ma, that is, to the Oligocene.

  10. A Low-cost data-logging platform for long-term field sensor deployment in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M. A.; Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Active karst systems are notoriously inhospitable environments for humans and equipment. Caves require equipment to cope with high humidity, high velocity flows, submersion, sediment loads, and harassment from local fauna. Equipment taken into caves is often considered "consumable" due to the extreme nature of cave environments and the difficulty of transport. Further, because many interesting monitoring locations within caves can be considered remote, it is ideal for electronic monitoring platforms to require minimal maintenance of parts and power supplies. To partially address the challenge of scientifically monitoring such environments, we have developed an arduino based platform for environmental monitoring of cave systems. The arduino is a general purpose open source microcontroller that is easily programmed with only a basic knowledge of the C programming language. The arduino is capable of controlling digital and analog electronics in a modular fashion. Using this capability, we have created a platform for monitoring CO2 levels in cave systems that costs one-tenth of a comparable commercial system while using a fraction of the power. The modular nature of the arduino system allows the incorporation of additional environmental sensors in the future.

  11. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.; Hudson, R.; Gokhale, N.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  12. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  13. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 290.4 Section 290.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 290.4 Section 290.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a)...

  15. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 290.4 Section 290.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 290.4 Section 290.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 290.4 Section 290.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a)...

  18. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  19. Karst hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Cave Springs basin near Chattanooga, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlicek, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Cave Springs ground-water basin, located near Chattanooga, Tennessee, was chosen as one of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province type area studies for the Appalachian Valley-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study in 1990. Karstic Paleozoic carbonate rocks, residual clay-rich regolith, and coarse alluvium form the aquifer framework. Recharge from rainfall dispersed over the basin enters the karst aquifer through the thick regolith. The area supplying recharge to the Cave Springs Basin is approximately 7 square miles. Recharge from North Chickamauga Creek may contribute recharge to the Cave Springs Basin along losing reaches. The flow medium consists of mixed dolomite and limestone with cavernous and fracture porosity. Flow type as determined by the coefficient of variation of long-term continuous specific conductance (18 and 15 percent) from two wells completed in cavernous intervals about 150 feet northeast of Cave Springs, indicates an aquifer with conduit flow. Flow type, based on the ratio (6:1) of spring flood-flow discharge to spring base-flow discharge, indicates an aquifer with diffuse flow. Conduit flow probably dominates the aquifer system west of Cave Springs Ridge from the highly transmissive, unconfined, alluvium capped aquifer and along losing reaches of North Chickamauga Creek. Diffuse flow probably predominates in the areas along and east of Cave Springs Ridge covered with the thick, clay-rich regolith that forms a leaky confining layer. Based on average annual long-term precipitation and runoff records, the amount of water available for recharge to Cave Springs is 11.8 cubic feet per second. The mean annual long-term discharge of Cave Springs is 16.4 cubic feet per second which leaves 4.6 cubic feet per second of recharge unaccounted for. As determined by low-flow stream discharge measurements, recharge along losing reaches of North Chickamauga Creek may be an important source of unaccounted-for-recharge to the Cave Springs Basin

  20. Using stable isotopes of carbon to investigate the seasonal variation of carbon transfer in a northwestern Arkansas cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knierim, Katherine Joy; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.; Khojasteh, Jam

    2015-01-01

    -to-month variations in temperature and precipitation and provided insight into the sources of carbon in the cave. Stable carbon isotope ratios provided an effective tool to explore carbon transfer from the soil zone and into the cave, identify carbon sources in the cave, and investigate how seasonality affected the transfer of carbon in a shallow karst system.

  1. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J. C.; Choi, S. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y. M.; Jang, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  2. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  3. Biogeography, phylogeny, and morphological evolution of central Texas cave and spring salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subterranean faunal radiations can result in complex patterns of morphological divergence involving both convergent or parallel phenotypic evolution and cryptic species diversity. Salamanders of the genus Eurycea in central Texas provide a particularly challenging example with respect to phylogeny reconstruction, biogeography and taxonomy. These predominantly aquatic species inhabit karst limestone aquifers and spring outflows, and exhibit a wide range of morphological and genetic variation. We extensively sampled spring and cave populations of six Eurycea species within this group (eastern Blepsimolge clade), to reconstruct their phylogenetic and biogeographic history using mtDNA and examine patterns and origins of cave- and surface-associated morphological variation. Results Genetic divergence is generally low, and many populations share ancestral haplotypes and/or show evidence of introgression. This pattern likely indicates a recent radiation coupled with a complex history of intermittent connections within the aquatic karst system. Cave populations that exhibit the most extreme troglobitic morphologies show no or very low divergence from surface populations and are geographically interspersed among them, suggesting multiple instances of rapid, parallel phenotypic evolution. Morphological variation is diffuse among cave populations; this is in contrast to surface populations, which form a tight cluster in morphospace. Unexpectedly, our analyses reveal two distinct and previously unrecognized morphological groups encompassing multiple species that are not correlated with spring or cave habitat, phylogeny or geography, and may be due to developmental plasticity. Conclusions The evolutionary history of this group of spring- and cave-dwelling salamanders reflects patterns of intermittent isolation and gene flow influenced by complex hydrogeologic dynamics that are characteristic of karst regions. Shallow genetic divergences among several species

  4. Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Source of Groundwater to Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M. C.; Bennett, P. C.; Engel, A. S.

    2003-12-01

    Most karst features occur due to the dissolution of limestone by carbonic acid charged phreatic or meteoric water. However, an important subset of caves forms when anaerobic groundwater transports hydrogen sulfide into an oxidizing environment, resulting in speleogenesis via sulfuric rather than carbonic acid. The actively forming Lower Kane Cave in the Mississippian Madison Limestone of the Bighorn Basin near Lovell, Wyoming, is an accessible example of this alternative method of cave development. Located along the fold axis of the Little Sheep Mountain anticline of the Bighorn Basin, this system hosts a diverse range of microbial organisms, including acid-producing and sulfide and sulfate utilizing species, whose role in speleogenesis is currently under investigation. Water samples were collected from cave springs, nearby springs, freshwater wells and produced water from oil wells in the local area. Samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, stable isotopes and Sr isotopes by multi-collector ICP-MS, as well as dissolved gas and organic acid analyses. These data were used to examine the regional flow of groundwater to the cave and potential oil-field sources of hydrogen sulfide. The Madison Aquifer in this area is characterized by relatively fresh water, and in the cave vicinity is the source of municipal water supplies for the towns of Cowley and Greybull. The Madison water samples collected in the area are Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type, with relatively little Na and Cl. Overall the cave water chemistries are characterized as Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 waters; Ca = 70 ppm, Mg = 25 ppm, HCO3 = 205 ppm and SO4 = 110 ppm. However, when compared to other Madison water samples, the waters of Lower Kane Cave are slightly higher in TDS (around 400 ppm), significantly warmer (22£ C versus between 6-12£ C), and contain much higher dissolved sulfide (up to 2ppm). Additionally, Sr isotope signatures for the cave waters are significantly more radiogenic than that of other Madison

  5. An optimal management of water for a turf irrigation system in Milan area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Mazzoleni, Abramo

    2015-04-01

    The design of an irrigation system is not just "draw", but a complex organization that takes into account of a whole range of information that are inherently contained in the graphic representation of the final plan. The various stages that make up the activity of designing an irrigation system include: general survey of the site to be irrigated, meteorological analysis of the site and the calculation of the water requirement, development of the project with the choice and location of the components. The use of a numerical model based on water balance in a soil-water-atmosphere system allows the evaluation of the optimal water requirement as a function of meteorological characteristics. The water saving is enabled through a smart programming of a modern automation system for irrigation. The meteorological data analysis was conducted choosing from the series of two special years: the year 2002, particularly rainy, and the other in 2007, extraordinarily drought. The determination of the water requirements of turf was conducted on a daily scale. The water consumption was calculated in a classic irrigation system that covers the delivery of 5 mm of water per day, interrupted only by a rain sensor. In the second case water consumption was analysed by managing an irrigation controller based on actual water needs of turf day by day. For the two years in question water savings ranges between 13 and 27%.

  6. Atmospheric /sup 222/Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, I.; Smodis, B.; Burger, J.; Skofljanec, M.

    1987-04-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the /sup 222/Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of /sup 222/Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively.

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  11. Development of a remotely controlled debris flow monitoring system in the Dolomites (Acquabona, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecca, Pia R.; Galgaro, Antonio; Genevois, Rinaldo; Deganutti, Andrea M.

    2003-06-01

    Direct measurements of the hydrological conditions for the occurrence of debris flows and of flow behaviour are of the outmost importance for developing effective flow prevention techniques. An automated and remotely controlled monitoring system was installed in Acquabona Creek in the Dolomites, Italian Eastern Alps, where debris flows occur every year. Its present configuration consists of three on-site stations, located in the debris-flow initiation area, in the lower channel and in the retention basin. The monitoring system is equipped with sensors for measuring rainfall, pore-water pressure in the mobile channel bottom, ground vibrations, debris flow depth, total normal stress and fluid pore-pressure at the base of the flow. Three video cameras take motion pictures of the events at the initiation zone, in the lower channel and in the deposition area. Data from the on-site stations are radio-transmitted to an off-site station and stored in a host PC, from where they are telemetrically downloaded and used by the Padova University for the study of debris flows. The efficiency of the sensors and of the whole monitoring system has been verified by the analysis of data collected so far. Examples of these data are presented and briefly discussed. If implemented at the numerous debris-flow sites in the Dolomitic Region, the technology used, derived from the development of this system, will provide civil defence and warn residents of impending debris flows.

  12. Microgravity and Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Detection of Caves and Clandestine Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, N. C.; Croft, L. A.; Cesin, G. L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Center for Cave and Karst Studies, CCKS, has been using microgravity to locate caves from the ground's surface since 1985. The geophysical subsurface investigations began during a period when explosive and toxic vapors were rising from the karst aquifer under Bowling Green into homes, businesses, and schools. The USEPA provided the funding for this Superfund Emergency, and the CCKS was able to drill numerous wells into low-gravity anomalies to confirm and even map the route of caves in the underlying limestone bedrock. In every case, a low-gravity anomaly indicated a bedrock cave, a cave with a collapsed roof or locations where a bedrock cave had collapsed and filled with alluvium. At numerous locations, several wells were cored into microgravity anomalies and in every case, additional wells were drilled on both sides of the anomalies to confirm that the technique was in fact reliable. The wells cored on both sides of the anomalies did not intersect caves but instead intersected virtually solid limestone. Microgravity also easily detected storm sewers and even sanitary sewers, sometimes six meters (twenty feet) beneath the surface. Microgravity has also been used on many occasions to investigate sinkhole collapses. It identified potential collapse areas by detecting voids in the unconsolidated material above bedrock. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona. The CCKS has experimented with other geophysical techniques, particularly ground penetrating radar, seismic and electrical resistivity. In the late 1990s the CCKS started using the Swift/Sting resistivity meter to perform karst geophysical subsurface investigations. The system provides good depth to bedrock data, but it is often difficult to interpret bedrock caves from the modeled data. The system typically used now by the CCKS to perform karst subsurface investigations is to use electrical resistivity traverses

  13. Aerodynamics control of a cave with a high environmental stability by trace gases monitoring (Castañar de Íbor, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Moral, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Cuezva, S.; Canaveras, J. C.; Abella, R.

    2009-04-01

    High-accuracy monitoring of a "low energy" cave (Castañar de Íbor, Spain) determined the temporal evolution of the aerodynamics processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimatic processes are described with regard to the gases exchange between cave and outer atmosphere. Special attention is paid to the key role of the isolation effect of host rock and soil on the confined cave atmosphere, determined by the water saturation state of this double-membrane. In this sense we focus on the complicate microclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of trace gases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Finally, inferences are drawn about the physical mechanisms controlling the short-term fluctuations of trace gases levels on cave air, such as barometric fluxes and forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. The application of the knowledge regarding mass and energy fluxes involved in the subterranean environments is also discussed.

  14. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A

    2001-06-01

    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  15. Tech-IA floating system introduced in urban wastewater treatment plants in the Veneto region - Italy.

    PubMed

    Mietto, Anna; Borin, Maurizio; Salvato, Michela; Ronco, Paolo; Tadiello, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The performance of three integrated wetland treatment plants (horizontal sub-surface flow (h-SSF) and floating treatment wetland (FTW) with differentiated primary treatments) designed for treating domestic wastewater was investigated, monitoring total (TN), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), total (TP) and phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P), chemical (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and dissolved oxygen (DO) at the inlet and outlet of each wetland section from February 2011 to June 2012. Sediments settled in the FTW were collected and analyzed. The growth of plants in each system was also monitored, observing their general conditions. The chemical-physical characteristics of the pretreated domestic wastewater depended on the primary treatment installed. During the monitoring period we observed different reduction performance of the wetland sector in the three sites. In general, the wetland systems demonstrated the capacity to reduce TN, COD, BOD5 and Escherichia coli, whereas NO3-N and NH4-N removal was strictly influenced by the chemical conditions, in particular DO concentration, in the h-SSF and FTW. Vegetation (Phragmites australis, Alnus glutinosa and Salix eleagnos) was well established in the h-SSF as well as in the floating elements (Iris pseudacorus), although there were some signs of predation. FTW is a relatively novel wetland system, so the results obtained from this study can pave the way for the application of this technology. PMID:24037167

  16. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  17. The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy).

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko

    2009-03-01

    The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers.

  18. Analysis of seismological and geological observations formoderate-size earthquakes: the Colfiorito Fault System(Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Salvatore; Basili, Roberto

    2000-04-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the relationships between moderate earthquakes and the faults that are recognizable in the geological record, we analysed seismological and geological data related to the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) earthquake swarm. The seismological recordings, collected by local networks, allowed accurate location of about 1000 events, whereas the geological field observations provided a picture of the structural features and the ground-surface deformations. We also re-examined and used some published data and results, mostly about the fault plane solutions and the geology. On the basis of earthquake locations, fault plane solutions, and geological mapping we explored the possible correlation between the earthquake causative fault planes and the normal faults exposed in the area. Our results show that the two main shocks that occurred on 1997 September 26 (MW=5.7 and MW=6.0) originated on the same structure, reactivating at depth the Colfiorito normal faults. Neither rupture propagated up to the ground surface, but both triggered gravitational sliding that occurred along pre-existing fault scarps. The earthquake that occurred on 1997 October 14 (MW=5.6) originated on another fault branch at a much shallower depth. In spite of its lower magnitude, this earthquake produced tectonic ruptures where the fault plane projects to the surface in an area where no faults were previously mapped. By comparing the palaeostress reconstruction, based on slickenside lineation analysis, and the focal mechanism solutions, we suggest a possible correlation between the long-term (Early Middle Pleistocene) cumulative effects of the Colfiorito Fault System and the short-term behaviour of the fault planes observed during this earthquake swarm, favouring the idea of a seismogenic source producing clustered moderate-size earthquakes rather than large events scattered in time.

  19. Is Radon Emission in Caves Causing Deletions in Satellite DNA Sequences of Cave-Dwelling Crickets?

    PubMed Central

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration. PMID:25822625

  20. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    PubMed

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  1. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  2. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  3. Land system change in Italy from 1884 to 2007: Analysing the North–South divergence on the basis of an integrated indicator framework☆

    PubMed Central

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Erb, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    Over the past centuries, land systems in Italy experienced fundamental shifts, owing to the availability of new energy forms, population surges, and technological progress. The 20th century was characterized by massive productivity increases, accompanied by gradual land abandonment and the return of forest land. We here analyze 120 years of land system change in Italy, applying the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) framework, a metric for socio-economic pressures on terrestrial ecosystems. HANPP allows integrating ecological with societal perspectives, by systematically quantifying (a) biomass harvest and (b) the difference between potential productivity of ecosystems and current productivity induced by land use processes, such as land conversion, or land degradation. Besides assessing national trends we calculated HANPP separately for the Italian North and South between 1934 and 2007, in order to scrutinize if high regional discrepancies in terms of natural and socio-economic preconditions translate into diverging land system trajectories. Our results show that national HANPP has been declining from 78% of natural productivity before WWII to 56% in 2007, indicating a declining land -use induced pressure on biomass flows over time. Simultaneously, biomass harvest increased by around 26% due to agricultural intensification, despite shrinking croplands. Although we found a significant difference between the Northern and Southern region in the absolute levels of several land use indicators related to biomass appropriation, the overarching trends of land system change were remarkably similar in both regions. This suggests that underlying drivers of land system change, such as policies aimed at land-use intensification and structural change were equally dominating land system trajectories in the North and South of Italy, not withstanding their socio-ecological divergences. PMID:25844007

  4. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  5. Drilling of Submarine Shallow-water Hydrothermal Systems in Volcanic Arcs of the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S.; Augustin, N.; de Benedetti, A.; Esposito, A.; Gaertner, A.; Gemmell, B.; Gibson, H.; He, G.; Huegler, M.; Kleeberg, R.; Kuever, J.; Kummer, N. A.; Lackschewitz, K.; Lappe, F.; Monecke, T.; Perrin, K.; Peters, M.; Sharpe, R.; Simpson, K.; Smith, D.; Wan, B.

    2007-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems related to volcanic arcs are known from several localities in the Tyrrhenian Sea in water depths ranging from 650 m (Palinuro Seamount) to less than 50 m (Panarea). At Palinuro Seamount 13 holes (<5m) were drilled using Rockdrill 1 of the British Geological Survey 1 into the heavily sediment-covered deposit recovering 11 m of semi-massive to massive sulfides. Maximum recovery within a single core was 4.8 m of massive sulfides/sulfates with abundant late native sulfur overprint. The deposit is open to all sides and to depth since all drill holes ended in mineralization. Metal enrichment at the top of the deposit is evident in some cores with polymetallic (Zn, Pb, Ag) sulfides overlying more massive and dense pyritic ore. The massive sulfide mineralization at Palinuro Seamount contains a number of unusual minerals, including enargite, tennantite, luzonite, and Ag-sulfosalts, that are not commonly encountered in mid-ocean ridge massive sulfides. In analogy to epithermal deposits forming on land, the occurrence of these minerals suggests a high sulfidation state of the hydrothermal fluids during deposition implying that the mineralizing fluids were acidic and oxidizing rather than near-neutral and reducing as those forming typical base metal rich massive sulfides along mid-ocean ridges. Oxidizing conditions during sulfide deposition can probably be related to the presence of magmatic volatiles in the mineralizing fluids that may be derived from a degassing magma chamber. Elevated temperatures within sediment cores and TV-grab stations (up to 60°C) indicate present day hydrothermal fluid flow. This is also indicated by the presence of small tube-worm bushes present on top the sediment. A number of drill holes were placed around the known phreatic gas-rich vents of Panarea and recovered intense clay-alteration in some holes as well as abundant massive anhydrite/gypsum with only trace sulfides along a structural depression suggesting the

  6. The classification of AIDS cases: concordance between two AIDS surveillance systems in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Serraino, D; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Lepri, A C; Tirelli, U; Rezza, G

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the concordance between the transmission classification of 725 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases by the Italian AIDS Registry (the national surveillance system) and the classification of the same cases by the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS-Related Tumors. A high degree of concordance emerged for intravenous drug users in both sexes (kappa = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.92), for homosexual men (kappa = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.87), and for persons infected through contaminated blood or blood derivatives (kappa = 1.00). The concordance was lower among heterosexual men (kappa = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.65) and especially among men whose risk group was not determined (kappa = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.44). The discrepancies observed among heterosexual men indicate a need for continuing and accurate monitoring of AIDS reporting by transmission category. PMID:7625506

  7. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni. PMID:25586611

  8. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  9. Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knierim, Katherine Joy; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. Water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3/s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC decreased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow

  10. The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

    1989-01-01

    A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San

  11. Numerical Modeling of Thermal-Geochemical Processes in the Hydrothermal System of Pantelleria Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellani, S.; Gherardi, F.

    2009-12-01

    The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean, (about 100 km from Sicily and 70 km from Tunisia), represents the emergent part of a quiescent Quaternary volcano. It has been affected by an intense recent volcano-tectonic activity. The rocks outcropping on the island are mainly lavas and pyroclastic deposits, mostly represented by pantellerites and trachytes. Surface geothermal manifestations are diffused in Pantelleria, with fumaroles, mofettes and hot springs with temperatures up to 98 °C. Since the 60s’, a number of pre-feasibility studies was carried out on the island, which underwent an extensive geothermal exploration during the early 90s’. The results of the exploration revealed a very promising zone in the southern part of the island, where the main geothermal manifestations are concentrated. Temperatures above 250°C were measured in exploratory drillings down to 1100 m b.g.l. (well PPT1). The intrusion of pure seawater likely occurs throughout the island, and deep geothermal reservoir recharge appears to be predominantly of marine origin, though contributions from meteoric water are also possible. A conceptual model of the system has been set up on the basis of a wide set of geological, geophysical and geochemical data obtained during the surveys. The TOUGHREACT simulator was used for the water-rock reaction simulations. A plug-flow model has been used to perform non-isothermal calculations. Boundary thermal conditions have been calibrated according to heat flow measurements and well temperature data. Water-rock interactions have been evaluated in successive steps. First, the saturation states of minerals of sampled geothermal fluids were computed at reservoir temperatures to determine the mineral phases which would likely be dissolving or precipitating. The composition of “synthetic”, nearly-equilibrated waters likely occurring at depth within the reservoir has been then numerically reconstructed. Next, the

  12. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-02-01

    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  13. Some reservoir engineering calculations for the vapor-dominated system at Larderello, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    Various reservoir properties are calculated for the Larderello vapor-dominated system using available published data. Bottom-hole flowing properties are calculated from measured wellhead data. Whereas wellhead temperatures measured at a particular time tend to change systematically with changes in flow and pressure, calculated bottom-hole temperatures tend to be constant for two sample wells; while for a third, bottom-hole temperatures decrease with increasing flow. Bottom-hole temperatures calculated from wellhead data taken over several years can be constant, increase, or decrease for particular wells. A steady-state model for steam flow to a well is used with calculated bottom-hole data to show that the effect of non-Darcy flow is important. The initial mass of fluid in place for the northeast zone of Larderello (56 km2) is estimated, using data on shut-in pressures and total mass production. Reservoir thickness needed to store this mass of fluid is calculated as a function of porosity and initial fraction of water in pores. Representative values are 19 km of thickness, assuming 5% porosity with steam alone, and 832 m, assuming 20% porosity and 10% of pore volume as liquid water.

  14. Morphological Evolution of Coexisting Amphipod Species Pairs from Sulfidic Caves Suggests Competitive Interactions and Character Displacement, but No Environmental Filtering and Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Fišer, Cene; Luštrik, Roman; Sarbu, Serban; Flot, Jean-François; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypically similar species coexisting in extreme environments like sulfidic water are subject to two opposing eco-evolutionary processes: those favoring similarity of environment-specific traits, and those promoting differences of traits related to resource use. The former group of processes includes ecological filtering and convergent or parallel evolution, the latter competitive exclusion, character displacement and divergent evolution. We used a unique eco-evolutionary study system composed of two independent pairs of coexisting amphipod species (genus Niphargus) from the sulfidic caves Movile in Romania and Frasassi in Italy to study the relative contribution and interaction of both processes. We looked at the shape of the multifunctional ventral channel as a trait ostensibly related to oxygenation and sulfide detoxification, and at body size as a resource-related trait. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the sulfidic caves were colonized separately by ancestors of each species. Species within pairs were more dissimilar in their morphology than expected according to a null model based on regional species pool. This might indicate competitive interactions shaping the morphology of these amphipod species. Moreover, our results suggest that the shape of the ventral channel is not subject to long-term convergent selection or to the process of environmental filtering, and as such probably does not play a role in sulfide tolerance. Nevertheless, the ancestral conditions reconstructed using the comparative method tended to be more similar than null-model expectations. This shift in patterns may reflect a temporal hierarchy of eco-evolutionary processes, in which initial environmental filtering became later on superseded by character displacement or other competition-driven divergent evolutionary processes. PMID:25905793

  15. Morphological evolution of coexisting amphipod species pairs from sulfidic caves suggests competitive interactions and character displacement, but no environmental filtering and convergence.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Cene; Luštrik, Roman; Sarbu, Serban; Flot, Jean-François; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypically similar species coexisting in extreme environments like sulfidic water are subject to two opposing eco-evolutionary processes: those favoring similarity of environment-specific traits, and those promoting differences of traits related to resource use. The former group of processes includes ecological filtering and convergent or parallel evolution, the latter competitive exclusion, character displacement and divergent evolution. We used a unique eco-evolutionary study system composed of two independent pairs of coexisting amphipod species (genus Niphargus) from the sulfidic caves Movile in Romania and Frasassi in Italy to study the relative contribution and interaction of both processes. We looked at the shape of the multifunctional ventral channel as a trait ostensibly related to oxygenation and sulfide detoxification, and at body size as a resource-related trait. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the sulfidic caves were colonized separately by ancestors of each species. Species within pairs were more dissimilar in their morphology than expected according to a null model based on regional species pool. This might indicate competitive interactions shaping the morphology of these amphipod species. Moreover, our results suggest that the shape of the ventral channel is not subject to long-term convergent selection or to the process of environmental filtering, and as such probably does not play a role in sulfide tolerance. Nevertheless, the ancestral conditions reconstructed using the comparative method tended to be more similar than null-model expectations. This shift in patterns may reflect a temporal hierarchy of eco-evolutionary processes, in which initial environmental filtering became later on superseded by character displacement or other competition-driven divergent evolutionary processes.

  16. The combined Fog Monitoring System of ARPAV over the Veneto Region, Po Valley - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenichini, F.; Rossa, A.; Zardini, F.; Monai, M.; Calza, M.; Della Valle, A.; Gaspari, V.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of fog is a frequent problem in the Po Valley. The consequent reduction in visibility has a strong impact on the road, air, ship and railway traffic. Both, fog monitoring and forecasting, constitute significant challenges, not least due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the phenomenon. ARPAV (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto) is the regional meteorological service of the north-eastern Italian region Veneto and, as such, is responsible for meteorological support to institutional and private users. Real-time visibility information over an extended area would represent an interesting product for road and transport safety. In the framework of the FP7 project Roadidea, (14 partners from 8 different countries, Dec 2007 - Aug 2010) on road safety and traffic control ARPAV developed pilot system for the fog monitoring. The main idea of this fog monitoring methodology is to merge information derived from different observation platforms, i.e. satellite low stratus cloud classification, direct visibility monitoring, statistical estimation of low visibility from meteorological parameters at the ground. This information is translated into probability maps of fog occurrence and information weight on a common grid (4x4 km) covering the flat portion of the region Veneto. These weights are used to combine the three data sources into the final fog probability map. A probabilistic verification applied to the fog monitoring product yields encouraging results, and is systematically more skillfull than the fog probabilities derived from the individual data sources. First real-time products are now available on the ARPAV Fog Pilot website for a group of specific users (motorway head office, road police, national railways and others) and are under testing.

  17. Palaeohydrology of a 3D-maze cave (Hermannshöhle, Lower Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Andrea; Plan, Lukas

    2013-04-01

    The 4.4 km-long Hermannshöhle (located in Kirchberg/Wechsel, Lower Austria) is one of the largest caves in the Lower Austroalpine Unit. It is developed in an isolated block of carbonate marble, taking up only 140 x 160 m of ground area and 73 m of elevation difference. The cave is unusual in two respects: (a) its dense network of corridors is arranged in a three-dimensional maze and (b) the most outstanding macro- and micromorphologic features were caused by paragenesis. Speleothems are abundant throughout the cave comprising flowstones, dripstones, helictites, popcorn, calcite rafts, a shield, and moonmilk. Even though most passages are canyon-shaped, the cave shows exclusively phreatic features. Sediment fills are abundant as well, mostly covering the floor of passages to an unknown depth, containing mainly allochthonous material, i.e. schists and gneisses. Besides some vadose dripwater the cave is dry today. A conspicuous feature is the lack of a single water path and instead a maze with multiple flow paths formed. Another interesting feature is that one part of the cave developed below the nearby Ramsbach brook but is still dry. There are small ponors reported from the Ramsbach brook (which were observed during river regulation) indicating an actively draining karst system, which is not yet explored. The aim of this study was to enlighten the palaeohydrology of this cave using morphological and sedimentological observations as well as U/Th dating of speleothems. First results show that the palaeo-environment and the hydrologic setting of the Hermannshöhle were drastically different from today. Undersaturated water sourced from nearby non-karstic gneisses and schists gave rise to well-developed contact karst features. Surprisingly the palaeo flow direction deduced from indicators like scallops and sediment structures was opposite to the flow direction of the present nearby brooks (Rams- and Feistrizbach). Following pulses of clastic sediment input a distinct

  18. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  19. Integrated monitoring system for ground deformation hazard assessment in Telese Terme (Benevento province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Castiello, G.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Fuschini, V.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    TeleseTerme plain is characterized by a very articulated stratigraphy (levels of travertine, fluvial-marshy and pyroclastic deposits), that allows the occurrence of underground water circulation with overlapping aquifers. These aquifers are locally in pressure and, because of chemical characteristics and physical properties of the water, they may activate processes of accelerated travertine's corrosion; the consequence is the formation of cavity along the ground water's preferential flow paths, and the activation of subsidence and sinkholes phenomena. In particular test area includes two zones, where in 2002 and 2006 occurred two sinkholes events, classified as "piping sinkholes". The hazard evaluation was carried out trhought an integrated monitoring system, based on "traditional" techniques conduced "in situ", as geological-geomorphological and geophysical (microgravity) surveys, integrated by the most innovative techniques of Remote sensing interferometry(Advanced DInSAR Interferometry Techniques). The last allow to evaluate the ground deformation, characterized by a predominantvertical component (typical deformation of sinkholes and subsidence phenomena), and are well suited to operate a continuous and long monitoring ofvery extended areas. Through an initial analysis of the Permanent Scatterers available in the Telese municipality, we found the envelopes of the areal that contain PS with negative and positive mean velocities; these velocities showed the presence of a possible phenomenon of subsidence detected by ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Through interferometric processing of ENVISAT images, the soil deformations of 2002-2010 year sare evaluated and compared with the data obtainedby survey took "in situ" during the same period. The knowledge of the deformation's evolution of the area made it possible to organize a more focused future monitoring through traditional techniques of relief (with the help of geophysical methodologies). Since the zone affected by

  20. Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then

  1. 43 CFR 37.11 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... administrative review or appeal under 43 CFR part 4. (h) If a cave is determined to be significant, its entire... significant caves. 37.11 Section 37.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.11 Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves....

  2. The transport of CO2 into central Texas caves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breecker, D.; Banner, J. L.; Larson, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that CO2 is flushed out of caves by seasonal or synoptic temperature- and barometric pressure-driven ventilation. The mechanism by which CO2 is transported into caves is not as well studied and must be understood in order to quantify carbon (C) cycling through caves, soils and epikarst. Transport mechanisms into caves include gas and aqueous phase (i.e. drip-water) transport. We interpret δ13C values of cave-air CO2 and O2/Ar ratios of cave-air in order to distinguish between these transport mechanisms in three central Texas caves. Gas phase transport might allow cave-air to be used as a simple proxy for otherwise largely inaccessible epikarst air. Drip-water transport might allow measurements of individual drips to be scaled up to cave-integrated assessment of water flux, calcite precipitation, and degassing-related isotope fractionation using measurements of cave-air CO2. We start by assuming gas phase transport and then evaluate the consistency of the results. We apply to cave-air CO2 the theory for steady state soil CO2 transport, which involves mixing with atmospheric air and isotope fractionation by diffusion. This allows calculation of the C isotope composition of the reduced C source for cave-air CO2 (δ13Cr). Calculated cave-air δ13Cr values are consistent with observed soil δ13Cr values. For instance, where trees are evenly distributed at the surface, cave-air δ13Cr values (-24‰) remained within 1‰ of tree-dominated soil δ13Cr values and were 3.5 to 4.5 ‰ lower than grass-dominated soil δ13Cr values, suggesting that trees are the dominant C source. This internally consistent explanation suggests that CO2 diffuses and/or advects into these caves as a gas because aqueous transport into caves would likely result in different cave-air and soil δ13Cr values, as described next. The magnitude of the CO2(g) -HCO3-(aq) carbon isotope per mil fractionation factor is -8.4 ‰ at 20.5°C, the mean Inner Space Cavern drip

  3. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity and seismic surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. The gravity method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. Seismic tomography treats the problem of identifying a buried structure as a wave propagation process by inverting the linearized wave equation to compute the spatial distribution of the slowness of the velocity. The purpose of our tomographic study is to further test the method and to guide archaeologists in their future excavations by locating and identifying buried structures. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible

  4. AQUAPORIN-MEDIATED CHANGES IN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF DEEP TREE ROOTS ACCESSED VIA CAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deep roots can contribute substantially to whole-tree water use, little is known about deep-root functioning because of limited access for in situ measurements. We used a cave system on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas to investigate the physiology of water transport in roots at 18-20 ...

  5. AQUAPORIN-MEDIATED CHANGES IN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF DEEP TREE ROOTS ACCESSED VIA CAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deep roots can contribute substantially to whole-tree water use, little is known about deep root functioning because of limited access for in situ measurements. We used a cave system on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas to investigate the physiology of water transport in roots at 18-20 ...

  6. Cave-fills in Miocene-Pliocene strata on Cayman Brac, British West Indies: Implications for the geological evolution of an isolated oceanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian

    2016-07-01

    An 8-m-high wall in a quarry on the west end of Cayman Brac exposes the upper part of the Cayman Formation (Miocene), the lower part of the overlying Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene), and the Cayman Unconformity, which is a karstic unconformity that separates these formations. The modern-day karst surface caps the Pedro Castle Formation. This exposure also includes cross-sections through two filled caves-the "Lower Cave" (> 8 m long, up to 2.5 m high) and "Upper Cave" (> 23 m long, up to 2 m high)-that are housed in the Cayman Formation and Pedro Castle Formation, respectively. The Lower Cave is filled with caymanite, which is formed of laminated, varicolored dolomitized mudstones, and grainstones that contain scattered marine fossils (e.g., foraminifera, red algae). This cave, connected to the Cayman Unconformity by a small-diameter tunnel, evolved as part of the karst system that developed during the Messinian lowstand (7.3-5.3 Ma). The cave was filled and dolomitized prior to deposition of the Pedro Castle Formation. The Upper Cave is filled with a wide spectrum of lithotypes, including dolostones, calcareous mudstones, terra rossa, gastropod coquina, coated grains, and speleothems. U/Th dating indicates that some of the flowstones are > 500,000 years old whereas others are only ~ 21,000 years old. Dolostones and mudstones in the basal part of the Upper Cave contain marine fossils (foraminifera, red algae) whereas the younger deposits are devoid of such fossils. The Upper Cave and its deposits developed after the sediments of the Pedro Castle Formation had been deposited and lithified. Development of the cave filling deposits, which includes a clear transition from marine to non-marine influences, was controlled by eustatic sea-level changes and/or westward tectonic tilting of Cayman Brac that occurred after the Pedro Castle Formation became exposed, probably during the Late Pliocene.

  7. Next generation phylogeography of cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Lyndon M; Darrin Hulsey, C; Chaves-Campos, Johel; García de Leon, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traits is a commonly observed evolutionary pattern in cave organisms, but due to extensive morphological convergence, inferring relationships between cave and surface populations can be difficult. For instance, Astyanax mexicanus (the blind Mexican cavefish) is thought to have repeatedly lost its eyes following colonization of cave environments, but the number of evolutionarily independent invasions of this species into caves remains unclear. Because of these repeated losses, it has become a model organism for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic trait loss. Here we reconstruct a high-resolution phylogeography for A. mexicanus inferred from both mitochondrial DNA and several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. We provide novel insight into the origin of cave populations from the Sabinos and Río Subterráneo caves and present evidence that the Sabinos cave population is part of a unique cave lineage unrelated to other A. mexicanus cave populations. Our results indicate A. mexicanus cave populations have at least four independent origins. PMID:25014568

  8. Exploring caves: teaching packet for grades K-3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    "Exploring Caves" is an interdisciplinary set of materials on caves for grades K-3. Caves entail at least five scientific disciplines: earth science, hydrology, mapping, biology, and anthropology. Each of these disciplines involves a unique content area as well as the development of particular intellectual skills. This unit aims at helping teachers to sort and organize the most important ideas in this rich scientific area. Detailed lesson plans serve as ways to pass these ideas on to very young students. Most American caves are big holes that form in limestone rock. The holes begin as cracks in limestone. The cracks get bigger and bigger. They grow into underground streams, rivers, and even lakes. When water drains away, the waterways turn into open cave tunnels, passages, and caverns. It takes 10,000 to 100,000 years to form a cave big enough for people to move around inside. Water drips constantly in caves. The drips dissolve limestone minerals in one part of the cave. As water dries out, the minerals build up in other places. In this way, beautiful cave rock formations and crystals grow over thousands of years. These rock formations change dark limestone caves into hidden fantasy lands.

  9. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  10. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L N; Miller, Ana Z; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  11. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to <700 μS/cm at the bottom of the cave. Under these conditions variability of cave water temperature was less than 0.1 °C, although a 0.4 °C long-term variability was recorded. These data shows that the discharge of freshwater to the estuary determines the dynamic of this submerged cave, limiting the influence of estuarine water intrusion in the coastal aquifer and the impact of tides. This research shows that temperature is a

  12. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith E; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways--either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution-spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems.

  13. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways—either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution—spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

  14. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  15. Gravity combined with laser-scan in Grotta Gigante: a benchmark cave for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivetta, Tommaso; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Laser scanning has become one of the most important topographic techniques in the last decades, due to its ability to reconstruct complex surfaces with high resolution and precision and due to its fast acquisition time. Recently a laser-scan survey has been acquired (Fingolo et al., 2011) in the "Grotta Gigante" cave near Trieste, Italy, the biggest cave worldwide according to the Guinness Awards. In this paper this survey is used to obtain a 3D discretization of the cave with prisms. Then through this new model, with the densities derived from campaign measurements, the exact gravimetric effect of the structure was computed (Nagy et al., 2000) and compared with the gravity observation at the surface. The transition from the cloud of laser-scan points to the prism model was carried out by different computer elaborations; first of all the reduction of the data density through an averaging process that allows to pass from over 10000 points/m2 to less than 10points/m2. Then the whole dataset was filtered from the outliers by the means of a simple quadratic surface that fit the data (Turner, 1999). The reduced data points should be divided into the 2 surfaces of top and bottom, that are used to define the prisms. This step was performed using the local regression method (Loess) to calculate a surface located halfway between top and bottom points. Once the top and bottom interfaces were obtained it was possible to get the final prism representation and calculate the gravity signal. The observed Bouguer field is explained very well by our model and the residuals are used to evaluate possible secondary caves. The final prism model together with the gravity database on surface and inside the cave form a perfect benchmark to test forward and inverse potential field algorithms. References Fingolo M., Facco L., Ceccato A., Breganze C., Paganini P., Cezza M., Grotta Gigante di Trieste. Tra realtà virtuale e rilievi 3D ad alta risoluzione, Veneto Geologi, 75, pp.21-25, 2011

  16. Glacial culmination and decay sequences: new data from a core in the Ivrea end-moraine system (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Franco; Forno, Maria Gabriella; Hajdas, Irka; Monegato, Giovanni; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    The Ivrea end-moraine system extends on a surface of about 500 kmq at the outlet of the Aosta Valley, being one of the largest amphitheatres on the southern side of the Alps. Along with the Rivoli-Avigliana amphitheatre, the Ivrea end-moraine system was the first to be studied in Italy during the XIX century, drawing the attention of several scientists from all over Europe for its impressive geomorphology. Most part of the stratigraphic researches on the Ivrea amphitheatre was traditionally performed on outcrops. In 2013 a 55-m long continuous core was drilled (ProGEO Project) in the western flank of the system, choosing an inward palaeolake location (Torre Canavese) related to the damming by one of the main terminal moraine, within a wide group of moraines whose age is still debated (the so called "Serra Synthem"). The aim was to make available a complete stratigraphic record of the ice-contact lake developed inward to the moraine at time of glacial culmination, or shortly later. This core crossed the entire local glacigenic succession down to the preglacial substrate at 53 m depth. Hopefully, the geochronometric and stratigraphic information obtained from this lake succession may provide time constrains for the glacial culmination. The Torre Canavese core displays a double sequence of subglacial till passing to glaciolacustrine and finally to fully lacustrine conditions. At its base, the sequence preserves a 12-m thick glacial till, resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels coming from a different catchment. A lacustrine unit made of laminated silty-clayey sands extends from 41.6 to 29 m depth, directly resting over the glacial till. As shown by a radiocarbon AMS age, this unit is older than 45 ka cal BP. An overconsolidated, 19-m thick glacial till lays on this lacustrine unit and is covered by a further, uppermost lacustrine unit from 10.26 to 0.34 m depth. A thin Holocene alluvial layer ends the sequence at the top. Both lacustrine units were sampled for

  17. A Biosignature Suite from Cave Pool Precipitates, Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melim, L. A.; Liescheidt, R.; Northup, D. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Boston, P. J.; Queen, J. M.

    2009-11-01

    Calcite cave pool precipitates often display a variety of potential biosignatures from the macroscopic to the submicroscopic. A fossil cave pool in Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico, exhibits older stalactites and stalagmites that are completely coated in brown, laminated calcitic crust that extends down as pool fingers and u-loops. The pool fingers and u-loops are mainly micrite to clotted micrite, some recrystallized to microspar, with some isopachous spar layers. Micrite, particularly clotted micrite, is usually interpreted by carbonate workers as microbial in origin. Scanning electron microscopy examination of etched pool fingers, u-loops, and the brown crust revealed abundant calcified microbial filaments and biofilm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that these features have excess carbon, above that found in pure calcite. Independent carbon analysis indicated that these same samples contain up to 0.2% organic carbon. Since pool fingers hang down but form underwater, we hypothesize they are biogenic with hanging microbial filaments or biofilm acting as nuclei for calcite precipitation. Because of the abundance of micrite and fossil filaments, we further hypothesize that these pendant features formed during a period of plentiful nutrients and active hydrological activity when the pool was literally dripping with microbial slime. Although each of these lines of evidence could be interpreted in other ways, their combined weight strongly suggests the cave pool precipitates in Cottonwood Cave are biogenic. These investigations can be used to help inform extraterrestrial life-detection studies.

  18. A biosignature suite from cave pool precipitates, Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Melim, L A; Liescheidt, R; Northup, D E; Spilde, M N; Boston, P J; Queen, J M

    2009-11-01

    Calcite cave pool precipitates often display a variety of potential biosignatures from the macroscopic to the submicroscopic. A fossil cave pool in Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico, exhibits older stalactites and stalagmites that are completely coated in brown, laminated calcitic crust that extends down as pool fingers and u-loops. The pool fingers and u-loops are mainly micrite to clotted micrite, some recrystallized to microspar, with some isopachous spar layers. Micrite, particularly clotted micrite, is usually interpreted by carbonate workers as microbial in origin. Scanning electron microscopy examination of etched pool fingers, u-loops, and the brown crust revealed abundant calcified microbial filaments and biofilm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that these features have excess carbon, above that found in pure calcite. Independent carbon analysis indicated that these same samples contain up to 0.2% organic carbon. Since pool fingers hang down but form underwater, we hypothesize they are biogenic with hanging microbial filaments or biofilm acting as nuclei for calcite precipitation. Because of the abundance of micrite and fossil filaments, we further hypothesize that these pendant features formed during a period of plentiful nutrients and active hydrological activity when the pool was literally dripping with microbial slime. Although each of these lines of evidence could be interpreted in other ways, their combined weight strongly suggests the cave pool precipitates in Cottonwood Cave are biogenic. These investigations can be used to help inform extraterrestrial life-detection studies.

  19. Monitoring the Lavina di Roncovetro (RE, Italy) landslide by integrating traditional monitoring systems and multiple high-resolution topographic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2016-04-01

    Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide is located in the Enza Valley (Reggio Emilia, Italy). It extends from the top of Mount Staffola down to the Tassobbio River. Since the clay fraction is dominant, it follows that the landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the last 20 years, about 100,000 m3 of bedrock descended from the main scarp into the landslide body. The total volume of the landslide is inferred to be of ~ 3×106 m3. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033), the Roncovetro landslide is periodically monitored by traditional monitoring systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey. In addition, an airborne LIDAR survey and a photographic acquisition from a small aircraft were carried out on April 2014 and October 2014, respectively. The traditional monitoring system consists of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey and a robotized total station (RTS). TLS acquisitions have focused on the upper and more active sector of the earthflow and were carried out since May 2014. By comparing TLS data taken at different times, the general deformational field of the landslide can be reconstructed and the displacements affecting the retaining structures built on the landslide crown quantified. The time resolution of both TLS and RTS acquisition is about 6 per year. . Three high-resolution photogrammetric surveys performed using an UAV were carried out on November 2014, July 2015 and January 2016. Starting from the acquired photos and applying photogrammetry and Structure From Motion (SFM) algorithms integrated in the Photoscan Agisoft software, the high-resolution 3D models of the

  20. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  1. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Lively, R S; Krafthefer, B C

    1995-04-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4-h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature-induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  2. Petroleum systems of the Po Basin Province of northern Italy and the northern Adriatic Sea; Porto Garibaldi (biogenic), Meride/Riva di Solto (thermal), and Marnoso Arenacea (thermal)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Porto Garibaldi total petroleum system dominates the Po Basin Province of onshore northern Italy and offshore Italy and Croatia in the northern Adriatic Sea. Porto Garibaldi contains Pliocene (primarily) and Pleistocene (secondarily) biogenic gas ? approximately 16 TCF (2.66 BBOE) ultimately recoverable ? accumulated in co-eval siliciclastic reservoirs. This area was the northwestern edge of the Gondwanan (African) continental plate in pre-Hercynian time until the assembly of Pangea, a dominantly carbonate passive continental margin during the Mesozoic breakup of Pangea, and a Cenozoic collision zone with siliciclastic foredeep and foreland regions surrounded by thrust belts. At least two other petroleum systems, with Triassic (Meride / Riva di Solto) and Miocene (Marnoso Arenacea) source rocks, contribute oil and thermal gas reserves (nearly 1 BBOE) to the province. The major time of hydrocarbon expulsion of the thermal systems was Late Neogene during the Alpine and Apennine orogenies. Local Mesozoic oil expulsion from Triassic rocks also occurred, but those oils either were not trapped or were leaked from faulty traps through time.

  3. Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J.J.; Pleytez, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cave ecosystems are considered one of the most poorly studied and fragile systems on Earth. Belize caves are no exception. This paper represents the first effort to synthesize information on both invertebrate and vertebrate observations from a Belize cave. Based on limited field research and a review of literature, we identified two ecologically sensitive areas, and developed a species inventory list containing 41 vertebrate and invertebrate morphospecies in Actun Chapat, Vaca Plateau, west-central Belize. Actun Chapat contains two ecologically sensitive areas: (1) a large multiple species bat roost, and (2) a subterranean pool containing troglobites and stygobites. The inventory list is a product of sporadic research conducted between 1973 and 2001. Ecological research in this cave system remains incomplete. An intensive systematic ecological survey of Actun Chapat with data collection over multiple seasons using a suite of survey techniques will provide a more complete inventory list. To minimize human disturbance to the ecologically sensitive areas, associated with ecotourism, we recommend limited to no access in the areas identified as "sensitive".

  4. Toxicity and Geochemistry of Missouri Cave Stream Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, C. A.; Besser, J.; Wicks, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Water and sediment quality are among the most important variables affecting the survival of stygobites. In Tumbling Creek Cave, Taney County Missouri the population of the endangered cave snail, Antrobia culveri, has declined significantly over the past decade. The cause of the population decline is unknown but could be related to the quality of streambed sediment in which the cave snail lives. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment of Tumbling Creek Cave and five other caves in Missouri. These sediments were analyzed to assess possible point sources from within the recharge areas of the caves and to provide baseline geochemical data to which Tumbling Creek Cave sediments could be compared. Standard sediment toxicity tests and ICP-MS analysis for heavy metals were conducted. Survival and reproduction of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, did not differ significantly between cave sediments and a control sediment. However the growth of amphipods differed significantly among sites and was significantly reduced in sediments from Tumbling Creek Cave relative to controls. Concentrations of several metals in sediments differed substantially among locations, with elevated levels of zinc and copper occurring in Tumbling Creek Cave. However, none of the measured metal concentrations exceeded sediment quality guidelines derived to predict probable effects on benthic organisms and correlations between sediment metal concentrations and toxicity endpoints were generally weak. While elevated metal levels may play a part in the cave snail's decline, other factors may be of equal or greater importance. Ongoing analyses of persistent organic contaminants and total organic carbon in cave sediments, along with continued water quality monitoring, may provide data that will allow us to better understand this complicated problem.

  5. An American scientist visits the Altamira cave in northern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-12-01

    The Altamira Cave is internationally known for its remarkable Stone Age paintings. It is located in the brow of a hill overlooking the village of Santillana del Mar which is nestled among green rolling hills near the coast of northern Spain. This report gives a brief description of the Cave and its paintings, the nature of the deterioration that has resulted in the closing of the cave to tourists, and the scientific studies being undertaken to help preserve the paintings.

  6. BELLE STARR CAVE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Belle Starr Cave Wilderness Study Area in Arkansas concluded that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the area. There is a probable resource potential for small quantities of natural gas. A coal bed that underlies the area contains demonstrated coal resources of about 22. 5 million tons in a bed that averages less than 28 in. thick. Despite its contained coal, this area is not shown as having a coal resource potential.

  7. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  8. Cave biosignature suites: microbes, minerals, and Mars.

    PubMed

    Boston, P J; Spilde, M N; Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Soroka, D S; Kleina, L G; Lavoie, K H; Hose, L D; Mallory, L M; Dahm, C N; Crossey, L J; Schelble, R T

    2001-01-01

    Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries--demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

  9. The Fire Distinguisher: a Baseline Study of Semi-Arid Karst Drip Waters in Wildman's Cave at Wombeyan, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of fire on karst systems in a semi-arid environment. There is limited knowledge of hydrological and geochemical changes that result from a fire over a karst system. Soil science literature has shown that fire can change surface properties and from this it has been hypothesized that these impacts will be mirrored in an underlying cave (see Figure). This project is the first phase of a pre/post-fire study of organic matter, drip rates, trace metal composition, and stable isotope composition changes in a semi-arid cave system. This project aims establishes the baseline hydrogeochemical processes at Wildman's cave, at Wombeyan in NSW, Australia. The Wildman's cave site has not been studied previously, so this study adds to expanding literature on cave systems. This pre-fire monitoring provides a new dataset for semiarid karst processes. We report the first 8 months of an ongoing dataset, obtained through collection of dripwater samples, with drip loggers indicating drip rates over the same period. Dripwaters were analysed for pH and EC, cation/anion content, organic matter content and stable isotope composition. Following the successful completion of this baseline study, post fire data will be obtained via a controlled burn. This will expand on current knowledge of the use of speleothems as accurate records of past climates and fire history.

  10. Legal protection for caves in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, G. N.

    1995-09-01

    This study reviews significant state and federal laws that can be used to protect karst, caves, and associated unique minerals and biota. The first state cave protection act was passed in Colorado in 1883; unfortunately it was repealed in 1971. From that modest beginning there are now a total of 22 states, Puerto Rico, and the Cherokee Nation that have specific cave protection acts. Most of these have been legislated during the last 20 years. There are a number of laws on the federal level that can be used for cave protection. The most important of these is the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, which mandates cave conservation for many federal land management agencies. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Federal Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1976 can also be of significant use in the conservation of caves on federal land. The effects of these acts are variable. One factor is how important agency officials and law enforcement officers regard caves. It has not been unusual that little was done in the way of protection or prosecution even when the perpetrators have been apprehended. This attitude is changing rapidly primarily because those involved in enforcing the laws have been educated to the uniqueness and values of caves and their contents.

  11. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Pigtail Bridge, elevation. - Pigtail Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  12. Interdisciplinary research produces results in the understanding of planetary caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy; Boston, Penelope J.

    2012-05-01

    First International Planetary Cave Research Workshop: Implications for Astrobiology, Climate, Detection, and Exploration; Carlsbad, New Mexico, 25-28 October 2011 With the advent of high-resolution spatial imaging, the idea of caves on other planets has moved from the pages of science fiction into the realm of hard-core science—complete with hypotheses, models, experiments, and observational data. Recently acquired data from spacecraft, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into caves on Earth as well as caves on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Moon, Mars, and Titan).

  13. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  14. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  15. An integrated transcriptome-wide analysis of cave and surface dwelling Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joshua B; Furterer, Allison; Carlson, Brian M; Stahl, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous organisms around the globe have successfully adapted to subterranean environments. A powerful system in which to study cave adaptation is the freshwater characin fish, Astyanax mexicanus. Prior studies in this system have established a genetic basis for the evolution of numerous regressive traits, most notably vision and pigmentation reduction. However, identification of the precise genetic alterations that underlie these morphological changes has been delayed by limited genetic and genomic resources. To address this, we performed a transcriptome analysis of cave and surface dwelling Astyanax morphs using Roche/454 pyrosequencing technology. Through this approach, we obtained 576,197 Pachón cavefish-specific reads and 438,978 surface fish-specific reads. Using this dataset, we assembled transcriptomes of cave and surface fish separately, as well as an integrated transcriptome that combined 1,499,568 reads from both morphotypes. The integrated assembly was the most successful approach, yielding 22,596 high quality contiguous sequences comprising a total transcriptome length of 21,363,556 bp. Sequence identities were obtained through exhaustive blast searches, revealing an adult transcriptome represented by highly diverse Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Our dataset facilitated rapid identification of sequence polymorphisms between morphotypes. These data, along with positional information collected from the Danio rerio genome, revealed several syntenic regions between Astyanax and Danio. We demonstrated the utility of this positional information through a QTL analysis of albinism in a surface x Pachón cave F(2) pedigree, using 65 polymorphic markers identified from our integrated assembly. We also adapted our dataset for an RNA-seq study, revealing many genes responsible for visual system maintenance in surface fish, whose expression was not detected in adult Pachón cavefish. Conversely, several metabolism-related genes expressed in cavefish were not detected

  16. Survey, Representation and Analysis of a War i Complex System of Surface and Underground Fortifications in the Gresta Valley, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, I.; Vitti, A.

    2011-09-01

    This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" - APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino), a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the practical advantage of

  17. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  18. Erosion by flowing lava: Geochemical evidence in the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.A.; Kadel, S.D.; Greeley, R.; Lesher, C.M.; Clynne, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We sampled basaltic lava flows and underlying dacitic tuff deposits in or near lava tubes of the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington to determine whether the Cave Basalt lavas contain geochemical evidence of substrate contamination by lava erosion. The samples were analyzed using a combination of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the oldest, outer lava tube linings in direct contact with the dacitic substrate are contaminated, whereas the younger, inner lava tube linings are uncontaminated and apparently either more evolved or enriched in residual liquid. The most heavily contaminated lavas occur closer to the vent and in steeper parts of the tube system, and the amount of contamination decreases with increasing distance downstream. These results suggest that erosion by lava and contamination were limited to only the initially emplaced flows and that erosion was localized and enhanced by vigorous laminar flow over steeper slopes. After cooling, the initial Cave Basalt lava flows formed an insulating lining within the tubes that prevented further erosion by later flows. This interpretation is consistent with models of lava erosion that predict higher erosion rates closer to sources and over steeper slopes. A greater abundance of xenoliths and xenocrysts relative to xenomelts in hand samples indicates that mechanical erosion rather than thermal erosion was the dominant erosional process in the Cave Basalt, but further sampling and petrographic analyses must be performed to verify this hypothesis. ?? Springer-Verlag 2003.

  19. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  20. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  1. Measurement of the concentration of radon gas in the Toirano's caves (Liguria).

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Diego; Bussallino, Massimo; Castello, Gianrico; Maggiolo, Stefano; Rossi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive gas radon, intermediate term of the decay series of uranium and thorium, is the main contamination source of underground places and may be a risk for high concentration and long exposure time. European and Italian law requires radon concentration to be measured in workplaces and, if the "action level" of 500 Bq/m3 is reached, proper actions must be made in order to decrease the dose commitment. Considering natural showcaves or artificial cavities open to public, the exposition of the visitors is frequently small, due to the short residence time, but accompanying people, remaining underground for long time, may be subject to appreciable dose and the radon concentration should therefore be monitored. The high humidity in natural caves may impair the use of some measuring devices. Therefore, different detection methods were compared (ZnS scintillation counters, E-PERM electret ionisation chambers, cellulose nitrate alpha-track dosimeters) to select the best procedure for long-term investigation. The LR-115 (Kodak) alpha-track dosimeters were insensitive to humidity and permitted to monitor a great number of places at the same time. Measurements have been carried out in the speleological and archaeological site of the Toirano's Caves (Savona, Liguria, Italy) and several points were monitored for two years. Radon concentration strongly depends on the site and changes during the year, due to the difference between internal and external temperature. The maximum dose commitment during the visitors tour, considering the average yearly value of radon concentration, was found to be between 1.5 and 4 microSv. It was found that no risk exists for visitors, but the evaluation of the dose absorbed by the guides and their classification according to the radiation protection law requires a complete monitoring of the average yearly concentration of radon and of the total time spent by each worker into the cave. PMID:17172204

  2. Two million years of river and cave aggradation in NE Brazil: Implications for speleogenesis and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureano, Fernando V.; Karmann, Ivo; Granger, Darryl E.; Auler, Augusto S.; Almeida, Renato P.; Cruz, Franciso W.; Strícks, Nicolás M.; Novello, Valdir F.

    2016-11-01

    This study characterizes and provides ages for an extensive sedimentary record occurring in Lapa Doce and Torrinha caves, NE Brazil. With > 40 km of surveyed passages, these caves integrate a distributary cave system fed by allogenic recharge from the surrounding sandstone plateaus. Sediment petrography together with descriptions of depositional facies and architectural elements shows four depositional units related to fluvial and standing water environments. These include, from bottom to top: (1) a channel unit including lateral bars deposited during an ordinary flood regime; (2) a sandy flood unit including minor channel and scour fills derived from bank-full equivalent flood events; (3) mud caps deposited in standing water that often reach the ceiling; and (4) intraclast breccias associated with collapse of the mud caps under saturated conditions. The deposits were dated using a combination of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating and U-series dating of flowstone. Cosmogenic nuclide data point to fluvial aggradation being active since 1.91 + 0.12 My and extending until 0.36 ± 0.08 My, with intensive cave and valley aggradation events between 0.78 ± 0.10 My and 0.44 ± 0.12 My. Long term alluviation of the cave system seems to be important in forming passages, determining their configuration, and setting up a general distributary pattern evident in passage morphology and sedimentary sequences. Mud caps overlapping the fluvial deposits are interpreted as the products of successive rising and lowering of the water table (static level). Radiometric ages of interstratified flowstones and speleothems show that these oscillations were active at least since 115 ky ago and finally ceased around 12 ky ago, indicated by the recurrent age obtained from uneroded capping flowstones. These long-term water table oscillations may drive paragenetic expansion of the whole cave system. Valleys, caves and other landforms in our study area are part of an ancient landscape with multiple

  3. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  4. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic.

  5. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  6. Community Structure of Subsurface Biofilms in the Thermal Sulfidic Caves of Acquasanta Terme, Italy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. S.; Tobler, D. J.; Schaperdoth, I.; Mainiero, M.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a microbial community analysis of biofilms inhabiting thermal (35 to 50°C) waters more than 60 m below the ground surface near Acquasanta Terme, Italy. The groundwater hosting the biofilms has 400 to 830 μM sulfide, <10 μM O2, pH of 6.3 to 6.7, and specific conductivity of 8,500 to 10,500 μS/cm. Based on the results of 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the biofilms have low species richness, and lithoautotrophic (or possibly mixotrophic) Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria are the principle biofilm architects. Deltaproteobacteria sequences retrieved from the biofilms have <90% 16S rRNA similarity to their closest relatives in public databases and may represent novel sulfate-reducing bacteria. The Acquasanta biofilms share few species in common with Frasassi cave biofilms (13°C, 80 km distant) but have a similar community structure, with representatives in the same major clades. The ecological success of Sulfurovumales-group Epsilonproteobacteria in the Acquasanta biofilms is consistent with previous observations of their dominance in sulfidic cave waters with turbulent water flow and high dissolved sulfide/oxygen ratios. PMID:20639361

  7. Localized sub-glacial deep karst formation due to water infiltration into glacier crevasses: A case study from Asiago, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Frehner, Marcel; Busellato, Leonardo; Grasselli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In karstic plateaus, deep karst phenomena (e.g. abysses) are the preferential pathways for surface water to penetrate the Earth's crust. After percolation along diaclases and meanders, the infiltrated water often springs at the foot of the karstic plateau, potentially representing a valuable water resource. Thus, it is crucial to understand the formation and distribution of deep karst phenomena, for instance to predict karstic groundwater flow paths or to preserve water resources from pollution. The role of glaciers in enhancing the formation of deep karst is not yet clear. On the one hand, chilly water retains more CO2 which increases its acidity and efficiency in corroding carbonates. On the other hand, glaciers obliterate the soil and vegetation covering the developing karst decreasing the quantity of humic acids dissolved in the surface water. Nevertheless, ice-caps may play a key role in controlling how and where surface water can access the developing karstic system. Due to the presence of a glacier, some sub-glacial areas may not be reached by surface water, which prevents karstification, while other areas may be connected to intra- or sub-glacial flow paths possibly leading to localized kartification in these areas. Here we investigate the relationship between sub-glacial topography and the development of preferred intra-glacier flow paths and how this relationship leads to localized sub-glacial karstification. As a case study site, we use the karstic plateau of Asiago in Northern Italy. The Asiago plateau (https://goo.gl/maps/bLezx) is mainly composed of Permian to Cretaceous rocks. The northern and southern boundaries of the plateau are marked by two Alpine trusts, which uplifted the plateau during the Alpine orogeny to ~1500 m above the Po flood plain delimiting the plateau to the South. The Asiago plateau extends for ~600 km2 and contains ~2100 natural caves, including many significantly deep caves such as the deepest cave of Veneto: the 1011 m deep

  8. Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and

  9. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  10. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... shook the eastern edge of Sicily and parts of mainland Italy during September and October. The eruption of Etna sent a thick blanket ... date:  Oct 27, 2002 Images:  Italy: Mt. Etna location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

  11. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the eastern coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ... volcanism. For more information on Etna, refer to  Italy's Volcanoes  and to the  Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism ...

  12. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  13. The transport of nonindigenous microorganisms into caves by human visitation: a case study at Carlsbad Caverns National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gray, Michael A.; Lyles, Michael B.; Northup, Diana E.

    2014-01-01

    A series of atmospheric investigations was conducted in Carlsbad Cavern to determine if human visitation is a possible cause for the contamination of the cave system with non-indigenous microorganisms. In 2004, site-specific culture-based data demonstrated that Staphylococcus spp. colony-forming units (CFUs) were the most prevalent members of the atmospheric community along the paved visitor trail (avg. 18.8% of CFU), while Knoellia spp. CFUs dominated off-trail locations (40.1% of CFU). Fungal culture data revealed that Penicillium and Aspergillus were prevalent in the Lunch Room where food is stored, sold, and consumed. Ubiquitous genera such as Cladosporium and Alternaria were prevalent near the Natural Entrance of the cave, and the general trend was a decrease in fungal CFUs with progression into the cave system, except for the area near the Lunch Room. Management practices such as prohibition of crumb-generating types of foods could be considered to protect cave health. In 2009, nonculture-based analyses demonstrated that Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant microbiota at sites along the descent trail and within the Lunch Room. Dominance of Enterobacteriaceae has not been previously demonstrated in caves. Either they are naturally occurring indigenous members, or their presence is a marker of anthropogenic contamination.

  14. Identifying and Describing a Seismogenic Zone in a Sublevel Caving Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazlzadeh, Yousef; Hudyma, Marty

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of caving-induced seismicity can aid in the understanding of rock mass behaviour in the different stages of the caving process. A detailed analysis of caving-induced seismicity at the Telfer sublevel caving mine was undertaken. Interpretation of seismic data in the Telfer mine showed the influence of the major geological features on cave behaviour and helped to identify the phases of cave evolution. Two geological zones with unique seismic characteristics (the M50 and M30 stiff reefs) and four key caving phases (initial undercut blasting, cave initiation, cave propagation and breakthrough) were defined through seismic data analysis. Movement of the seismogenic zone was significantly affected by the stiff reefs within the cave column. Seismic source parameter analysis was used to investigate caving mechanisms at Telfer.

  15. Genetic differentiation between cave and surface-dwelling populations of Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae) in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic similarities among cave-dwelling animals displaying troglomorphic characters (e.g. reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation) have induced a long-term discussion about the forces driving convergent evolution. Here we introduce Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, as an interesting system to study the evolution of troglomorphic characters. The only hitherto known troglomorphic population of this species lives in Al Hoota Cave (Sultanate of Oman) close to a surface population. As a first approach, we assessed the genetic differentiation between the two morphotypes of G. barreimiae to determine whether gene flow still occurs. Results We analysed the mitochondrial control region (CR). In G. barreimiae the CR starts immediately downstream of the tRNA-Thr gene, while the tRNA-Pro gene is missing at this genomic location. Interestingly, a putative tRNA-Pro sequence is found within the CR. The phylogenetic analyses of the CR sequences yielded a tree divided into three clades: Clade 1 has a high genetic distance to the other clades and contains the individuals of three populations which are separated by a watershed from all the others. Clade 2 comprises the individuals from Wadi Bani Khalid, the geographically most remote population. Clade 3 comprises all other populations investigated including that of Al Hoota Cave. The latter forms a haplogroup which also includes individuals from the adjacent surface population. Conclusions Our data indicates that the troglomorphic cave population is of quite recent origin supporting the hypothesis that selection drives the fast evolution of troglomorphic traits. In this context pleiotropic effects might play an important role as it has been shown for Astyanax. There seems to be some gene flow from the cave population into the adjacent surface populations. One blind individual, found at a surface locality geographically distinct from Al Hoota Cave, is genetically differentiated from the other blind specimens

  16. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  17. THE MID-LATITUDE BIODIVERSITY RIDGE IN TERRESTRIAL CAVE FAUNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The world's obligate cave-dwelling fauna holds considerable promise for biogeographic analysis because it represents a large number of independent evolutionary experiments in isolation in caves and adaptation to subterranean life. We focus on seven north temperate regions of at l...

  18. Caves on Mars: Candidate Sites for Astrobiological Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, G. E.; Titus, T. N.

    2010-04-01

    Cave entrances are identified in lava tubes and volcano-tectonic fractures on Mars. Caves are among the only environments protected from harsh surface conditions, and may contain pristine evidence of microbial life—if such has ever existed on Mars.

  19. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  20. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  1. The Oldest Cave Art: An Essay on Giftedness and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Maureen; White, David A.

    1996-01-01

    This essay examines issues of giftedness and excellence, beginning with classical references to human striving toward the "good," the attraction of gifted children to quality, and the recent discovery of the oldest known cave art with its manifest excellence. Classroom activities related to cave art and language arts, social studies, sciences,…

  2. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual or organization assisting the land managing agency with cave management activities. To request... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior...

  3. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  4. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles.

  5. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U.; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave.

  6. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave. PMID:16404589

  7. Choosy males from the underground: male mating preferences in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Plath, Martin; Seggel, Uta; Burmeister, Heike; Heubel, Katja U; Schlupp, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana) inhabit a variety of surface habitats, but they also occur in a sulfur cave in southern Mexico. We examined male mate choice relative to female body size in the cave population and in the most closely related surface-dwelling population from a nearby river. Males from both populations were either light- or dark-reared and could choose between two differently sized females either on the basis of visual cues in light or on the basis of solely nonvisual cues in darkness. Sexual preferences were estimated from the degree of association. Cave molly males always showed a preference for the larger female, both in light and in darkness. Among the surface males, only light-reared males showed a preference in the visual cues test, but not in darkness. In a control experiment, we demonstrated that male association preferences directly translate into actual mating preferences. Apparently, using visual cues for mate choice is the ancestral state in this system, and using nonvisual cues has evolved as a novel trait in the cave population. We discuss the evolution of nonvisual male mate choice in the context of changed environmental conditions, namely the absence of light, hypoxia, and toxic hydrogen sulfide in the cave.

  8. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments: a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2015-06-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new for science, and most of them are indicative for either warm/cold stages or dry/wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures, and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyses the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  9. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  10. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  11. Comments on: Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy) by d'Orazio et al., (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Principe, C.; Giannandrea, P.

    2008-07-01

    [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334] describe a new finding of alvikite Ca-carbonatite at Vulture. They stress its importance as being the first carbonatite to be discovered in a subduction environment. They suggest that this rock is different from the other Italian carbonatites, considered as 'rocks sharing a carbonatitic affinity', which are radiogenic and chemically diluted by addition of sedimentary limestone. They note that Vulture 'alvikite' is not diluted and is very unradiogenic with respect to other Italian carbonatites. However, they maintain that Vulture 'alvikite' carbonate is derived from subducted limestones. We present an account of the field relationships relating to the above-mentioned rocks, setting the geological and petrographic records straight and describing pyroclastic rocks. We did not find that these rocks are formed from alvikite dykes or lava, but instead recognised them to be a continuous blanket of 'flaggy', welded tuff. We found that the rocks consist of physically separated melilitite and carbonatite juvenile lapilli settled into a carbonatite ash matrix form the rock. We disagree with the geochemical interpretation of the rock by [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334], and are particularly concerned by their conclusion of its carbonate origin. We remark on the rock's geodynamic assignment in the frame of an extensional tectonic setting, also referring to the other Italian carbonatite occurrences. We reject any ad hoc modified subduction as a direct source of Vulture and Italian carbonatites.

  12. Studies of Cave Sediments: Physical and Chemical Records of Paleoclimate (Revised Edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Andy

    2007-10-01

    Caves have long fascinated humankind, from prehistory to present-day tourism. Caves are also a subject for a range of scientific investigations, including cave biology, archaeology, paleoclimatology, geology, hydrology, and geomorphology. One of the benefits caves provide is their role as a repository of material that might not otherwise survive on the Earth's surface, due to caves' interiors being protected from physical erosion by nature of their underground locations. Studies of Cave Sediments focuses on this role as a repository, in particular on Quaternary (historic to 1.8 million years old) paleoclimate information preserved in cave sediments.

  13. Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Genty, D.

    1999-04-01

    The fluorescence properties of groundwaters percolating into four cave systems have been monitored over the period 1997-1998. Fluorescence was excited between 220 and 400 nm and the emission measured from 300 to 500 nm using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Three fluorescence centres were observed; one at the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, (humic-like, probably fulvic acid), one at 265-280:300-370 nm (protein like) and a less defined region of high fluorescence at 230-280:310-420 nm (humic and/or protein like). The most consistent fluorescence intensity was observed in the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, attributed to a fulvic acid source. Subtle differences (±5%) in the fluorescence excitation and emission wavelength of this fluorescence peak in the groundwater were observed between the four sites, and the fluorescence intensity varied considerably (×60) between the four sites. Both the wavelength and the intensity variations in fluorescence are caused by the differences in the vegetation cover, soil type and humification. Data from the most intensely monitored site (Brown's Folly Mine, England; 9 sample stations, 10-20 days frequency sampling) revealed no spatial variability in the 290-340:395-430 nm (fulvic acid) fluorescence; in contrast time-series analysis suggests that the seasonal variations do occur, with a decrease in the emission wavelength correlating with the first (autumn) peak in fluorescence intensity, and a decrease in the excitation wavelength correlating with a second (winter) fluorescence intensity peak. Results demonstrate the potential of utilising fluorescence wavelength variations in sourcing karst groundwaters, and as a possible palaeoenvironmental proxy of the overlying soil conditions if trapped within the cave speleothems.

  14. The influence of light attenuation on the biogeomorphology of a marine karst cave: A case study of Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan, the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, Martin A.; La Marca, Emanuela C.; Naylor, Larissa A.; Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Sauro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Karst caves are unique biogeomorphological systems. Cave walls offer habitat for microorganisms which in-turn have a geomorphological role via their involvement in rock weathering, erosion and mineralisation. The attenuation of light with distance into caves is known to affect ecology, but the implications of this for biogeomorphological processes and forms have seldom been examined. Here we describe a semi-quantitative microscopy study comparing the extent, structure, and thickness of biocover and depth of endolithic penetration for samples of rock from the Puerto Princesa Underground River system in Palawan, the Philippines, which is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site. Organic growth at the entrance of the cave was abundant (100% occurrence) and complex, dominated by phototrophic organisms (green microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens). Thickness of this layer was 0.28 ± 0.18 mm with active endolith penetration into the limestone (mean depth = 0.13 ± 0.03 mm). In contrast, phototrophs were rare 50 m into the cave and biofilm cover was significantly thinner (0.01 ± 0.01 mm, p < 0.000) and spatially patchy (33% occurrence). Endolithic penetration here was also shallower (< 0.01 mm, p < 0.000) and non-uniform. Biofilm was found 250 m into the cave, but with a complete absence of phototrophs and no evidence of endolithic bioerosion. We attribute these findings to light-induced stress gradients, showing that the influence of light on phototroph abundance has knock-on consequences for the development of limestone morphological features. In marine caves this includes notches, which were most well-developed at the sheltered cave entrance of our study site, and for which variability in formation rates between locations is currently poorly understood.

  15. A COMPACTRIO-BASED BEAM LOSS MONITOR FOR THE SNS RF TEST CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Armstrong, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    An RF Test Cave has been built at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be able to test RF cavities without interfering the SNS accelerator operations. In addition to using thick concrete wall to minimize radiation exposure, a Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) must abort the operation within 100 usec when the integrated radiation within the cave exceeds a threshold. We choose the CompactRIO platform to implement the BLM based on its performance, cost-effectiveness, and rapid development. Each in/output module is connected through an FPGA to provide point-by-point processing. Every 10 usec the data is acquired analyzed and compared to the threshold. Data from the FPGA is transferred using DMA to the real-time controller, which communicates to a gateway PC to talk to the SNS control system. The system includes diagnostics to test the hardware and integrates the losses in real-time. In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and results

  16. An outbreak and review of cave-associated histoplasmosis capsulati.

    PubMed

    Sacks, J J; Ajello, L; Crockett, L K

    1986-08-01

    Three male college students from Florida developed acute onsets of fever, chills, shortness of breath, and cough within one day of each other, and all were eventually hospitalized for four to 29 days. All chest x-ray films showed diffuse reticulonodularities in both lung fields. Laboratory studies confirmed the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The three students had been 'spelunking' (cave exploring) 6 to 7 days before their onset of symptoms. One of four soil samples collected in the caves was positive for Histoplasma capsulatum by the indirect mouse inoculation procedure. Of three investigators who entered the implicated caves, two developed acute febrile illness within 15-21 days. One investigator was hospitalized for 18 days with a confirmed diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Investigation identified an additional case (the person had entered the caves 6 months before this episode), but was not reported to health authorities. Spelunkers should be aware of the potential risk of histoplasmosis and how to avoid infection. Physicians should be cognizant of cave-associated histoplasmosis, inquire about spelunking in persons who develop febrile respiratory illnesses with diffuse nodularities on chest x-ray films, and report such cases to their health department. A review of 42 reported outbreaks of cave-associated histoplasmosis and the approach to environmental control of infected caves are included.

  17. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-08-01

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. μ-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  18. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-10-24

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. {mu}-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  19. Groundwater recharge areas of a volcanic aquifer system inferred from hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data: Mount Vulture, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Serena; Paternoster, Michele; Kohfahl, Claus; Pekdeger, Asaf; Meyer, Hanno; Hubberten, Hans Wolfgang; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Environmental isotope techniques, hydrogeochemical analysis and hydraulic data are employed to identify the main recharge areas of the Mt. Vulture hydrogeological basin, one of the most important aquifers of southern Italy. The groundwaters are derived from seepage of rainwater, flowing from the highest to the lowest elevations through the shallow volcanic weathered host-rock fracture zones. Samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected at 48 locations with elevations ranging from 352 to 1,100 m above sea level (a.s.l.), for stable isotope (δ18O, δD) and major ion analyses. A complete dataset of available hydraulic information has been integrated with measurements carried out in the present study. Inferred recharge elevations, estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient of δ18O, range between 550 and 1,200 m a.s.l. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different recharge sources. Knowledge of the local hydrogeological setting was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study to define the recharge and discharge patterns identifying the groundwater flow pathways of the Mt. Vulture basin. The integration of all the data allowed for the tracing of the groundwater flows of the Mt. Vulture basin.

  20. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby.

  1. Annual Thermal Amplitudes and Thermal Detection of Southwestern U.S. Caves: Additional Insights for Remote Sensing of Caves on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, J. J.; Titus, T. N.; Drost, C. A.; Toomey, R. S.; Peterson, K.

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed temperature data of nine SW U.S. caves using Fourier analysis to characterize thermal behavior, and line graphs to identify optimal times of detection in the thermal infrared. This work furthered our understanding of cave thermal behavior.

  2. Gradient evolution of body colouration in surface- and cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the role of phenotype-assortative female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A M; Dröge, Janis; Wolf, Konstantin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  3. Gradient evolution of body colouration in surface- and cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the role of phenotype-assortative female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A M; Dröge, Janis; Wolf, Konstantin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation. PMID:24175282

  4. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2014-02-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the community structure and potential energy dynamics of microbial communities, colonizing speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, a carbonate cave in semiarid, southeastern Arizona, USA. Manual inspection of a speleothem metagenome revealed a community genetically adapted to low-nutrient conditions with indications that a nitrogen-based primary production strategy is probable, including contributions from both Archaea and Bacteria. Genes for all six known CO2-fixation pathways were detected in the metagenome and RuBisCo genes representative of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle were over-represented in Kartchner speleothem metagenomes relative to bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and deep-ocean communities. Intriguingly, quantitative PCR found Archaea to be significantly more abundant in the cave communities than in soils above the cave. MEtaGenome ANalyzer (MEGAN) analysis of speleothem metagenome sequence reads found Thaumarchaeota to be the third most abundant phylum in the community, and identified taxonomic associations to this phylum for indicator genes representative of multiple CO2-fixation pathways. The results revealed that this oligotrophic subterranean environment supports a unique chemoautotrophic microbial community with potentially novel nutrient cycling strategies. These strategies may provide key insights into other ecosystems dominated by oligotrophy, including aphotic subsurface soils or aquifers and photic systems such as arid deserts.

  5. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the community structure and potential energy dynamics of microbial communities, colonizing speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, a carbonate cave in semiarid, southeastern Arizona, USA. Manual inspection of a speleothem metagenome revealed a community genetically adapted to low-nutrient conditions with indications that a nitrogen-based primary production strategy is probable, including contributions from both Archaea and Bacteria. Genes for all six known CO2-fixation pathways were detected in the metagenome and RuBisCo genes representative of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle were over-represented in Kartchner speleothem metagenomes relative to bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and deep-ocean communities. Intriguingly, quantitative PCR found Archaea to be significantly more abundant in the cave communities than in soils above the cave. MEtaGenome ANalyzer (MEGAN) analysis of speleothem metagenome sequence reads found Thaumarchaeota to be the third most abundant phylum in the community, and identified taxonomic associations to this phylum for indicator genes representative of multiple CO2-fixation pathways. The results revealed that this oligotrophic subterranean environment supports a unique chemoautotrophic microbial community with potentially novel nutrient cycling strategies. These strategies may provide key insights into other ecosystems dominated by oligotrophy, including aphotic subsurface soils or aquifers and photic systems such as arid deserts. PMID:24030597

  6. What is hidden in caves? Sheared flowstone as a marker for slip rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovic, Ivanka; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Bernhard; Baron, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Speleothems are cave deposits, mostly consisting of calcite minerals, and they can be used to investigate tectonic activity of a region, giving that caves naturally preserve past and present conditions often difficult to observe at the surface. Flowstone is a type of speleothem, deposited out of water films along cave walls and is usually characterized by uniform crystal growth characterized by calcite c-axis perpendicular to the cave wall. Scratched flowstone, found in Hirschgruben cave, Austrian Alps, was deformed due to a strike-slip fault movement that occurred between 118 ka and ca. 9 ka, at depths of 190 m below the surface (1890 m above sea level) and low temperatures (0-5 degrees Celsius). After the deformation, a thin layer of younger flowstone coated the scratch, preserving the original slip surface. This allows us to investigate well-preserved natural examples of fault behavior and here we show its complexity. Naturally deformed speleothems have been sheared due to activity of the SEMP (Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg) fault system and present unique field evidence for active displacement along this fault. The 300 km long SEMP fault accommodated a sinistral displacement of about 60 km related to the Neogene and Quaternary lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin, coeval with north-south shortening between the Adriatic and European plates. Microstructural analysis of sheared flowstone pose evidences for changing fault behavior, including both seismic slip and aseismic creep. To investigate these mechanisms, we implemented series of high-resolution electron beam analytical techniques including scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence and electron backscattered diffraction. The most common structural characteristics, such as grain size reduction, mechanical twinning and the presence of crystal-plastic deformation suggest complexity of the fault. In order to better understand this complex fault behavior, we perform

  7. Multilevel karst system evolution in relationship to palaeo-climate and palaeo-geography: hints from a 500 ky speleothem record from the Piani Eterni Karst System, Belluno Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Lundberg, Joyce; Columbu, Andrea; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Piani Eterni is the deepest and longest multilevel karst system of the Dolomites. The geometric distribution and stratigraphic-structural guidance of palaeo-epiphreatic levels have been studied in detail in recent times, but there are still several open questions regarding the palaeo-climatic and palaeo-geographic factors that have controlled its evolution through time. Over the last three years, several stalagmites were sampled from different palaeo-epiphreatic levels in the karst system. The relatively high concentration of uranium in the dolomitized bituminous unit hosting the cave has allowed dating with high precision of stalagmites up to more than 500 ky old using the U-Th radiometric method. All the speleothems have been collected from palaeo-epiphreatic conduits without vadose entrenchments at different altitudes (from 1650 to 860 m a.s.l.). The research has focused on speleothems that have registered different flooding events with intercalated sedimentation of silts and sands. These events could have happened only when the conduits were still very close to the epiphreatic zone and the speleothems formed directly after the formation and draining of the epiphreatic conduits. The temporal record of the speleothems and their vertical distribution in the cave, compared to the presence of fluvial terraces and glacial deposits in the nearby Mis Valley, are shown to be in agreement with the uplift rate of the region. The data obtained from the karst system and speleothem dating elucidated the geomorphic events and temporal constraints on a major fluvial capture of the Mis Valley toward the south, a hypothesis already proposed by previous authors. Stable isotope records (oxygen and carbon) in the speleothems show that the favorable conditions for calcite precipitation were related to cooling and unstable periods following the interglacial apexes of MIS11, MIS 9, MIS7, and MIS5. This is a prime example of studies of speleothems, of their palaeoclimate record and of

  8. Sylvatic rabies epidemic in Italy: implementation of a data management system to assess the level of application of preventive dog vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Laura; Cobianchi, Mario; Breda, Tatiana; Favero, Laura; Ruocco, Luigi; Marangon, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    After 20 years of absence, rabies re-emerged in wild animals in north-eastern Italy in October 2008. Besides measures undertaken to fight the spread of infection in wildlife, vaccination against rabies was made compulsory for dogs living in the risk area. In the last 15 years, the veterinary authorities have focused on implementing computerized data collection systems in animal health, to serve as working tools for epidemiological surveillance activities and emergencies management. The prerequisite for implementing any data collection system is knowledge of the animal population. This also applies to the Canine Registry Data Bank, in which data on dogs and their movements, together with personal data on each owner and keeper, have been stored since 2003. The management information system has been updated and specific functions have been integrated in order to support the activity of both the veterinary services and the veterinary practitioners involved in the dog vaccination program. Vaccination became voluntary in February 2013. This paper describes implementation of the software and organization of data gathering, highlighting the benefits of computerized data compared to previously used paper-based data collection systems. The new functions, designed to centralize collection of uniform, updated vaccination data, have led to more efficient organization and better control of the vaccination plan. Automated information processing allowed vaccination operations to be supervised, incurred costs to be calculated, and vaccination coverage of the dog population to be monitored during the 3 years of compulsory vaccination.

  9. Enhancement of the CAVE computer code. [aerodynamic heating package for nose cones and scramjet engine sidewalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathjen, K. A.; Burk, H. O.

    1983-01-01

    The computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis via Eigenvalues) is a convenient and efficient computer code for predicting two dimensional temperature histories within thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles. The capabilities of CAVE were enhanced by incorporation of the following features into the code: real gas effects in the aerodynamic heating predictions, geometry and aerodynamic heating package for analyses of cone shaped bodies, input option to change from laminar to turbulent heating predictions on leading edges, modification to account for reduction in adiabatic wall temperature with increase in leading sweep, geometry package for two dimensional scramjet engine sidewall, with an option for heat transfer to external and internal surfaces, print out modification to provide tables of select temperatures for plotting and storage, and modifications to the radiation calculation procedure to eliminate temperature oscillations induced by high heating rates. These new features are described.

  10. A new species of Thetispelecaris (Crustacea: Peracarida) from submarine cave on Grand Cayman Island.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Hanamura, Yukio; Kase, Tomoki

    2002-05-01

    A new species of the peracaridan order Bochusacea, Thetispelecaris yurikago, is described from a submarine cave on Grand Cayman Island, the Caribbean Sea. The new species is the fourth species of the order and family, and the second of the genus. Recent studies have strongly suggested a close phylogenetic affinity between cave-dwelling and deep-sea taxa in the Bochusacea as recognized in other cavernicolous/deep-sea crustaceans such as amphipods and copepods. The morphology of the gut and female reproductive system is observed for the first time in the Bochusacea: the stomach is complex with structures such as ridges, processes, spinules, and hairs in the lumen; paired gonopores are located near the base of the fifth pereiopods on the sternite. PMID:12130814

  11. A remarkable new species of Alloscorpiops Vachon, 1980 from a cave in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Wilson R.; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among the genera of the subfamily Scorpiopinae Kraepelin, 1905 Alloscorpiops remains rather discrete. Only recently new species were added to this genus, increasing its number from two to five. Therefore, species of Alloscorpiops remain rare. One remarkable new species, Alloscorpiops troglodytes sp. n., is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected inside a cave from Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Cha Vanh Commune, Nam Giang District in Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Alloscorpiops, but it is characterized by reduced size, slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the third species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system, and may be another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. PMID:25987872

  12. Chronology of diving activities and underground surveys in Devils Hole and Devils Hole Cave, Nye County, Nevada, 1950-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    1988-01-01

    A Chronology of diving activities and underground surveys in Devils Hole and Devils Hole Cave, southern Nevada, is presented for the period 1950-86. The report acknowledges the efforts of past underwater explorers, scientists, and observers of the cavern system, and provides a historical perspective for comparison with present investigations at that site. (Thacker-USGS, WRD)

  13. Cavity detection and delineation research. Part 1: Microgravimetric and magnetic surveys: Medford Cave Site, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, D. K.

    1982-03-01

    This report reviews the scope of a research effort initiated in 1974 at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station with the objectives of (a) assessing the state of the art in geophysical cavity detection and delineation methodology and (b) developing new methods and improving or adapting old methods for application to cavity detection and delineation. Two field test sites were selected: (a) the Medford Cave site with a relatively shallow (10- to 50-ft-deep) air-filled cavity system and (b) the Manatee Springs site with a deeper (approximately 100-ft-deep) water-filled cavity system. Results of field studies at the Medford Cave site are presented in this report: (a) the site geology, (b) the site topographic survey, (c) the site drilling program (boreholes for geophysical tests, for determination of a detailed geological cross section, and for verification of geophysical anomalies), (d) details of magnetic and microgravimetric surveys, and (e) correlation of geophysical results with known site geology. Qualitative interpretation guidelines using complementary geophysical techniques for site investigations in karst regions are presented. Including the results of electrical resistivity surveys conducted at the Medford Cave site, the qualitative guidelines are applied to four profile lines, and drilling locations are indicated on the profile plots of gravity, magnetic, and electrical resistivity data. Borehole logs are then presented for comparison with the predictions of the qualitative interpretation guidelines.

  14. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  15. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration.

    PubMed

    Sadier, Benjamin; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourlès, Didier L; Jaillet, Stéphane; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Arnold, Maurice

    2012-05-22

    Since its discovery, the Chauvet cave elaborate artwork called into question our understanding of Palaeolithic art evolution and challenged traditional chronological benchmarks [Valladas H et al. (2001) Nature 413:419-479]. Chronological approaches revealing human presences in the cavity during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian are indeed still debated on the basis of stylistic criteria [Pettitt P (2008) J Hum Evol 55:908-917]. The presented (36)Cl Cosmic Ray Exposure ages demonstrate that the cliff overhanging the Chauvet cave has collapsed several times since 29 ka until the sealing of the cavity entrance prohibited access to the cave at least 21 ka ago. Remarkably agreeing with the radiocarbon dates of the human and animal occupancy, this study confirms that the Chauvet cave paintings are the oldest and the most elaborate ever discovered, challenging our current knowledge of human cognitive evolution.

  16. 12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. Cave Holography - Out of the lab and under the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klayer, J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the combination of my hobbies, caving and holography. Most traditional holography involves bringing the objects to a lab with all the necessary holography equipment mounted on a stable table. I instead bring all the equipment assembled as a portable unit to the natural formations in a cave with the cave itself being the stable table. The first successes were Denisyuks made with a HeNe or laser diode and spatial filter mounted on a tripod. For greater depth, transmission holograms were made with a DPSS laser in several configurations sometimes using fiber optics to route the reference beam and sometimes a spatial filter and mirrors. The cave environment presents unique obstacles that have been overcome as evidenced by the beautiful holograms made.

  18. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Sadier, Benjamin; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourlès, Didier L.; Jaillet, Stéphane; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Arnold, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery, the Chauvet cave elaborate artwork called into question our understanding of Palaeolithic art evolution and challenged traditional chronological benchmarks [Valladas H et al. (2001) Nature 413:419–479]. Chronological approaches revealing human presences in the cavity during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian are indeed still debated on the basis of stylistic criteria [Pettitt P (2008) J Hum Evol 55:908–917]. The presented 36Cl Cosmic Ray Exposure ages demonstrate that the cliff overhanging the Chauvet cave has collapsed several times since 29 ka until the sealing of the cavity entrance prohibited access to the cave at least 21 ka ago. Remarkably agreeing with the radiocarbon dates of the human and animal occupancy, this study confirms that the Chauvet cave paintings are the oldest and the most elaborate ever discovered, challenging our current knowledge of human cognitive evolution. PMID:22566649

  19. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    PubMed

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism. PMID:23003344

  20. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadier, Benjamin; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourlès, Didier L.; Jaillet, Stéphane; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Arnold, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    Since its discovery, the Chauvet cave elaborate artwork called into question our understanding of Palaeolithic art evolution and challenged traditional chronological benchmarks [Valladas H et al. (2001) Nature 413:419-479]. Chronological approaches revealing human presences in the cavity during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian are indeed still debated on the basis of stylistic criteria [Pettitt P (2008) J Hum Evol 55:908-917]. The presented 36Cl Cosmic Ray Exposure ages demonstrate that the cliff overhanging the Chauvet cave has collapsed several times since 29 ka until the sealing of the cavity entrance prohibited access to the cave at least 21 ka ago. Remarkably agreeing with the radiocarbon dates of the human and animal occupancy, this study confirms that the Chauvet cave paintings are the oldest and the most elaborate ever discovered, challenging our current knowledge of human cognitive evolution.

  1. Dated rock engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, A.I.; Thackeray, J.F.; Beaumont, P.B.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-10-02

    Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

  2. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave.

    PubMed

    Azúa-Bustos, A; González-Silva, C; Mancilla, R A; Salas, L; Palma, R E; Wynne, J J; McKay, C P; Vicuña, R

    2009-10-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert.

  3. 5. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Beaver Creek Bridge, elevation. - Beaver Creek Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  4. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  5. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering resides from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area or perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p'-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbonate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  6. Magnesium-isotope fractionation during low-Mg calcite precipitation in a limestone cave - Field study and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immenhauser, A.; Buhl, D.; Richter, D.; Niedermayr, A.; Riechelmann, D.; Dietzel, M.; Schulte, U.

    2010-08-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of speleothem calcite and particularly that of stalagmites and flowstones is increasingly exploited as an archive of past environmental change in continental settings. Despite intensive research, including modelling and novel approaches, speleothem data remain difficult to interpret. A possible way foreword is to apply a multi-proxy approach including non-conventional isotope systems. For the first time, we here present a complete analytical dataset of magnesium isotopes (δ 26Mg) from a monitored cave in NW Germany (Bunker Cave). The data set includes δ 26Mg values of loess-derived soil above the cave (-1.0 ± 0.5‰), soil water (-1.2 ± 0.5‰), the carbonate hostrock (-3.8 ± 0.5‰), dripwater in the cave (-1.8 ± 0.2‰), speleothem low-Mg calcite (stalactites, stalagmites; -4.3 ± 0.6‰), cave loam (-0.6 ± 0.1‰) and runoff water (-1.8 ± 0.1‰) in the cave, respectively. Magnesium-isotope fractionation processes during weathering and interaction between soil cover, hostrock and solute-bearing soil water are non-trivial and depend on a number of variables including solution residence times, dissolution rates, adsorption effects and potential neo-formation of solids in the regolith and the carbonate aquifer. Apparent Mg-isotope fractionation between dripwater and speleothem low-Mg calcite is about 1000ln αMg-cc-Mg(aq) = -2.4‰. A similar Mg-isotope fractionation (1000ln αMg-cc-Mg(aq) ≈ -2.1‰) is obtained by abiogenic precipitation experiments carried out at aqueous Mg/Ca ratios and temperatures close to cave conditions. Accordingly, 26Mg discrimination during low-Mg calcite formation in caves is highly related to inorganic fractionation effects, which may comprise dehydration of Mg 2+ prior to incorporation into calcite, surface entrapment of light isotopes and reaction kinetics. Relevance of kinetics is supported by a significant negative correlation of Mg-isotope fractionation with the precipitation rate for

  7. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  8. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  9. Gastroenteritis outbreak at holiday resort, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Giacomo; Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non-drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection.

  10. Morphoevolution of slope-to-channel systems in active extensional domains: testing the potential of basin and river profile metrics in the inner sector of the Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Seta, Marta; Esposito, Carlo; Menichetti, Marco; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work explores the relevance and potential of a quantitative approach based on the time-dependent basin and river profile metrics for constraining the morphoevolution of slope-to-channel systems associated to Quaternary intermontane basins. Previous researches successfully applied this approach to regions experiencing base-level changes due to tectonic uplift, though significant tests in areas undergoing local base-level changes related to extensional faulting are still lacking. The axial zone of the Apennine chain (Italy) has provided test sites, where the activity of normal faults and associated slope-scale gravitational deformations evolving in rock avalanche have been already documented. Hypsometric integrals at three nested levels of a set of catchments allowed obtaining the morphometric characterization of slopes affected by rock avalanches, which had been documented to occur in different morphostructural settings (i.e. forelimb rock-slide avalanches and backlimb slide-wedge rock avalanches). Furthermore, river profile metrics recorded the effects of the rock avalanche emplacement along connected streams. Basin and river profile metrics provided quantitative geomorphic constraints to the morphoevolutionary steps of slope-to-channel systems, in particular for massive rock slope failures and drainage network reorganization. Our methodological test provided further insights for the interpretation of landscape metrics in case of transient response of slope-to-channel systems to local, fault-related base-level changes.

  11. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, Arthur N.; Palmer, Margaret; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The caves reveal four phases of calcite deposition: eogenetic ferroan calcite (Mississippian replacement of sulfates); white scalenohedra in paleovoids deposited during deep post-Mississippian burial; palisade crusts formed during blockage of springs by Oligocene–Miocene continental sediments; and laminated crusts from late Pleistocene water-table fluctuations. The caves reveal more than 300 m.y. of geologic history and a close relationship to regional geologic events.

  12. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  13. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average temperature in higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively explain the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use Finite Element Method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside, very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, etc. for sustainable development of ice cave as tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers installed air-tight doors at these ice caves entrance intending to "protect" these caves, but this prevent cooling down these caves in winters and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  14. Evaluating genetic viability of pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Sievers, Jaret D.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Roddy, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) was reintroduced into Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, in 1914 and thus, has inhabited the Park for almost a century. A decline in the population has raised concern for the continued existence of pronghorn inside Wind Cave National Park. Historically, pronghorn numbers reached greater than 300 individuals in the 1960’s but declined to about 30 individuals by 2002. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate genetic characteristics of pronghorn to determine if reduced heterozygosity contributed to the decline of pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park. Microsatellite DNA was collected from 75 pronghorn inhabiting Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota (n = 11), northwestern South Dakota (n = 33), and southwestern South Dakota (n = 31). Pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park had similar levels of observed heterozygosity (0.473 to 0.594) and low inbreeding coefficients (-0.168 to 0.037) when compared with other populations in western South Dakota. Furthermore, indices of population structure indicated no differentiation occurred among pronghorn populations. Results indicated that genetic variability was not a primary factor in the decline of pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park.

  15. The C6 Program: Monitoring Climatic Changes in Canyons and Caves Involving Scientific Istitutions, Environmental NGOs and Mountain Sport Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pietro, R.; Casamento, G.; Interlandi, M.; Madonia, P.

    2007-12-01

    The acronym "C6" means "Climatic Changes and Carbon Cycle in Canyons and Caves". The project was born in 2005, joining under the scientific supervision of the Palermo branch of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia two different programs both active since 1999; the first was due to the initiative of the Italian Canyoning Association, a no-profit association aimed to the diffusion of the canyoning sport practise in Italy, the second one, developed by the NGO Legambiente Sicilia and funded by the Regione Siciliana-Assessorato Territorio e Ambiente (Sicilian Regional Government, Territorial and Environmental Department), managing the natural reserves of Santa Ninfa, Carburangeli and Sant'Angelo Muxaro caves (Sicily), was focused to verify the existence of a possible environmental negative feedback of human fruition. In 2005 the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature of Jordan joined the program, and a new site was established inside the Shagher Daghleh Canyon in the Wadi Dana Reserve. In October 2006 the Caver Federation of Bosnia Herzegovina joined the C6 program and another observational site was instituted into a cave close to Sarajevo. Preliminary data acquired indicate how canyons play a very important role in biodiversity preservation in arid and semi-arid environments, whereas caves are extraordinary natural laboratories for the study of carbon dioxide partition between atmosphere and lithosphere, of the effect of rain dynamic on the underground aquifer recharge and, last but not least, of the monitoring of climatic changes. The success of the initiative is based on the very different nature of the co-participants. Caver and canyoning associations guarantee the safe accessibility to difficult environments, like canyons and caves. The selection as measuring sites of natural reserves managed by NGOs, whose activity is essentially based on volunteers, ensure on one hand their environmental stability on a long term perspective, on the other hand

  16. Geochemical modeling and multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in arsenic contaminated groundwater systems of Viterbo Area, (Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by naturally occurring arsenic has recently become a disturbing environmental problem in Viterbo area, Central Italy. Arsenic concentrations in most of the public supply networks exceed the maximum allowable limit of 10 μg/l (WHO) for drinking water. The primary purpose of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the factors contributing to the high levels of As in water supply networks. This study focuses on (a) the determination of basic hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater, (b) the identification of the major sources and processes controlling the As contamination in public supply networks, (c) to find out possible relationships among the As and other trace elements through principal component analysis (PCA). Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and springs were collected and analysed for physico-chemical parameters and trace elements. Springs and well water samples are predominantly of the Na-HCO3, Na -Ca-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 types and the highest arsenic concentrations were observed in Na-HCO3 type water. Eh-pH diagrams reveal that H2AsO4 (-) and HAsO4 (2-), As(V) arsenate, are the dominating As species highlighting slightly to moderately oxidizing conditions. Geochemical modeling indicates that arsenic-bearing phases were undersaturated in the groundwater, however most of the samples were saturated with respect to Fe (i.e. magnetite, hematite and goethite) and Al (diaspore and boehmite) oxide and hydroxide minerals. Concentrations of As, Li, B, Co, Sr, Mo, U and Se are highly correlated (r > 0.7) with each other, however in some groundwater samples As show also good correlations (r > 0.5) with Fe and Mn elements reflecting the relationships among the trace elements result from different geochemical processes. Evaluation of the principal component (PCA) analysis and geochemical modeling suggest that the occurrence of As and other trace element concentrations in groundwater are probably derived

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7012 - Tax exemptions (Italy)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7012 Tax exemptions (Italy)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Italy)—Representation (MAR 2012)...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7012 - Tax exemptions (Italy)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7012 Tax exemptions (Italy)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Italy)—Representation (MAR 2012)...

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7012 - Tax exemptions (Italy)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7012 Tax exemptions (Italy)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Italy)—Representation (MAR 2012)...

  20. Synchronization of circadian bioluminescence as a group-foraging strategy in cave glowworms.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Andrew J; Merritt, David J

    2013-07-01

    Flies of the genus Arachnocampa are sit-and-lure predators that use bioluminescence to attract flying prey to their silk webs. Some species are most common in rainforest habitat and others inhabit both caves and rainforest. We have studied the circadian regulation of bioluminescence in two species: one found in subtropical rainforest with no known cave populations and the other found in temperate rainforest with large populations in limestone caves. The rainforest species is typical of most nocturnal animals in that individuals are entrained by the light:dark (LD) cycle to be active at night; in this case, their propensity to bioluminesce is greatest at night. The dual-habitat species shows an opposite phase response to the same entrainment; its bioluminescence propensity rhythm is entrained by LD exposure to peak during the day. Nevertheless, in LD environments, individuals do not bioluminesce during the day because ambient light inhibits their bioluminescence (negative masking), pushing bioluminescence into the dark period. This unusual and unexpected phenomenon could be related to their association with caves and has been suggested to be an adaptation of the circadian system that promotes synchronization of a colony's output of bioluminescence. Here, we use controlled laboratory experiments to show that individuals do synchronize their bioluminescence rhythms when in visual contact with each other. Entrainment of the bioluminescence rhythm to the biological photophase causes colony-wide synchronization, creating a daily sinusoidal rhythm of the intensity of bioluminescence in the many thousands of individuals making up a colony. This synchronization could provide a group-foraging advantage, allowing the colony to glow most brightly when the prey are most likely to be active.

  1. Daily and seasonal variations of radon activity measured in Mystery Cave

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, R.S. ); Krafthefer, B. ); Netherton, W. )

    1993-03-01

    Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota, is the site of an ongoing study of how radon and radon progeny are affected by meteorological changes in and about the dave. Data on radon, radon progeny, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, and rainfall are collected at 4-hour intervals at different locations within and just outside the cave. During winter months, average ambient radon levels ranged from 5 to 200 pCi/L. Transient levels above 500 pCi/L tended to correlate with failing barometric pressure, but not with the magnitude of [Delta]P. In summer, average ambient radon increased to around 300 pCi/L with short-term levels exceeding 500 pCi/L. Fluctuations related to temperature were also noted. Radon progeny generally correlate with radon and both showed rates of change faster than ingrowth or decay. In addition to the time variations in the radon activity levels, pulses were observed between monitoring locations. The probable correlation of radon-activity transport with aboveground meteorological changes and preliminary data on cave airflow is being studied. Previous grab sampling with Lucas cells and integrating alpha-track devices did not show either the 10- to 100-fold daily fluctuations or the pulses. As more continuous data become available, it is increasingly evident that radon fluctuates on time scales that range from hours to years, in response to conditions both inside and outside the cave system. Funding for this project was approved by the Minnesota legislature ML 1991, Chapter 264, Art. 1, Sec. 14, subd. 3 (I) as recommended by the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources from the Minnesota Future Resources Fund.