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Sample records for cave system italy

  1. Metabolic Strategies in Energy-Limited Microbial Communities in the Anoxic Subsurface (Frasassi Cave System, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, R. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Steinberg, L.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two major sources of energy, light and chemical potential, are available to microorganisms. However, energy is not always abundant and is often a limiting factor in microbial survival and replication. The anoxic, terrestrial subsurface offers a unique opportunity to study microorganisms and their potentially novel metabolic strategies that are relevant for understanding biogeochemistry and biosignatures as related to the non-photosynthetic, energy-limited environments on the modern and ancient Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. Geochemical data collected in a remote stratified lake 600 m below ground surface in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system (Italy) suggest that little redox energy is available for life, consistent with low signal from domain-specific FISH probes. The carbon isotope signatures of biofilms (-33‰) and DIC (-9‰) in the anoxic water suggest in situ production by lithoautotrophs using RuBisCO. 16S rDNA libraries constructed from the biofilm are dominated by diverse sulfate reducing bacteria. The remaining bacterial and archaeal clones affiliate with more than 11 major uncultivated or novel prokaryotic lineages. Diverse dsrAB gene sequences are consistent with high sulfate concentrations and undetectable or extremely low oxygen, nitrate, and iron concentrations. However, the electron donor for sulfate reduction is unclear. Methane is detectable in the anoxic water although no 16S rDNA sequences associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were retrieved. mcrA gene sequences retrieved from the biofilm by cloning are not related to cultivated methanogens or to known anaerobic methane oxidizers. Non-purgable organic carbon (NPOC) is below detection limits (i.e. <42 μM acetate) suggesting that alternative electron donors or novel metabolisms may be important. A sample collected by cave divers in October 2009 was pyrosequenced at the Pennsylvania State University Genomics Core Facility using Titanium chemistry (454 Life

  2. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  3. Sulfur isotope values in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, central Italy: A case study of a chemolithotrophic S-based ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Farquhar, James; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide oxidation forms a critical step in the global sulfur cycle, although this process is notoriously difficult to constrain due to the multiple pathways and highly reactive intermediates involved. Multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S and Δ33S) can provide a powerful tool for unravelling sulfur cycling processes in modern (and ancient) environments, although they have had limited application to systems with well-resolved oxidative S cycling. In this study, we report the major (δ34S) and minor (Δ33S) isotope values of sulfur compounds in streams and sediments from the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, Marche Region, Italy. These microaerophilic cave streams host prominent white biofilms dominated by chemolithotrophic organisms that oxidize sulfide to S0, allowing us to estimate S isotope fractionations associated with in situ sulfide oxidation and to evaluate any resulting isotope biosignatures. Our results demonstrate that chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation produces 34S enrichments in the S0 products that are larger than those previously measured in laboratory experiments, with 34εS0-H2S of up to 8‰ calculated. These small reverse isotope effects are similar to those produced during phototrophic sulfide oxidation (⩽7‰), but distinct from the small normal isotope effects previously calculated for abiotic oxidation of sulfide with O2 (∼-5‰). An inverse correlation between the magnitude of 34εS0-H2S effects and sulfide availability, along with substantial differences in Δ33S, both support complex sulfide oxidation pathways and intracellular recycling of S intermediates by organisms inhabiting the biofilms. At the ecosystem level, we calculate fractionations of less than 40‰ between sulfide and sulfate in the water column and in the sediments. These fractionations are smaller than those typically calculated for systems dominated by sulfate reduction (>50‰), and contrast with the commonly held assumption that oxidative recycling of sulfide generally

  4. Limestone Corrosion and Sulfur Cycling by Biofilms in the Frasassi Caves, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. S.; Macalady, J. L.; Druschel, G. K.; Eastman, D. D.; Albertson, L. K.

    2006-12-01

    In the Frasassi cave system, central Italy, a microbial-based ecosystem thrives on chemolithoautotrophic energy derived from hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Microbial life is prolific near the watertable, and biofilms cover nearly all subaerial and subaqueous surfaces. Subaerial biofilms are dominated by acidophilic members of the archaeal lineage Thermoplasmales and bacterial genus Acidithiobacillus. Subaqueous biofilms are diverse and are dominated by sulfide oxidizing, sulfate reducing, and sulfur disproportionating Proteobacteria. The morphology, abundance, and distribution of biofilms is controlled by physical and chemical factors such as seasonal changes in the cave hydrologic regime. In situ microelectrode voltammetry has revealed that stream biofilms speciate sulfur in diverse ways, with implications for acid production and limestone dissolution rates. Hydrogen sulfide loss from the streams cannot be accounted for solely by volatilization. Based on degassing measurements and abiotic sulfide oxidation rate calculations, stream biofilms are responsible for the majority of sulfide disappearance in streams. Rates of limestone corrosion are comparable in subaerial and subaqueous cave regions, indicating that subaerial microbial communities also have an important role in speleogenesis. Metagenomic studies targeting subaerial biofilms have confirmed that they have extremely low diversity, and offer glimpses into the physiology and biogeochemistry of extreme acidophiles in sulfidic cave communities.

  5. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  6. The small but clear gravity signal above the natural cave 'Grotta Gigante' (Trieste, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Fabbri, Julius; Rossi, Lorenzo; Handi Mansi, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Gravity observations are a powerful means for detecting underground mass changes. The Italian and Slovenian Karst has a number of explored caves, several are also touristic due to their size (e.g. Grotta Gigante in Italy; Skocjianske Jame and Postojnska Jama in Slovenia). Just a few years ago another big cave was discovered by chance close to Trieste when drilling a tunnel for a motor-highway, which shows that more caves are expected to be discovered in coming years. We have acquired the gravity field above the Grotta Gigante cave, a cave roughly 100 m high and 200 m long with a traditional spring-gravity meter (Lacoste&Romberg) and height measurements made with GPS and total station. The GPS was made with two different teams and processing algorithms, to cross-check accuracy and error estimate. Some stations had to be surveyed with a classical instrument due to the vegetation which concealed the satellite positioning signal. Here we present the results of the positioning acquisitions and the gravity field. The cave produces a signal of 1.5 mGal, with a clear elongated concentric symmetry. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the Karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing caves. This will have a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will for example allow to plan the urban development at a safety distance from subsurface caves.

  7. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  8. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  9. Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Galli, Ermanno; Polyak, Victor J.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Montecchio cave (Grosseto province, Tuscany, Italy) opens at 320 m asl, in a small outcrop of Jurassic limestone (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), close to the Albegna river. This area is characterised by the presence of several thermal springs and the outcropping of travertine deposits at different altitudes. The Montecchio cave, with passage length development of over 1700 m, is characterised by the presence of several sub-horizontal passages and many medium- and small-scale morphologies indicative of sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS). The thermal aquifer is intercepted at a depth of about 100 m below the entrance: the water temperature exceeds 30 °C and sulphate content is over 1300 mg l- 1. The cave hosts large gypsum deposits from 40 to 100 m below the entrance that are by-products of the reaction between sulphuric acid and the carbonate host rock. The lower part of the cave hosts over 1 m thick calcite cave raft deposits, which are evidence of long-standing, probably thermal, water in an evaporative environment related to significant air currents. Sulphur isotopes of gypsum have negative δ34S values (from - 28.3 to - 24.2‰), typical of SAS. Calcite cave rafts and speleogenetic gypsum both yield young U/Th ages varying from 68.5 ka to 2 ka BP, indicating a rapid phase of dewatering followed by gypsum precipitation in aerate environment. This fast water table lowering is related to a rapid incision of the nearby Albegna river, and was followed by a 20-30 m fluctuation of the thermal water table, as recorded in the calcite raft deposits and gypsum crusts.

  10. Integrated geological and geophisycal methods for the evaluation of the ceiling collapse hazard of the Poesia Cave in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Rose, M.; Leucci, G.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    According to the Protection Civil Department database, Apulia is the fourth region in Italy affected by sinkholes, due to collapse of natural or man-made cavities. The southern part of the region (the Salento peninsula) had hosted in the last twenty years at least fifteen events of sinkholes, the greatest part of which occurred inside "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). The most catastrophic sinkhole, due to the presence of underground quarries, occurred at Gallipoli on 29 March 2007, when a collapse created a 12 x 18 m sinkhole which involved two 3 floors buildings. and 140 people were evacuated. In these cases, the usual approach of investigation of the area consist of geological survey supported by geophysical prospecting aimed to evaluate the real size of sinkhole crater and to predict its development over the time. In spite of the importance on the civil protection, the prediction of the sinkhole events is currently an hard issue, especially if they are related to caves of cultural interest as the case at hand, where are summarised questions of safety of people and cultural heritage. The "Poesia Piccola" cave, located at the Salento area of the Puglia region (southern Italy), has such features and it is the case study of this paper. The cave is an outstanding example of hypogean archaeological site morphologically in evolution and potentially dangerous for humans. It belongs to a karst system formed by dome-shaped caves, minor cavities and galleries. The system, named "Grotte della Poesia", is joined to the ground through vertical and horizontal entrances, respectively placed on a coastal plateau and along the contiguous cliff. This paper provides a new methodological approach on the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in such "soft" carbonate rocks combing geological, geophysical and mine engineering complementary methods, such as: geological analysis of outcrops and boreholes, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity

  11. A reassessment of the Neanderthal teeth from Taddeo cave (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Stefano; Viola, Bence; Kullmer, Ottmar; Fiorenza, Luca; Harvati, Katerina; Paul, Tobias; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W; Mallegni, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The Middle Paleolithic fossil human teeth from Taddeo cave in southwestern Italy were discovered in 1967, but to date only scanty and partially incorrect information has been published about them. The teeth were recovered in a reddish sandy layer from the cave's floor, which is attributed either to an early phase of Würm I (OIS 5c or 5d) or a transition phase between Würm I and Würm II (OIS 5a). In this paper, we present a revised morphological description and morphometric comparisons of the four dental remains discovered. Apart from a classic morphometric comparison, we also provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the internal morphology with the aid of micro-CT imaging. In addition, virtual restoration and matching of adjacent teeth were performed with 3D digital modeling and Computer-Aided Design techniques. Occlusal Fingerprint Analysis was also employed to help correctly identify each tooth. While in the previous studies, Taddeo 1 was considered either an upper right canine or a lower right canine, in the present work it has been definitely identified as lower left canine. Taddeo 2 has been reclassified as a right P(4) instead of a right P(3). Based on the occlusal and interproximal wear, we have also shown that Taddeo 2 and Taddeo 3 (right M(1)) belong to the same individual. All of the teeth show characteristic Neanderthal features in crown morphology and fissure pattern. However, although Taddeo 4 shows morphological features typical of Neanderthal M(1)s, some morphometric results (large enamel thickness, low dentine volume) recall more modern humans than Neanderthals. This result might suggest that, at least for lower first molars, the Neanderthal range of variation is large and still not clearly understood.

  12. The evolution of cave systems from the surface to subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Handford, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    Many carbonate reservoirs are the result of cave-forming processes. The origin and recognition of fractures, breccias, and sediment fills associated with paleocaves were determined through the study of modern and paleocaves systems. Cave formation and destruction are the products of near-surface processes. Near-surface processes include solutional excavation, clastic and chemical sedimentation, and collapse of cave walls and ceilings. Cave sediment is derived from inside and/or outside the system. Depositional mechanisms include suspension, tractional, mass-flow and rock-fall. Collapse of ceilings and walls from chaotic breakdown breccias. These piles can be tens of meters thick and contain large voids and variable amounts of matrix. Cave-roof crackle breccia forms from stress-and tension-related fractures in cave-roof strata. As the cave-bearing strata subside into the subsurface, mechanical compaction increases and restructures the existing breccias and remaining cavities. Fracture porosity increases and breccia and vug porosity decreases. Large cavities collapse forming burial chaotic breakdown breccias. Differentially compacted strata over the collapsed chamber fracture and form burial cave-roof crackle breccias. Continued burial leads to more extensive mechanical compaction causing previously formed clasts to fracture and pack closer together. The resulting product is a rebrecciated chaotic breakdown breccia composed predominantly of small clasts. Rebrecciated blocks are often overprinted by crackling. Subsurface paleocave systems commonly have a complex history with several episodes of fracturing and brecciation. The resulting collapsed-paleocave reservoir targets are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across.

  13. The evolution of cave systems from the surface to subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G. ); Handford, C.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Many carbonate reservoirs are the result of cave-forming processes. The origin and recognition of fractures, breccias, and sediment fills associated with paleocaves were determined through the study of modern and paleocaves systems. Cave formation and destruction are the products of near-surface processes. Near-surface processes include solutional excavation, clastic and chemical sedimentation, and collapse of cave walls and ceilings. Cave sediment is derived from inside and/or outside the system. Depositional mechanisms include suspension, tractional, mass-flow and rock-fall. Collapse of ceilings and walls from chaotic breakdown breccias. These piles can be tens of meters thick and contain large voids and variable amounts of matrix. Cave-roof crackle breccia forms from stress-and tension-related fractures in cave-roof strata. As the cave-bearing strata subside into the subsurface, mechanical compaction increases and restructures the existing breccias and remaining cavities. Fracture porosity increases and breccia and vug porosity decreases. Large cavities collapse forming burial chaotic breakdown breccias. Differentially compacted strata over the collapsed chamber fracture and form burial cave-roof crackle breccias. Continued burial leads to more extensive mechanical compaction causing previously formed clasts to fracture and pack closer together. The resulting product is a rebrecciated chaotic breakdown breccia composed predominantly of small clasts. Rebrecciated blocks are often overprinted by crackling. Subsurface paleocave systems commonly have a complex history with several episodes of fracturing and brecciation. The resulting collapsed-paleocave reservoir targets are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across.

  14. High-resolution 3-D mapping using terrestrial laser scanning as a tool for geomorphological and speleogenetical studies in caves: An example from the Lessini mountains (North Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Rossi, Guido; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is increasingly used in geomorphology for the study of medium- to small scale landforms. A light weight, compact and portable TLS device has been used in the Grotta A Cave (Mt. Lessini, N Italy) to make a detailed 3D model of the underground environment. A total of 16 scans were used to survey the about 150 m long cave in < 6 h. The 3D model of the cave walls makes it possible to carry out morphometric measurements on the different cave environments. The TLS data allowed us to calculate cave volumes and distinguish cupola, phreatic conduit and basalt dike volumes. Wall roughness analysis also allowed recognising smaller-scale morphologies such as megascallops, differential corrosion forms and mineral crusts. These observations have enabled us to discern between different karstification processes and speleogenetic phases, highlighting the importance of condensation-corrosion on the cave passage enlargement in a quantitative way.

  15. An Ochered Fossil Marine Shell From the Mousterian of Fumane Cave, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peresani, Marco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Quaggiotto, Ermanno; Queffelec, Alain; d’Errico, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A scanty but varied ensemble of finds challenges the idea that Neandertal material culture was essentially static and did not include symbolic items. In this study we report on a fragmentary Miocene-Pliocene fossil marine shell, Aspamarginata, discovered in a Discoid Mousterian layer of the Fumane Cave, northern Italy, dated to at least 47.6-45.0 Cal ky BP. The shell was collected by Neandertals at a fossil exposure probably located more than 100 kms from the site. Microscopic analysis of the shell surface identifies clusters of striations on the inner lip. A dark red substance, trapped inside micropits produced by bioeroders, is interpreted as pigment that was homogeneously smeared on the outer shell surface. Dispersive X-ray and Raman analysis identify the pigment as pure hematite. Of the four hypotheses we considered to explain the presence of this object at the site, two (tool, pigment container) are discarded because in contradiction with observations. Although the other two (“manuport”, personal ornament) are both possible, we favor the hypothesis that the object was modified and suspended by a ‘thread’ for visual display as a pendant. Together with contextual and chronometric data, our results support the hypothesis that deliberate transport and coloring of an exotic object, and perhaps its use as pendant, was a component of Neandertal symbolic culture, well before the earliest appearance of the anatomically modern humans in Europe. PMID:23874677

  16. San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the appearance of Levallois technology in Europe: results of a radiometric and technological reassessment.

    PubMed

    Picin, Andrea; Peresani, Marco; Falguères, Christophe; Gruppioni, Giulia; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene.

  17. San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the Appearance of Levallois Technology in Europe: Results of a Radiometric and Technological Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Picin, Andrea; Peresani, Marco; Falguères, Christophe; Gruppioni, Giulia; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene. PMID:24146836

  18. Monitoring of cave air temperature and humidity in the Niedźwiedzia Cave system (Sudetes, Poland) - a key to understanding tourists activity impact to cave environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasiorowski, M.; Hercman, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Niedźwiedzia Cave is located in Śnieżnik Massif (the Easter Sudetes, SW Poland) at 800 m a.s.l. The length of known passages is ~3000 m and denivelation is 69 m. The system is composed of 3 levels of passages and chambers. It is a show cave with ~80,000 visitors every year. In 2010 we started monitoring program of cave air temperature and humidity, drip rate, stable isotopes and Uranium and Polonium content in water in selected sites inside the cave and in its vicinity. Changes in dropping rate in upper level are well correlated with precipitation. However, a response of dripping to rainfall depends on former precipitation frequency and intensity - during the humid period the dripping reacts immediately and after long dry period dripping responses with two-weeks delay. There is not so direct correlation between precipitation and dripping in lower level of the system. Air temperature inside the cave is almost stable in lower level (mean annual ~5.3 °C, and annual variation up to 0.7 °C) and more dynamic in the middle level (mean annual ~6.4 °C, and mean annual amplitude up to 4 °C). Daily and weekly measured changes of cave air temperature demonstrate extremely well correlation with number of visitors. In show cave passages (the middle level of the system) temperature increase 0.1-0.2 °C during every day when the cave is open for tourists and such changes is not observed during days without visitors and in lower level of the system closed for tourists. But even short visits of 3-4 cavers are recorded by temperature sensors exposed in the lower level (~0.02 °C increase). It proves very high sensitivity of cave environment to human activity. This study is funded by the National Science Centre and Higher Education grant no. N N306 131038.

  19. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  20. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  1. Anthropogenic sinkholes susceptibility and underground caves density of Naples (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Guarino, Paolo Maria; Nisio, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    A study of historical anthropogenic sinkholes, the underground caves and related susceptibility in the municipality of Naples is presented. The goals of the research is to construct an inventory of historical sinkholes (events from 1960 to 2015), to identify and analyze their predisposing and triggering factors, and to evaluate the related susceptibility. A fairly complete assessment of historical events occurred up to December 2015 has been carried out. The analysis related to the last sinkholes phenomena is presented, especially regarding those caused by the collapse of subterranean lapillus quarries. The genetic mechanisms of the surveyed sinkholes appear sufficiently clear; the knowledge of how the predisposing factors vary within the study area is adequate as far as the sewage system is considered, whereas it is still defective as concerns the role of the cavity network. The obtained susceptibility map could be a useful contribution to further detailed zoning maps in a densely urbanized area, such as the city of Naples. In addition to the need of further increasing the knowledge on the subsoil of the Neapolitan area, a key issue remains the use of temporal information on historical events for the purposes of hazard evaluation; further studies in this regard are still in progress.

  2. Environmental management of tourist caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, A. A.

    1993-06-01

    In terms of the flow of energy or mass, caves may be nearly closed systems. From the perspective of environmental protection and tourist cave management there are three categories: (1) caves where the natural energy fluxes far exceed those created by visitors, with the consequence that their environmental parameters are not affected by development (e.g., caves subject to frequent flooding); (2) caves where natural and tourist energy fluxes are of similar magnitude, where environmental parameters respond to visitors but return to their natural equilibrium afterwards; and (3) caves where visitor fluxes far exceed the natural fluxes, so that natural environmental equilibrium may be destroyed. The aim of responsible management is to limit the introduced fluxes to those that will not destroy the natural equilibrium established in such parameters as temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration, etc. A visitor capacity criterion is defined, and measured effects of visitors are demonstrated at Grotte di Castellana and Grotta Grande del Vento, category 2 caves that are the principal tourist caves of Italy.

  3. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  4. Corrosion of calcite crystals by metal-rich mud in caves: Study case in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Forti, Paolo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Rull, Fernando; Sanz, Aurelio

    2013-09-01

    Unusual orange ochre crusts were recently discovered in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (San Giovanni Mine, SW Sardinia). These speleothems appear covering the cave walls on hydrothermal calcite spars as well as filling widened spaces between calcite crystals. Planar crusts display geometrical forms following the boundaries between the calcite spars. EDX-SEM microanalyses reveal that these deposits comprise substances of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and O that occur as solid inclusions in pits on the surface of altered calcite microcrystals. Micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses suggest the presence of calcite and ferromanganese oxides with a low degree of crystallinity. The genetic mechanism proposed for these speleothems describes an initial stage of precipitation of euhedral calcite crystals from warm water under subaqueous conditions. The crystal surfaces were eroded and corroded by colder aggressive water that smoothed the surfaces of the crystals and slightly widened the spaces between calcite spars. Metal-rich mud coming from alteration of bedrock and ore bodies filled the cave, also penetrating along the spaces between the calcite spars. When the water table fell below the cave level, part of the sediments was eroded but the cave walls remained covered with metal-rich clayey sediments. Under aerobic conditions, metals - which were reduced in previous stages - oxidized to oxides, lowering the pH and thus the crystal surface and the calcite planes between the spars were corroded. Subsequently, the polymetallic crusts became harder through evaporation within the cave, "fossilizing" the products of this process within the planes between spars. Finally, the exposed calcite surfaces continued to be altered due to CO2 diffusion into condensation water, while the boundaries between crystals were preserved against corrosion thanks to the crust coating. As a result, the external crystal edges protrude by several centimeters from the current cave wall, while the crystal surfaces are

  5. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers wa...

  6. A stable isotope study of fossil mammal remains from the Paglicci cave, Southern Italy. N and C as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacumin, P.; Bocherens, H.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Mariotti, A.; Longinelli, A.

    1997-04-01

    A set of 102 tooth and bone samples of Pleistocene age (32,600-13,300 yr BP) belonging to the species Cervus elaphus, Bos primigenius and Equus caballus and coming from the Paglicci cave (Southern Italy) was studied for the carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotopic composition of bone and dentine collage and for the carbon (δ 13C c) isotopic composition of tooth enamel carbonate. The amount of collagen extracted from bone and tooth samples (mg/g) was rather variable, representing approximately only 0.5-15% of the collagen present in a fresh bone. However, the loss of an important fraction of the original collagen during diagenesis did not change the in vivo isotopic composition. In general, when the δ 13C of both collagen and carbonate and the δ 15N of collagen obtained from each level for the three species are compared, wild ox shows the most increased values, deer the most decreased values and horse shows intermediate results. These differences are probably related to distinct diets or to differences in their physiological behaviour. However, the isotopic results suggest that the three species considered lived in an open environment with a diet based on C 3 plants. The stratigraphic sequence of light and heavy nitrogen isotope values between 19,000 and 15,000 may be related to shifts from arid to humid conditions, while the overall trend shown by δ 13C toward lighter values may be related to a progressive development of a forest habitat.

  7. Application of a cave inventory system to stimulate development of management strategies: the case of west-central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Harley, Grant L; Polk, Jason S; North, Leslie A; Reeder, Philip P

    2011-10-01

    The active management of air-filled cave systems is virtually non-existent within the karst landscape of west-central Florida. As in every karst landscape, caves are important because they contain a wide variety of resources (e.g., biota, speleothems) and can act as direct connections between surface and subsurface hydrological processes, potentially exacerbating the pollution of groundwater. Before sound management policies can be drafted, implemented, and enforced, stakeholders must first have knowledge of the management requirements of each cave. However, there is an informational disconnect between researchers, stakeholders, and the recreational caving community. Here, we present a cave inventory system that simplifies the dissemination of resource knowledge to stakeholders so that cave management and protection policies can be drafted and implemented at the state and local level. We inventoried 36 caves in west-central Florida, located on both public and private land, and analyzed cave resource data to provide insights on cave sensitivity and disturbance using two standardized indices. The data revealed that both public and private caves exhibit a wide range of sensitivity and disturbance, and before management strategies can be drafted, the ownership of each cave must be considered. Our inventory geodatabase serves as a link between researchers, landowners, and the public. To ensure the conservation and protection of caves, support from county or state government, combined with cave inventory data, is crucial in developing sound management policy.

  8. Study of the formation of biogenic speleothems found in submarine caves at the cape of Otranto, Italy, by 14C AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, M.; Quarta, G.; Calcagnile, L.; Belmonte, G.

    2007-06-01

    Submarine caves at the Cape of Otranto, Italy, contain eccentric stalactites that were recently identified as entirely biogenic. One of these stalactites was sectioned along its longitudinal axis in order to select samples for radiocarbon dating. 14C AMS measurements provided fundamental information for the interpretation of the biogenic process and revealed that the formation of the stalactite continued for approximately 5000 years with a decrease in the longitudinal growth rate over time. Measurements of modern organisms were performed to assess the accuracy of the radiocarbon determinations, calibrated in calendar years by measuring the local marine reservoir age.

  9. Biological clocks and visual systems in cave-adapted animals at the dawn of speleogenomics.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Cave-adapted animals are characterized by extreme reduction or complete absence of eyes, reflecting their lack of exposure to daylight. Given the overall constancy of abiotic variables in the cave environment, one would also expect the relaxation and eventual loss of circadian rhythms, and with it, the regressive evolution of the underlying genetic biological clock. Remarkably, however, recent behavioral and molecular studies converge with earlier evidence that the biological clock remains conserved in cave-adapted species. Reviewing the structural and behavioral data on the relationship between the visual system and the biological clock in cave species, I assess the potential of deep sequencing for elucidating their evolutionary conservation and adaptive significance in the subterranean fauna. The combined evidence confirms the widespread conservation both of the visual system and of the behavior regulated by the biological clock in cave species. The data from over 40 vertebrate and arthropod species further reveal that the absence of activity rhythms is correlated with the regression of the visual system. At the same time, the network of biological clock genes is likely to be generally conserved in cave species, regulating rhythmic behaviors in response to non-visual cycling variables as well as organismal homeostasis. Arrhythmic, eyeless species of cave beetles emerge as the most stringent choice for using deep-sequencing approaches to test and explore the conservation of the biological clock, independently of the visual system.

  10. Connecting Metabolic Potential with Thermodynamic Reality: Lithotrophic Microbial Communities of the Frasassi Cave System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, R. L.; Macalady, J. L.; Schaperdoth, I.

    2013-12-01

    If Martian life evolved during the Noachian period, it likely would have retreated to liquid water refuges where redox chemistry provided metabolically viable substrates. Present-day Mars appears to have such a refuge with data suggesting that liquid water may persist in the subsurface, however limited data is available with regards to subsurface Martian geochemistry and hydrogeology. On Earth, we find microbial communities thriving in subsurface environments utilizing a multitude of lithoautotrophic metabolisms. The Frasassi cave system in Italy hosts many such lithotrophic microbial communities, which are isolated from surface carbon, sunlight, and oxygen similar to possible Martian microbial populations. By studying the community structure, geochemistry and thermodynamics of the system, as well as the metabolic capabilities using metagenomics, we hope to discover microbes are capable of thriving in so-called 'energy-limited' environments and inform the search for life in the solar system. Two subsurface cave lakes in the Frasassi cave system, Lago Infinito and Lago dell'Orsa, have anoxic waters that host rope-like biofilm communities dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes clades. Thermodynamic calculations based on in situ geochemistry of waters surrounding the biofilms suggest very few metabolisms are energetically-feasible including: 1) anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled with sulfate reduction 2) anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) coupled with sulfate reduction 3) methanogenesis (Lago dell'Orsa only) 4) chemotrophic sulfate reduction AOM and anammox were only recently discovered and appear to have low energy yields associated with slow growth rates. AOM coupled with sulfate reduction has been shown to occur in a syntrophy between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanotrophic Archaea. However, these rope-like biofilms have a small (<10%) Archaeal population, which are not closely related to the syntrophic

  11. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  12. Sulfur Cycling and Microbial Community Structure in Cave Environment: some geomicrobiological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulecal, Y.; Temel, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, cave microbiology has emerged as a growing interdisciplinary field. Because of caves provides a unique subsurface environment for the exploration of microbial life and their roles on biogeochemical cycling under extreme condition. Sulfidic caves form in carbonate rocks where sulfide-rich waters interact with oxygen at the water table or at subterranean springs (1). Terrestrial sulfidic caves and springs are abundant and diverse, as assessed by efforts to characterize cave microbial ecosystems and to understand large scale geochemical processes (2). In this study we examined the geochemical features, microbial community and capacity of sulfur cycling in sulfidic cave ( Kaklik Cave, Turkey ) and its two hot springs. Pyrosequencing were used to understand bacterial diversity and community structure in this study area with contrasting hydrochemial and geological properties. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for sulfur cycling. The microbial community displayed a high level of microbial diversity, representing 22 phylum of the Bacteria and 5 phylum of the Archaea. Our results provide a comparative view of the microbial communities and processes involved in sulfur cycling in sulfidic cave environments. 1- Macalady et al. (2007) Extremely acidic, pendulous cave wall biofilms from the Frasassi cave system, Italy. Env.Mic. 9(6), 1402-1414 2- Rossmassler et al. Drivers of epsilonproteobacterial community composition in sulfidic caves and springs.

  13. Reconstruction of the Neanderthal and Modern Human landscape and climate from the Fumane cave sequence (Verona, Italy) using small-mammal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, Juan Manuel; dalla Valle, Chiara; Cremaschi, Mauro; Peresani, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Fumane cave, located at an altitude of 350 m.a.s.l. in the Monti Lessini in the Veneto Pre-Alps, northeastern Italy, is a reference site for southern Europe for the study of the behaviour of Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) from Marine Isotope Stages 5 to 2 (MIS5-MIS2). It is one of the few well-dated and closely studied sites in the Italian Peninsula, with a finely layered sedimentary sequence from the Mousterian to Gravettian. In this paper we present for the first time a palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the MIS3 and MIS2 sequence based on the small mammal (insectivore, bat and rodent) assemblages. The environmental and climatic results, coupled with the radiocarbon dating together with previous studies on large mammals, birds and charcoal and other studies on small mammals and pollen for the same time-span in Italy, enable us clearly to identify distinct climatic periods within our data: Heinrich Event 5 in units A7 to A6, Greenland Interstadial 12 in units A5 + A6 to A4, Heinrich Event 4 in units A3 to A1, and Heinrich Event 3 in unit D1e. Finally, the study shows that Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans were well adapted to the different climatic and environmental conditions of MIS3 at the foot of the Alps.

  14. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     ... cover at least 160,000 acres in this part of Italy, where rice is the most important crop. These views of the region were acquired on May ... May 8, 2005 - Natural color and composite images of rice cultivation in Northwest Italy. project:  MISR ...

  15. 76 FR 19129 - Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork... information collection requirements contained in the Standard on Excavations (Design of Cave-in...

  16. Understanding of δ13C behavior and its significance in the Furong Cave system through a 10-year cave monitoring study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Li, H. C.; Li, T.; Li, X.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how speleothem δ13C to reflect paleoclimate and paleovegetation changes calls for understanding of δ13C behavior in a cave system. We have conducted a monitoring study in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China since 2005 involving multiple sites in the overlying soil and inside the cave. The measured proxies include pCO2 of the atmosphere, soil and cave air; dripping rate, pH, electronic conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3-, d13CDIC of the dripwaters; and deposition rate, d13C of seasonally selected carbonate deposits. The many observations from this study are: (1) Soil pCO2 is close to the atmospheric pCO2 in winter and reaches >10000 ppm during the summer due to high productivity under warm and wet climates. (2) The pCO2 in cave air is slightly higher than Soil pCO2 and atmospheric pCO2 in winter (400~900 ppm), but elevates up to ~2000 ppm around October due to seepage of soil CO2 into the cave. The cave air pCO2 exhibits double peaks following the seasonal rainfall (1st peak in April-June controlled by Indian monsoon and 2nd peak in July-September influenced by the North Western Pacific monsoon). The cave air pCO2 has about 2-3 month lag to the soil pCO2. (3) Under the influence of soil CO2 and rainfall, the d13CDIC of drpiwaters are depleted in the summer and enriched during the winter. During 2009-2011, southwestern China experienced extremely drought due to summer monsoon failure. The d13CDIC of dripwater in Furong Cave was strongly enriched because of low soil CO2 productivity, less transportation of soil CO2 into the cave, and high CO2 ratio from bedrock input. Dripping rate does not affect the d13CDIC significantly. (4) The d13C of speleothems is controlled by the open/closed system of the seepage pathway on the first order. Monitoring site MP1 owns a relatively open system shown by fast dripping rates, low Ca and HCO3- contents, and low carbonate deposition rate. The d13C of modern deposits from this site not only shows the seasonal variation following

  17. The process of ghost-rock karstification and its role in the formation of cave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.; Quinif, Y.; Baele, J.-M.; Barriquand, L.; Bini, A.; Bruxelles, L.; Dandurand, G.; Havron, C.; Kaufmann, O.; Lans, B.; Maire, R.; Martin, J.; Rodet, J.; Rowberry, M. D.; Tognini, P.; Vergari, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive review of the process of ghost-rock karstification and highlights its role in the formation of cave systems. The process integrates chemical weathering and mechanical erosion and extends a number of existing theories pertaining to continental landscape development. It is a two stage process that differs in many respects from the traditional single-stage process of karstification by total removal. The first stage is characterised by chemical dissolution and removal of the soluble species. It requires low hydrodynamic energy and creates a ghost-rock feature filled with residual alterite. The second stage is characterised by mechanical erosion of the undissolved particles. It requires high hydrodynamic energy and it is only then that open galleries are created. The transition from the first stage to the second is driven by the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The process is illustrated by detailed field observations and the results of the laboratory analyses of samples taken from the karstotype area around Soignies in southern Belgium. Thereafter, a series of case studies provide a synthesis of field observations and laboratory analyses from across western Europe. These studies come from geologically distinct parts of Belgium, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The process of ghost-rock karstification challenges a number of axioms associated with the process of karstification by total removal. On the basis of the evidence presented it is argued that it is no longer acceptable to use karst morphologies as a basis with which to infer specific karstogenetic processes and it is no longer necessary for a karst system to relate to base level as ghost-rock karstification proceeds along transmissive pathways in the rock. There is also some evidence to suggest that ghost-rock karstification may be superseded by karstification by total removal, and vice versa, according to the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system

  18. Determination and Assessment of Parameters Influencing Rock Mass Cavability in Block Caving Mines Using the Probabilistic Rock Engineering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ramin; Ataei, Mohammad; Khalokakaie, Reza; Jalali, Seyed Mohammad Esmaeil; Sereshki, Farhang

    2015-05-01

    Mining methods such as block caving or sublevel caving rely on the characteristics of the rock mass to cave efficiently to fulfill an economical production. The identification of influencing parameters and cavability assessment are, thus, a prime geotechnical focus for all potential caving projects. In the caving operation, many factors, such as natural and induced factors, affect the caving performance. In this study, after discussing the caving process and identifying all effective parameters, the interaction matrix based on the rock engineering system (RES) is introduced to study the influencing parameters in rock mass cavability. The interaction matrix analyzes the interrelationship between the parameters affecting rock engineering activities. As the interaction matrix codes are not unique, probabilistic coding can be performed non-deterministically, allowing consideration of uncertainties in the RES analysis. As a result, the parameters with the highest probability of being dominant or subordinate, and also the parameters with the highest probability of being interactive, are introduced. The proposed approach could be a simple but efficient tool in the evaluation of the parameters affecting the cavability of rock mass in block caving mines and, hence, useful in decision-making under uncertainties.

  19. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  20. Chemical erosion of the Lilburn Cave system, Kings Canyon National Park, California.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jaber, N; Hess, J W; Howcroft, W

    2001-01-01

    Multi-year instrumental records for input, throughflow and output waters of the Lilburn Cave system provide control on denudation rates as they respond to seasonal and spatial variability. Data suggest that maximum denudation is in the late fall and early winter. This is when non-snowmelt discharge is at its maximum. At lower discharge rates the volume of water moving through the cave system is the limiting control on the volume of denudation. During periods of snowmelt the limiting control is the rate at which the calcite dissolves. This is probably the result of water flowing through wider channels during these times. Based on instrumental measurements, there is considerable variation in terms of where denudation occurs inside the cave. The loci of dissolution change from year to year. This is to be expected in the dynamic environment of the cave where materials shift routinely. This variability should be studied over longer periods of time in order to more fully understand its extent. The relatively small area of carbonate exposure relative to the area of the drainage basin gives rise to relatively high denudation rates. The carbonate is being removed at a rate of about 5000 metric tons per year, or at about 830 mm/y. This is about five times the rate reported in the humid karst regions of Malaysia. This information indicates that the relative proportion of carbonate in the drainage basin needs to be considered when trying to estimate denudation in other areas.

  1. Hypogenic contribution to speleogenesis in a predominant epigenic karst system: A case study from the Venetian Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bruijn, Rolf H. C.; De Waele, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Buso della Rana and Buso della Pisatela are two karstic caves located in north-east Italy. They are part of the same karst system and are developed in the Castelgomberto calcarenitic marine sediments, which were deposited in a shallow Caribbean-type sea during the Eocene. The Buso della Rana-Pisatela system developed mostly at the contact between the Castelgomberto calcarenite and underlying volcanic rocks. The system of caves is ~ 37 km long and has only three entrances, two of which are semi-artificial. The overlying karst plateau is not directly connected to the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system and, with the exception of one deep abyss, exhibits a rather poorly developed karst. This is unexpected considering the presence at depth of such a large and long cave. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has locally been observed on the walls of the Buso della Pisatela cave. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveals the presence of sulfur-bearing minerals within the host rock. Gypsum was formed by oxidation of these minerals as indicated by negative δ34S values. The oxidation of sulfide minerals forms a sulfuric-acid solution that dissolves the Castelgomberto calcarenite and, once it is oversaturated in calcium, precipitates as gypsum. The lack of well-developed karst on top of the plateau and the analyses suggest that the formation mechanisms for the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system differ from classical epigenic speleogenesis. The "pyrite-effect" has been recognized in other caves and described in literature. In our case pyrite is responsible of two hypo-speleogenetic processes: i) the dissolution of a portion of the host rock and ii) the enlargement of the karst voids as a consequence of the haloclastic effect.

  2. Floating production systems planned for Italy, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off Italy. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.

  3. Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Microbial ecology in subterranean systems has yet to be fully studied. Cave systems present highly unusual and extreme habitats, where microbial activity can potentially play a major role in nutrient cycling and possibly contribute to the formation of characteristic subaerial structures. How microorganisms actually function in cave systems, and what ecological roles they may perform, has yet to be widely addressed, although recent studies using molecular techniques combined with analytical geochemistry have begun to answer some questions surrounding subterranean microbial ecology (Northup et al., 2003). Moonmilk has a ‘cottage-cheese' like consistency, comprised of fine crystal aggregates of carbonate minerals, commonly calcite, hydromagnesite and gypsum, and is believed to be at least partially precipitated by microbial activity (Baskar et al., 2006). Microbial metabolic processes have been implicated in the formation of moonmilk, probably a result of biochemical corrosion of bedrock under high moisture conditions. Mineral weathering via bacterial activity has become accepted as a major influence on subsurface geochemistry and formation of belowground structures (Summers-Engel et al., 2004). While many studies focus on bacterial communities in subterranean systems, fungal community structure is also likely to be important in cave systems, given the important role fungi play in the transformations of organic and inorganic substrates (Gadd, 2004) and the significant role of fungi in mineral dissolution and secondary mineral formation (Burford et al., 2003). In general, it is agreed that both biotic and abiotic processes influence moonmilk formation, yet the diversity of the microbial community associated with moonmilk formations has not been characterised to date. Ballinamintra Cave (Waterford County, Ireland) is largely protected from human influence due to accessibility difficulties and thereby offers an opportunity to study microbial community structure that

  4. The archaeal diversity in a cave system and its implications for life on other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Bessone, Loredana; Sauro, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. At this point in time, we are not able to send manned missions to other planets, but to be ready and prepared for the day, training today is pivotal. Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2008, these CAVES missions (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills), prepare astronauts to work safely and effectively and solve problems as a multicultural team while exploring uncharted underground natural areas (i.e. caves) using space procedures. The hypogean environment is also of great interest for astrobiological research as cave conditions may resemble those in extra-terrestrial environments. Besides the main focus of exploration and skill training, future astronauts are also trained in taking microbiological samples for analysis during the exploration and for further analysis in the lab. During the 2013 mission, astronauts collected soil samples and employed flocked swaps to sample areas with little or no visible soil. Microscopic analysis back in the lab revealed a diverse spectrum of different cell shapes and sizes. Samples were further analysed employing molecular tools such as RFLP analysis, 16s rRNA clone libraries and sequence analysis. RFLP pattern analysis revealed that the community can be divided in 9 main groups and several single patterns. The largest group (40% of all analysed clones) belong to the clade of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrosopumilus spp.. Dividing the results by sampling point, it showed that the highest diversity of organisms was located on the flocked swaps, which is interesting as the sample was taken from a rock surface with no visible organic matter. By analysis low energy systems like a cave, we may be able to find clues for what could be necessary to survive on a

  5. Morphogenesis of hypogenic caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchouk, Alexander

    2009-05-01

    Hypogenic speleogenesis is the formation of solution-enlarged permeability structures by waters ascending to a cave-forming zone from below in leaky confined conditions, where deeper groundwaters in regional or intermediate flow systems interact with shallower and more local groundwater flow systems. This is in contrast to more familiar epigenic speleogenesis which is dominated by shallow groundwater systems receiving recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. Hypogenic caves are identified in various geological and tectonic settings, formed by different dissolutional mechanisms operating in various lithologies. Despite these variations, resultant caves demonstrate a remarkable similarity in patterns and meso-morphology, which strongly suggests that the hydrogeologic settings were broadly identical in their formation. Hypogenic caves commonly demonstrate a characteristic suite of cave morphologies resulting from rising flow across the cave-forming zone with distinct buoyancy-dissolution components. In addition to hydrogeological criteria (hydrostratigraphic position, recharge-discharge configuration and flow pattern viewed from the perspective of the evolution of a regional groundwater flow system), morphogenetic analysis is the primary tool in identifying hypogenic caves. Cave patterns resulting from ascending transverse speleogenesis are strongly guided by the permeability structure in a cave formation. They are also influenced by the discordance of permeability structure in the adjacent beds and by the overall hydrostratigraphic arrangement. Three-dimensional mazes with multiple storeys, or complex 3-D cave systems are most common, although single isolated chambers, passages or crude clusters of a few intersecting passages may occur where fracturing is scarce and laterally discontinuous. Large rising shafts and collapse sinkholes over large voids, associated with deep hydrothermal systems, are also known. Hypogenic caves include many of the

  6. Hydraulics of Reka-Timavo system, Classical Karst (Carso), Slovenia-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovsek, Franci; Kaufmann, Georg; Peric, Borut

    2016-04-01

    In tectonically active areas, karst systems continuously adapt to the relatively rapid changes of the structural and boundary conditions. The flow pathways in such systems are characterised by high variability of channel cross-sections and breakdowns, which restrict the flow and cause high fluctuations of groundwater level, particularly if the recharge variations are high. One of the world's most prominent karst systems with such characteristics is the Kras/Carso plateau (Classical Karst), which extends between SW Slovenia and NE Italy. The ground water dynamics is mainly influenced by the allogenic input of Reka river which sinks at the Škocjanske jame (Škocjan caves) and emerges about 40 km north-west at the coast of Adria near Duino in springs of Timavo. The ratio between highest and lowest flow of Reka reaches 1700 with the maximum measured discharge 305 m3/s, and minimum 0.18 m3/s. This work is based on the long-term continuous monitoring of basic physical parameters of underground flow within six active caves of the Reka-Timavo system. Using stage, temperature and specific electric conductivity hydrographs, following questions were addressed: How do different signals (flood pulse, temperature, SEP) propagate through the system? How does the known geometry relate to the recorded hydrographs in caves? Can we infer on the structure of unknown parts of the system from the recorded hydrographs ? Where are the restrictions causing floods in different parts of the system? The data analysis includes heuristic and statistical analysis of the hydrographs and optimisation based hydraulic modelling. The response to recharge events is vigorous; high flow variability causes extreme stage variations along the whole observed system, with more than 100 m difference between the base and highest water levels at rising and recession rates reaching almost 10 m/h. By analysing large recharge events, we show that high floods in the two most upstream caves (Škocjanske jame and Ka

  7. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  8. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  9. Geology of Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. E.; Morgan, I. M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in the study of caves (speleology) with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine types of caves, how caves form, cave features, minerals found in caves, uses of caves, and caves as natural underground laboratories.…

  10. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... country of the park north of the Green River; the Mammoth Cave Railroad Bike & Hike Trail; and the White... offering guided rides on park trails and canoe and kayak liveries began shuttle services on the Green and... system in the vicinity of the park's visitor center and nearby Green River. Other trails,...

  11. Development of a deep karst system within a transpressional structure of the Dolomites in north-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Zampieri, Dario; Filipponi, Marco

    2013-02-01

    The Piani Eterni karst system is one of the longest and deepest caves of Italy situated in the southern sector of the Dolomiti mountain range. The area where the cave was formed displays peculiar structural settings confined in a tectonic transpressive corridor between two regional thrusts (Belluno and Valsugana). During Miocene uplift of the range the inheritance of Mesozoic structures led to the formation of a deep and wide upward-branching flower (or palm tree) structure cutting the carbonate sequence and exposing the surrounding surface to karst processes after erosion. The relative lowering of the hydrologic base level, due both to the uplift of the area and then to the carving of deep glacial valleys in the Quaternary, allowed the formation of paleo-phreatic conduits at subsequently deeper levels, interconnected by vadose shafts and canyons. This work gives a detailed tectonic interpretation of the transpressive structure and picks out the tectonic features most favorable to the karst development. A detailed statistical analysis of the distribution and orientation of the karst conduits was performed using 31 km of 3D surveys showing that the development of the cave was strictly guided by a few favorable surfaces of stratigraphic and tectonic origin. These features are known in the literature as inception horizons and tectonic inception features, respectively. Cave levels are usually related to lithologic favorable conditions associated with standings of the paleo-water table. Here we suggest that some tectonic surface geometries could have led to the opening of voids in the active tectonic phase leading to the formation of the original proto-conduit network. Different types of tectonic inception features identified in the cave were described in terms of geometry and kinematics. Tensional fractures, as well as fault plane undulations and flexural slip surfaces between beds, are described as the most favorable tectonic surfaces for the development of the

  12. Biogeography of sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus populations in extremely acidic cave biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Daniel S; Schaperdoth, Irene; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0–1.5) Acidithiobacillus-dominated biofilms known as snottites are found in sulfide-rich caves around the world. Given the extreme geochemistry and subsurface location of the biofilms, we hypothesized that snottite Acidithiobacillus populations would be genetically isolated. We therefore investigated biogeographic relationships among snottite Acidithiobacillus spp. separated by geographic distances ranging from meters to 1000s of kilometers. We determined genetic relationships among the populations using techniques with three levels of resolution: (i) 16S rRNA gene sequencing, (ii) 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and (iii) multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST). We also used metagenomics to compare functional gene characteristics of select populations. Based on 16S rRNA genes, snottites in Italy and Mexico are dominated by different sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. Based on ITS sequences, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains from different cave systems in Italy are genetically distinct. Based on MLST of isolates from Italy, genetic distance is positively correlated with geographic distance both among and within caves. However, metagenomics revealed that At. thiooxidans populations from different cave systems in Italy have different sulfur oxidation pathways and potentially other significant differences in metabolic capabilities. In light of those genomic differences, we argue that the observed correlation between genetic and geographic distance among snottite Acidithiobacillus populations is partially explained by an evolutionary model in which separate cave systems were stochastically colonized by different ancestral surface populations, which then continued to diverge and adapt in situ. PMID:27187796

  13. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  14. Recovering data from historical collections: stratigraphic and spatial reconstruction of the outstanding carnivoran record from the Late Pleistocene Equi cave (Apuane Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzo, Elena; Palchetti, Alessandro; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    Equi Terme is a hamlet located in northern Tuscany, in Apuan Alps regional Park. An outstanding fossil vertebrate collection housed in Florence is the result of excavations in the Equi cave and shelter during the period 1911-1919. This faunal assemblage (associated with Mousterian artefacts) may be correlated with the middle of MIS 3. All of the specimens recovered at Equi early in the last century were collected with attention to their stratigraphical positions. Detailed field annotation for nearly every specimen allowed us to organize them and attempt a stratigraphical and spatial reconstruction of the fossiliferous deposits. We present the results of the study of the spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the carnivoran species in the Equi cave and shelter, and re-evaluate the taphonomic agents of accumulation and the fossil distribution within the stratigraphic record. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of Panthera pardus, which, unusually for Europe, is abundant in the Equi cave assemblage. This analysis highlights the importance of the re-evaluation of historical collections and allows for future comparisons with data from more recent excavations at the Equi site. The analysis also provides an account of the distribution of carnivorans throughout the stratigraphic record. The constant presence and the predominance of leopards and wolves over lions and smaller carnivorans, allow for evaluations of their ethology and may be related to a short period of sediment accumulation.

  15. Response of a modern cave system to large seasonal precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2012-08-01

    Speleothems are capable of providing information on the response of middle and low-latitude terrestrial environments to global climate change during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Multiproxy speleothem studies, however, have demonstrated that complex interactions can occur in cave settings between processes that are directly and indirectly related to climate change. Thorough and extended monitoring of modern cave environments is necessary in order to fully understand how each cave responds to these processes on seasonal and interannual timescales, and how environmental signals are preserved in speleothem carbonate. Regular environmental monitoring began at Black Chasm Cavern in the Sierra Nevada foothills, California, during the winter of 2006-2007. Monthly measurements of cave air temperature, humidity, and pCO2 in Black Chasm demonstrate that the cave is ventilated in the winter months, when cold, dense surface air sinks into the cave. Cave drip-water flow nearly ceases during the late summer and autumn, increases substantially during the winter and spring, and responds within hours to storm events during the height of the rainy season. Rainwater and drip water δ18O and δ2H are controlled by variations in surface air temperature and moisture source. While rainfall source influences rainwater isotopes through individual storm events, it has less influence on drip water isotopic composition due to mixing of recharge waters delivered by different rainfall events in the epikarst. Variations in drip water chemistry (δ13C, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) indicate that the greatest level of calcite precipitation upflow from the drip water collection site (prior calcite precipitation) occurs during the autumn (October-November) when drip rates are slow and cave air pCO2 is low. The least prior calcite precipitation occurs during the summer (July-August) when drip rates are slow but cave air pCO2 is at a maximum. While pCO2 is a primary control on prior calcite precipitation during

  16. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  17. Caving in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Holly

    2010-01-01

    During Cave Week, more than 200 students explore a simulated cave environment and participate in cave-related activities. Active cavers from a local club bring in equipment and photos and speak about their caving experiences. As student groups explore the simulated cave, other groups participate in different activities where they can create bat…

  18. Aeritalia Space Systems Group, Turin, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Aeritalia has been involved in European space programs since the early 1960's. Space activities grew to the point that in 1984 Aeritalia established a separate Space Systems Group (SSG), located in Turin. Today, SSG is involved in dozens of projects, some of them jointly with NASA and U.S. aerospace companies. Here, several of the major projects, such as the Tethered Satellite system, HIPPARCOS, Columbus Pressurized Module, Italian Research Interim Stage, and others are briefly described.

  19. Monitoring present day climatic conditions in tropical caves using an Environmental Data Acquisition System (EDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondag, Francis; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Soubiès, François; Santos, Roberto; Somerhausen, André; Seidel, Alexandre; Boggiani, Paulo

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents data from automatic stations which have been installed for monitoring climatic parameters in caves in two areas of Brazil. These devices, initially developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium to monitor environmental parameters in geophysical observatories, were adapted in our study to operate under tropical cave conditions and to measure temperature, atmospheric pressure and drip rate of stalactites. Similar devices were installed at the surface near to the caves to measure air temperature, atmospheric pressure and rainfall. The results reveal that the drip rate at the tip of stalactites is related to the effective rainfall (water excess). The stable drip regime observed during the dry season seems to be reproducible from one year to the other and could be related to the infiltration of water which has a long residence time in the aquifer. Regular pressure oscillations, with amplitude ranging between 1 and 2 mb, are observed in both of the monitored caves. Spectral analysis of the data suggests that these oscillations are linked to the diurnal and semi-diurnal solar tides (S1 and S2). In one cave, very small temperature variations (0.02-0.05 °C) are also observed with a similar diurnal and semi-diurnal pattern, and we argue that the generating process of the thermal components of the S1 and S2 frequencies is a mixture of thermal convection produced by the surface meteorological variations and of an adiabatic induction of the S2 atmospheric pressure modulation. A very large annual thermal amplitude (13 °C) is observed in the other cave; this is a great motivation to study the stable isotope geochemistry of its speleothems as they probably have recorded past temperature fluctuations linked to paleoclimate variations in this area of south-western Brazil.

  20. Illumina sequencing of fungi associated with manganese oxide deposits in cave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, B. T.; Santelli, C. M.; Carmichael, S. K.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Roble, L.; Carmichael, M.; Bräuer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The environmental cycling of manganese (Mn) remains relatively poorly characterized when compared with other metals such as iron. However, fungi have been observed to produce Mn(III/IV) oxides resembling buserite, birnessite, and todorokite on the periphery of vegetative hyphae, hyphal branching points and at the base of fruiting bodies. Recent studies indicate that some of these oxides may be generated by a two-stage reaction with soluble Mn(II) and biogenic reactive oxygen species for some groups of fungi, in particular the Ascomycota. These oxides can provide a versatile protective barrier or aid in the capture of trace metals in the environment, although the exact evolutionary function and trigger is unclear. In this study, two caves in the southern Appalachians, a pristine cave and an anthropogenically impacted cave, were compared by analyzing fungal community assemblages in manganese oxide rich deposits. Quantitative PCR data indicated that fungi are present in a low abundance (<1%) in all locations sampled within the caves. Among amplified DNA sequences retrieved in an 18S rDNA clone library, over 88% were representative of the phylum Basidiomycota (predominantly Agaricomycetes), 2.74% of Ascomycota, 2.28% of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, 0.46% of Zygomycota, and 3.65% of Eukarya or Fungi incertae sedis. Using Illumina's MiSeq to sequence amplicons of the fungal ITS1 gene has yielded roughly 100,000-200,000 paired-end reads per sample. These data are currently being analyzed to compare fungal communities before and after induced Mn oxidation in the field. In addition, sites within the pristine cave are being compared with analogous sites in the impacted cave. Culturing efforts have thus far yielded Mn oxide producing members of the orders Glomerales and Pleosporales as well as two Genus incertae sedis (Fungal sp. YECT1, and Fungal sp. YECT3, growing on discarded electrical tape) that do not appear to be closely related to any other known Mn

  1. Cave Rings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...Literature The ‘splash ring’ conjecture is described in [5]. It is claimed that 45◦ is the most probable angle for secondary drops to be ejected at, and that...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by

  2. The Establishment of an Operational Earthquake Forecasting System in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Lombardi, Anna Maria; Casarotti, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    Just after the Mw 6.2 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, on April 6 2009, the Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) that paved the way to the development of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF), defined as the "procedures for gathering and disseminating authoritative information about the time dependence of seismic hazards to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes". In this paper we introduce the first official OEF system in Italy that has been developed by the new-born Centro di Pericolosità Sismica at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The system provides every day an update of the weekly probabilities of ground shaking over the whole Italian territory. In this presentation, we describe in detail the philosophy behind the system, the scientific details, and the output format that has been preliminary defined in agreement with Civil Protection. To our knowledge, this is the first operational system that fully satisfies the ICEF guidelines. Probably, the most sensitive issue is related to the communication of such a kind of message to the population. Acknowledging this inherent difficulty, in agreement with Civil Protection we are planning pilot tests to be carried out in few selected areas in Italy; the purpose of such tests is to check the effectiveness of the message and to receive feedbacks.

  3. Do cave features affect underground habitat exploitation by non-troglobite species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Many biospeleological studies focus on organisms that are exclusive inhabitants of the subterranean realm, but organisms that are not obligate cave-dwellers are frequent in caves, and may account for a substantial portion of biomass. Moreover, several taxa that are usually epigeous are regularly found inside caves, but for most of them it is unknown whether they accidentally enter them, or whether they actively select caves for specific environmental features. In this study we analysed the community of non-strict cave-dwelling organisms (amphibians, gastropods, spiders and orthopterans) in 33 caves from Central Italy, to assess how environmental factors determine community structure. Cave features strongly affected the distribution of the taxa considered. The combined effect of cave morphology and microclimate explained nearly 50% of the variation of community structure. Most of community variation occurred along a gradient from deep, dark and humid caves, to dry caves with wider entrances and extended photic areas. Most of species were associated with humid, deep and dark caves. Most of the non-troglobiont amphibians and invertebrates did not occur randomly in caves, but were associated to caves with specific environmental features. Analysing relationships between cave-dwelling species and environmental variables can allow a more ecological and objective classification of cave-dwelling organisms.

  4. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peresani, Marco; Fiore, Ivana; Gala, Monica; Romandini, Matteo; Tagliacozzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A large and varied avifaunal bone assemblage from the final Mousterian levels of Grotta di Fumane, northern Italy, reveals unusual human modifications on species that are not clearly relatable to feeding or utilitarian uses (i.e., lammergeier, Eurasian black vulture, golden eagle, red-footed falcon, common wood pigeon, and Alpine chough). Cut, peeling, and scrape marks, as well as diagnostic fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of large feathers by Neandertals. The species involved, the anatomical elements affected, and the unusual type and location of the human modifications indicate an activity linked to the symbolic sphere and the behavioral modernity of this European autochthonous population. PMID:21368129

  5. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  6. The Science of Exploring Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    An introduction to the science of speleology is presented. Discussed is why people explore caves--for the physical challenge, the thrill of discovery, and the joy of viewing their beauty. Cave conservation, cave biology, caving safety, and caving equipment are topics of discussion. A reading list on caves is included. (KR)

  7. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  8. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  9. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  10. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Russell Cave National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a) Caves—(1) Closed Areas. Entering, exploring, or remaining within any cave area other than the...

  11. Come to our Cave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity for first-grade students in which they learn about cave paintings and become spelunkers, or people who explore caves as a hobby, making their own paper head-lanterns. Explains that students draw animals on the walls of their "cave" (a dark hallway lined with brown kraft paper). (CMK)

  12. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  13. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  14. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the

  15. THE CAVES PROJECT — Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System, THE CODESH PROJECT — COllaborative DEvelopment SHell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourilkov, Dimitri

    A key feature of collaboration in science and software development is to have a log of what and how is being done - for private use and reuse and for sharing selected parts with collaborators, which most often today are distributed geographically on an ever larger scale. Even better if this log is automatic, created on the fly while a scientist or software developer is working in a habitual way, without the need for extra efforts. The CAVES and CODESH projects address this problem in a novel way, building on the concepts of virtual state and virtual transition to provide an automatic persistent logbook for sessions of data analysis or software development in a collaborating group. A repository of sessions can be configured dynamically to record and make available the knowledge accumulated in the course of a scientific or software endeavor. Access can be controlled to define logbooks of private sessions and sessions shared within or between collaborating groups.

  16. Selected caves and lava-tube systems in and near Lava Beds National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waters, Aaron Clement; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Rogers, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the north and south flanks of the Medicine Lake shield were built from molten lava transmitted through lava tubes. These tubes formed beneath the congealing surface of basalt flows in somewhat the same way that a brook may continue to flow beneath a cover of its own winter ice. As molten lava emerges from a vent and flows downslope, congealing lava from the top and sides of the central channel often forms a bridge over the lava stream. The sticking together of bits of lava spatter and fragile lava crusts strengthens the bridge in the manner that thin crusts of floating ice raft together to cover a brook during early stages of a winter freeze. Eruption of basalt lava, however, is a much more violent and spasmodic process than the steady gathering of water that feeds a brook. If liquid lava stops rising from its source deep within the earth, the still-molten lava moving beneath the crusted-over top of a lava flow will continue to drain downhill and may ultimately leave an open lavatube cave-often large enough for people to walk through. It is rare, however, to find such a simple scenario recorded intact among the hundreds of lava-tube caves in the monument. Even before the top and walls of a lava flow have time to cool during a pause in lava supply, a new and violent eruption of lava may refill the open tube, overflow its upper end, and spread a new lava flow beside or on top of the first flow. Even if the original tube is large enough to contain the renewed supply of lava, this tube must deliver the new lava beyond the end of its original flow and thus the lava field extends farther and farther downslope. If the gradient of flow flattens, the tube may subdivide into a number of smaller distributaries, which spread laterally over the more gently sloping ground. 

  17. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation.

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments, Wyandotte Ridge, Crawford County, southern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, P.P.; Gomez, B. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Schmidt, V.A. . Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science)

    1992-01-01

    The field polarities of 42 sediment samples obtained from 21 sites in Wyandotte Cave, and five smaller satellite caves in Wyandotte Ridge, southern Indiana, have been determined and correlated with magnetostratigraphic data from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. In Wyandotte Cave sediment samples obtained between 137 m and 162 m in elevation possessed a normal field polarity, while samples obtained between 168 m and 171 m exhibited a field reversal. The reversal was interpreted to represent the most recent polarity change, dating the sediment fill and the end of the active period of the upper level of Wyandotte Cave at ca 0.788 Ma. There is a temporal correlation between the active period of the upper level in Wyandotte Cave and the C-level in Mammoth Cave, which lies at a similar elevation. Such a correlation is most likely a consequence of the contemporaneous abandonment of passages in the two cave systems during the early Pleistocene reconstruction of the Ohio River system, which acts as the base level control in both caves. Samples from two caves near the top of Wyandotte Ridge, located between elevations of 236 m and 241 m, exhibited a normal polarity. These caves are located at a higher elevation than any of the sample sites in Mammoth Cave and their location suggests that the fill predates sediments from that system. It appears most likely that the fill in these caves is a minimum of ca 2.48 Ma. old and correlates with the residuum of the upper Mitchell Plain surface, not with the fill in the upper (A- or B-levels) in Mammoth Cave.

  19. Methane concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4) in the Nerja Cave system (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Etiope, Giuseppe; Benavente, José; Ojeda, Lucia; Liñán, Cristina; Carrasco, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Air in underground caves often has methane (CH4) concentrations below the atmospheric level, due to methanotrophic or other unkown CH4 consuming processes. Caves are thus considered a potential sink for atmospheric methane. If globally important, this underground CH4 oxidation should be taken into account in the atmospheric methane budget, in addition to the known soil methanotrophy and tropospheric/stratospheric sinks. A large set of data is however necessary to understand how and how much methane from external atmospheric air is consumed in the caves. While methane concentration data are available for several caves worldwide, its isotopic composition and variations in space and time are poorly documented. We measured methane concentration and stable C isotope composition (δ13C) in the Nerja cave (Southern Spain) air during two surveys in March and April 2015. CH4 concentration decreases progressively from the more external cave rooms, with atmospheric levels of 1.9 ppmv, to the more internal and isolated rooms down to 0.5 ppmv. δ13C increases correspondingly from -47 ‰ to -41 ‰ (VPDB). CH4 is systematically 13C-enriched (δ13C > -45) in areas of the cave where the concentration is below 1.4 ppmv. This combination of concentration decrease and 13C-enrichment towards the more internal and isolated zones of the cave confirms the importance of CH4 oxidation, likely driven by methanotrophic bacteria. Further data, including stable H isotope composition of sub-atmospheric CH4 concentrations, CO2 and microbial analyses, shall be acquired over time to assess the actual role of methanotrophic bacteria and seasonal controls in the CH4 consumption process.

  20. The English National Curriculum Assessment System: A Commentary from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Emma

    2009-01-01

    In Italian secondary schools, it is not literature that is studied but the history of literature; it is not philosophy that is studied but the history of philosophy. Similarly, in higher education, history students even have to take an exam in the history of historiography. This is to say that in Italy, history plays a key cultural role. That is…

  1. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  3. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  4. Cave Water Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

  5. Southwest Caves Reveal New Forms of Life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J. Judson; Drost, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Caves in northern Arizona and western New Mexico are being researched and inventoried by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. Southwestern caves have been little studied, and scientists are now finding that these lightless and nutrient-poor natural systems are home to life forms found nowhere else on Earth. This research has identified unique communities of arthropods (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans) that include 3 new genera, or groups of species, and at least 15 new species - some only known to exist in a single cave. This exciting research is yielding information that will be used by resource managers to better understand and protect fragile and important Southwestern cave ecosystems.

  6. Carroll Cave: a Missouri legend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carroll Cave is one of the premiere caves of Missouri and the Ozarks region. At over 20 miles of surveyed passage, it is the 2nd longest cave in the state and 33rd longest in the nation. It is also the largest known cave formed in the Ordovician aged (443-485 million years ago) Gasconade Dolomite o...

  7. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  8. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    PubMed

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  9. Meter-long microbial ropes from euxinic cave lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macalady, J. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Bloom, D.; McCauley, R.

    2008-12-01

    Cave divers exploring a remote conduit in the Frasassi cave system (Italy) discovered unusual 1 to 2 meter- long, rope-like microbial biofilms in the anoxic layer of a permanently stratified cave lake. Organic carbon in the rope-like biofilm has a delta 13C value of -33 per mil, indicating in situ lithautotrophic primary production and little or no input from surface-derived plant carbon. SEM/EDS of critical point dried samples showed interlocking strands of microbial-sized filaments with trapped mineral particles including S, CaCO3, silicate clays, and sulfate and phosphate minerals. Staining with the nucleic acid dye DAPI further showed that the ropes are composed of closely packed, intact microbial cells. Geochemical profiles of the stratified lake (conductivity, pH, ORP, T, oxygen, sulfide, sulfate, ammonium) delineate a sharp chemocline at ~2.3 m water depth, several meters above the ropes. Geochemical data for the water surrounding the microbial ropes suggest that little redox energy is available, and that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis should be the most favorable reactions. Radiocarbon ages for the ropes are associated with a large uncertainty due to potentially changing contributions of radiocarbon-dead limestone carbonate over time. However, the data suggest that the ropes are thousands of years older than animals in the cave system, consistent with extreme energy limitation and slow growth. Based on phylogenetic analyses of archaeal, bacterial and universal 16S rDNA clone libraries from the microbial ropes, approximately 50 percent of bacterial clones affiliate with sulfur-reducing deltaproteobacteria. Approximately 61 percent of archaeal clones (20 percent of all clones) are associated with an environmental clade of euryarchaeota commonly retrieved from deep sea sediments (MBG-D). Most other clones in the libraries grouped in clades without cultivated representatives. No clones associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotope study of the active water-carbonate system in a karstic Mediterranean cave: Implications for paleoclimate research in semiarid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Matthews, M.; Ayalon, A.; Halicz, L.

    1996-01-01

    In a semiarid climatic zone, such as the Eastern Mediterranean region, annual rainfall variations and fractionation processes in the epikarst zone exert a profound influence on the isotopic compositions of waters seeping into a cave. Consequently, the isotopic compositions of speleothems depositing from cave waters may show complex variations that need to be understood if they are to be exploited for paleoclimate studies. This is confirmed by a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system in the Soreq cave (Israel). The {sigma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) values of cave waters range from -6.3 to - 3.5{per_thousand}. The highest {sigma}{sup 18}O values occur at the end of the dry season in waters dripping from stalactites, and reflect evaporation processes in the epikarst zone, whereas the lowest values occur in rapidly dripping (fast-drip) waters at the peak of the rainy seasons. However, even fast-drip waters are about 1.5{per_thousand} heavier than the rainfall above the cave, which is taken to reflect the mixing of fresh with residual evaporated water in the epikarst zone. {sigma}{sup 13}C (PDB) values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) vary from -15.6 to -5.4{per_thousand}, with fast-drip waters having lower {sigma}{sup 13}C values (mostly-15.6 to -12{per_thousand}) and higher DIC concentrations relative to pool and stalactite-drip water. The los {sigma}{sup 13}C values of fast-drip waters and their supersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate indicates that the seepage waters have dissolved both soil-CO{sub 2} derived from overlying C{sub 3}-type vegetation and marine dolomite host rock. The 10{per_thousand} variation in the {sigma}{sup 13}C values associated with contemporaneous speleothems in order to clarify the effects of degassing from those due to differing vegetation types. 55 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Candidate Cave Entrances on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Glen

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visiblewavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  12. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  13. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors.

  14. Bacteria and free-living amoeba in the Lascaux Cave.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-01-01

    The Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940, and by 1960 it had received up to 1800 daily visitors. In 1963, the cave was closed and in 2001 it was invaded by a Fusarium solani species complex which was treated for four years with benzalkonium chloride. However, Lascaux Cave bacteria have only been poorly investigated. Here we show that the cave is now a reservoir of potential pathogenic bacteria and protozoa which can be found in outbreaks linked to air-conditioning systems and cooling towers in community hospitals and public buildings.

  15. Energy expenditure in caving.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  16. Energy expenditure in caving

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225–287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000–1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue. PMID:28158208

  17. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  18. Flash flood events recorded by air temperature changes in caves: A case study in Covadura Cave (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José María; Fernández-Cortés, Ángel

    2016-10-01

    On 28th September 2012, more than 150 mm rain fell in just two hours in some points of southeastern Spain, triggering intense flash floods that resulted in the death of ten people and widespread material damage. In the gypsum karst of Sorbas, rainfall intensity reached 33 mm/h. Air temperature monitoring in different levels of Covadura Cave, down to 85 m depth, enabled the effect of this extreme episode on the cave microclimate to be evaluated in real time. The cave air temperature increased by between 0.9 and 4.1 °C as a result of water flow into the cavity and intense mixing of air masses, in addition to the displacement of deeper air masses toward shallower levels produced by fast recharge of the surrounding karst aquifer. The lag between peak rainfall intensity and the highest cave air temperature was 5-6 h, indicating the response time of the karst to this rainfall event. No trends with depth were observed, suggesting that water not only flowed in through the main cave entrance but also through secondary accesses and fractures. Furthermore, the size of the cave passages and the intensity of air turbulence generated by waterfalls in the cave played an important role in producing these temperature differences. Even though the rainfall event lasted 10 h, cave air temperature did not return to pre-flash flood values until more than 20 days later. This indicates that, while waterflow through the cave might stop a few hours after the rainfall event, cave air temperature can be affected over a longer period. This can be explained by slow groundwater level decreasing of the surrounding karst aquifer and latent heat liberation produced by moisture condensation on the cave walls. Our results show how continuous monitoring of air temperature in caves can be a useful tool for evaluating the short-term effects of flash floods in subterranean karst systems.

  19. 76 FR 28388 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Mammoth Cave National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...; the Big Hollow Trail, a new bike trail in the hilly country of the park north of the Green River; the... rides on park trails, and canoe and kayak liveries began shuttle services on the Green and Nolin rivers... system in the vicinity of the park's visitor center and nearby Green River. Other trails,...

  20. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    PubMed

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  1. Bubble-Induced Cave Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned “natural” instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a “collapse”. We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor. PMID:25849088

  2. Salinization processes in a coastal aquifer system (Siracusa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti Caputo, D.; Vaccaro, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Syracuse area (Southeastern Sicily, Italy) is famous since ancient times for its natural springs, like Aretusa and Ciane, as well as for the hydraulic management handicraft know from 480 B.C. Unfortunately, the recent hyper-exploitation of the underground water resources and the concomitant decrease of the precipitations caused a general lowering of the piezometric level of the aquifers therefore enhancing the intrusion of marine salty waters. In the present work, numerous hydrochemical parameters have been investigated, among which the pH, the total dissolved solid, the electric conductivity, the temperature and the concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl and SO4. The data have been collected from five well fields located at different distances from the coast. Analyses have been performed in order to understand the relationships between the intense exploitation and the geochemical characteristics of the underground water resources. Our results obtained by applying classical geochemical methodologies integrated with techniques of multivariate statistics emphasise, firstly, the predominance of the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Secondly, we could determine the evolution of mixing phenomena between salty and fresh waters approaching the coast line (San Nicola field). This behaviour is mainly associated to the pumping increase. Obviously, this intrusive process characterised by chlorides concentrations larger than 2000 mg/l affects all the coastal natural environment and generates severe problems to the entire aqueduct network.

  3. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  4. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  7. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Russell Cave National Monument. 7.68 Section 7.68 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument....

  8. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution. PMID:23580903

  9. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  11. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R

    2012-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo-devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo-devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution.

  12. A prototype mass spectrometer for in situ analysis of cave atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Edward L.; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mitchell, Evelynn J.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Younkin, Kerri N.; Seifert, Clarissa M.; Williams, Gregg C.

    2012-10-01

    Research in cave environments has many applications: studying local hydrogeologic activity, paleoclimate studies, analyzing white nose syndrome in bat populations, analogs for underground atmospheres in mining facilities, carbon sequestration efforts, and terrestrial analogs for planetary caves. The atmospheres of many caves contain tracers of current geological and biological activity, but up to this point, in situ studies have been limited to sensors that monitor individual components of the cave atmosphere. A prototype cave mass spectrometer system was assembled from commercial off-the-shelf parts to conduct surveys of atmospheric compositions inside four local Texas caves and to perform atmospheric analysis of two aquifer wellheads to a depth of 60 m. We found increased levels of CO2 in all caves and, surprisingly, increased levels of O2 in Bracken Bat Cave. Aquifer wellhead measurements showed indications of methane, other hydrocarbons, and other constituents not anticipated.

  13. Coastal hydrogeological system of Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, L E; Basso, A; Casarano, D; Dragone, V; Limoni, P P; Romanazzi, A; Santaloia, F; Polemio, M

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment. Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge. The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution. This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards. The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin. A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling. Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km(2)). The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km(2) wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs. The variability in hydraulic conductivity was determined using hundreds of pumping tests. Five surveys were performed to acquire hydro-geochemical data and spring flow-yield measurements; the isotope groundwater age was assessed and used for model validation. The mean annual volume exchanged by the hydrogeological basin was assessed equal to 106.93 10(6) m(3). The numerical modelling permitted an assessment of the mean monthly yield of each spring outflow (surveyed or not), travel time, and main path flow.

  14. Nitrogen fixation in distinct microbial niches within a chemoautotrophy-driven cave ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mahesh S; Assig, Karoline; Dattagupta, Sharmishtha

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfur and carbon cycles in ecosystems driven by chemoautotrophy-present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sulfidic caves-have been studied to some extent, yet little is known about nitrogen fixation in these systems. Using a comprehensive approach comprising of (15)N2 isotope labeling, acetylene reduction assay and nitrogenase gene expression analyses, we investigated nitrogen fixation in the sulfide-rich, chemoautotrophy-based Frasassi cave ecosystem (Italy). Nitrogen fixation was examined in three different microbial niches within the cave waters: (1) symbiotic bacterial community of Niphargus amphipods, (2) Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms, which occur at the sulfide-oxygen interface, and (3) sulfidic sediment. We found evidence for nitrogen fixation in all the three niches, and the nitrogenase gene (homologs of nifH) expression data clearly show niche differentiation of diazotrophic Proteobacteria within the water streams. The nifH transcript originated from the symbiotic community of Niphargus amphipods might belong to the Thiothrix ectosymbionts. Two abundantly expressed nifH genes in the Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms are closely related to those from Beggiatoa- and Desulfovibrio-related bacteria. These two diazotrophs were consistently found in Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms collected at various time points, thus illustrating species-specific associations of the diazotrophs in biofilm formation, and micron-scale niche partitioning of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria driven by steep redox gradients within the biofilm. Finally, putative heterotrophs (Geobacter, Azoarcus and Desulfovibrio related) were the active diazotrophs in the sulfidic sediment. Our study is the first to shed light on nitrogen fixation in permanently dark caves and suggests that diazotrophy may be widespread in chemosynthetic communities.

  15. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  16. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  17. CAVE: A computer code for two-dimensional transient heating analysis of conceptual thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathjen, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight trajectory or can optionally be calculated external to the code and then entered as input data. The code computes the network conduction and convection links, as well as capacitance values, given basic geometrical and mesh sizes, for four generations (leading edges, cooled panels, X-24C structure and slabs). Input and output formats are presented and explained. Sample problems are included. A brief summary of the hybrid analytical-numerical technique, which utilizes eigenvalues (thermal frequencies) and eigenvectors (thermal mode vectors) is given along with aerodynamic heating equations that have been incorporated in the code and flow charts.

  18. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  19. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  20. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    high alpine regions the leopard Panthera pardus seem to have used the ecological niche of the absent hyenas (Diedrich 2009d, in review a). At open air sites cave bear scavenging by the largest Late Quaternary predators were proven, too (Diedrich 2006, 2009e). The predation stress caused by the three main and largest Late Quaternary predators seem to have provided cave bears to hibernate often deeply in many European caves, and here especially in larger and longer cave systems (e.g. Diedrich et al 2009, in review, Diedrich and Moldovan 2010) to protect themselves against the largest Quaternary predators. In conflicts with those large felids must have been killed by adult cave bears, which explains why those predator carcasses remained as complete skeletons or as partly disarticulated ones even deep in caves all over Europe which were finally not scavenged by the herbivorous cave bears (Diedrich in review). In such cave bear den caves the amount of lion bones generally take only 1-3% of the total bone amount being highly dominated by cave bear bones (Diedrich 2009c, in review). Lions and hyenas seem to have focussed onto the hunt of cave bears all over Europe, especially with the reduction of the biomass in the open environments at the maximum cold period during around 26.000-24.000 BP (Solutrean). The slow extinction of their largest prey was an important motor of the predation pressure onto cave bears. This might be one reason for the cave bear extinction in the final Late Quaternary (early Late Weichselian, maximum cold period) at least in northern Europe, but it seem to have happened in a combination of climatic change, and also human impact (cf. Diedrich, this volume). References Diedrich, C., 2005. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg, 45, 73

  1. Vision-mediated interaction with the Nottingham caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghali, Ahmed; Bayomi, Sahar; Green, Jonathan; Pridmore, Tony; Benford, Steve

    2003-05-01

    The English city of Nottingham is widely known for its rich history and compelling folklore. A key attraction is the extensive system of caves to be found beneath Nottingham Castle. Regular guided tours are made of the Nottingham caves, during which castle staff tell stories and explain historical events to small groups of visitors while pointing out relevant cave locations and features. The work reported here is part of a project aimed at enhancing the experience of cave visitors, and providing flexible storytelling tools to their guides, by developing machine vision systems capable of identifying specific actions of guides and/or visitors and triggering audio and/or video presentations as a result. Attention is currently focused on triggering audio material by directing the beam of a standard domestic flashlight towards features of interest on the cave wall. Cameras attached to the walls or roof provide image sequences within which torch light and cave features are detected and their relative positions estimated. When a target feature is illuminated the corresponding audio response is generated. We describe the architecture of the system, its implementation within the caves and the results of initial evaluations carried out with castle guides and members of the public.

  2. Repeatedly evolved host-specific ectosymbioses between sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and amphipods living in a cave ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jan; Ramette, Alban; Dattagupta, Sharmishtha

    2012-01-01

    Ectosymbioses between invertebrates and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are widespread in sulfidic marine environments and have evolved independently in several invertebrate phyla. The first example from a freshwater habitat, involving Niphargus ictus amphipods and filamentous Thiothrix ectosymbionts, was recently reported from the sulfide-rich Frasassi caves in Italy. Subsequently, two new Niphargus species, N. frasassianus and N. montanarius, were discovered within Frasassi and found to co-occur with N. ictus. Using a variety of microscopic and molecular techniques, we found that all three Frasassi-dwelling Niphargus species harbor Thiothrix ectosymbionts, which belong to three distinct phylogenetic clades (named T1, T2, and T3). T1 and T3 Thiothrix dominate the N. frasassianus ectosymbiont community, whereas T2 and T3 are prevalent on N. ictus and N. montanarius. Relative distribution patterns of the three ectosymbionts are host species-specific and consistent over different sampling locations and collection years. Free-living counterparts of T1-T3 are rare or absent in Frasassi cave microbial mats, suggesting that ectosymbiont transmission among Niphargus occurs primarily through inter- or intraspecific inoculations. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Niphargus-Thiothrix association has evolved independently at least two times. While ectosymbioses with T1 and T2 may have been established within Frasassi, T3 ectosymbionts seem to have been introduced to the cave system by Niphargus.

  3. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave.

    PubMed

    Bastian, F; Jurado, V; Nováková, A; Alabouvette, C; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-03-01

    Lascaux Cave (Montignac, France) contains paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period. Shortly after its discovery in 1940, the cave was seriously disturbed by major destructive interventions. In 1963, the cave was closed due to algal growth on the walls. In 2001, the ceiling, walls and sediments were colonized by the fungus Fusarium solani. Later, black stains, probably of fungal origin, appeared on the walls. Biocide treatments, including quaternary ammonium derivatives, were extensively applied for a few years, and have been in use again since January 2008. The microbial communities in Lascaux Cave were shown to be composed of human-pathogenic bacteria and entomopathogenic fungi, the former as a result of the biocide selection. The data show that fungi play an important role in the cave, and arthropods contribute to the dispersion of conidia. A careful study on the fungal ecology is needed in order to complete the cave food web and to control the black stains threatening the Paleolithic paintings.

  4. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  5. Geomorphological maps and 3d models in cave research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    Cave geomorphological processes and features can be studied by geomorphological maps although topographic maps, aerial photos and GPS are not available. Methods in cave geomorphological mapping are conditioned by cave environment configuration, the need of using speleological techniques, and limitations arising from the projection of the 3D data from the cave to a 2D plan. Some of our previous works in the Cantabrian Mountains and Cantabrian Coast (NW Spain) established the approach of the design of cave geomorphological maps and its legend. Today we are improving the display of cave process combining geomorphological maps and 3d models based on the experience obtained from the research of one cave from the Cantabrian Coast and four caves in the Picos de Europa National Park (funded by GEOCAVE project, Spanish National Parks Agency). The five caves are developed in Carboniferous limestone affected by faults and thrusts. The method of work includes: 1) the elaboration of the cave survey at 1:50 to 1:500 scale; 2) the check of the cave survey of three caves by closed loops; 3) the mapping of cave features based on the performed survey; 4) the 3d modeling of the caves approximating each survey shoot by an octagonal prism; and 5) the implementation and management of the survey and geomorphological map in a Geographic Information System. Based on the survey, the cavities are small caves to deep alpine shafts with 281 to 4,438 m length and up to 738 m deep. The precision of the cave maps only could be estimated in two caves at a cavity scale, displaying both of them a 2.49 % error. The prisms of the 3d model was classified into four groups according to the morphology of the cave passage: 1) canyons, 2) phreatic and epiphreatic tubes, 3) soutirage conduits, 4) mixed forms composed by phreatic and epiphreatic tubes modified by fluvial incision, 5) pitches and 6) irregular passages enlarged strongly by gravity process. According to our previous works geomorphological

  6. Speleothem calcite farmed in situ: Modern calibration of δ 18O and δ 13C paleoclimate proxies in a continuously-monitored natural cave system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, Darrel M.; Froelich, Philip N.; Wang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the relationships between speleothem stable isotopes (δ 13C δ 18O) and in situ cave forcing mechanisms is important to interpreting ancient stalagmite paleoclimate records. Cave studies have demonstrated that the δ 18O of inorganically precipitated (low temperature) speleothem calcite is systematically heavier than the δ 18O of laboratory-grown calcite for a given temperature. To understand this apparent offset, rainwater, cave drip water, groundwater, and modern naturally precipitated calcite (farmed in situ) were grown at multiple locations inside Hollow Ridge Cave in Marianna, Florida. High resolution micrometeorological, air chemistry time series and ventilation regimes were also monitored continuously at two locations inside the cave, supplemented with periodic bi-monthly air gas grab sample transects throughout the cave. Cave air chemistry and isotope monitoring reveal density-driven airflow pathways through Hollow Ridge Cave at velocities of up to 1.2 m s -1 in winter and 0.4 m s -1 in summer. Hollow Ridge Cave displays a strong ventilation gradient in the front of the cave near the entrances, resulting in cave air that is a mixture of soil gas and atmospheric CO 2. A clear relationship is found between calcite δ 13C and cave air ventilation rates estimated by proxies pCO 2 and 222Rn. Calcite δ 13C decreased linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ 13C CaCO3 = -7‰. A whole-cave "Hendy test" at multiple contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ 13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and calcite precipitated on the edge or out of flow paths. This interpretation of the "Hendy test" has implications for interpreting δ 13C records in ancient speleothems. Calcite δ 13C CaCO3 may be a proxy not only for atmospheric CO 2 or overlying vegetation shifts but also for

  7. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  8. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  9. Exploring the feasibility of a nationwide earthquake early warning system in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.

    2015-04-01

    When accompanied by appropriate training and preparedness of a population, Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are effective and viable tools for the real-time reduction of societal exposure to seismic events in metropolitan areas. The Italian Accelerometric Network, RAN, which consists of about 500 stations installed over all the active seismic zones, as well as many cities and strategic infrastructures in Italy, has the potential to serve as a nationwide early warning system. In this work, we present a feasibility study for a nationwide EEWS in Italy obtained by the integration of the RAN and the software platform PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem (PRESTo). The performance of the RAN-PRESTo EEWS is first assessed by testing it on real strong motion recordings of 40 of the largest earthquakes that have occurred during the last 10 years in Italy. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to regions that did not experience earthquakes by considering a nationwide grid of synthetic sources capable of generating Gutenberg-Richter sequences corresponding to the one adopted by the seismic hazard map of the Italian territory. Our results indicate that the RAN-PRESTo EEWS could theoretically provide for higher seismic hazard areas reliable alert messages within about 5 to 10 s and maximum lead times of about 25 s. In case of large events (M > 6.5), this amount of lead time would be sufficient for taking basic protective measures (e.g., duck and cover, move away from windows or equipment) in tens to hundreds of municipalities affected by large ground shaking.

  10. A prototype warning system to forecast rainfall induced landslides in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Brunetti, M. T.; Peruccacci, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Salvati, P.; Tonelli, G.; Menduni, G.

    2009-09-01

    We are designing a system to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides, using empirical rainfall thresholds and small scale zonations of landslide hazard and risk. Rainfall thresholds include national and regional empirical thresholds of the intensity-duration (ID) and normalized-ID types. The thresholds were calculated using objective methods and robust statistical techniques, exploiting a database of 673 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides. The synoptic landslide hazard zonation was obtained through multivariate statistical analysis of small scale environmental information, and catalogues of historical landslides. Similarly, the risk zonation was prepared exploiting a catalogue of historical landslides with human consequences in Italy. The hazard and risk zonations are used to establish if the expected slope failures occur in areas that are considered highly prone to landslides, or where landslide risk is severe or significant. The warning system, designed to support civil defense decisions, compares rainfall measurements with empirical rainfall thresholds, to inform "where" and "when" landslides are expected in a given region. A prototype version of the warning system was applied to the Abruzzo region, Central Italy.

  11. Caves: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jan

    Middle school students from The College School, a private school in Webster Groves (Missouri) have completed a class called "Caves and Crystallography." A thematic approach was used in the course in which students and teachers read books telling how caves were formed, saw movies which explained the delicate balance of life underground,…

  12. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  13. Meningiomas of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Delfini, R; Innocenzi, G; Ciappetta, P; Domenicucci, M; Cantore, G

    1992-12-01

    A series of 16 patients with meningiomas of Meckel's cave is reported. Trigeminal neuralgia, typical or atypical, was the initial symptom in 10 patients (62.5%). At admission, trigeminal signs and symptoms were present in 15 patients (93.7%); in 7 patients (43.7%), trigeminal dysfunction was combined with the impairment of other cranial nerves. On retrospective analysis, these patients fall into two clinical groups that differ also in prognosis. Group 1 comprises eight patients with trigeminal signs and symptoms only. These patients had small meningiomas strictly affecting Meckel's cave. Total removal of the tumor was achieved in seven of eight patients, without adjunctive postoperative neurological deficits. In this group, there were no tumor recurrences. Group 2 comprises the other eight patients in whom trigeminal dysfunction was combined with impairment of other cranial nerves. These patients had large tumors arising from Meckel's cave and secondarily invading the cavernous sinus (five patients) or extending into the posterior fossa (two patients) or largely growing into the middle fossa (one patient). Total removal was achieved in only one patient, and a worsening of the preoperative neurological status was observed in four patients; there were three cases of tumor progression. A subtemporal intradural approach (used in the past in every case) is still used for the small tumors of Group 1 with good results. Since 1985, for tumors involving the cavernous sinus, we have employed a frontotemporal craniotomy with extradural clinoidectomy and superior and lateral approach to the cavernous sinus. When the tumor extends toward the posterior fossa, we use a combined temporosuboccipital-transpetrosal approach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Nitrogen fixation in distinct microbial niches within a chemoautotrophy-driven cave ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mahesh S; Assig, Karoline; Dattagupta, Sharmishtha

    2013-01-01

    Microbial sulfur and carbon cycles in ecosystems driven by chemoautotrophy—present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sulfidic caves—have been studied to some extent, yet little is known about nitrogen fixation in these systems. Using a comprehensive approach comprising of 15N2 isotope labeling, acetylene reduction assay and nitrogenase gene expression analyses, we investigated nitrogen fixation in the sulfide-rich, chemoautotrophy-based Frasassi cave ecosystem (Italy). Nitrogen fixation was examined in three different microbial niches within the cave waters: (1) symbiotic bacterial community of Niphargus amphipods, (2) Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms, which occur at the sulfide–oxygen interface, and (3) sulfidic sediment. We found evidence for nitrogen fixation in all the three niches, and the nitrogenase gene (homologs of nifH) expression data clearly show niche differentiation of diazotrophic Proteobacteria within the water streams. The nifH transcript originated from the symbiotic community of Niphargus amphipods might belong to the Thiothrix ectosymbionts. Two abundantly expressed nifH genes in the Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms are closely related to those from Beggiatoa- and Desulfovibrio-related bacteria. These two diazotrophs were consistently found in Beggiatoa-dominated biofilms collected at various time points, thus illustrating species-specific associations of the diazotrophs in biofilm formation, and micron-scale niche partitioning of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria driven by steep redox gradients within the biofilm. Finally, putative heterotrophs (Geobacter, Azoarcus and Desulfovibrio related) were the active diazotrophs in the sulfidic sediment. Our study is the first to shed light on nitrogen fixation in permanently dark caves and suggests that diazotrophy may be widespread in chemosynthetic communities. PMID:23924780

  15. Potential effects of recurrent low oxygen conditions on the Illinois Cave amphipod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Kelly, W.R.; Hwang, H.-H.; Wilhelm, F.M.; Taylor, S.J.; Stiff, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    The caves of Illinois' sinkhole plain are the sole habitat of the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes), a federally endangered species. The sinkhole plain is a hydrologically-connected sequence of karstified limestone that constitutes an extensive karst aquifer which serves as an important source of potable water for area residents. During this investigation, we examined the ground-water quality in caves within two ground-water basins: 1) Illinois Caverns, where the amphipod is now present after previously reported to have been extirpated from the lower reaches, and 2) Stemler Cave, where the amphipod is reported to have been extirpated. The chemical composition of cave streams in Illinois Caverns and Stemler Cave were compared to determine which parameters, if any, could have contributed to the loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave. Stream water in Stemler Cave contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, potassium, silica, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iron and manganese than Illinois Caverns. Perhaps most importantly, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Stemler Cave were, during periods of low flow, substantially lower than in Illinois Caverns. Based on land use, there are probably at least eight times more private septic systems in the Stemler Cave ground-water basin than in the Illinois Caverns ground-water basin. Low DO concentrations were likely the result of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter and wastewater treatment system effluent, and the oxidation of pyrite in bedrock. The near-hypoxic DO in Stemler Cave that occurred during low-flow conditions, and, we speculate, a limited range of G. acherondytes within the Stemler Cave ground-water basin due to a metabolic advantage of the stygophilic aquatic invertebrates over the stygobitic G. acherodytes, resulted in the apparent loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave.

  16. The biogeochemistry of anchialine caves: Progress and possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohlman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of anchialine caves and sinkholes have identified complex food webs dependent on detrital and, in some cases, chemosynthetically produced organic matter. Chemosynthetic microbes in anchialine systems obtain energy from reduced compounds produced during organic matter degradation (e.g., sulfide, ammonium, and methane), similar to what occurs in deep ocean cold seeps and mud volcanoes, but distinct from dominant processes operating at hydrothermal vents and sulfurous mineral caves where the primary energy source is mantle derived. This review includes case studies from both anchialine and non-anchialine habitats, where evidence for in situ chemosynthetic production of organic matter and its subsequent transfer to higher trophic level metazoans is documented. The energy sources and pathways identified are synthesized to develop conceptual models for elemental cycles and energy cascades that occur within oligotrophic and eutrophic anchialine caves. Strategies and techniques for testing the hypothesis of chemosynthesis as an active process in anchialine caves are also suggested.

  17. Recovery of deceased scuba divers from within flooded subterranean caves.

    PubMed

    Buzzacott, Peter; Nelson, Craig; Hill, Ken; Hires, Lamar

    2017-03-27

    Each year in the US three divers, on average, perish inside flooded caves and their remains require recovery. Recovery is a hazardous undertaking often performed by members of the International Underwater Cave Rescue and Recovery (IUCRR) team, in collaboration with local law enforcement and medical examiners/coroners. Since forming in 1999 the IUCRR have established standard recovery procedures for cave diving fatalities. This article reviews each stage of the recovery; the call out, arrival on site, the search, recording/preserving the evidence, the recovery, the handover and post-recovery record-keeping. A series of five cases highlight the challenges IUCRR divers are trained to face. It is strongly recommended local dive teams do not attempt to recover bodies from within flooded caves. IUCRR divers are trained to utilize a uniform procedure that is acceptable to the local law enforcement Incident Command System.

  18. Survey and hydrogeology of Carroll Cave

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carroll Cave, located in Camden County, Missouri, is the largest known cave formed in the Gasconade Dolomite of the Salem Plateau. Despite extensive visitation over the last 50 years and multiple survey efforts, a comprehensive map of the cave has never been produced. In 2002, the Carroll Cave Conse...

  19. Radon hazards, geology, and exposure of cave users: a case study and some theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, G K; Sperrin, M; Phillips, P; Denman, A

    2000-07-01

    The concerns over the risks to human health from radon in underground caves are poorly documented, unlike in workplace or domestic environments where exposures are relatively well known. In U.K. caves, radon has been identified as occurring at elevated levels; but with the exception of major show caves, its impact and risk to the many groups who use the caves have thus far received inadequate attention. This paper presents a survey performed in a relatively "low-risk" geographical area of the United Kingdom and quantifies the risk of exposure in this cave environment. Radon levels up to 12,552 Bq m(-3) were measured: Such concentrations are very high but are likely to underestimate the levels in many other parts of the cave system, for reasons associated with cave architecture and meteorology. This study confirms previous workers' conclusions that long-term users of deep caves, as opposed to rock shelters, are at risk. Annual doses to certain groups of cave users have been calculated to be as high as 120 mSv, a very high value. The study also demonstrates that there is variation both within and between caves as a result of subtleties of the bedrock geology, fault patterns, and weathering. This paper sets out a theoretical model.

  20. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments.

  1. Occurrence of actinosporean stages (Myxozoa) in the Nera River system (Umbria, central Italy).

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Caterina; Caffara, Monica; Goretti, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the oligochaetes populations in the Nera River systems (central Italy) in order to highlight the occurrence of actinosporean stages in this natural environment. The survey was carried out during 2 years of monitoring 24 stations upstream and downstream the 12 trout farm along the rivers. In four of the 24 sites, oligochaetes releasing Echinactinomyxon and Aurantiactinomyxon types spore were collected. The actinospores observed were described morphologically, by transmission electron microscopy and by molecular analysis. Histological observations of the infected oligochaetes were carried out. A single morphotype of the collective group Echinactinomyxon were detected showing the presence of branches at the distal end of the caudal processes. The morphological and morphometrical characters showed that the Echinactinomyxon type herein described is a novel phenotype. This data has to be confirmed by the molecular comparison with sequences not yet available in GenBank. The molecular analysis of the Aurantiactinomyxon type, showed high genetic similarity (99.8%) with the two alternate stages of Chloromyxum truttae even if our type showed some differences in morphology stressing the importance of combining the two methods to avoid misidentifications. This is the first survey carried out in natural environment in Italy. Further analyses on fish population are required in order to detect myxosporean stage in the vertebrate hosts and confirm the molecular data.

  2. High-Resolution Isotopic Monitoring of Cave Air CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower isotopic compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable isotope data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and short-lived ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based isotope ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.

  3. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  4. Ecomorphological convergence of cave communities.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Peter; Blejec, Andrej; Fišer, Cene

    2012-12-01

    Extreme selective environments are commonly believed to funnel evolution toward a few predictable outcomes. Caves are well-known extreme environments with characteristically adapted faunas that are similar in appearance, physiology, and behavior all over the world, even if not closely related. Morphological diversity between closely related cave species has been explained by difference in time since colonization and different ecological influence from the surface. Here, we tested a more classical hypothesis: morphological diversity is niche-based, and different morphologies reflect properties of microhabitats within caves. We analyzed seven communities with altogether 30 species of the subterranean amphipod (crustacean) genus Niphargus using multivariate morphometrics, multinomial logit models cross-validation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Species clustered into four distinct ecomorph classes-small pore, cave stream, cave lake, and lake giants-associated with specific cave microhabitats and of multiple independent phylogenetic origins. Traits commonly regarded as adaptations to caves, such as antenna length, were shown to be related to microhabitat parameters, such as flow velocity. These results demonstrate that under the selection pressure of extreme environment, the ecomorphological structure of communities can converge. Thus, morphological diversity does not result from adaptive response to temporal and ecological gradients, but from fine-level niche partitioning.

  5. [Latin American women in Italy: a new reality of the international migration system].

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, C; Ferruzza, A

    1996-04-01

    The authors examine characteristics of female migration from Latin America to Italy. Aspects considered include country of origin, fertility behavior, age, employment status, household characteristics, and marriage patterns.

  6. Geophysical observations and structural models of shallow caves in gypsum/anhydrite-bearing rocks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

    2016-04-01

    In northern Germany, the evaporitic sequence of Zechstein rocks outcrops at several locations, offering insight into both surface and sub-surface morphology of the soluble rocks. We discuss two field sites, an active shallow gypsum cave in the southern Harz Mountains, and an active shallow anhydrite/gypsum cave close to Bad Segeberg, which both have been explored from the surface by geophysical surveys. The overburden of the caves varies from 5-40 meter, and the caves are characterised by both small passages and larger breakdown chambers. We relate the indirect geophysical measurements to parts of the known cave systems, and present structural models describing both geometry and groundwater flow in these caves with the help of numerical tools.

  7. Comprehensive geophysical prediction and treatment measures of karst caves in deep buried tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. C.; Zhou, Z. Q.; Ye, Z. H.; Li, L. P.; Zhang, Q. Q.; Xu, Z. H.

    2015-05-01

    While tunneling in karst terrains, engineers may encounter hazardous geotechnical structures such as faults, karst caves and collapse columns which may induce geohazards and seriously endanger the construction safety. Geological processes significantly affect the varieties and characteristics of karst caves, and therefore engineering geological and hydrogeological conditions of Shangjiawan Tunnel were analyzed firstly. In order to accurately predict the geometric characteristics of karst caves and their spatial relationship with the tunnel, the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Geological Drilling (Geo-D) were applied comprehensively in the present study. The Tunnel Seismic Prediction (TSP) system was also applied to forecast whether any karst cave existed in front of the tunnel face and the detection results generally agree well with the field investigation. Furthermore, the Beam-Slab method was carried out for the treatment of the karst cave which situated under the tunnel floor, while the Backfill method was applied for the karst cave which was exposed during the construction.

  8. Solute transport processes in a karst vadose zone characterized by long-term tracer tests (the cave system of Postojnska Jama, Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogovsek, Janja; Petric, Metka

    2014-11-01

    The processes influencing the solute transport in the karst vadose zone were studied by long-term tracer tests with artificial tracers. The results of three successive tracer tests with different modes of injection were compared. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored at three drips of different hydrological types inside one of the cave galleries of the system of Postojnska Jama over several years. Comparison of the results indicates the highly significant influence of preceding hydrological conditions (dry vs wet), injection mode (artificial flushing vs natural infiltration by subsequent rainfall, and on a bare rock vs on an overlying layer) and geologic heterogeneities within the vadose zone on solute transport in the karst vadose zone. Injection with artificial flushing resulted in rapid infiltration and the tracer traversed almost one hundred meters of bedrock in hours. However, the majority of tracer can be stored within less permeable parts of the vadose zone and then gradually flushed out after additional abundant and intensive precipitation in the period of several years. Long-continued sampling in each of the tests proved to be important for reliable characterization of the long-term solute transport dynamics.

  9. The Earthquake Early Warning System In Southern Italy: Performance Tests And Next Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is the software platform for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Southern Italy, that integrates recent algorithms for real-time earthquake location, magnitude estimation and damage assessment, into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation based on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet). PRESTo processes the live streams of 3C acceleration data for P-wave arrival detection and, while an event is occurring, promptly performs event detection and provides location, magnitude estimations and peak ground shaking predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation. At each time step, it uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. Magnitude estimation exploits an empirical relationship that correlates it to the filtered Peak Displacement (Pd), measured over the first 2-4 s of P-signal. Peak ground-motion parameters at any distance can be finally estimated by ground motion prediction equations. Alarm messages containing the updated estimates of these parameters can thus reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. Using the real-time data streaming from the ISNet network, PRESTo has produced a bulletin for about a hundred low-magnitude events occurred during last two years. Meanwhile, the performances of the EEW system were assessed off-line playing-back the records for moderate and large events from Italy, Spain and Japan and synthetic waveforms for large historical events in Italy. These tests have shown that, when a dense seismic network is deployed in the fault area, PRESTo produces reliable estimates of earthquake location and size within 5-6 s from the event origin time (To). Estimates are provided as probability density functions whose uncertainty typically decreases with time

  10. Meningiomas of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Nijensohn, D E; Araujo, J C; MacCarty, C S

    1975-08-01

    A retrospective review of 12 cases of meningioma of Meckel's cave involving the Gasserian ganglion or the trigeminal posterior root (or both) seen at the Mayo Clinic during a 20-year period suggested three clearly defined clinical groups. One group (the largest) had typical trigeminal neuralgia and an excellent prognosis after the removal of the easily detachable mass that was impinging on the ganglion. A second group, with meningiomas en plaque embedded in the ganglion, had a history of atypical trigeminal face pain without neurological deficit, but the prognosis for pain relief was not as good as in the previous group. A third group had a history of face dysesthesias and pain, objective trigeminal sensory loss, and multiple cranial nerve deficit; these patients had meningiomas with histological signs of mitotic activity and a poor prognosis, with return of intractable pain and recurrence of the tumor.

  11. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  12. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  13. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Joseph R; Becker, Carol; Hensley, Steve; Stark, Richard; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and beta-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surface-water site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewater-associated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  14. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  15. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.

    PubMed

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  16. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  17. Cave development by frost weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberender, Pauline; Plan, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the description and genesis of a special type of shelter cave. In German they are termed Auswitterungshöhlen which goes back to the 19th century and the genesis is supposed to be related to frost weathering, but to our knowledge, detailed studies are missing so far. This type of cave is very common in the area of investigation that comprises pre-Alpine and Alpine regions in the north-eastern part of the Eastern Alps: They make up 32% of the 5138 registered caves but surprisingly they entirely developed in carbonate rocks. Although most of them are smaller than a dozen metres, some have lengths of more than 50 m and entrances can be more than 100 m wide or similarly high. Besides general observations that lead to a list of characteristics for these caves, two of them in a pre-Alpine setting were studied in-depth. A detailed map, descriptions, and measurements concerning cave morphology, host rock geology, and climate are given. The thickness and composition of clastic sediments were investigated by small trenches and electric resistivity measurements. Sediment thicknesses reach up to 2 m inside the caves and below the entrances. For one year nets were installed to measure rockfall in both caves. In warm periods generally less than 5 g/month of debris could be collected, but a few 100 g/month for frost periods. This strong correlation and the significant amount of debris together with other observations suggest that frost weathering is an on-going and very important process for the formation of these caves. Grain-size distribution of the collected debris argues for the activity of both microgelivation and ice segregation. Therefore we suggest that the term frost weathering caves should be used for shelter caves whose genesis is related to frost weathering. As dissolution seems to be of marginal importance for the genesis they are a paradox as they develop in karstic rock but have pseudokarst features.

  18. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  19. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  20. 3D workflow for HDR image capture of projection systems and objects for CAVE virtual environments authoring with wireless touch-sensitive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusten, Mark J.; McIntyre, Michelle; Landis, Marvin

    2006-02-01

    A 3D workflow pipeline is presented for High Dynamic Range (HDR) image capture of projected scenes or objects for presentation in CAVE virtual environments. The methods of HDR digital photography of environments vs. objects are reviewed. Samples of both types of virtual authoring being the actual CAVE environment and a sculpture are shown. A series of software tools are incorporated into a pipeline called CAVEPIPE, allowing for high-resolution objects and scenes to be composited together in natural illumination environments [1] and presented in our CAVE virtual reality environment. We also present a way to enhance the user interface for CAVE environments. The traditional methods of controlling the navigation through virtual environments include: glove, HUD's and 3D mouse devices. By integrating a wireless network that includes both WiFi (IEEE 802.11b/g) and Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) protocols the non-graphical input control device can be eliminated. Therefore wireless devices can be added that would include: PDA's, Smart Phones, TabletPC's, Portable Gaming consoles, and PocketPC's.

  1. Segmentation pattern and structural complexities in seismogenic extensional settings: The North Matese Fault System (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, Federica; Boncio, Paolo; de Nardis, Rita; Pappone, Gerardo; Cesarano, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the northern slope of the Matese Mts. (Molise, Central Italy) with the aim of characterizing the N- to NE-dipping active normal fault system in the Bojano basin, a sector of primary importance from a seismic hazard perspective. We collected field data to define the geometry and segmentation pattern of two sub-systems (Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo and Bojano-Campochiaro). New evidence of late Quaternary faulting was obtained by exploiting well log interpretations. Kinematic analysis revealed the interaction of pre-Quaternary inherited (mainly E-W-striking) and newly formed (NW-SE-striking) normal faults. Slip accommodation through linkage was clearly noted in the case of the Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo sub-system. Detailed topographic profiles across the active fault segments provided post-LGM (15 ± 3 kyr) slip rates up to ∼2 mm/yr which agree with the high deformation rates based on different approaches in the literature. Finally, the instrumental seismicity analysis constrained the bottom of the seismogenic layer to depths of 13-14 km, and the gathered information allowed us to reconstruct the North Matese seismogenic source. Its 3D geometry and dimensions agree with both the dimension-magnitude relationships and macroseismic information available for the 1805 earthquake (Mw 6.6), the main historical earthquake to have struck the Bojano basin.

  2. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  3. Exploring old caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luana Belli, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Quarries, caves and mines often contain fossils. During the '30s in Rome, the urban expansion needs for building materials such as gravel, sand and clay were extracted from quarries that surrounded the city. One of these quarries in particular, in the area of Saccopastore (Nomentana area 3 km from the University Sapienza Roma) returned an ancient human fossil skull belonging to a Neanderthal (most likely a female) who lived in Latium about 120,000 years ago. Detailed studies of this fossil were carried out by Sergio Sergi, the son of the founder of the Museum of Anthropology in Rome, Giuseppe Sergi. The museum was founded in 1884 and was later transferred to the University City (1934) where it is still located. Professor Maria Luana Belli, a science teacher in the Liceo Scientifico "G. Keplero" is a volunteer and collaborator with the Museum "G. Sergi", and she and her students retrace the places of the discovery on the trail of the Neanderthals, for understanding the evolution of the territory in a perspective of interdisciplinary teaching.

  4. Phylogeography of Sardinian Cave Salamanders (Genus Hydromantes) Is Mainly Determined by Geomorphology

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M.; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems. PMID:22427830

  5. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  6. 43 CFR 37.11 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endangered species lists. (2) Cultural. The cave contains historic properties or archaeological resources (as... habitat for organisms or animals, or contains species or subspecies of flora or fauna that are native to...) Hydrologic. The cave is a part of a hydrologic system or contains water that is important to humans,...

  7. 43 CFR 37.11 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endangered species lists. (2) Cultural. The cave contains historic properties or archaeological resources (as... habitat for organisms or animals, or contains species or subspecies of flora or fauna that are native to...) Hydrologic. The cave is a part of a hydrologic system or contains water that is important to humans,...

  8. 43 CFR 37.11 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endangered species lists. (2) Cultural. The cave contains historic properties or archaeological resources (as... habitat for organisms or animals, or contains species or subspecies of flora or fauna that are native to...) Hydrologic. The cave is a part of a hydrologic system or contains water that is important to humans,...

  9. Paleontology. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) was designated as a national park in 1941 because of its beautiful hills and valleys, scenic rivers, and the vast cave system located within its boundaries. Outstanding physiographic features include karst terrains, sandstone capped plateaus, and bluffs overlooking rivers and streams, which provide an unusually wide variety…

  10. Vector borne infections in Italy: results of the integrated surveillance system for West Nile disease in 2013.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Iannetti, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Sauro, Francesca; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  11. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  12. Characterization of purple sulfur bacteria from the South Andros Black Hole cave system: highlights taxonomic problems for ecological studies among the genera Allochromatium and Thiocapsa.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Rodney A; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Duran, Robert; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Schwabe, Stephanie

    2005-08-01

    A dense 1 m thick layer of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria is present at the pycnocline (17.8 m depth) in the meromictic South Andros Black Hole cave system (Bahamas). Two purple sulfur bacteria present in samples collected from this layer have been identified as belonging to the family Chromatiaceae. One isolate (BH-1), pink coloured, is non-motile, non-gas vacuolated, 2-3 microm in diameter and surrounded by a capsule. The other isolates (BH-2 and BH-2.4), reddish-brown coloured, are small celled (4 microm x 2 microm), motile by means of a single polar flagellum. In both isolates (BH-1 and BH-2), the intracellular photosynthetic membranes are of the vesicular type and bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the normal spirilloxanthin series are present. Both isolates grow well in the presence of sulfide and carbon dioxide in the light. During photoautotrophic growth sulfur globules are stored intracellularly as intermediate oxidation products. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence data the isolates belong to the genera Thiocapsa and Allochromatium. However, at the species level a number of inconsistencies exist between the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, highlighting taxonomic problems within these genera. These inconsistencies may have implications for microbiologists studying the ecology of anoxygenic phototrophs. For ecologists studying the functioning of an ecosystem it may not be particularly important to know whether a specific isolate belongs to one species or another. However, if one wants to study the role of different populations within a particular functional group then the species concept is important. This study demonstrates that further work is still required on the taxonomy of purple sulfur bacteria in order that microbial ecologists are able to accurately identify a population/species isolated from hitherto undescribed aquatic ecosystems.

  13. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System land and to... public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for...

  14. Endecous peruassuensis n. sp. (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) from caves of Eastern Brazil: evidence of isolation in the subterranean realm and discussion about troglomorphisms.

    PubMed

    Bolfarini, Marcio P; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-10-16

    We describe a new species of the genus Endecous Saussure (1878), recorded at the Lapa do Cipó and Olhos d'Água caves, which are located in the Itacarambi municipality, Minas Gerais state, Eastern Brazil. Another species, E. aguassay Mews, 2008 was recordedin the surroundings of the caves. The genus Endecous corresponds to the most common cricket in Brazilian hypogean environments. In general, these crickets inhabit the areas around cave entrances up to the aphotic zones of caves. The genus Endecous is the only cave cricket to present troglobiomorphosis, i.e., an apterous condition. The distribution of the new species is limited to these two caves, which suggests an endemism in this karst system similar to the distribution of other endemic animals, such as harvestmen and amblypygid arachnids. This species is the sixth troglobitic one described for Olhos d'Água cave, which sets this cave as a spot of subterranean fauna in Brazil.

  15. Microbial diversity in a Venezuelan orthoquartzite cave is dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Hazel A.; Giarrizzo, Juan G.; Suarez, Paula; Robertson, Charles E.; Broering, Mark J.; Banks, Eric D.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthisuri

    2014-01-01

    The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave (RSC), an orthoquartzite (SiO4) cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrates the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82–84%) by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%), which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in RSC is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems. PMID:25505450

  16. Coastal dune systems and disturbance factors: monitoring and analysis in central Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Elena; Novelli, Claudia; Barbato, Fabio; Menegoni, Patrizia; Iannetta, Massimo; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the conservation status of dune systems in relation to disturbance factors in the coastal stretch of the Viterbo province, Latium Region, Italy. Particular emphasis was given to the bioindication value of plant communities and their sequence. Each plant community was considered as a "habitat" in accordance with Annex I of the Directive 92/43/EU. Stress factors, such as sand dynamic and erosion, and anthropogenic pressures, such as trampling and bathing settlements, influence the sequence of habitats and weaken the system of relations that makes these coenoses to occur in extreme conditions. The choice to carry out surveys along wide transects, recording different data, allowed to explore the use of habitats as bioindicators. Comparing sites characterized by the same extension in a homogeneous area, it was possible to expand the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) as a tool to correlate habitat composition and disturbance factors. The application of CCA showed a high correlation of degradation and habitat loss with coastal erosion, trampling and presence of waste. Furthermore, floristic surveys allowed the application of different biodiversity indices to quantify species richness of sampled areas. The conservation status of the sites investigated was found to be diverse, from the total disappearance of the mobile dune habitats to their complete sequence. The proposed methodology has been useful to fulfill the objective of the work and is applicable to other case studies in the Mediterranean.

  17. Imaging the complexity of an active normal fault system: The 1997 Colfiorito (central Italy) case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiaraluce, L.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Chiarabba, C.; Cocco, M.

    2003-01-01

    Six moderate magnitude earthquakes (5 < Mw < 6) ruptured normal fault segments of the southern sector of the North Apennine belt (central Italy) in the 1997 Colfiorito earthquake sequence. We study the progressive activation of adjacent and nearby parallel faults of this complex normal fault system using ???1650 earthquake locations obtained by applying a double-difference location method, using travel time picks and waveform cross-correlation measurements. The lateral extent of the fault segments range from 5 to 10 km and make up a broad, ???45 km long, NW trending fault system. The geometry of each segment is quite simple and consists of planar faults gently dipping toward SW with an average dip of 40??-45??. The fault planes are not listric but maintain a constant dip through the entire seismogenic volume, down to 8 km depth. We observe the activation of faults on the hanging wall and the absence of seismicity in the footwall of the structure. The observed fault segmentation appears to be due to the lateral heterogeneity of the upper crust: preexisting thrusts inherited from Neogene's compressional tectonic intersect the active normal faults and control their maximum length. The stress tensor obtained by inverting the six main shock focal mechanisms of the sequence is in agreement with the tectonic stress active in the inner chain of the Apennine, revealing a clear NE trending extension direction. Aftershock focal mechanisms show a consistent extensional kinematics, 70% of which are mechanically consistent with the main shock stress field.

  18. Structural compartmentalisation of a geothermal system, the Torre Alfina field (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Pinton, Annamaria; De Benedetti, Arnaldo A.; Giordano, Guido; Rossetti, Federico; Soligo, Michele; Berardi, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Recent surging of renewed industrial interest in the exploration of low and medium enthalpy geothermal fields makes the accurate assessment of the geothermal potential essential to minimise uncertainties during both exploration and exploitation. The Torre Alfina field is a case of abandoned, but promising, geothermal field of central Italy where the roles of the internal structural setting and of the recharge areas on the hydrothermal circulation are largely unconstrained. In this paper, field structural data integrated with geomorphic lineament analysis document the occurrence of post-orogenic deformation structures controlling the compartmentalisation of the Torre Alfina geothermal field. Strike-slip and subordinate normal fault systems (with associated network fractures) cut and dislocate the internal architecture of the reservoir and prevent its hydraulic connection with Mount Cetona, considered to be the recharge area and where hydrothermal manifestation, including travertine deposition, occurs. 230Th/234U radiometric dating of superposed travertine units gives 200, 120 and 90 ka respectively, inferred to correspond to the age of the fossil hydrothermal circulation during tectonic activity. The results have been used for illustrating a new geological conceptual model for the Torre Alfina area where the geothermal system is composed of different compartments. Tectonic structures define the main boundaries between compartments, helping the understanding of why productive and non-productive wells were found in apparently similar structural settings within the Torre Alfina field.

  19. An innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic: first application in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Bavusi, Massimo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Valanzano, Antonio; Pafundi, Donato; Lacorazza, Piero

    2013-04-01

    This work will show the preliminary results obtained through the use of an innovative mobile georadar system for road monitoring and diagnostic. This electromagnetic mobile system is an innovative tool which is able to analyse and monitor the road paving of the overall road network with the aim of individuating critical areas affected by sinking or wearing. The georadar system, equipped by a high frequency antenna (f=1GHz), is mounted on a van and is able to acquire suitable data at velocities up to 70Km/hour. Through the use of this kind of mobile system it is possible to obtain in a short time and with very low costs a wide amount of data on thickness and roughness of the asphalt, superficial sinking and water saturated areas. The first tests were carried out on the main provincial road located in an area of the Southern Apennines affected by hydrogeological risk. This activity has been performed in the framework of a project funded by the Province of Potenza, and realized thank to the consolidated collaboration between the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (IMAA) and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). This activity has been recognized also at European level as a best practice procedure in the frame of "Window on GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security". The application of this innovative electromagnetic system on the overall road system of the province of Potenza will enable the decision-makers to plan with more detail and awareness the technical actions addressed to maintain and repair the road sections really affected by anomalies, with a time-saving and lower management costs.

  20. Summit firn caves, mount rainier, washington.

    PubMed

    Kiver, E P; Mumma, M D

    1971-07-23

    Heat and steam from the crater fumaroles have melted over 5700 feet (1737 meters) of cave passage in the ice-filled east crater of Mount Rainier. The caves are in approximate balance with the present geothermal heat release. Future changes in the thermal activity of the summit cone will cause corresponding changes in cave passage dimensions, location, and ceiling and wall ablation features.

  1. Cave Art: Reflections of Early Human Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Brother Nicholas

    1981-01-01

    Discusses Paleolithic and Neolithic cave art and artifacts, stressing the degree of intellectual ability exhibited by the creators of this art. Topics discussed include some misunderstandings about cave art intellect shown by cave artists and the use of light and color. (DS)

  2. 4D modelling of the Alto Tiberina Fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara; Mirabella, Francesco; Lupattelli, Andrea; Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) in the Northern Apennines of Italy is a low-angle normal fault dipping to the East and accommodating up to 10 km of extension. The fault is ~70 km long and is the detachment for the SW-dipping Gubbio normal fault. The ATF fault system has been dramatically exhumed and the ATF footwall has evolved in a horst bounded to the east by ATF synthetic faults and to the west by the Corciano west-dipping normal fault. The fault has been widely studied over the last years in order to understand its mechanical behaviour, its present-day deformation rate and its seismological role. By using a wide data-set including subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes) and surface geological data (new maps of the CARG project of Italy), we have reconstructed the 3D geometry of both the fault and of the main lithostratigraphic boundaries at the fault hanging-wall and foot-wall. The CARG map data were integrated by local observations and mapping using mobile GIS software (BeeGIS) and Android app (Geopaparazzi). Surface data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and wells interpretation and other data from available literature. The large amount of information were combined in MOVE software (Midland Valley Exploration ltd). Our reconstruction allows to i) build up a three-dimensional geological model of the subsurface including the main faults and lithostratigraphic boundaries; ii) identify a set of east-west trending faults the role of which was previously underestimated; iii) test a 3D-restoration of extension for the visualization of the time evolution and for the validation of the structural reconstruction. The restored structures are the main normal faults in the region. The sequential restoration was performed by taking into account the timing of deformation as derived from the literature. The model was sequentially restored according to the following chronological order from the latest to the oldest: 1a) last deformational event

  3. A new highly cave-adapted trechine genus and species from northern Guizhou Province, China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A remarkable aphaenopsian beetle, a sympatric species of Qianotrechus tenuicollis Uéno, 2000, was newly discovered in Cave Mahuang Dong of Shuanghe Dong cave system, the longest cave system of China in Suiyang County, northern Guizhou Province. To categorize this striking but still unknown species, a new genus and species are proposed: Shuangheaphaenops elegans gen. n., sp. n. Relationships of Shuangheaphaenops and other highly modified aphaenopsian genera from southern China Karsts are discussed. PMID:28144179

  4. [How to implement a unique triage system in the emergency departments of Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Francia, C; Gabriele, S; Guasticchi, G

    2008-01-01

    Triage is an efficient system that emergency departments (EDs) use to sort out presenting patients on the basis of the speed with which they need treatment. Because triage is not used consistently in the EDs of Latium, a region in central Italy, the regional Public Health Agency (PHA) planned and implemented a regional model of triage in all EDs. This manuscript describe the regional implementation strategy. The PHA activated the "Regional Triage Program--RTP" including: development and testing of a "triage section" in the computerized EDs clinical chart; production of an operational handbook for the RTP for triage health professionals (HPs); implementation of an continuum educational program on the "RTP" in all EDs of Latium. The computerized triage section was tested and implemented in all EDs in the region. The handbook for triage HPs was produced. The educational program, has been ongoing since 2008 in all regional EDs. Selected HPs, identified as "facilitators", were trained on how to implement the RTP. They will organize, in their own EDs, small groups of nurses to conduct on-site training of the RTP. The RTP was received with enthusiasm by most HPs, however its introduction into current practice could be hampered by organizational/structural problems and conflicts between nurses and doctors. Next actions of the regional program will be to overcome the possible above mentioned troubles.

  5. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  6. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis.

  7. Pattern of geochemical variations within the volcanic system of Mt Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.

  8. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  9. THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.; Wynne, J.J.; Christensen, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Seven possible skylight entrances into Martian caves were observed on and around the flanks of Arsia Mons by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Distinct from impact craters, collapse pits or any other surface feature on Mars, these candidates appear to be deep dark holes at visible wavelengths while infrared observations show their thermal behaviors to be consistent with subsurface materials. Diameters range from 100 m to 225 m, and derived minimum depths range between 68 m and 130 m. Most candidates seem directly related to pitcraters, and may have formed in a similar manner with overhanging ceilings that remain intact. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Aquatic Bacterial Communities in Dinaric Range Caves.

    PubMed

    Pleše, Bruna; Pojskić, Naris; Ozimec, Roman; Mazija, Mirna; Ćetković, Helena; Lukić-Bilela, Lada

    2016-07-01

    Dinaric limestone cave systems, recognized as a hotspot of subterranean biodiversity, inhabit composite microbial communities whose structure, function and importance to ecosystems was poorly considered until the last few years. Filamentous microbial biofilms from three caves in Dinaric karst were assessed using 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic approach combined with universally protein coding genes/proteins. Studied clone libraries shared divisions but phylogenetic distribution of the obtained phylotypes differed: in Veternica and Vjetrenica clone libraries, Nitrospirae prevailed with 36% and 60% respectively, while in Izvor Bistrac the most abundant were Alphaproteobacteria (41%) followed by Firmicutes (32%). Moreover, three phylotypes were associated with novel uncultured candidate divisions OP3, WS5 and OD1 revealing the diversity and uniqueness of the microbial world in caves. Deeply understanding subterranean habitats could elucidate many new aspects in phylogeny and evolution of microorganisms as well as animal taxa, adjacent to their energy suppliers in microbial communities and biofilms.

  11. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  12. A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Busetta, Annalisa; Cetorelli, Valeria; Wilson, Ben

    2017-03-16

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  13. Measurements of aerosol particles in the Škocjan Caves, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Irena; Iskra, Ivan; Podkrajšek, Boštjan; Gerjevič, Vanja Debevec

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, continuous aerosol measurements were performed in the Škocjan Caves, one of the most important cave systems in the world, and listed by UNESCO as a natural and cultural world heritage site since 1986. Measurements of PM10 were performed during three different periods: (1) in December 2011, the average background concentration was found to be about 4 μg m(-3); (2) in June 2012, a higher concentration was measured (8 μg m(-3)); and (3) from 8 to 20 August 2012, the highest concentration of 15.3 μg m(-3) was measured. Based on the PM10 measurement results, and as compared to similar measurements outside the cave, it can be hypothesized that the increase in the cave's aerosol concentration during the summer was connected to both the higher number of visitors and the polluted atmospheric air entering the cave upon entering of the cave system. Additional measurement of nanoparticles with scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (size between 14.1 and 710.5 nm) confirmed these findings; during the summer period, a severe raise in the total aerosol concentration of 30-50 times was found when groups of visitors entered the cave. Our results on nanoparticles demonstrated that we were able to detect very small changes and variations in aerosol concentration inside the cave. To our knowledge, these are the first results on nanoaerosol measurements in a cave, and we believe that such measurements may lead to the implementation of better protection of delicate cave systems.

  14. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  15. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  16. Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

    2012-06-30

    The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of

  17. A Cave of Our Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colegate, Carol; Smith, Janice

    1995-01-01

    Describes an activity that involves exploring a model cave made out of a two-person tent as a way to add science process to a thematic unit on bats and spiders. This multifunctional learning center provides students with a variety of hands-on experiences, helps students focus on observable things from nature, and emphasizes process skills. Lists…

  18. Microbial Diversity and Population Structure of Extremely Acidic Sulfur-Oxidizing Biofilms From Sulfidic Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Stoffer, T.; Lyon, E. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1) microbial biofilms called snottites form on the walls of sulfidic caves where gypsum replacement crusts isolate sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from the buffering action of limestone host rock. We investigated the phylogeny and population structure of snottites from sulfidic caves in central Italy using full cycle rRNA methods. A small subunit rRNA bacterial clone library from a Frasassi cave complex snottite sample contained a single sequence group (>60 clones) similar to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Bacterial and universal rRNA clone libraries from other Frasassi snottites were only slightly more diverse, containing a maximum of 4 bacterial species and probably 2 archaeal species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of snottites from Frasassi and from the much warmer Rio Garrafo cave complex revealed that all of the communities are simple (low-diversity) and dominated by Acidithiobacillus and/or Ferroplasma species, with smaller populations of an Acidimicrobium species, filamentous fungi, and protists. Our results suggest that sulfidic cave snottites will be excellent model microbial ecosystems suited for ecological and metagenomic studies aimed at elucidating geochemical and ecological controls on microbial diversity, and at mapping the spatial history of microbial evolutionary events such as adaptations, recombinations and gene transfers.

  19. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  20. Monitoring of Bunker Cave (NW Germany): Assessing the complexity of cave environmental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana Fc; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph; Richter, Detlev K.; Mangini, Augusto

    2010-05-01

    Bunker Cave (N 51° 22'03', E 7° 39'53') is located in the Rhenish Slate Mountains in the western part of Germany and is part of a giant cave system in the area of Iserlohn (Hammerschmidt et al., 1995).As part of the DAPHNE (Dated Speleothems - archives of the paleoenvironment) project Bunker Cave is being monitored since the end of 2006. The ongoing monitoring program is performed on a monthly base. Surface climate parameters are measured and samples of rain water, cave air, drip water at eight different drip sites and modern calcite precipitates from watch glasses placed beneath drip sites are collected. Data sets include temperature, precipitation, calculated infiltration, drip rates, electric conductivity, pH, alkalinity, cations, anions and stable isotopes. Bunker Cave shows a constant temperature throughout the year. Active calcite precipitation is higher in winter than in summer, which is due to lower cave pCO2 in winter. The generally low pCO2 values, however, support almost continuous calcite precipitation throughout the whole year. Drip water δ18O values reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of the rainfall in this area with no or less contribution of the summer rain. The slope of the MWL for local precipitation is close to the slope of both the global MWL and the local MWL at the nearby station Bad Salzuflen. The karst aquifer is well mixed as shown by the uniform drip water δ18O values. Hence, the site is well suited to detect multi-annual climate trends using stalagmite stable isotope records. In order to test the potential influence of kinetic isotope fractionation on the stable isotope signals at Bunker Cave, stable isotope data of modern calcite precipitated on watch glasses were compared to predicted values. Comparison of the δ18O values of in situ modern calcite precipitates with the δ18O values expected from equilibrium isotope fractionation suggests a small kinetic influence, which is probably related to the variability in drip rate

  1. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude.

    The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination.

    Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  2. Glacioclimatological study of Perennial Ice in the Fuji Ice Cave, Japan. Part I. Seasonal variation and mechanism of maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohata, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Teruo; Higuchi, Keiji )

    1994-08-01

    Perennial cave ice in a cave located at Mt. Fuji in central Japan was studied to investigate the basic characteristics and the cause for existence of such ice under warm ground-level climate considering the ice cave as a thermal and hydrological system. Fuji Ice Cave is a lava tube cave 150 m in length with a collapsed part at the entrance. Measurements from 1984 to 1986 showed that the surface-level change of floor ice occurred due to freezing and melting at the surface and that melting at the bottom of the ice was negligible. The annual amplitude of change in surface level was larger near the entrance. Meterological data showed that the cold air inflow to the cave was strong in winter, but in summer the cave was maintained near 0[degrees]C with only weak inflow of warm air. The predominant wind system was from the entrance to the interior in both winter and summer, but the spatial scale of the wind system was different. Heat budget consideration of the cave showed that the largest component was the strong inflow of subzero dry air mass in winter. Cooling in winter was compensated for by summer inflow of warm air, heat transport from the surrounding ground layer, and loss of sensible heat due to cooling of the cave for the observed year. Strong inflow of cold air and weak inflow of warm air, which is extremely low compared to the ground level air, seemed to be the most important condition. Thus the thermal condition of the cave is quasi-balanced at the presence condition below 0[degrees]C with ice. It can be said that the interrelated result of the climatological and special structural conditions makes this cave very cold, and allows perennial ice to exist in the cave. Other climatological factors such as precipitation seem to be minor factors. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  4. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  5. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  6. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Confidentiality of cave... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... location of a significant cave or a cave nominated for designation, unless the authorized...

  7. Bacterial Activity and Geochemical Reactions in Submerged Cave Development -- Impact on Karst Aquifers in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. S.; Franklin, R. B.; Mills, A. L.; Giannotti, A. L.; Tysall, T. N.

    2008-05-01

    Elucidation of coupled mechanisms of sulfide oxidation and biomass generation supports an improved understanding the driving forces behind acid production, calcite dissolution, cave development, and karst aquifers characterization. Wekiwa Springs Cave and DeLeon Springs Cave, located in central Florida, both contain prolific bacterial mats from which sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have been identified. Wekiwa Springs Cave, a submerged cave developed in the Hawthorne Formation and located near Orlando, Florida, has groundwater discharge from the Floridian aquifer system, with some contribution from surficial and intermediate aquifers. The spring is the headwater of the Wekiwa River and releases a total of 170,000 m3 of water per day. The ceiling and walls are heavily covered (10 cm thick) with three morphologically distinct types of microbial mats largely comprising sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of nearby groundwater collected from wells confirms sulfide concentrations in the regional groundwater of ~ 1.5 mg/L, though sulfide concentrations for water collected in the cave are below detection. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the water is low (<0.5 mg/L). DeLeon Springs Cave, a submerged cave located in Volusia County, Florida, is a single conduit with an average discharge of ~ 70,000 m3 of water per day, and water chemistry data suggest the presence of a saline seep in the system. Dense microbial mats cover the rock surfaces of the cave; the mats are highly filamentous, with long white streamers that often extend 1-2 feet from the cave wall. Microscopic analysis has confirmed the presence of sulfur granules within these bacterial cells, similar to those observed in the Wekiwa cave organisms. The water chemistry in DeLeon Springs Cave, however, is distinct from that of Wekiwa Springs Cave. Though DO, Fetotal, and HS- values are similar for the two sites, the concentration of ions such as Cl-, Na+, and SO42- are considerably higher at DeLeon. A similar contrast

  8. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Tebo, Bradley M.; Davis, Richard E.; Anitori, Roberto P.; Connell, Laurie B.; Schiffman, Peter; Staudigel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth's surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs) are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth's surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica) offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S) ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO) genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO), including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the nutritional limits on

  9. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  10. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  11. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave early warning and measuring system. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an early warning system (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train without stopping passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organization allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  12. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  13. Gas discharges in fumarolic ice caves of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Curtis, A. G.; Kyle, P. R.; Sano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fumarolic ice caves and towers on Erebus are the surface expression of flank degassing on the world's southernmost active volcano. The caves are formed by warm gases and steam escaping from small vents on the lava flow floors that melts the overlying ice and snow. Extremophiles in the caves may be analogues for extraterrestrial environments. Over the past four Austral summers, mapping, gas and thermal monitoring conducted under the Erebus Caves Project has provided insights into the ice cave formation processes and the relationships between cave structures, magmatic processes, and weather. Gas samples were collected during the 2012 - 2013 field season in 4 ice caves (Warren, Harry's Dream, Sauna, Haggis Hole) as well as the thermal ground at Tramway Ridge. The vents at all of these sites are characterized by diffuse degassing through loose lava or cracks in the lava flow floor. Vent temperatures ranged from 5 to 17°C in most caves and at Tramway Ridge. In Sauna cave the temperature was 40°C. Gases were sampled by inserting a perforated 1 m long, 5 mm diameter stainless steel tube, into the vents or hot ground. Giggenbach bottles, copper tubes and lead glass bottles were connected in series. The gases were pumped at a slow rate (about 20 ml per minute) using a battery pump for 12-24 hours to flush the system. After flushing samples were collected for later analyses. All samples are dominated by atmospheric components, however, carbon dioxide (0.1 to 1.9%), methane (0.005 to 0.01%), hydrogen (0.002 to 0.07%), and helium (0.0009 to 0.002 %) are above air background. Nitrogen (average 74%) and oxygen (23.5%) are slightly below and above air values, respectively. Helium isotopes show minor input of mantle derived helium-3 with 3He4He ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18 RA (where RA is the ratio of air). This represents the first detection of hydrogen and helium in the caves. Methane could be produced by anaerobic respiration of subsurface microbes or hydrothermal

  14. The 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence (Central Italy): fault system geometry and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, L.; Amato, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Chiarabba, C.; Chiaraluce, L.; de Gori, P.; Delladio, A.; de Luca, G.; di Bona, M.; di Stefano, R.; Govoni, A.; Lucente, F. P.; Margheriti, L.; Mazza, S.; Monachesi, G.; Moretti, M.; Olivieri, M.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Selvaggi, G.; Improta, L.; Piccinini, D.; Mariscal, A.; Pequegnat, C.; Schlagenhauf, A.; Salaun, G.; Traversa, P.; Voisin, C.; Zuccarello, L.; Azzaro, R.

    2009-12-01

    On April 6 (01:32 UTC) 2009 a destructive MW 6.3 earthquake struck the Abruzzi region in Central Italy, causing nearly 300 deaths, 40.000 homeless, and strong damage to the cultural heritage of the L'Aquila city and its province. Two strong earthquakes hit the area in historical times (e.g. the 1461 and 1703 events), but the main fault that drives the extension in this portion of the Apennines was unknown. The ground surveys carried out after the earthquake find ambiguous evidence of surface faulting. We use aftershocks distribution to investigate the geometry of the activated fault system and to report on spatio-temporal seismicity pattern and kinematics of the whole seismic sequence. Seismic data were recorded at both permanent stations of the Centralized Italian National Seismic Network managed by the INGV and 45 temporary stations installed in the epicentral area. To manage such a large amount of earthquakes, we implemented a semi-automatic procedure able to identify local earthquakes and to provide consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times. We show that this procedure yields consistent earthquake detection and high-quality arrival times data for hundreds of events per day. The accurate location for thousands of aftershocks defines a complex, 40 km long, NW-trending normal fault system, with seismicity nucleating within the upper 12 km of the crust. We show the geometry of two major SW-dipping normal faults that form a right lateral en-echelon system. The main fault activated by the 6th of April earthquake is 20 km-long, NW-trending and about 50° SW-dipping and is located below the city of L'Aquila. To the north, we find a second fault, activated on the 9th of April by a MW 5.4 earthquake, that is about 12-km-long and shows a dip angle of about 40° with hypocenters mainly located in the 6 to 10 km depth range.

  15. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two groups of ponors, finally emerging in the Ljubljanka Springs at around 300 m asl. The sub-surface flow path through the Postojnska Jama cave system has been monitored with 7 stations distributed along the flow path, monitoring stage and temperature. We have used the stage data to model flow through the cave system with the program package SWMM, simulating the active parts of Postojnska Jama with simplified geometry. From the comparison of stage observations and predictions, we identified key sections in the cave, which control the sub-surface flow, such as passage constrictions, sumps and by-passes. Using a formal inverse procedure, we determined the geometry of this key sections by fitting predicted to observed stages, and we achieved a very high degree of correlation.

  16. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Grand Canyon cave scorpion) was in that group of 67 species. Based on the evaluation of the information..., or stinger, that true scorpions possess. The specimen of Grand Canyon cave pseudoscorpion, when... Cave, Middle Cave, Scorpion Cave, Tse An Cho Cave, Tuning Fork Cave, and Cave of the Domes. All...

  17. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  18. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  19. CAVE-CL: An OpenCL version of the package for detection and quantitative analysis of internal cavities in a system of overlapping balls: Application to proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buša, Ján; Buša, Ján; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun; Wu, Ming-Chya

    2015-05-01

    Here we present the revised and newly rewritten version of our earlier published CAVE package (Buša et al., 2010) which was originally written in FORTRAN. The package has been rewritten in C language, the algorithm has been parallelized and implemented using OpenCL. This makes the program convenient to run on platforms with Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). Improvements include also some modifications/optimizations of the original algorithm. A considerable improvement in the performance of the code has been achieved. A new tool called input_structure has been added which helps the user to make the data input and conversion more easier and universal.

  20. 36 CFR 290.4 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.4 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information... harm, theft, or destruction to cave resources. (b) Requesting confidential information. Notwithstanding... Federal or State governmental agencies, bona fide educational or research institutes, or individuals...

  1. Stable carbon isotope analysis in a South Texas cave: Investigating sources of CO2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reece

    Studies of interactions between modern local climate, cave atmosphere, and ?13C ratios are needed to determine sources of CO2 in caves, and the cycles of seasonal variations that alter karst geochemistry. A seasonal study, focusing on the analysis of stable isotopes collected from a modern cave system, was conducted in Robber Baron Cave (RBC) in order to identify sources of CO2 in its atmosphere. Determining what conditions affect cave morphology and the transfer path of carbon through a cave system is necessary in order to assess the role of caves in the carbon cycle and correctly interpret past ecological changes. This study investigates the extent that stable isotopic values of carbon in CO2 are affected by CO2 sourced from soils, bedrock, atmospheric air, and vegetation, and how ?13C signals are transmitted in a modern cave system. This study also measures how ventilation affects CO2 concentration and ?13C on seasonal scales. In-cave air grab samples were collected monthly at various transects located in RBC in order to measure CO2 composition in addition to factors such as temperature, and barometric pressure. Soil gas and limestone bedrock were also collected and tested for ?13C composition. Air samples were analyzed using an Ambient Air-Model G2101-I Picarro Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer for both the concentration and ?13C isotopic value of CO2. These values were then compared to isotopic values of known sources of CO2 in order to determine possible sources of CO2 that result in high CO2 concentrations found in RBC. The background stable isotopic value of carbon from CO2 measured in RBC is -19.1‰ VPDB.

  2. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  3. Genesis, types and evolution of crevice-type caves in the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenart, Jan; Pánek, Tomáš; Dušek, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Crevice-type caves are among the least investigated natural phenomena connected with the development of slope failures. These caves present complex and peculiar underground systems with their own development and resulting landforms. We investigated eight caves in the Czech part of the Outer Western Carpathians to determine their genesis, types and evolution. Crevice formation is predisposed according to the lithological, tectonic and morphological characteristics of the landslide body, including the position and location of bedding planes, joints and faults. We performed several analyses, including speleological mapping, evaluation of high-resolution topography above the caves, geophysical (ERT) measurements and structural investigations within cave passages. In accordance with these analyses, various mechanisms responsible for cave development were revealed. An intra-bed translation is responsible for the creation of regularly shaped passages with flat ceilings. Toppling as well as back and horizontal rotation of rock blocks determine the specific morphology and shapes of passages. A relatively novel aspect of the current study is the identification of the subsidence of massive rock wedges due to the widening of cracks. All of these mechanisms control the specific morphological characteristics within crevices, e.g., typical shapes of passages, cave level ordering and ceiling types. Some of these processes also influence topography above the caves. Finally, the different phases of evolution of these caves were determined.

  4. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  5. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  6. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  7. Forensic Fluid Dynamics and the Indian Spring (1991) cave collapse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, D.

    2013-05-01

    The collapse of the Indian spring cave (Florida) in 1991 was unique because it occurred while cave divers were in the cave. For the most part, the submerged cave is large enough to accommodate a passing truck so the cave divers were not in touch with its walls and it is hard to imagine why would it naturally collapse just when the divers were in it. Recently, Nof and Paldor (2010) resolved this apparent paradox by suggesting that resonance in the air pockets in the cavern, created by breathing (open circuit) divers, may have contributed to the collapse. In this scenario, divers present in the cavern during the dive may have (unknowingly) caused the collapse through the pressurized air/gas that they release with each breath. When the breathing period of the diver(s) matches the natural oscillations period of the "cave oscillator", the ensuing resonance causes the air pressure in the pockets to increase uncontrollably. Here, we place the above theory on a more solid ground. To do so, we first extended the resonance theory from our original two-pockets, symmetrical U-tube model (with two identical branches that were not specifically identified within the cave system) to a one (identified) pocket in the cavern and a very broad basin (identified, of course) that serves as the other branch of the U-tube. Our methodology is to apply familiar fluid dynamics principles to the situation that occurred in the cave. We did so, step-by-step, on the basis of our interviews with four out of the five surviving cave-divers. Namely, we dissected their testimonies to arrive at a physically plausible scenario determined on basis of a fluid dynamics application to the natural flow in the cave and the flow induced by the compressed air released by the divers as well as the collapsed mud. We found that the oscillation period was larger than what we earlier calculated (still relevant to the case, nevertheless), and that, in contrast to what most cave divers believe, there was a temporary

  8. Carbon Cycling in the Karst of Northwestern Arkansas: Linking the Soil and Cave Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierim, K.; Pollock, E. D.; Hays, P. D.; Covington, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon is a ubiquitous element in karst systems. Stable isotope analysis of carbon reservoirs provides information about carbon cycling, allowing carbon to be tracked along groundwater flow paths from the surface atmosphere, through the soil and epikarst, and into caves and karst aquifers. In the Ozarks of northwestern Arkansas, karstified carbonates are covered with a mantle of cherty regolith, which can serve as either a sink or source of carbon. Samples for δ13C analysis of gaseous CO2 and aqueous DIC were collected from two soil lysimeters installed in the soil zone above a cave, a drip-water pool in a side-passage of the cave, and three locations along the cave stream and spring outlet. A two-component, concentration-dependent mixing model of δ13C-CO2 was used to calculate the proportions of cave-air CO2 sourced from the surface atmosphere versus the soil zone. Median CO2 concentrations were 2,578 ±1,504 ppm in the soil and 1,026 ±939 ppm in the cave, and CO2 concentration increased with outside surface temperature. Median δ13C-CO2 was -21.5 ±2.1 ‰ in the soil and -17.5 ±4.3 ‰ in the cave. Median DIC concentrations were 1.7 ±1.0 mg/L in the soil and 23.3 ±6.6 mg/L in the cave, and as discharge increased, DIC concentration decreased in the cave. Median δ13C-DIC was -19.5 ±2.5 ‰ in the soil and -14.3 ±1.6 ‰ in the cave. The concentration and isotopic composition of carbon species varied seasonally; for example, in the soil and cave, CO2 was greatest in the summer and lowest in the winter. Additionally, the proportion of soil CO2 contributing to the cave air was lowest during fall (8 %) and greatest during summer (71 %). At the spring outlet during storm events, DIC and calcite saturation decreased and δ13C-DIC became lighter, likely as pre-event water stored in the soil zone was displaced by storm-event water. Data indicate that, depending on the time of year, cave carbon species were sourced from the surface atmosphere, soil, and deeper

  9. Energetics of potential heterotrophic metabolisms in the marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karyn L.; Amend, Jan P.

    2006-12-01

    Values of overall Gibbs free energy of 144 organic oxidation (respiration) and disproportionation (fermentation) reactions are calculated at the temperatures and chemical compositions that exist in nine submarine vents, sediment seeps and geothermal wells in the hydrothermal system of Vulcano Island, Italy. The organic compounds considered here include four carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propanoic and lactic), two C 5 aldoses (arabinose and xylose), three C 6 aldoses (galactose, glucose and mannose), and 15 protein-forming amino acids (Ala, Arg, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Ser, Thr, Tyr, and Val). Oxidation of these compounds is coupled to five redox pairs: O 2/H 2O, SO42-/HS, S 0/H 2S, NO3-/NH4+ and Fe 3O 4/Fe 2+. Energy yields from potential respiration reactions range from 6 to 118 kJ/mol of electrons transferred and show systematic behavior with respect to the terminal electron acceptor. Overall, respiration with O 2 yields the most energy (98-118 kJ/mol e -), followed by reactions with NO3- (53- 86 kJ/mol e -), magnetite (29-91 kJ/mol e -), S 0 (11-33 kJ/mol e -) and SO42- (6-34 kJ/mol e -). Energy yields show little correlation with organic compound family, but are correlated with fluid pH. Variability in energy yields across the nine sites is greatest for Fe(III) reduction and is primarily influenced by pH and the activity of Fe 2+. In addition to the potential respiration reactions, the energetics of 24 potential fermentation reactions are also calculated. As expected, fermentation reactions generally yield much less energy than respiration. Normalized to the number of moles of carbon transferred, fermentation yields-8 to 71 kJ/mol C, compared with 16 to 531 kJ/mol C for respiration reactions. All respiration and fermentation reactions, except for methionine (Met) fermentation, are exergonic under the in situ hydrothermal conditions and represent a plethora of potential metabolisms for Vulcano's diverse thermophilic heterotrophs.

  10. The 2009 L'Aquila sequence (Central Italy): fault system anatomy by aftershock distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2010-05-01

    On April 6 (01:32 UTC) 2009 a destructive MW 6.13 earthquake struck the Abruzzi region in Central Italy, causing nearly 300 deaths, 40.000 homeless people and strong damage to the cultural heritage of the L'Aquila city and its province. Two strong earthquakes hit the same area in historical times (e.g. the 1461 and 1703 events), but the main fault that drives the extension in this portion of the Apennines was unknown. Seismic data was recorded at both permanent stations of the Centralised Italian National Seismic Network managed by the INGV and 45 temporary stations installed in the epicentral area together with the LGIT of Grenoble (Fr). The resulting geometry of the dense monitoring network allows us to gain very high resolution earthquake locations that we use to investigate the geometry of the activated fault system and to report on seismicity pattern and kinematics of the whole sequence. The mainshock was preceded by a foreshock sequence that activated the main fault plane during the three months before, while the largest foreshock (MW 4.08) occurred one week before (30th of March) nucleated on a antithetic (e.g. off-fault) segment. The distribution of the aftershocks defines a complex, 50 km long, NW-trending normal fault system, with seismicity nucleating within the upper 10-12 km of the crust. There is an exception of an event (MW 5.42) nucleating a couple of kilometers deeper that the 7th of April that activates a high angle normal fault antithetic to the main system. Its role is still unclear. We reconstruct the geometry of the two major SW-dipping normal faults forming a right lateral en-echelon system. The main fault (L'Aquila fault) is activated by the 6th of April mainshock unluckily located right below the city of L'Aquila. A 50°SW-dipping plane with planar geometry about 16 km long. The related seismicity interests the entire first 12 km of the upper crust from the surface. The ground surveys carried out soon after the occurrence of the earthquake

  11. Application of an integrated geotechnical and topographic monitoring system in the Lorano marble quarry (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Vanneschi, Claudio; Riccucci, Silvia; Francioni, Mirko; Gullì, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    Accurate slope stability analysis is essential for human activity in high-risk geological contexts. This may, however, not be enough in the case of quarrying where the dynamic and evolving environment also requires effective monitoring. A well-designed monitoring system requires the acquisition of a huge dataset over time, improving knowledge of the study area and helping to refine prediction from stability analysis. This paper reports the implementation of an integrated monitoring system in a marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy) and some of the results obtained. The equipment consists of a traditional geotechnical monitoring system (extensometers, crackmeters and clinometers) and two modern topographic monitoring systems (a terrestrial interferometer and a robotic total station). This work aims to provide in-depth knowledge of the large scale rock mass behaviour as a result of marble exploitation, thereby allowing continuous excavation. The results highlight the importance of integrating different monitoring systems.

  12. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bethany A; Gross, Joshua B; Speiser, Daniel I; Oakley, Todd H; Patel, Nipam H; Gould, Douglas B; Protas, Meredith E

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  13. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Bethany A.; Gross, Joshua B.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.; Patel, Nipam H.; Gould, Douglas B.; Protas, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual), and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26462237

  14. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic airborne microorganisms as tracers of microclimatic changes in the underground (Postojna Cave, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Mulec, Janez; Vaupotič, Janja; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-10-01

    Bioaerosols in cave air can serve as natural tracers and, together with physical parameters, give a detailed view of conditions in the cave atmosphere and responses to climatic changes. Airborne microbes in the Postojna Cave system indicated very dynamic atmospheric conditions, especially in the transitory seasonal periods between winter and summer. Physical parameters of cave atmosphere explained the highest variance in structure of microbial community in the winter and in the summer. The airborne microbial community is composed of different microbial groups with generally low abundances. At sites with elevated organic input, occasional high concentrations of bacteria and fungi can be expected of up to 1,000 colony-forming units/m(3) per individual group. The most abundant group of airborne amoebozoans were the mycetozoans. Along with movements of air masses, airborne algae also travel deep underground. In a cave passage with elevated radon concentration (up to 60 kBq/m(3)) airborne biota were less abundant; however, the concentration of DNA in the air was comparable to that in other parts of the cave. Due to seasonal natural air inflow, high concentrations of biological and inanimate particles are introduced underground. Sedimentation of airborne allochthonous material might represent an important and continuous source of organic material for cave fauna.

  15. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  16. The view from the Lincoln Cave: mid- to late Pleistocene fossil deposits from Sterkfontein hominid site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S C; Clarke, R J; Kuman, K A

    2007-09-01

    The Lincoln-Fault cave system lies adjacent to the Sterkfontein Cave system in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Lincoln Cave contains a mid- to late Pleistocene fossiliferous deposit which has been dated using uranium series methods to between 252,600+/-35,600 and 115,300+/-7,700 years old. Although speleologists presumed that there was no connection between the Lincoln Cave and Sterkfontein Cave systems, results of excavations conducted in 1997 suggest a link between the deposits. Detailed comparisons of artifacts, fauna, hominid material, and a statistical correspondence analysis (CA) of the macromammalian fauna in the deposits strongly support this hypothesis. The recovery of Early Acheulean-type artifacts from the Lincoln Cave suggests that older artifacts eroded out of Sterkfontein Member 5 West and were redeposited into the younger Lincoln Cave deposits. The close physical proximity of these deposits, and the nature of the material recovered from them, indicates that the material was probably redeposited via a link between the two cave systems. Although faunal mixing is present, it is possible to say that large carnivorans become more scarce at Sterkfontein during the mid- to late Pleistocene, while small canids and felids appear to become more abundant, indicating that large and small carnivorans probably varied their use of the site through time. This may also reflect an increasing presence of humans in the Sterkfontein area during the mid- to late Pleistocene.

  17. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Centerr (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provided general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  18. Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall SPace Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  19. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability providedgeneral visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  20. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  1. Development of an experimental geographic information system for bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Spagnuolo, Loreta Maria

    2007-01-01

    Bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy is an ancient tradition. Besides the production of honey and other products of the apiary (wax, propolis, royal jelly, bee bread and venom), bees also play a fundamental role in the pollination of cultivated and natural plants. For these reasons, and to update information on the status of apiculture in the Territorial Zone 7 (TZ 7) of the Marche Region of Italy, a survey was conducted in 2005 using geographic information system (GIS) technology. A CD-Rom was developed in html; this tool enables the visualisation of data using any operating system and browser. We collected information on the health status of 57 apiaries out of 169 for a total of 1 570 hives. Samples of honey were tested for the presence of antibiotics and pesticides. The data collected on American foulbrood showed that this disease is endemic in the area and the extent of spread appears to be largely under-estimated. No antibiotics were detected in any of the honey samples tested using the bacterial growth inhibition method. Similarly, high performance liquid chromatography did not detect any pesticide residues. Further research will be conducted by geo-referencing all apiaries in the same area and in apiaries located in other territorial zones of the Marche region.

  2. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the

  3. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  4. Magnetostratigraphy of sediments in mammoth cave, kentucky.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, V A

    1982-08-27

    Clastic sediment deposits found within the caves of Mammoth Cave National Park have yielded a magnetostratigraphic pattern of magnetic polarity reversals which indicates-that they were deposited over a range of at least 1 million and most likely 2 million years.

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Victor A.

    1982-08-01

    Clastic sediment deposits found within the caves of Mammoth Cave National Park have yielded a magnetostratigraphic pattern of magnetic polarity reversals which indicates that they were deposited over a range of at least 1 million and most likely 2 million years.

  6. [Anatomic variants of Meckel's cave on MRI].

    PubMed

    Benoudiba, F; Hadj-Rabia, M; Iffenecker, C; Fuerxer, F; Bekkali, F; Francke, J P; Doyon, D

    1998-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives an accurate analysis of Meckel's cave variability. Images were acquired in 50 patients with several sections for anatomical comparison. Using several sections, MRI is a suitable method for better analysis of the trigeminal cistern. The most frequent findings are symmetrical trigeminal cisterns. Expansion of Meckel's cave or its disappearance has pathological significance.

  7. Cavernous hemangioma of Meckel's cave. Case report.

    PubMed

    Fehlings, M G; Tucker, W S

    1988-04-01

    A case of a cavernous hemangioma located within Meckel's cave and involving the gasserian ganglion is described in a patient presenting with facial pain and a trigeminal nerve deficit. Although these lesions have been reported to occur in the middle fossa, this is believed to be the first case of such a vascular malformation arising solely from within Meckel's cave.

  8. Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): a new entomopathogenic nematode from an Italian cave.

    PubMed

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carletti, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Claudia; Roversi, Pio Federico; Fanelli, Elena; De Luca, Francesca; Troccoli, Alberto; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2015-03-26

    Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) was isolated from a karst cave soil of Central Italy. Molecular and morphological analyses were performed. Total DNA was extracted from individual nematodes and the mitochondrial COI, the ITS containing region, the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA gene and the 18S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. BLAST search at NCBI by using all molecular markers revealed that this taxon is similar to Oscheius species. Phylogenetic trees of ITS, 28S and 18S rDNA revealed that O. onirici sp. n. belongs to Dolichura-group. Oscheius onirici sp. n. is characterized by small body size and stoma rhabditoid type. Female reproductive system is amphidelphic. Males are rare with peloderan bursa, spicules slender and small, nine pairs of papillae of different lengths, arranged in a 1+1+1/3+3 pattern. Entomopathogenicity bioassay revealed that this nematode is capable of infecting larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor.

  9. High Resolution Analysis of the Pollino Mts. Seisimc Sequence (south Italy): Unraveling the Fault System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, Cristina; Seeber, Leonardo; Waldhauser, Felix; Steckler, Michael; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora

    2014-05-01

    The Pollino Mts. region is located in a junction area between the Calabrian Arc and the southern Apennines domains (south Italy) and has been proposed, according to paleoseismological evidences, as a seismic gap capable to generate earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-7. In this area a seismic crisis of thousands of small to moderate earthquakes, with maximum magnitude Ml 5.0, has been occurring since Spring 2010 (Totaro & al., SRL 2013). We investigate the space-time evolution of the seismic activity in order to unravel the fault system architecture and its mechanical behaviour. We first obtained hi-precision hypocenter locations by applying the double-difference method and then refined them by relative timing by cross-correlation of seismograms (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, BSSA 2000; Schaff & al., BSSA 2004; Waldhauser & Schaff, JGR 2008). We also computed focal mechanisms by applying the waveform inversion "Cut And Paste" method (Zhao & Helmberger, BSSA 1994; Zhu & Helmberger, BSSA 1996). The combined use of high-resolution seismic catalogue, information on clusters of similar earthquakes and high quality focal mechanisms plus comparison with surface geology allow us to highlight important aspects of the mechanical behaviour of major and minor faults in the Pollino area. Seismicity defines multiple clusters, but the one furthest west is by far the most intense and is the main subject of our interpretation so far. The 3D pattern of hypocenters and focal mechanisms are consistent and image a NNW-striking and west-dipping fault zone between 5 and 10 km deep and 10 km along strike, with predominantly normal motion. This fault kinematics fits the overall pattern of active faults in the Mercure Basin and western Pollino area, although the strike of this currently seismogenic fault is more northerly than most faults highlighted in the area (Ghisetti & Vezzani, 1983; Brozzetti & al., Tectonophysics 2009). The cluster has a sharp floor at a depth of about 10 km and most of the

  10. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  11. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  12. From rain to cave drip water: Hydraulic response time and water transfer time at Bunker Cave (NW Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Richter, Detlev K.; Mangini, Augusto; Frank, Norbert; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    temporal offset between the hydraulic response time and the water transfer time exists. This may lead to difficulties when comparing respective proxies in cases of seasonally or annually laminated speleothems. Conversely, this offset is negligible for speleothems with decadal or lower resolution such as present in Bunker Cave. In NW Germany, the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of rain water display a clear dependency on the atmospheric temperature and both isotope systems correlate significantly in soil waters and fast dripping drip water, but in the case of oxygen not with the slow dripping ones due to alteration. The hydrogen isotopic composition, however, is unaffected by these processes and the hydrogen isotopic composition of fluid inclusions can therefore be used to reconstruct palaeotemperatures from Bunker Cave speleothems. The interpretation of the oxygen isotope signature of fluid inclusions and calcium carbonate, however, is more difficult. Since winter temperature and precipitation are influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and long-term variations of temperature and precipitation are recorded in drip water of Bunker Cave, it is most likely that NAO variability is recorded in Bunker Cave speleothems.

  13. Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) in Fumarolic Ice Caves of Mt. Erebus Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Anitori, R.; Davis, R.; Connell, L.; Tebo, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) in the earth's crust may host substantial biomass sustained by chemolithoautotrophic metabolic reactions. It may serve as the base of the foodweb at the surface via hydrothermal circulation, venting pore fluids, cold seeps or gases, and offer a means for primary carbon fixation. When compared to other crustal oligotrophic environments, DOVEs are particularly relevant due to their considerable reductive potential, high permeability and the substantial chemical exchange facilitated by their hydrothermal systems. We studied terrestrial DOVEs in fumarolic ice caves on the summit plateau of Mt Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island, Antarctica (http://erebuscaves.nmt.edu/). Most of the ice caves on Mt Erebus are relatively shallow and illuminated by natural light, but some are deep enough to afford complete darkness. Fumarole gases forming these caves are mostly atmospheric, enriched with water vapor and CO2. The fumaroles were studied in three caves, Warren, Warren West and Harry's Dream; these displayed, respectively, temperatures of 18°C, 2°C and 11°C at our sampling sites. Both Warren caves were completely dark, while Harry's Dream received continuous indirect light during the Austral summer, and offered a control to the two dark caves. The composition of the resident microbial communities was assessed using 16S rRNA and ITS libraries, while metabolic and functional characteristics were analyzed by culturing. The latter results are presented by Anitori et al. (this session). The three cave soils displayed very low (Warren, Warren West) or moderate division-level diversity, with distinct communities in each environment. Acidobacteria was the only phylum detected in all three caves, and was a major component of each library. The phototroph-containing phyla Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Chlorophyta (latter eukaryotic) were only seen in Harry's Dream. A number of phyla whose members are known to oxidize Mn(II) or Fe

  14. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    possibly aerosols. This highly aggressive alteration of the carbonate rock (known as sulfuric acid speleogenesis) extends from the ceiling of the cave downward to, or slightly below, the water table and is responsible for further enlargement of cave passages. Given the availability of SO42-, gypsum replacement crusts form in the subaerial part of the cave, as well as thin gypsum rafts at the water surface. The presence of tamarugite indicates sufficiently strong acid conditions in the steam-condensate film to dissolve clay minerals, releasing Na+ and Al3+ into the geochemical system. Conditions conducive to tamarugite precipitation in carbonate caves seem to be the presence of: 1) thermo-mineral water, which through surface evaporation and condensation on the cold cave walls causes steam-condensate alteration processes, 2) sulfuric acid, and 3) a constant source of Al3+ and Na+. Such conditions are seldom fulfilled in any ordinary limestone caves. The bedrock geology and the particular tectonics and hydrogeology of the Băile Herculane area seem to be the essential prerequisites, not only for the development of hypogene karst, but also for producing an outstanding cave mineral assemblage.

  15. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  16. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  17. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  18. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  19. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of cave location information. 37.12 Section 37.12 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information...

  20. Next generation phylogeography of cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Coghill, Lyndon M; Darrin Hulsey, C; Chaves-Campos, Johel; García de Leon, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traits is a commonly observed evolutionary pattern in cave organisms, but due to extensive morphological convergence, inferring relationships between cave and surface populations can be difficult. For instance, Astyanax mexicanus (the blind Mexican cavefish) is thought to have repeatedly lost its eyes following colonization of cave environments, but the number of evolutionarily independent invasions of this species into caves remains unclear. Because of these repeated losses, it has become a model organism for studying the genetic basis of phenotypic trait loss. Here we reconstruct a high-resolution phylogeography for A. mexicanus inferred from both mitochondrial DNA and several thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. We provide novel insight into the origin of cave populations from the Sabinos and Río Subterráneo caves and present evidence that the Sabinos cave population is part of a unique cave lineage unrelated to other A. mexicanus cave populations. Our results indicate A. mexicanus cave populations have at least four independent origins.

  1. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in Carcasses of Pigs Reared in Intensive Systems in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Papini, Roberto; di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Marangi, Marianna; Ghidini, Sergio; Zanardi, Emanuela; Vergara, Alberto; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Nardoni, Simona; Rocchigiani, Guido; Mancianti, Francesca; Ianieri, Adriana

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and to genetically characterize its isolates in carcasses of industrial fattening pigs, blood, diaphragm, and heart samples were collected from 375 carcasses of pigs slaughtered to be processed for Parma ham production. Pigs had been bred on approved farms (n = 75) located in the so-called Food Valley in Italy. Sera were examined for immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Both heart and diaphragm samples from seropositive carcasses were processed for the presence of T. gondii DNA (B1 locus) by real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) assay. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 2.1% of pig carcasses, with titers from 1:10 to 1:320. T. gondii DNA was detected in all (eight) seropositive carcasses and in 11 (5 heart and 6 diaphragm samples) of 16 samples; that is, it was detected in heart tissue in two subjects, in diaphragm tissue in three subjects, and in both muscle tissues in three subjects. Toxoplasma genotypes were determined in seven of eight carcasses: type III was identified in four carcasses, type II in two, and both III and II in one carcass. The serological findings and the molecular detection of T. gondii strains suggest that cured meat products obtained from industrially bred pigs may be potential sources of toxoplasmosis for humans. Our results provide novel, important information regarding the seroprevalence and molecular prevalence of T. gondii in intensively reared pigs within this specific region of Italy, particularly because Parma ham from this region is known and consumed worldwide. On-farm preventive measures combined with slaughterhouse monitoring of carcasses of pigs bred for cured meat production should never be overlooked to prevent the introduction of T. gondii into the food chain and to ensure safety for consumers of these products.

  2. Phototransduction and clock gene expression in the troglobiont beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus of Mammoth cave.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus; Chen, Rui; Daines, Bryce; Bao, Riyue; Caravas, Jason; Rai, Puneet K; Zagmajster, Maja; Peck, Stewart B

    2011-11-01

    Obligatory cave species exhibit dramatic trait modifications such as eye reduction, loss of pigmentation and an increase in touch receptors. As molecular studies of cave adaptation have largely concentrated on vertebrate models, it is not yet possible to probe for genetic universalities underlying cave adaptation. We have therefore begun to study the strongly cave-adapted small carrion beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus. For over 100 years, this flightless signature inhabitant of Mammoth Cave, the world's largest known cave system, has been considered blind despite the presence of residual lens structures. By deep sequencing of the adult head transcriptome, we discovered the transcripts of all core members of the phototransduction protein machinery. Combined with the absence of transcripts of select structural photoreceptor and eye pigmentation genes, these data suggest a reduced but functional visual system in P. hirtus. This conclusion was corroborated by a negative phototactic response of P. hirtus in light/dark choice tests. We further detected the expression of the complete circadian clock gene network in P. hirtus, raising the possibility of a role of light sensation in the regulation of oscillating processes. We speculate that P. hirtus is representative of a large number of animal species with highly reduced but persisting visual capacities in the twilight zone of the subterranean realm. These can now be studied on a broad comparative scale given the efficiency of transcript discovery by next-generation sequencing.

  3. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  4. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  5. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments. PMID:27003837

  6. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments.

  7. Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

    2007-07-15

    Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

  8. Field test of a calcite dissolution rate law: Fort's Funnel Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Slunder, J.S. ); Groves, C.G. . Center for Cave and Karst Studies)

    1994-03-01

    The laboratory-derived calcite dissolution rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) is the most widely used and mechanistically detailed expression currently available for predicting dissolution rates as a function of water chemistry. Such rate expressions are of great use in understanding timescales associated with limestone karst development. Little work has gone into the field testing of the rate law under natural conditions. This work measured dissolution rates by a crystal weight loss experiment in Buffalo Creek within Fort's funnel Cave, which lies within a pristine, forested catchment of Mammoth Cave National Park. Continuous water chemistry sampling over the same period allowed a time-integrated prediction of the dissolution based on the Plummer et al. (1978) expression. Results indicate that the rate law overpredicted dissolution by a factor of about ten. This concurs with earlier laboratory work suggesting that the law tends to overpredict rates in solutions close to equilibrium with respect to calcite, as were the waters within this part of the groundwater flow system.

  9. Mapping the Cave and Dike Structure Below Wood Valley Pit Crater, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.; Cushing, G. E.; Titus, T. N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of mapping within the Wood Valley pit crater and cave system. This work provides novel details into the process of pit crater formation and illustrates key hurdles for exploration of these systems on other planets.

  10. Unique actinomycetes from marine caves and coral reef sediments provide novel PKS and NRPS biosynthetic gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Tyler W; Slattery, Marc; Olson, Julie B

    2012-06-01

    In the ever-expanding search for novel bioactive molecules and enzymes, marine actinomycetes have proven to be a productive source. While open reef sediment and sponge-associated actinomycetes have been extensively examined, their marine cave counterparts remain unevaluated. Anchialine cave systems in the Bahamas offered an ideal setting to evaluate the occurrence and variation within sediment-associated actinomycete communities. While in close geographical proximity to open reef environments, these systems provide a specialized environmental niche devoid of light and direct exposure to nutrient input. In the present study, selective isolation techniques and molecular methods were used to test the hypothesis that variable distribution of actinomycetes and secondary metabolite gene clusters occur between open reef and marine cave systems. The results indicated that differences exist within the culturable sediment-associated actinomycete communities between marine caves and open reef systems, with members of the genus Streptomyces dominating cultures from open reef sediments and a more diverse suite of actinomycetes isolated from marine cave sediment samples. Within the cave isolates, members of the proposed genus Solwaraspora were the most represented. Based on PKS- and NRPS-gene-targeted PCR amplification and sequencing, geographic variation in the occurrence of these biosynthetic pathways was also observed. These findings indicate that marine cave systems are a lucrative source in the search for novel secondary metabolite producers with biotechnological applications and that environmental and geographic factors likely affect the occurrence of these biosynthetic pathways.

  11. Organic Sulfur Gas Production in Sulfidic Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, L. A.; Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.

    2001-12-01

    Lower Kane Cave, Big Horn Basin, WY, permits access to an environment where anaerobic sulfide-rich groundwater meets the aerobic vadose zone. At this interface microorganisms thrive on diverse metabolic pathways including autotrophic sulfur oxidation, sulfate reduction, and aerobic heterotrophy. Springs introduce groundwater rich in H2S to the cave where it both degasses into the cave atmosphere and is used by chemautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the cave spring and stream habitat. The cave atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the springs has elevated levels of CO2, H2S and methane, mirroring the higher concentration of H2S and methane in the spring water. The high CO2 concentrations are attenuated toward the two main sources of fresh air, the cave entrance and breathing holes at the rear of the cave. Conventional toxic gas monitors permit estimations of H2S concentrations, but they have severe cross sensitivity with other reduced sulfur gases, and thus are inadequate for characterization of sulfur cave gases. However employment of a field-based GC revealed elevated concentrations of carbonyl sulfide in cave atmosphere. Cultures of microorganisms collected from the cave optimized for enriching fermenters and autotrophic and heterophic sulfate reducing bacteria each produced carbonyl sulfide suggesting a biogenic in origin of the COS in addition to H2S. Enrichment cultures also produced methanethiol (methyl mercaptan) and an additional as yet undetermined volatile organic sulfur compound. In culture, the organo-sulfur compounds were less abundant than H2S, whereas in the cave atmosphere the organo-sulfur compounds were the dominant sulfur gases. Thus, these organo-sulfur gases may prove to be important sources of both reduced sulfur and organic carbon to microorganisms living on the cave wall in a subaerial habitat. Moreover groundwater has not yet been recognized as a source of sulfur gases to the atmosphere, but with the abundance of sulfidic

  12. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens.

  13. Fracture Networks from a deterministic physical model as 'forerunners' of Maze Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferer, M. V.; Smith, D. H.; Lace, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    'Fractures are the chief forerunners of caves because they transmit water much more rapidly than intergranular pores.[1] Thus, the cave networks can follow the fracture networks from which the Karst caves formed by a variety of processes. Traditional models of continental Karst define water flow through subsurface geologic formations, slowly dissolving the rock along the pathways (e.g. water saturated with respect to carbon dioxide flowing through fractured carbonate formations). We have developed a deterministic, physical model of fracturing in a model geologic layer of a given thickness, when that layer is strained in one direction and subsequently in a perpendicular direction. It was observed that the connected fracture networks from our model visually resemble maps of maze caves. Since these detailed cave maps offer critical tools in modeling cave development patterns and conduit flow in Karst systems, we were able to test the qualitative resemblance by using statistical analyses to compare our model networks in geologic layers of four different thicknesses with the corresponding statistical analyses of four different maze caves, formed in a variety of geologic settings. The statistical studies performed are: i) standard box-counting to determine if either the caves or the model networks are fractal. We found that both are fractal with a fractal dimension Df ≈ 1.75 . ii) for each section inside a closed path, we determined the area and perimeter-length, enabling a study of the tortuosity of the networks. From the dependence of the section's area upon its perimeter-length, we have found a power-law behavior (for sufficiently large sections) characterized by a 'tortuosity' exponent. These exponents have similar values for both the model networks and the maze caves. The best agreement is between our thickest model layer and the maze-like part of Wind Cave in South Dakota where the data from the model and the cave overlie each other. For the present networks from

  14. Clumped isotope thermometry of cryogenic cave carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Affek, Hagit P.; Zhang, Yi Ge; Dublyansky, Yuri; Spötl, Christoph; Immenhauser, Adrian; Richter, Detlev K.

    2014-02-01

    Freezing of cave pool water that is increasingly oversaturated with dissolved carbonate leads to precipitation of a very specific type of speleothems known as cryogenic cave carbonates (CCC). At present, two different environments for their formation have been proposed, based on their characteristic carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Rapidly freezing thin water films result in the fast precipitation of fine-grained carbonate powder (CCCfine). This leads to rapid physicochemical changes including CO2 degassing and CaCO3 precipitation, resulting in significantly 13C-enriched carbonates. Alternatively, slow carbonate precipitation in ice-covered cave pools results in coarse crystalline CCC (CCCcoarse) yielding strongly 18O-depleted carbonate. This is due to the formation of relatively 18O-enriched ice causing the gradual depletion of 18O in the water from which the CCC precipitates. Cryogenic carbonates from Central European caves were found to have been formed primarily during the last glacial period, specifically during times of permafrost thawing, based on the oxygen isotope ratios and U-Th dating. Information about the precise conditions of CCCcoarse formation, i.e. whether these crystals formed under equilibrium or disequilibrium conditions with the parent fluid, however, is lacking. An improved understanding of CCCcoarse formation will increase the predictive value of this paleo-permafrost archive. Here we apply clumped isotopes to investigate the formation conditions of cryogenic carbonates using well-studied CCCcoarse from five different cave systems in western Germany. Carbonate clumped isotope measurements yielded apparent temperatures between 3 and 18 °C and thus exhibit clear evidence of isotopic disequilibrium. Although the very negative carbonate δ18O values can only be explained by gradual freezing of pool water accompanied by preferential incorporation of 18O into the ice, clumped isotope-derived temperatures significantly above expected freezing

  15. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  16. Extensional deformation structures within a convergent orogen: The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    A low-angle extensional fault system affecting the non metamorphic rocks of the carbonate dominated Tuscan succession is exposed in the Lima valley (Northern Apennines, Italy). This fault system affects the right-side-up limb of a kilometric-scale recumbent isoclinal anticline and is, in turn, affected by superimposed folding and late-tectonic high-angle extensional faulting. The architecture of the low-angle fault system has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and paleofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses. Our results show that the low-angle fault system was active during exhumation of the Tuscan succession at about 180°C and 5 km depth, with the involvement of low-salinity fluids. Within this temperature - depth framework, the fault zone architecture shows important differences related to the different lithologies involved in the fault system and to the role played by the fluids during deformation. In places, footwall overpressuring influenced active deformation mechanisms and favored shear strain localization. Our observations indicate that extensional structures affected the central sector of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge during the orogenic contractional history, modifying the fluid circulation through the upper crust and influencing its mechanical behavior.

  17. Drip-Water Temperatures in Caves: Surface Signals or Cave Processes? - Implications for Speleothem Deposits and Paleoclimate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. S.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Baker, A.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C.; Markowska, M.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.

    2013-12-01

    of infiltration events will be modified to that of the soil and rock at the time of the event and that single precipitation event temperature anomalies will not have an effect on speleothem archives for most cave systems. However, cooling of stalagmite drip waters by 1-2 °C, relative to the cave air temperature, was observed for the three events that did produce inflow. This cooling only happened when the drip rate dropped below a certain threshold. We believe this is due to the onset of evaporative cooling rather than the inflow of cool irrigation water. This evaporative cooling has not been observed previously. Since the 18O climate proxy in carbonate precipitation is temperature dependent this effect could have potentially global implications on the palaeoclimate interpretation based on speleothem analysis.

  18. Mortality Trend for Tumor Correlated Immune System in Hyperendemic Area of HCV Infection in Southern Italy: Joinpoint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montella, Maurizio; Malvezzi, Matteo; Grimaldi, Maria; Nocerino, Flavia; Frigeri, Ferdinando; Pinto, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Crispo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background In many regions of southern Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major health problem (with a prevalence rate between 6% and 13%). HCV is associated with different kinds of neoplasms such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and with auto-immune diseases (cryoglobulinemia), which develop after the virus has caused immune system alterations. Objectives To provide updated information on trends in mortality in a major metropolitan area of southern Italy from NHL, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease we analyzed cancer mortality data from 1988 to 2009. Materials and Methods Mortality data were extracted from National death certificates by age groups, gender, residence and cause of death by the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT). Age-standardized mortality rates (SMR) were computed applying the direct method and using the world standard population. To quantify the recent direction of temporal trends in older populations over time, truncated age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated for people aged 65 years and older. Cancer mortality trends were described using their estimated annual percent change (EAPC) and related 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results Statistically significant increasing EAPC was found among women for NHL (+2.0% / year), while statistically significant decrease was found among men and women for HD (-3.5% / year, -3.4% / year, respectively). No statistically significant EAPC was found for multiple myeloma. Conclusions The association between viral hepatitis and NHL in the area of interest might provide some degree of explanation to this finding. Our data confirm that due to epidemic infection of HCV in the area of Naples, a high mortality for NHL persists, moreover the adoption of standard therapeutic protocols administered in full accordance with an evidence-based approach and current guidelines explain reduced mortality from Hodgkin lymphomas. PMID:24171011

  19. Measuring Light Air Ions in a Speleotherapeutic Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubal, Z.; Bartušek, K.; Szabó, Z.; Drexler, P.; Überhuberová, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with a methodology proposed for measuring the concentration of air ions in the environment of speleotherapeutic caves, and with the implementation of the AK-UTEE-v2 ionmeter. Speleotherapy, in the context of its general definition, is the medical therapy that utilizes the climate of selected caves to treat patients with health problems such as asthma. These spaces are characterized by the presence of high air humidity and they make extreme demands on the execution of the measuring device, the Gerdien tube (GT in the following) in particular, and on the amplifier electronics. The result is an automated measuring system using a GT with low-volume air flow, enabling long-term measuring of air ion concentration and determination of spectral ion characteristics. Interesting from the instrumentation viewpoint are the GT design, active shielding, and execution of the electrometric amplifier. A specific method for the calculation of spectral ion characteristics and the mode of automatic calibration were proposed and a procedure of automatic measurement in the absence of attendants was set up. The measuring system is designed for studying and long-term monitoring of the concentration of light negative ions in dependence on climatic conditions and on the mobility of ions occurring in the cave.

  20. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021.

  1. [Evaluation of customer satisfaction with the hospital catering system in the city of Palermo (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Firenze, Alberto; Morici, Mariagrazia; Calamus, Giuseppe; Gelsomino, Viviana; Aprea, Luigi; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Muangala, Muana A Luila; Centineo, Giovanni; Romano, Nino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patients' customer satisfaction with the hospital catering services of two public hospitals and one private sector hospital in the city of Palermo (Italy). A multiple choice questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 207 of 227 hospitalized patients. Positive responses regarding the perceived quality of food were given especially by patients of the private sector hospital, 80% of which reported being satisfied with the catering service. A higher percentage of patients in the private sector hospital were satisfied with the food distribution modalities with respect to the two public hospitals. Only 3% of patients in the private sector hospital required their families to bring food from home, with respect to 7.9% and 30% respectively in the two public hospitals. Private sector patients also reported appreciating the wide availability of food and the help given by health care workers (79% vs a mean of 55% in the two public hospitals). No differences were found amongst hospitals with regards to the hygienic characteristics of meals. The results of this study indicate the need to make changes in the management of the catering service of one of the involved public hospitals especially.

  2. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  3. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears.

    PubMed

    Noonan, James P; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, James R; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J Chris; Pääbo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M

    2005-07-22

    Despite the greater information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies have largely been limited to the amplification of mitochondrial sequences. Here we describe metagenomic libraries constructed with unamplified DNA extracted from skeletal remains of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of approximately 1 megabase of sequence from each library showed that despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 and 1.1% of clones contained cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 base pairs of cave bear genome sequence. Comparison of cave bear and modern bear sequences revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. The metagenomic approach used here establishes the feasibility of ancient DNA genome sequencing programs.

  4. Adult peripheral neuroepithelioma in Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Midroni, G; Dhanani, A N; Gray, T; Tucker, W S; Bilbao, J M

    1991-02-01

    A case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising from the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave is presented. The discussion emphasizes the pathological criteria for the diagnosis of a peripheral neuroepithelioma and the current controversy about the classification of this and related tumors.

  5. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  6. Nodal network generator for CAVE3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, J. V.; Rathjen, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    A new extension of CAVE3 code was developed that automates the creation of a finite difference math model in digital form ready for input to the CAVE3 code. The new software, Nodal Network Generator, is broken into two segments. One segment generates the model geometry using a Tektronix Tablet Digitizer and the other generates the actual finite difference model and allows for graphic verification using Tektronix 4014 Graphic Scope. Use of the Nodal Network Generator is described.

  7. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  8. [Legionella contamination in the hospital environment: monitoring of the hot water distribution systems of three hospitals in Catania (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Pignato, S; Coniglio, M A; Faro, G; Cantaro, P; Carini, S A; Mangano, G; Cunsolo, R; Coco, G; Giammanco, G

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella spp. in the hot water distribution systems of three hospitals in Catania (Italy). In total, 291 hot water samples were collected between September 2002 and August 2005 and these were examined in order to monitor the hospital distribution systems and evaluate the efficacy of decontamination measures. L. pneumophila was detected at variable concentrations up to over 10000 UFC/L at several collection sites in some hospital buildings and branches of the water distribution system while other buildings/branches were found to be free of contamination. The most frequently isolated serogroup was L. pneumophila serogroup 3, occasionally associated with serogroups 4, 5 and 6. Molecular typing of Legionella strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA restriction fragments identified four different genotypes, each recovered from a different branch of the distribution system. Decontamination procedures, including shock hyperchloration and two different thermal shock methods, performed between October 2003 and August 2005, led to only temporary reductions in contamination. In fact, previous concentrations of the same L. pneumophila serogroup were found within 3 to 8 months of decontamination. In order to prevent and monitor Legionella infections, sterilizing filters were installed in water taps of all wards with high-risk patients and urinary antigen testing was performed on all patients diagnosed with nosocomial pneumonia. No cases of Legionella pneumonia were identified in 2005.

  9. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

  10. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  11. Raman spectroscopy in the study of hydrothermal cave minerals: Implications for research on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Sanz, Aurelio; Audra, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Regarding that the ExoMars mission of the ESA, scheduled for launch in 2018 will be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, investigations by Raman spectroscopy on Earth's minerals are essential to interpret data coming from this further mission to Mars. Among terrestrial minerals, cave minerals represent an opportunity to better understand the genesis of Martian minerals and the evolution of Mars itself, in particular by studying minerals formed in hydrothermal conditions, as well as those generated due to hydrothermal alteration of previous materials. The absence of solar radiation, practically constant temperature at daily and seasonal scale and the presence of liquid water are some of the attractions which make caves interesting for Martian research. In the present work, we have studied a great variety of cave minerals from hypogenic/thermal mine-caves like the Giant Geode of Pulpí (south-eastern Spain), the caves of the Naica mine (northern Mexico), the caves of the San Giovanni Mountain (Sardinia, Italy) and Baume Galinière Cave (south-eastern France). Carbonate, sulphate, sulphurs and polymetallic oxyhydroxides are the most common minerals found in these cavities. Among them, it is worth noting the presence of several minerals of the jarosite group and gypsum, since these minerals have been recently discovered on the Mars surface. Both of them are hydrated minerals, which genetic mechanisms are linked to the presence of liquid water. In the case of jarosite minerals, identification of species like argentojarosite and plumbojarosite confers worth to the Raman technique against other methodologies, like XRD by which the characterization of the jarosite group minerals is difficult. As a consequence of the recent discovery of Ca-rich sulphates (probably gypsum) on the surface of Mars, attention has been focused on the terrestrial gypsiferous formations. The gypsum samples from the Giant Geode of Pulpí and the caves of the Naica mine, which are subject of this

  12. Source characteristics of 2000 small earthquakes nucleating on the Alto Tiberina fault system (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Tinti, E.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Valoroso, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is a 60 km long east-dipping low-angle normal fault, located in a sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy) undergoing active extension since the Quaternary. The ATF has been imaged by analyzing the active source seismic reflection profiles, and the instrumentally recorded persistent background seismicity. The present study is an attempt to separate the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation, in order to focus on the mechanics of the seismic sources on the ATF, as well on the synthetic and the antithetic structures within the ATF hanging-wall (i.e. Colfiorito fault, Gubbio fault and Umbria Valley fault). In order to compute source spectra, we perform a set of regressions over the seismograms of 2000 small earthquakes (-0.8 < ML< 4) recorded between 2010 and 2014 at 50 permanent seismic stations deployed in the framework of the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO) and equipped with three-components seismometers, three of which located in shallow boreholes. Because we deal with some very small earthquakes, we maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with a technique based on the analysis of peak values of bandpass-filtered time histories, in addition to the same processing performed on Fourier amplitudes. We rely on a tool called Random Vibration Theory (RVT) to completely switch from peak values in the time domain to Fourier spectral amplitudes. Low-frequency spectral plateau of the source terms are used to compute moment magnitudes (Mw) of all the events, whereas a source spectral ratio technique is used to estimate the corner frequencies (Brune spectral model) of a subset of events chosen over the analysis of the noise affecting the spectral ratios. So far, the described approach provides high accuracy over the spectral parameters of earthquakes of localized seismicity, and may be used to gain insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake processes.

  13. Differences in chemosensory response between eyed and eyeless Astyanax mexicanus of the Rio Subterráneo cave

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In blind cave-dwelling populations of Astyanax mexicanus, several morphological and behavioral shifts occurred during evolution in caves characterized by total and permanent darkness. Previous studies have shown that sensory systems such as the lateral line (mechanosensory) and taste buds (chemosensory) are modified in cavefish. It has long been hypothesized that another chemosensory modality, the olfactory system, might have evolved as well to provide an additional mechanism for food-searching in troglomorphic Astyanax populations. Findings During a March 2013 cave expedition to the Sierra de El Abra region of San Luís Potosi, Mexico, we tested chemosensory capabilities of the Astyanax mexicanus of the Rio Subterráneo cave. This cave hosts a hybrid population presenting a wide range of troglomorphic and epigean mixed phenotypes. During a behavioral test performed in situ in the cave, a striking correlation was observed between the absence of eyes and an increased attraction to food extract. In addition, eyeless troglomorphic fish possessed significantly larger naris size than their eyed, nontroglomorphic counterparts. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chemosensory capabilities might have evolved in cave-dwelling Astyanax mexicanus and that modulation of naris size might at least partially underlie this likely adaptive change. PMID:24007672

  14. Karst and Caves in Post orogenetic carbonate breccias in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2009-04-01

    In Croatian karst area there are several places where post orogenetic carbonate breccias are present. Coarse carbonate clastics of Lika, Velebit, Mala Kapela and Hrvatsko Primorje were first considered and described as a facies of the Paleogene Promina beds. However, because of their indistinct relation or sporadically mutual connections as well as the great difference in composition, were the reasons for the introduction of the term «Jelar beds». Their genesis is later connected with significant tectonic disturbances (inverse faulting and overthrusting), followed by younger predominantly vertical faults. Promina beds found in Ravni Kotari and Mt. Promina area, as well as Jelar bed areas, are at all times in transgressive contact with older beds (carbonate clastics estimated to date from Palaeogene -Neogene). Karstification in these beds is very intensive. Additionally, spring of river Gacka (length of third sinking river in the World), is situated in Jelar beds area, and river Zrmanja is partly breaking through Promina beds. Jelar carbonate breccias is present in Northern and Southern Velebit mountain. Maybe their genesis is connected with glaciation too, but the most important is that these rocks are very soluble. In an area of approx. 25 km2 on North Velebit Mt. more than 400 caves were discovered and explored. The systems Lukina jama - Trojama (-1392 m), Slovacka jama (-1301 m) and Velebita - Dva javora (-1026 m) are the deepest caves in Croatia. Furthermore, significant depth was reached at Meduza (-679 m), Patkov gust (-553 m), Ledena jama (-536 m) and Jama Olimp (-531 m). Theses caves are really vertical and inner vertical step in Valeria (518 me) is the deepest in the World, and outer vertical step in Patkov Gust (553 me) is the second vertical entrance in the World. All these caves are located in post or carbonate Jelar breccias. In an area of approx 30 km2 on South Velebit Mt. There are more than 300 caves discovered and explored. Well known Cerova

  15. Cave-soils, the soils forming underneath the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Endre; Bertóti, Diána; Kovács, Károly; Vadnai, Péter

    2015-04-01

    Limestone cave sediments of the Bükk-mountain in the North-Eastern part of Hungary were described, analysed and classified using WRB soil classification system. Cave sediments can be considered as soils, partly on the basis of their origin, partly of processes taking place in them. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cave soils are often shallow, lying directly above the continuous rock. In general they are layered, with clearly distinct layers of alluvial origin. Their organic matter content depends on the nature of the sediment. They often contain considerable quantities of undecomposed organic sediment, acting as the basis for very intensive soil life, which can be detected in the soil structure and may in some cases result in Vermic characteristics. The texture is very variable, ranging from clay to rough gravelly sand. Almost 100% of the soils are calcareous, the lime content is of secondary origin and its amount is at least 2%. Therefore, the pH values fluctuate from neutral to 8.5, mostly having a value around 8. In rare cases gley formation also occurs, especially on poorly drained areas, where there is no water flow to refresh the dissolved oxygen content. In the "oxy-aquic" state, characterized by high dissolved oxygen content, the iron is not reduced, so gley formation is not induced. From pedological point of view, cave sediments show a very diverse picture. Besides sedimentary layers, numerous soil formation processes can be detected, which can be considered analogue with surface processes, therefore they definitely need to be classified as soils. According to all these, in the Hungarian classification cave soils are primarily classified as alluvial, colluvial or lithomorphic soils. The WRB classification places them mainly in the Fluvisol and Leptosol Reference Groups, and according to the soils examined in the present work, they can be described with the Leptic (Epileptic), Fluvic (in rare cases Colluvic), Vermic, Calcaric, Eutric, Gleyic

  16. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  17. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  18. Islands within islands: Diversification of tailless whip spiders (Amblypygi, Phrynus) in Caribbean caves.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Lauren A; Bloom, Trevor; Caicedo-Quiroga, Laura; Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Sánchez-Ruíz, Jose A; May-Collado, Laura J; Binford, Greta J; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-12-01

    Islands have played a key role in understanding species formation ever since Darwin's work on the Galapagos and Wallace's work in the Malay Archipelago. Like oceanic islands, habitat 'islands', such as mountaintops and caves similarly may drive diversification. Here we examine patterns of diversification in the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Larmarck, 1809 (Amblypygida: Phrynidae) a system that shows evidence of diversification under the influence of 'islands within islands'. We estimate phylogeographic history and measure genetic diversity among representatives of three nominal Phrynus species from epigean and cave systems of Puerto Rico and nearby islands. Data from five loci (mitochondrial 12S, 16S, Cox1; nuclear H3, 28S) were used to generate phylogenetic hypotheses and to assess species monophyly and phylogeographic relationships. Genetic divergences and population limits were estimated and assessed using the Geneious barcoding plugin and the genealogical sorting index. We find that mtDNA sequence divergences within each of the three Phrynus species range between 15% and 20%. Genetic divergence is structured at three spatial scales: among islands in a manner consistent with the GAARlandia hypothesis, among bedrock formations within Puerto Rico, and among caves within these formations. Every isolated cave system contains a unique mtDNA genetic lineage of Phrynus, with divergence among cave systems far exceeding that within. In some localities epigean specimens nest among cave taxa, in others caves are monophyletic. Remarkably, clades that show up to 20% mtDNA sequence divergence show little or no variation in the nuclear markers. We interpret this pattern as resulting from extreme conservation of our nuclear markers rather than male sex-biased dispersal, based on high conservation of 28S and H3 between our individuals and other amblypygid genera that are restricted to Africa. While this study includes but a tiny fraction of Caribbean caves, our findings

  19. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee.

  20. Patterns of Cave Biodiversity and Endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee’s troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee’s subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee

  1. Safe caves and dangerous forests? Predation risk may contribute to salamander colonization of subterranean habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvidio, Sebastiano; Palumbi, Giulia; Romano, Antonio; Costa, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that many organisms actively colonize the subterranean environment to avoid climatic stress, exploit new ecological opportunities and reduce competition and predation. Terrestrial salamanders are known to colonize the more stable subterranean habitats mainly to escape external climatic extremes, while the role of predation avoidance remains untested. To better understand the importance of predation, we used clay models of the cave salamander Speleomantes strinatii to compare the predation occurring in woodland and subterranean habitats. Models were positioned in three forests and in three caves in NW Italy. One-hundred eighty-four models were retrieved from the field and 59 (32%) were attacked by predators. Models were attacked on their head more often than expected by chance and, therefore, were perceived by predators as real prey items. In the woodlands, clay models showed a four-time higher probability of being attacked in comparison to caves, suggesting a different level of potential predation risk in these surface habitats. These findings are one of the first experimental evidences that, in terrestrial ecosystems, predation avoidance may contribute to the salamander underground colonization process.

  2. An early warning system based on syndromic surveillance to detect potential health emergencies among migrants: results of a two-year experience in Italy.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-08-20

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  3. NASA Aircraft Aids Earth-Mars Cave Detection Study

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most likely location for discovering potential primitive life forms on Mars to be in caves. A recent NASA-funded airborne and ground study designed to aid in detection of caves on the Earth, th...

  4. PATTERNS OF ENDEMISM OF THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN CAVE FAUNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 250 species of obligate terrestrial cave-dwelling animals (troglobionts) are known from single caves in the eastern United States. We investigate their geographic distribution, especially in relation to other troglobionts. We relate these patterns to taxonomic group, oppor...

  5. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave LiDAR and drip count data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2015-09-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, South-West Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012-2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip-rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focused areas of recharge and can help to better estimate

  6. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  7. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  8. Tourmaline nodules from Capo Bianco aplite (Elba Island, Italy): an example of diffusion limited aggregation growth in a magmatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perugini, Diego; Poli, Giampiero

    2007-05-01

    The morphology of tourmaline nodules occurring in the Capo Bianco aplite (Elba Island, Italy) is studied. Outcrop features indicate that tourmaline nodules are the product of magmatic crystallization, as they are aligned along flow fields developed within the magmatic hosting mass. Mesoscopic observations indicate that nodule morphologies are very variable, from rounded to dendritic. Morphometric analyses show that tourmaline nodules are fractals and that fractal dimension quantifies their degree of irregularity. Numerical simulations of nodule growth are performed by using a Diffusion-Limited Aggregation process. The presence in natural samples of nodules with different morphologies is explained by considering a chaotic magmatic system characterized by a complex interplay between growth rate in different dynamical regions, latent heat of crystallization, and local convection dynamics. It is suggested that higher growth rates correspond to growth of tourmaline nodules in dynamical regions where the transfer of nutrients is very efficient. In such conditions, the latent heat released by the growing nodule is high, inducing strong local convection dynamics, destabilizing the nodule interface, and promoting the formation of dendritic morphologies. On the contrary, the growth of nodules in dynamical regions characterized by weak transfer of nutrients is inhibited leading to weak local convection dynamics and, consequently, to the formation of rounded morphologies.

  9. An integrated web system to support veterinary activities in Italy for the management of information in epidemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, S; Savini, L; Palma, D; Calistri, P; Natale, F; Di Lorenzo, A; Cerella, A; Giovannini, A

    2014-03-01

    The management of public health emergencies is improved by quick, exhaustive and standardized flow of data on disease outbreaks, by using specific tools for data collection, registration and analysis. In this context, the National Information System for the Notification of Outbreaks of Animal Diseases (SIMAN) has been developed in Italy to collect and share data on the notifications of outbreaks of animal diseases. SIMAN is connected through web services to the national database of animals and holdings (BDN) and has been integrated with tools for the management of epidemic emergencies. The website has been updated with a section dedicated to the contingency planning in case of epidemic emergency. EpiTrace is one such useful tool also integrated in the BDN and based on the Social Network Analysis (SNA) and on network epidemiological models. This tool gives the possibility of assessing the risk associated to holdings and animals on the basis of their trade, in order to support the veterinary services in tracing back and forward the animals in case of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

  10. A Low-cost data-logging platform for long-term field sensor deployment in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M. A.; Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Active karst systems are notoriously inhospitable environments for humans and equipment. Caves require equipment to cope with high humidity, high velocity flows, submersion, sediment loads, and harassment from local fauna. Equipment taken into caves is often considered "consumable" due to the extreme nature of cave environments and the difficulty of transport. Further, because many interesting monitoring locations within caves can be considered remote, it is ideal for electronic monitoring platforms to require minimal maintenance of parts and power supplies. To partially address the challenge of scientifically monitoring such environments, we have developed an arduino based platform for environmental monitoring of cave systems. The arduino is a general purpose open source microcontroller that is easily programmed with only a basic knowledge of the C programming language. The arduino is capable of controlling digital and analog electronics in a modular fashion. Using this capability, we have created a platform for monitoring CO2 levels in cave systems that costs one-tenth of a comparable commercial system while using a fraction of the power. The modular nature of the arduino system allows the incorporation of additional environmental sensors in the future.

  11. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.; Hudson, R.; Gokhale, N.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  12. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  13. Using stable isotopes of carbon to investigate the seasonal variation of carbon transfer in a northwestern Arkansas cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.; Khojasteh, Jam

    2015-01-01

    -to-month variations in temperature and precipitation and provided insight into the sources of carbon in the cave. Stable carbon isotope ratios provided an effective tool to explore carbon transfer from the soil zone and into the cave, identify carbon sources in the cave, and investigate how seasonality affected the transfer of carbon in a shallow karst system.

  14. Metabolically active Crenarchaeota in Altamira Cave.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Portillo, M Carmen; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2006-01-01

    Altamira Cave contains valuable paleolithic paintings dating back to 15,000 years. The conservation of these unique paintings is attracting increasing interest, and so, understanding microbial proliferation in Altamira Cave represents a prioritary objective. Here, we show for the first time that members of the Crenarchaeota were metabolically active components of developing microbial communities. RNA was extracted directly from the studied environment, and a number of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the low-temperature Crenarchaeota were detected. Although low-temperature Crenarchaeota detected in a variety of ecosystems by using molecular techniques remain uncultured, this RNA-based study confirms an active participation of the Crenarchaeota in cave biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  16. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  17. Biogeography, phylogeny, and morphological evolution of central Texas cave and spring salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subterranean faunal radiations can result in complex patterns of morphological divergence involving both convergent or parallel phenotypic evolution and cryptic species diversity. Salamanders of the genus Eurycea in central Texas provide a particularly challenging example with respect to phylogeny reconstruction, biogeography and taxonomy. These predominantly aquatic species inhabit karst limestone aquifers and spring outflows, and exhibit a wide range of morphological and genetic variation. We extensively sampled spring and cave populations of six Eurycea species within this group (eastern Blepsimolge clade), to reconstruct their phylogenetic and biogeographic history using mtDNA and examine patterns and origins of cave- and surface-associated morphological variation. Results Genetic divergence is generally low, and many populations share ancestral haplotypes and/or show evidence of introgression. This pattern likely indicates a recent radiation coupled with a complex history of intermittent connections within the aquatic karst system. Cave populations that exhibit the most extreme troglobitic morphologies show no or very low divergence from surface populations and are geographically interspersed among them, suggesting multiple instances of rapid, parallel phenotypic evolution. Morphological variation is diffuse among cave populations; this is in contrast to surface populations, which form a tight cluster in morphospace. Unexpectedly, our analyses reveal two distinct and previously unrecognized morphological groups encompassing multiple species that are not correlated with spring or cave habitat, phylogeny or geography, and may be due to developmental plasticity. Conclusions The evolutionary history of this group of spring- and cave-dwelling salamanders reflects patterns of intermittent isolation and gene flow influenced by complex hydrogeologic dynamics that are characteristic of karst regions. Shallow genetic divergences among several species

  18. The relationship between medical ethics and the legal system in Italy: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Relations between ethics in general - and medical ethics in particular - and legal systems are complex and have been extensively examined in the literature. The topic is important not only for ethicists and jurists, but also for members of the public, who benefit from the services offered by the professions. While the Italian Institute of Health does not claim to propose new avenues for exploration of the relations between ethics and legal systems, it offers some food for thought in the ongoing debate.

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  3. The University in Italy: Historical Background and Changing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todeschini, Marco

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of higher education in Italy. Discusses the nature and function of the Italian university; changes in Italy's system of higher education over the years; the issue of academic autonomy in Italy; and reform in Italian universities over the next few years (going corporate and walking the tightrope between autonomy and national…

  4. Socio-economic differences in healthcare access from a welfare system perspective, Italy: 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Braggion, M; Campostrini, S; Bertin, G

    2015-09-01

    Inequalities between poorer and wealthier people in accessing healthcare services have been widely studied, but the mechanisms generating them are still to be fully understood. Among these, there is still a lack of evidence of relationships between health prevention/health promotion policies, welfare systems and social differences. We analysed 68 201 females from the PASSI Italian surveillance system for the years 2007-2010. The prevalence of women undergoing Pap testing was used as an example of access to preventive services. An odds ratio gradient was found with regard to different welfare system clusters: the probability of undergoing a screening test is higher for more advanced welfare systems. A strong association was found between having received a letter from the local health unit and having undergone the screening test. Significant differences still exist between high- and low-income women and their access to Italian preventive public services. As we expected, social determinants play an important role in health disparities, as these are also strongly influenced by typologies of welfare systems and by health policies.

  5. Microclimates of l'Aven d'Orgnac and other French limestone caves (Chauvet, Esparros, Marsoulas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourges, F.; Genthon, P.; Mangin, A.; D'Hulst, D.

    2006-10-01

    We assess the aerodynamics of the atmosphere in some limestone caves using a 5-year monitoring of the Aven d'Orgnac system, shorter thermal vertical profiling experiments, and comparison with the time series from other French caves. In the first rooms, located under the Aven opening, our records indicate, for each year, a succession of a summer regime characterized by stable parameters (except for the perturbations introduced by tourist visits) and a winter regime, in which the inner air temperature drops and is highly correlated with that outside. Atmospheric composition suggests that during the winter regime the cave is ventilated by the outside air. We show that the onset of the winter regime is governed by a thermo-convective instability involving the inflow of the outside cold and dense air. Atmospheric temperature and composition allow us to follow the stepwise progression of the winter regime toward the adjacent rooms.In the Salle Plane (SP), a far room of the Orgnac-Issirac karstic system, in which the winter regime has never been observed, the air temperature is extremely homogeneous and steady, and is characterized by a half-daily signal of amplitude less than 0.03 °C, which is correlated with the derivative of pressure versus time. This correlation, which is also observed in various other confined caves, may be explained by pressure-induced temperature changes relaxed in less than 1 h by thermal exchanges with a large volume of rock whose temperature is assumed to be constant.The various microclimates of karstic cave systems should be taken into account for the conservation of the caves open to tourists and for the interpretation of growth laminae of speleothems.

  6. CAVE2: a hybrid reality environment for immersive simulation and information analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febretti, Alessandro; Nishimoto, Arthur; Thigpen, Terrance; Talandis, Jonas; Long, Lance; Pirtle, J. D.; Peterka, Tom; Verlo, Alan; Brown, Maxine; Plepys, Dana; Sandin, Dan; Renambot, Luc; Johnson, Andrew; Leigh, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid Reality Environments represent a new kind of visualization spaces that blur the line between virtual environments and high resolution tiled display walls. This paper outlines the design and implementation of the CAVE2TM Hybrid Reality Environment. CAVE2 is the world's first near-seamless flat-panel-based, surround-screen immersive system. Unique to CAVE2 is that it will enable users to simultaneously view both 2D and 3D information, providing more flexibility for mixed media applications. CAVE2 is a cylindrical system of 24 feet in diameter and 8 feet tall, and consists of 72 near-seamless, off-axisoptimized passive stereo LCD panels, creating an approximately 320 degree panoramic environment for displaying information at 37 Megapixels (in stereoscopic 3D) or 74 Megapixels in 2D and at a horizontal visual acuity of 20/20. Custom LCD panels with shifted polarizers were built so the images in the top and bottom rows of LCDs are optimized for vertical off-center viewing- allowing viewers to come closer to the displays while minimizing ghosting. CAVE2 is designed to support multiple operating modes. In the Fully Immersive mode, the entire room can be dedicated to one virtual simulation. In 2D model, the room can operate like a traditional tiled display wall enabling users to work with large numbers of documents at the same time. In the Hybrid mode, a mixture of both 2D and 3D applications can be simultaneously supported. The ability to treat immersive work spaces in this Hybrid way has never been achieved before, and leverages the special abilities of CAVE2 to enable researchers to seamlessly interact with large collections of 2D and 3D data. To realize this hybrid ability, we merged the Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) - a system for supporting 2D tiled displays, with Omegalib - a virtual reality middleware supporting OpenGL, OpenSceneGraph and Vtk applications.

  7. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  8. Microgravity and Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Detection of Caves and Clandestine Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, N. C.; Croft, L. A.; Cesin, G. L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Center for Cave and Karst Studies, CCKS, has been using microgravity to locate caves from the ground's surface since 1985. The geophysical subsurface investigations began during a period when explosive and toxic vapors were rising from the karst aquifer under Bowling Green into homes, businesses, and schools. The USEPA provided the funding for this Superfund Emergency, and the CCKS was able to drill numerous wells into low-gravity anomalies to confirm and even map the route of caves in the underlying limestone bedrock. In every case, a low-gravity anomaly indicated a bedrock cave, a cave with a collapsed roof or locations where a bedrock cave had collapsed and filled with alluvium. At numerous locations, several wells were cored into microgravity anomalies and in every case, additional wells were drilled on both sides of the anomalies to confirm that the technique was in fact reliable. The wells cored on both sides of the anomalies did not intersect caves but instead intersected virtually solid limestone. Microgravity also easily detected storm sewers and even sanitary sewers, sometimes six meters (twenty feet) beneath the surface. Microgravity has also been used on many occasions to investigate sinkhole collapses. It identified potential collapse areas by detecting voids in the unconsolidated material above bedrock. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona. The CCKS has experimented with other geophysical techniques, particularly ground penetrating radar, seismic and electrical resistivity. In the late 1990s the CCKS started using the Swift/Sting resistivity meter to perform karst geophysical subsurface investigations. The system provides good depth to bedrock data, but it is often difficult to interpret bedrock caves from the modeled data. The system typically used now by the CCKS to perform karst subsurface investigations is to use electrical resistivity traverses

  9. The Emerging System of Higher Education in Italy: Report of a Seminar. Conference Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    The report explores the inner life of the Italian university system and describes the results of increased student access to a university that remains essentially elitist. It highlights the tensions and constraints that have placed Italian higher education in a state of suspended animation between mass entry and elitist structures. It is predicted…

  10. Image-Guided Endoscopic Endonasal Transmaxillary Transpterygoid Approach to Meckel's Cave.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejian; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye; Xie, Tao; Ge, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report was to summarize our preliminary experience on the resection of tumors located in Meckel's cave via the endoscopic endonasal transmaxillary transpterygoid approach with image-guided system and to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. Two patients who had tumors in left Meckel's cave underwent surgical treatment using the image-guided endoscopic endonasal transmaxillary transpterygoid approach. This particular technique has advantages of no brain retraction, direct vision of tumor resection and protection of surrounding neurovascular structures. Neuronavigation increases the safety of the endoscopic approach.

  11. Numerical model of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) including the effect of magma pressure in the dyke system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.

    2009-02-01

    The Stromboli island, in the Aeolian archipelago (Italy), is one of the most active volcanoes in Europe. In the last 13,000 years, its growth has been complicated by four sector collapses affecting the NW flank, the latest of which resulting in the formation of Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) horseshoe-shaped depression. Slope instability phenomena are represented not only by giant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, but also by more frequent large landslides, such as occurred in December 2002-January 2003, and shallow landslides, involving loose or weakly cemented deposits, that constitute a natural hazard and affect residential and tourists safety. It is noteworthy that in volcanic environment the instability factors are manifold and much more complex than in other non-volcanic contexts. This paper deals with the Stromboli NW flank instability, and focuses on the effects of magma pressure in the feeding system. Two main objectives have been pursued: (1) to test a methodological approach, in order to evaluate a complex instability process; (2) to contribute to the understanding of volcano deformation and collapse mechanisms and associated hazard. A numerical model was developed by the Finite Difference Method and the FLAC 4.0 code, considering a cross-section of the entire volcano, orthogonal to the SdF and including both subaerial and submerged slopes. The stability of the volcano was analysed under gravity alone, and by introducing the magma pressure effect, both related to magmastatic and overpressure components. The results indicate that gravity alone is not sufficient to affect the stability of the volcano slopes, nor is the magmastatic pressure component. If an excess magma pressure component is introduced, instability is produced in accordance with field evidences and recent slope dynamics.

  12. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  13. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning.

  14. Linking speleothem and soil magnetism in the Pau d'Alho cave (central South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaqueto, Plinio; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Novello, Valdir F.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Karmann, Ivo; Strauss, Becky E.; Feinberg, Joshua M.

    2016-10-01

    Mineral magnetism of Pau d'Alho cave sediments, soils outside the cave, and in the stalagmite #6 (ALHO6) in Midwest Brazil is presented. This high growth-rate speleothem ( 168 mm/ka) encompasses the past 1355 years. Oxygen and carbon isotope data from the same stalagmite allow for a direct comparison of the magnetic signal with changes in paleoprecipitation and soil dynamics at the surface. Magnetic experiments include isothermal remanent magnetization, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves, and low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The main magnetic remanence carriers in ALHO6 are magnetite and goethite, with a nearly constant relative proportion. Remanent coercivities of magnetite in all our samples are within 14-17 mT for an average grain-size of 1-2 µm, in the range of pedogenic magnetite, thus suggesting the detrital grains deposited in the stalagmite were produced in the soil above the cave. Magnetic remanence variations follow δ13C and δ18O data, suggesting a climatic control on the input of magnetic minerals into the Pau d'Alho cave system. The concentration of magnetic minerals in the stalagmite is governed by soil erosion above the cave, which by its turn is controlled by soil erosion and vegetation cover. Dry periods are associated with less stable soils and result in higher mineral fluxes carried into karst systems. Conversely, wetter periods are associated with soils topped by denser vegetation that retains micrometer-scale pedogenic minerals and thus reduces detrital fluxes into the cave.

  15. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    PubMed

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  16. Is Radon Emission in Caves Causing Deletions in Satellite DNA Sequences of Cave-Dwelling Crickets?

    PubMed Central

    Allegrucci, Giuliana; Sbordoni, Valerio; Cesaroni, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA). Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration. PMID:25822625

  17. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  18. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  19. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  20. Land system change in Italy from 1884 to 2007: Analysing the North-South divergence on the basis of an integrated indicator framework.

    PubMed

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Erb, Karlheinz

    2014-07-01

    Over the past centuries, land systems in Italy experienced fundamental shifts, owing to the availability of new energy forms, population surges, and technological progress. The 20th century was characterized by massive productivity increases, accompanied by gradual land abandonment and the return of forest land. We here analyze 120 years of land system change in Italy, applying the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) framework, a metric for socio-economic pressures on terrestrial ecosystems. HANPP allows integrating ecological with societal perspectives, by systematically quantifying (a) biomass harvest and (b) the difference between potential productivity of ecosystems and current productivity induced by land use processes, such as land conversion, or land degradation. Besides assessing national trends we calculated HANPP separately for the Italian North and South between 1934 and 2007, in order to scrutinize if high regional discrepancies in terms of natural and socio-economic preconditions translate into diverging land system trajectories. Our results show that national HANPP has been declining from 78% of natural productivity before WWII to 56% in 2007, indicating a declining land -use induced pressure on biomass flows over time. Simultaneously, biomass harvest increased by around 26% due to agricultural intensification, despite shrinking croplands. Although we found a significant difference between the Northern and Southern region in the absolute levels of several land use indicators related to biomass appropriation, the overarching trends of land system change were remarkably similar in both regions. This suggests that underlying drivers of land system change, such as policies aimed at land-use intensification and structural change were equally dominating land system trajectories in the North and South of Italy, not withstanding their socio-ecological divergences.

  1. Temporal evolution of a three component system: the island of Lipari (Aeolian Arc, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, G. M.; de Rosa, R.; Esperança, S.; Mazzuoli, R.; Sonnino, M.

    1991-04-01

    The volcanic products from Lipari define an evolutionary trend with a high gradient of K-enrichment, similar to the calc-alkaline to potassic volcanism of other islands in the Aeolian arc. Stratigraphic reconstruction of the island based on field and geochronological data indicate that the volcanic activity can be subdivided in two stages. The first stage, from 223 to 42 ka, consists of six eruptive cycles and is characterized by basalts and basalt-andesites showing progressive increase in both SiO2 and K2O contents with time. The second stage consists of four cycles erupted since 42 ka and is marked by an apparent rejuvenation of the geochemical system with the appearance of the first rhyolitic products. Fractional crystallization, assimilation and mixing models suggest that the geochemistry of Lipari volcanism evolved with time by a complex interplay between two mantle-derived components, one sub-alkaline and the other alkaline, in addition to crustal melts and/or crustally-derived materials. A petrogenetic model in which fractional crystallization was subordinate to mixing best fits the geochemical data and petrographic observations of macro- and microscopic features. Melts from the crustal and mantle end-members are almost always present in the system but the relative proportions appear to vary with time. The sub-alkaline mantle component (source of Tyrrhenian tholeiites) is an important contributor to the early evolution of the volcanism in Lipari; input from the alkaline mantle component (source of the Roman Comagmatic Province) increases with time, and the crustal component becomes dominant in the later activity. The preferred petrogenetic model for the temporal evolution of the volcanic system in Lipari involves melting initially caused by an increase in the thermal input related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea and/or to subduction processes. The quick rise of the isotherms and almost contemporaneous melting of source materials with different

  2. Community Action Volunteers in Education (CAVE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Janet R.

    The Community Action Volunteers in Education (CAVE), which is described in this report, is a co-curricular learning, non-profit agency offering over 16 programs to children, the elderly, special populations, and low-income residents in the Chico, California, area and in three state institutions in the Napa and Sonoma Valleys. Based at California…

  3. Meckel's cave tuberculoma with unusual infratemporal extension.

    PubMed

    Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Somasundaram, S; Rao, Ravi M; Radhakrishnan, V V

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe a rare case of intracranial tuberculoma of the Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus with extension into the infratemporal fossa causing widening of the foramen ovale and adjacent bone destruction. The rarity of the lesion and the unusual extension of the lesion are presented with a brief review of literature.

  4. Xanthoma in Meckel's cave. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Oka, K; Nakayama, Y; Tomonaga, M

    1991-04-01

    A case of xanthoma located within Meckel's cave and the semilunar ganglion is described in a patient with a trigeminal nerve deficit. This is the first case of xanthoma in such a location. The distinctive morphological appearance is illustrated and the possible histogenesis is discussed.

  5. Reintegration of Adults into the Continuing Vocational Training System as a Means of Preventing Unemployment. Belgium, France, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Fabienne

    This comparative study is intended to shed light on how vocational training is recognized and used as an instrument to mitigate the grave employment problems now facing all the countries of Europe. The three countries--Belgium, France, and Italy--are examined successively on the basis of a virtually identical approach. Each chapter begins with a…

  6. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  7. Fluid geochemistry of the Mondragone hydrothermal systems (southern Italy): water and gas compositions vs. geostructural setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Emilio; Minissale, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella "Magda"; Tamburrino, Stella; Iorio, Marina; Tedesco, Dario

    2017-02-01

    The geochemistry of natural thermal fluids discharging in the Mondragone Plain has been investigated. Thermal spring emergences are located along the Tyrrhenian coast in two different areas: near Padule-S. Rocco (41°7.5'N 13°53.4'E) at the foot of Mt. Petrino, and near Levagnole (41°8.5'N 13°51.3'E) at the foot of Mt. Pizzuto. The water isotopic composition of both thermal discharges is lighter than the one of local shallow groundwater (δ18O ≅ -6.3‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -5.9‰; δD ≅ -40‰ SMOW vs. ≅ -36‰, respectively) as a consequence of inland higher altitude of recharge by rainfall, suggesting that thermal water undergoes a deep and long flow-path before emerging along the coast. The chemical composition of the highest temperature samples of two areas points that fluids in the hydrothermal reservoir(s) interact with similar lithologies, since they are both hosted in the lower sedimentary carbonate formations of the Campanian-Latial Apennine succession. However, the two spring systems are different in terms of temperature and salinity (Levagnole: ≅50 °C and 8.9 g/L vs. Padule: ≅32 °C and 7.4 g/L, respectively). The higher salinity of Levagnole springs is due to a longer interaction with evaporite material embedded in Miocene sedimentary formations and to the eventual mixing, during rising, with fresh seawater close to the seashore. The chemical and isotopic composition of the free gases associated with the springs, again suggests a different source of the two hydrothermal systems. Comparing the 3He/4He measured ratios with other gas emissions located NE and SE of Mt. Massico-Roccamonfina alignment, it is evident that the Levagnole thermal springs are related to the northern Latial mantle wedge where the 3He/4He is about 0.5 R/Ra, whereas the Padule-S. Rocco springs, although being only 3.5 km south of Levagnole, are related to the Campanian mantle wedge where R/Ra is always ≥2.0. Such a difference in 3He/4He ratio in a very short distance

  8. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  9. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  10. Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. Water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3/s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC decreased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow

  11. Morphological evolution of coexisting amphipod species pairs from sulfidic caves suggests competitive interactions and character displacement, but no environmental filtering and convergence.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Cene; Luštrik, Roman; Sarbu, Serban; Flot, Jean-François; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypically similar species coexisting in extreme environments like sulfidic water are subject to two opposing eco-evolutionary processes: those favoring similarity of environment-specific traits, and those promoting differences of traits related to resource use. The former group of processes includes ecological filtering and convergent or parallel evolution, the latter competitive exclusion, character displacement and divergent evolution. We used a unique eco-evolutionary study system composed of two independent pairs of coexisting amphipod species (genus Niphargus) from the sulfidic caves Movile in Romania and Frasassi in Italy to study the relative contribution and interaction of both processes. We looked at the shape of the multifunctional ventral channel as a trait ostensibly related to oxygenation and sulfide detoxification, and at body size as a resource-related trait. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the sulfidic caves were colonized separately by ancestors of each species. Species within pairs were more dissimilar in their morphology than expected according to a null model based on regional species pool. This might indicate competitive interactions shaping the morphology of these amphipod species. Moreover, our results suggest that the shape of the ventral channel is not subject to long-term convergent selection or to the process of environmental filtering, and as such probably does not play a role in sulfide tolerance. Nevertheless, the ancestral conditions reconstructed using the comparative method tended to be more similar than null-model expectations. This shift in patterns may reflect a temporal hierarchy of eco-evolutionary processes, in which initial environmental filtering became later on superseded by character displacement or other competition-driven divergent evolutionary processes.

  12. The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de, Vivo B.; Belkin, H.E.; Barbieri, M.; Chelini, W.; Lattanzi, P.; Lima, A.; Tolomeo, L.

    1989-01-01

    A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids (??CO2) that were moderately saline (3-4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [liquid (L) + vapor (V)], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase (L + V), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [L + V + crystals (NaCL)], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite, gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende, in the San Vito 1 well at about 380??C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San

  13. A late Quaternary multiple paleovalley system from the Adriatic coastal plain (Biferno River, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Bracone, Vito; Campo, Bruno; D'Amico, Carmine; Rossi, Veronica; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-02-01

    A buried paleovalley system, up to 2 km wide and exceeding 50 m in relief, made up of multiple cross-cutting depressions incised into the Lower Pleistocene bedrock, is reported from the central Adriatic coastal plain at the mouth of Biferno River. Through a multi-proxy approach that included geomorphological, stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleontological (benthic foraminifers, ostracods and molluscs) investigations, the facies architecture of distinct, superposed valley fills is reconstructed and their relative chronology established along a transverse profile with extremely high data density (average borehole spacing 75 m). Regional tectonic uplift appears as the major controlling factor of initial (Middle Pleistocene) river down-cutting and paleovalley formation. In contrast, glacio-eustatic fluctuations drove fluvial-system response over the last 120 ky, when valley incision was primarily induced by the last glacial base-level lowering and climatic forcing. A fragmented record of coastal and shallow-marine deposits is available for the lower paleovalley fill, which is penetrated by a limited borehole dataset. Multiple erosion phases probably related to the post-MIS 5e sea-level fall are reconstructed from the upper paleovalley fill, where a buried fluvial terrace succession is identified a few tens of meters below the ground surface. The flat surfaces of two buried fluvial terraces suggest longer-term, stepped relative sea-level fall, and are correlated with fluvial incisions that took place possibly at the MIS 5/4 transition and at the MIS 3/2 transition, respectively. A laterally extensive gravel body developed on the valley floor during the Last Glacial Maximum. During the ensuing latest Pleistocene-early Holocene sea-level rise the Biferno paleovalley was transformed into an estuary. Upstream from the maximum shoreline ingression, the vertical succession of well-drained floodplain, poorly-drained floodplain, and swamp deposits evidences increasing

  14. Quantitatively structural control of the karst based on speleological cave survey data: Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, D.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; García-Sansegundo, J.; Borreguero, M.; Sendra, G.

    2012-04-01

    Speleological cave survey characterizes each cave passage by a 3D line (called shot survey) defined by its length, direction and dipping. This line represents the three-dimensional geometry of the karst system and cave passage scale and can be statistically analyzed and compared with the geometry of the massif discontinuities. The aim of this work is to establish the quantitative influence of the structural geology in caves based on the comparison between cave survey data, joint and bedding measurements with stereographic projection. 15 km of cave surveys from Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) were chosen to illustrate the method. The length of the cavities range between 50 to 4,438 m and their depth is up to 738 m. The methodology of work includes: 1) cave survey collection from caving reports; 2) geological mapping and cross-sections with cavities projection;3) data collection of bedding and joints in caves and near outcrops;4) definition of families of joints and bedding planes by stereographic projection; 5) definition of groups of cave passages from stereographic projection (based on their directions and dipping) and 6) comparison between bedding, families of joints and cave survey data by stereographic projection. Seven families of joints have been defined in all the area of study. The joint families are: J1) sub-vertical, J2) N63/68SE, J3) N29E/46NW, J4) N52E/72NW, J5) N129E/17NE, J6) N167E/57NE and J7) N180E/26E; the bedding is N30-55/60-80NE. Five groups of cave passages have been defined. "A" group of cave passage is formed by sub-vertical series; it is represented by the 61 % of all the cave passages and is conditioned by the joint families J1, J3, J4 and J6, as well as their intersections. "B" group is formed by N10W-N10E/3-20N galleries; it corresponds with the 13 % of the series and is controlled by the intersection between families J5 and J6. "C" group is defined by N20-70E/0-50NE passages; it is represented by the 13 % of the

  15. Collaboration of occupational physicians with national health system and general practitioners in Italy

    PubMed Central

    PERSECHINO, Benedetta; FONTANA, Luca; BURESTI, Giuliana; RONDINONE, Bruna Maria; LAURANO, Patrizia; FORTUNA, Grazia; VALENTI, Antonio; IAVICOLI, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A good cooperation between occupational physicians and other healthcare professionals is essential in order to achieve an overall improvement of workers/patients’ well-being. Unfortunately, collaboration between occupational physicians and other physicians is often lacking or very poor. In this context, using a self-administered questionnaire, we investigated the cooperation of Italian occupational physicians with the National Health System (NHS) facilities and with the general practitioners in order to identify any potential critical issues that may hinder an effective and collaborative relationships between these professionals. The survey was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014. Nearly all of the interviewed occupational physicians have had contacts with colleagues of the Departments for Prevention and Occupational Health and Safety of the NHS. Regarding the relationship between occupational physicians and general practitioners findings showed that their cooperation is quite difficult and it would not seem a two-way collaboration. Cooperation between occupational physicians and NHS would benefit from the development of communication strategies and tools enhancing the support and assistance functions of the NHS facilities. The elaboration and subsequent application of operational guidelines and standardized procedures of communication would also improve collaboration between occupational physicians and general practitioners that is currently considered rather insufficient and incomplete. PMID:27733729

  16. Middle to Late Pleistocene activity of the northern Matese fault system (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Peronace, Edoardo; Amato, Vincenzo; Naso, Giuseppe; Nomade, Sebastian; Pereira, Alison; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Billi, Andrea; Blamart, Dominique; Galderisi, Antonio; Giocoli, Alessandro; Stabile, Tony; Thil, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    An integrated investigation including geological, geomorphological, geophysical and structural survey, tephra analyses, 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dating, as well as paleoseismic trenching along the N-Matese fault system is presented. The study allowed the characterization of the tectonic mobility of this structure as well as the associated Bojano basin sedimentary-tectonic evolution since the early Middle Pleistocene, providing also new clues concerning the fault historical activity and the associated Mw > 6.5 earthquakes. We have found lines of evidence for > 1 mm/yr slip rate along the presently buried Bojano fault during the mid Middle Pleistocene, and similar rates for the main fault segments paralleling the Matese flanks. The buried Bojano fault significantly slowed down during the last 300 kyr, ceasing its activity before the Holocene. In turn, the segments outcropping along the Matese flanks reactivated at the onset of Late Pleistocene, after a long period of quiescence (480-110 ka), with robust slip rates that would seem even accelerating in post LGM times. Paleoseismic data suggest the occurrence of four Mw > 6.6 earthquakes in the past 3 ka, three of which match the little known 280 BC event, and the devastating 1456 and 1805 earthquakes.

  17. Some reservoir engineering calculations for the vapor-dominated system at Larderello, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    Various reservoir properties are calculated for the Larderello vapor-dominated system using available published data. Bottom-hole flowing properties are calculated from measured wellhead data. Whereas wellhead temperatures measured at a particular time tend to change systematically with changes in flow and pressure, calculated bottom-hole temperatures tend to be constant for two sample wells; while for a third, bottom-hole temperatures decrease with increasing flow. Bottom-hole temperatures calculated from wellhead data taken over several years can be constant, increase, or decrease for particular wells. A steady-state model for steam flow to a well is used with calculated bottom-hole data to show that the effect of non-Darcy flow is important. The initial mass of fluid in place for the northeast zone of Larderello (56 km2) is estimated, using data on shut-in pressures and total mass production. Reservoir thickness needed to store this mass of fluid is calculated as a function of porosity and initial fraction of water in pores. Representative values are 19 km of thickness, assuming 5% porosity with steam alone, and 832 m, assuming 20% porosity and 10% of pore volume as liquid water.

  18. Use of WHONET-SaTScan system for simulated real-time detection of antimicrobial resistance clusters in a hospital in Italy, 2012 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Alessandra; Stelling, John; Meledandri, Marcello; Messenger, Louisa A; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2017-01-01

    Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software. Results were compared with the hospital infection prevention and control system. The WHONET-SaTScan identified 71 statistically significant clusters, some involving pathogens carrying multiple resistance phenotypes. Of these 71, three were also detected by the hospital system, while a further 15, detected by WHONET-SaTScan only, were considered of relevant importance and worth further investigation by the hospital infection control team. In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan system was applied for the first time to the surveillance of AMR in Italy as a tool to strengthen this surveillance to allow more timely intervention strategies both at local and national level, using data regularly collected by the Italian national surveillance system. PMID:28333615

  19. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011. Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000–1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001–2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  20. Use of WHONET-SaTScan system for simulated real-time detection of antimicrobial resistance clusters in a hospital in Italy, 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Natale, Alessandra; Stelling, John; Meledandri, Marcello; Messenger, Louisa A; D'Ancona, Fortunato

    2017-03-16

    Resistant pathogens infections cause in healthcare settings, higher patient mortality, longer hospitalisation times and higher costs for treatments. Strengthening and coordinating local, national and international surveillance systems is the cornerstone for the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan software was applied in a hospital in Italy to identify potential outbreaks of AMR. Data from San Filippo Neri Hospital in Rome between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from the national surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AR-ISS) and analysed using the simulated prospective analysis for real-time cluster detection included in the WHONET-SaTScan software. Results were compared with the hospital infection prevention and control system. The WHONET-SaTScan identified 71 statistically significant clusters, some involving pathogens carrying multiple resistance phenotypes. Of these 71, three were also detected by the hospital system, while a further 15, detected by WHONET-SaTScan only, were considered of relevant importance and worth further investigation by the hospital infection control team. In this study, the WHONET-SaTScan system was applied for the first time to the surveillance of AMR in Italy as a tool to strengthen this surveillance to allow more timely intervention strategies both at local and national level, using data regularly collected by the Italian national surveillance system.

  1. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  2. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-08-28

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children<15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children<15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  3. Integrated monitoring system for ground deformation hazard assessment in Telese Terme (Benevento province, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Castiello, G.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Fuschini, V.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    TeleseTerme plain is characterized by a very articulated stratigraphy (levels of travertine, fluvial-marshy and pyroclastic deposits), that allows the occurrence of underground water circulation with overlapping aquifers. These aquifers are locally in pressure and, because of chemical characteristics and physical properties of the water, they may activate processes of accelerated travertine's corrosion; the consequence is the formation of cavity along the ground water's preferential flow paths, and the activation of subsidence and sinkholes phenomena. In particular test area includes two zones, where in 2002 and 2006 occurred two sinkholes events, classified as "piping sinkholes". The hazard evaluation was carried out trhought an integrated monitoring system, based on "traditional" techniques conduced "in situ", as geological-geomorphological and geophysical (microgravity) surveys, integrated by the most innovative techniques of Remote sensing interferometry(Advanced DInSAR Interferometry Techniques). The last allow to evaluate the ground deformation, characterized by a predominantvertical component (typical deformation of sinkholes and subsidence phenomena), and are well suited to operate a continuous and long monitoring ofvery extended areas. Through an initial analysis of the Permanent Scatterers available in the Telese municipality, we found the envelopes of the areal that contain PS with negative and positive mean velocities; these velocities showed the presence of a possible phenomenon of subsidence detected by ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Through interferometric processing of ENVISAT images, the soil deformations of 2002-2010 year sare evaluated and compared with the data obtainedby survey took "in situ" during the same period. The knowledge of the deformation's evolution of the area made it possible to organize a more focused future monitoring through traditional techniques of relief (with the help of geophysical methodologies). Since the zone affected by

  4. Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then

  5. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  6. Examining the Hydrology of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri Through Groundwater Tracing and Geochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However, the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cav...

  7. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity and seismic surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. The gravity method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. Seismic tomography treats the problem of identifying a buried structure as a wave propagation process by inverting the linearized wave equation to compute the spatial distribution of the slowness of the velocity. The purpose of our tomographic study is to further test the method and to guide archaeologists in their future excavations by locating and identifying buried structures. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible

  8. Cave-fills in Miocene-Pliocene strata on Cayman Brac, British West Indies: Implications for the geological evolution of an isolated oceanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian

    2016-07-01

    An 8-m-high wall in a quarry on the west end of Cayman Brac exposes the upper part of the Cayman Formation (Miocene), the lower part of the overlying Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene), and the Cayman Unconformity, which is a karstic unconformity that separates these formations. The modern-day karst surface caps the Pedro Castle Formation. This exposure also includes cross-sections through two filled caves-the "Lower Cave" (> 8 m long, up to 2.5 m high) and "Upper Cave" (> 23 m long, up to 2 m high)-that are housed in the Cayman Formation and Pedro Castle Formation, respectively. The Lower Cave is filled with caymanite, which is formed of laminated, varicolored dolomitized mudstones, and grainstones that contain scattered marine fossils (e.g., foraminifera, red algae). This cave, connected to the Cayman Unconformity by a small-diameter tunnel, evolved as part of the karst system that developed during the Messinian lowstand (7.3-5.3 Ma). The cave was filled and dolomitized prior to deposition of the Pedro Castle Formation. The Upper Cave is filled with a wide spectrum of lithotypes, including dolostones, calcareous mudstones, terra rossa, gastropod coquina, coated grains, and speleothems. U/Th dating indicates that some of the flowstones are > 500,000 years old whereas others are only ~ 21,000 years old. Dolostones and mudstones in the basal part of the Upper Cave contain marine fossils (foraminifera, red algae) whereas the younger deposits are devoid of such fossils. The Upper Cave and its deposits developed after the sediments of the Pedro Castle Formation had been deposited and lithified. Development of the cave filling deposits, which includes a clear transition from marine to non-marine influences, was controlled by eustatic sea-level changes and/or westward tectonic tilting of Cayman Brac that occurred after the Pedro Castle Formation became exposed, probably during the Late Pliocene.

  9. Exploring caves: teaching packet for grades K-3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    "Exploring Caves" is an interdisciplinary set of materials on caves for grades K-3. Caves entail at least five scientific disciplines: earth science, hydrology, mapping, biology, and anthropology. Each of these disciplines involves a unique content area as well as the development of particular intellectual skills. This unit aims at helping teachers to sort and organize the most important ideas in this rich scientific area. Detailed lesson plans serve as ways to pass these ideas on to very young students. Most American caves are big holes that form in limestone rock. The holes begin as cracks in limestone. The cracks get bigger and bigger. They grow into underground streams, rivers, and even lakes. When water drains away, the waterways turn into open cave tunnels, passages, and caverns. It takes 10,000 to 100,000 years to form a cave big enough for people to move around inside. Water drips constantly in caves. The drips dissolve limestone minerals in one part of the cave. As water dries out, the minerals build up in other places. In this way, beautiful cave rock formations and crystals grow over thousands of years. These rock formations change dark limestone caves into hidden fantasy lands.

  10. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  11. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith E; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H

    2011-04-05

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways--either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution-spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems.

  12. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to <700 μS/cm at the bottom of the cave. Under these conditions variability of cave water temperature was less than 0.1 °C, although a 0.4 °C long-term variability was recorded. These data shows that the discharge of freshwater to the estuary determines the dynamic of this submerged cave, limiting the influence of estuarine water intrusion in the coastal aquifer and the impact of tides. This research shows that temperature is a

  13. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  14. Thallium-rich rust scales in drinkable water distribution systems: A case study from northern Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Cristian; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lepore, Giovanni O; d'Acapito, Francesco; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Following the detection of a severe thallium contamination of the drinkable water from the public distribution system of Valdicastello Carducci-Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy), and the identification of the source of contamination in the Molini di Sant'Anna spring (average Tl content≈15μgL(-1)), the replacement of the contaminated water with a virtually Tl-free one (Tl<0.10μgL(-1)) caused an increase in Tl concentration in the drinkable water. This suggested that the pipeline interior had become a secondary source of Tl contamination, promoting its mineralogical and geochemical study. Rust scales samples taken from several pipeline segments, as well as leaching products obtained from these samples, were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence chemical analyses, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Thallium-rich rust scales (up to 5.3wt% Tl) have been found only in pipeline samples taken downstream the water treatment plant, whereas the sample taken upstream contains much less Tl (~90μgg(-1)). The Tl-rich nature of such scales is related to the occurrence of nano- and micro-spherules of Tl2O3 and less abundant nanocrystalline μm-sized encrustations of TlCl. Leaching experiments on Tl-rich rust scales indicate that a fraction of the available Tl is easily dissolved in tap water; X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that monovalent thallium occurs in water equilibrated with the rust scales, probably related to the dissolution of TlCl encrustations. Therefore, Tl dissolved as Tl(+) only in the water from the Molini di Sant'Anna spring was partially removed through oxidative precipitation of Tl2O3 and precipitation of TlCl. This highlights the critical role played by the addition of chlorine-based oxidants in water treatment plants that could favour the deposition of Tl-rich coatings within the pipelines, giving rise to unexpected secondary sources of

  15. Gravity combined with laser-scan in Grotta Gigante: a benchmark cave for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivetta, Tommaso; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Laser scanning has become one of the most important topographic techniques in the last decades, due to its ability to reconstruct complex surfaces with high resolution and precision and due to its fast acquisition time. Recently a laser-scan survey has been acquired (Fingolo et al., 2011) in the "Grotta Gigante" cave near Trieste, Italy, the biggest cave worldwide according to the Guinness Awards. In this paper this survey is used to obtain a 3D discretization of the cave with prisms. Then through this new model, with the densities derived from campaign measurements, the exact gravimetric effect of the structure was computed (Nagy et al., 2000) and compared with the gravity observation at the surface. The transition from the cloud of laser-scan points to the prism model was carried out by different computer elaborations; first of all the reduction of the data density through an averaging process that allows to pass from over 10000 points/m2 to less than 10points/m2. Then the whole dataset was filtered from the outliers by the means of a simple quadratic surface that fit the data (Turner, 1999). The reduced data points should be divided into the 2 surfaces of top and bottom, that are used to define the prisms. This step was performed using the local regression method (Loess) to calculate a surface located halfway between top and bottom points. Once the top and bottom interfaces were obtained it was possible to get the final prism representation and calculate the gravity signal. The observed Bouguer field is explained very well by our model and the residuals are used to evaluate possible secondary caves. The final prism model together with the gravity database on surface and inside the cave form a perfect benchmark to test forward and inverse potential field algorithms. References Fingolo M., Facco L., Ceccato A., Breganze C., Paganini P., Cezza M., Grotta Gigante di Trieste. Tra realtà virtuale e rilievi 3D ad alta risoluzione, Veneto Geologi, 75, pp.21-25, 2011

  16. Glacial culmination and decay sequences: new data from a core in the Ivrea end-moraine system (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Franco; Forno, Maria Gabriella; Hajdas, Irka; Monegato, Giovanni; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare

    2016-04-01

    The Ivrea end-moraine system extends on a surface of about 500 kmq at the outlet of the Aosta Valley, being one of the largest amphitheatres on the southern side of the Alps. Along with the Rivoli-Avigliana amphitheatre, the Ivrea end-moraine system was the first to be studied in Italy during the XIX century, drawing the attention of several scientists from all over Europe for its impressive geomorphology. Most part of the stratigraphic researches on the Ivrea amphitheatre was traditionally performed on outcrops. In 2013 a 55-m long continuous core was drilled (ProGEO Project) in the western flank of the system, choosing an inward palaeolake location (Torre Canavese) related to the damming by one of the main terminal moraine, within a wide group of moraines whose age is still debated (the so called "Serra Synthem"). The aim was to make available a complete stratigraphic record of the ice-contact lake developed inward to the moraine at time of glacial culmination, or shortly later. This core crossed the entire local glacigenic succession down to the preglacial substrate at 53 m depth. Hopefully, the geochronometric and stratigraphic information obtained from this lake succession may provide time constrains for the glacial culmination. The Torre Canavese core displays a double sequence of subglacial till passing to glaciolacustrine and finally to fully lacustrine conditions. At its base, the sequence preserves a 12-m thick glacial till, resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels coming from a different catchment. A lacustrine unit made of laminated silty-clayey sands extends from 41.6 to 29 m depth, directly resting over the glacial till. As shown by a radiocarbon AMS age, this unit is older than 45 ka cal BP. An overconsolidated, 19-m thick glacial till lays on this lacustrine unit and is covered by a further, uppermost lacustrine unit from 10.26 to 0.34 m depth. A thin Holocene alluvial layer ends the sequence at the top. Both lacustrine units were sampled for

  17. A biosignature suite from cave pool precipitates, Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Melim, L A; Liescheidt, R; Northup, D E; Spilde, M N; Boston, P J; Queen, J M

    2009-11-01

    Calcite cave pool precipitates often display a variety of potential biosignatures from the macroscopic to the submicroscopic. A fossil cave pool in Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico, exhibits older stalactites and stalagmites that are completely coated in brown, laminated calcitic crust that extends down as pool fingers and u-loops. The pool fingers and u-loops are mainly micrite to clotted micrite, some recrystallized to microspar, with some isopachous spar layers. Micrite, particularly clotted micrite, is usually interpreted by carbonate workers as microbial in origin. Scanning electron microscopy examination of etched pool fingers, u-loops, and the brown crust revealed abundant calcified microbial filaments and biofilm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that these features have excess carbon, above that found in pure calcite. Independent carbon analysis indicated that these same samples contain up to 0.2% organic carbon. Since pool fingers hang down but form underwater, we hypothesize they are biogenic with hanging microbial filaments or biofilm acting as nuclei for calcite precipitation. Because of the abundance of micrite and fossil filaments, we further hypothesize that these pendant features formed during a period of plentiful nutrients and active hydrological activity when the pool was literally dripping with microbial slime. Although each of these lines of evidence could be interpreted in other ways, their combined weight strongly suggests the cave pool precipitates in Cottonwood Cave are biogenic. These investigations can be used to help inform extraterrestrial life-detection studies.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joachim; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Loreille, Odile; Hemmer, Helmut; Eriksson, Torsten; Götherström, Anders; Hiller, Jennifer; Collins, Matthew J; Wess, Timothy; Alt, Kurt W

    2004-03-01

    To reconstruct the phylogenetic position of the extinct cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea), we sequenced 1 kb of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from two Pleistocene cave lion DNA samples (47 and 32 ky B.P.). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the ancient sequences form a clade that is most closely related to the extant lions from Africa and Asia; at the same time, cave lions appear to be highly distinct from their living relatives. Our data show that these cave lion sequences represent lineages that were isolated from lions in Africa and Asia since their dispersal over Europe about 600 ky B.P., as they are not found among our sample of extant populations. The cave lion lineages presented here went extinct without mitochondrial descendants on other continents. The high sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between cave and modern lions is notable.

  19. Monitoring the Lavina di Roncovetro (RE, Italy) landslide by integrating traditional monitoring systems and multiple high-resolution topographic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2016-04-01

    Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide is located in the Enza Valley (Reggio Emilia, Italy). It extends from the top of Mount Staffola down to the Tassobbio River. Since the clay fraction is dominant, it follows that the landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the last 20 years, about 100,000 m3 of bedrock descended from the main scarp into the landslide body. The total volume of the landslide is inferred to be of ~ 3×106 m3. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033), the Roncovetro landslide is periodically monitored by traditional monitoring systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey. In addition, an airborne LIDAR survey and a photographic acquisition from a small aircraft were carried out on April 2014 and October 2014, respectively. The traditional monitoring system consists of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey and a robotized total station (RTS). TLS acquisitions have focused on the upper and more active sector of the earthflow and were carried out since May 2014. By comparing TLS data taken at different times, the general deformational field of the landslide can be reconstructed and the displacements affecting the retaining structures built on the landslide crown quantified. The time resolution of both TLS and RTS acquisition is about 6 per year. . Three high-resolution photogrammetric surveys performed using an UAV were carried out on November 2014, July 2015 and January 2016. Starting from the acquired photos and applying photogrammetry and Structure From Motion (SFM) algorithms integrated in the Photoscan Agisoft software, the high-resolution 3D models of the

  20. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or values. (1) Biota. The cave provides seasonal or yearlong habitat for organisms or animals, or... humans, biota, or development of cave resources. (5) Recreational. The cave provides or could...

  1. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational purposes, the opportunity to nominate caves. The authorized officer shall give public notice... events. (iii) Paleontologic resources with potential to contribute useful educational or scientific... humans, biota, or development of cave resources. (5) Recreational. The cave provides or could...

  2. Petroleum systems of the Po Basin Province of northern Italy and the northern Adriatic Sea; Porto Garibaldi (biogenic), Meride/Riva di Solto (thermal), and Marnoso Arenacea (thermal)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Porto Garibaldi total petroleum system dominates the Po Basin Province of onshore northern Italy and offshore Italy and Croatia in the northern Adriatic Sea. Porto Garibaldi contains Pliocene (primarily) and Pleistocene (secondarily) biogenic gas ? approximately 16 TCF (2.66 BBOE) ultimately recoverable ? accumulated in co-eval siliciclastic reservoirs. This area was the northwestern edge of the Gondwanan (African) continental plate in pre-Hercynian time until the assembly of Pangea, a dominantly carbonate passive continental margin during the Mesozoic breakup of Pangea, and a Cenozoic collision zone with siliciclastic foredeep and foreland regions surrounded by thrust belts. At least two other petroleum systems, with Triassic (Meride / Riva di Solto) and Miocene (Marnoso Arenacea) source rocks, contribute oil and thermal gas reserves (nearly 1 BBOE) to the province. The major time of hydrocarbon expulsion of the thermal systems was Late Neogene during the Alpine and Apennine orogenies. Local Mesozoic oil expulsion from Triassic rocks also occurred, but those oils either were not trapped or were leaked from faulty traps through time.

  3. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  4. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    PubMed

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-04

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art.

  5. Sensitive ecological areas and species inventory of Actun Chapat Cave, Vaca Plateau, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynne, J.J.; Pleytez, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cave ecosystems are considered one of the most poorly studied and fragile systems on Earth. Belize caves are no exception. This paper represents the first effort to synthesize information on both invertebrate and vertebrate observations from a Belize cave. Based on limited field research and a review of literature, we identified two ecologically sensitive areas, and developed a species inventory list containing 41 vertebrate and invertebrate morphospecies in Actun Chapat, Vaca Plateau, west-central Belize. Actun Chapat contains two ecologically sensitive areas: (1) a large multiple species bat roost, and (2) a subterranean pool containing troglobites and stygobites. The inventory list is a product of sporadic research conducted between 1973 and 2001. Ecological research in this cave system remains incomplete. An intensive systematic ecological survey of Actun Chapat with data collection over multiple seasons using a suite of survey techniques will provide a more complete inventory list. To minimize human disturbance to the ecologically sensitive areas, associated with ecotourism, we recommend limited to no access in the areas identified as "sensitive".

  6. Monitoring tropical cave environmental parameters: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, H.; Baldini, J. U. L.; Prufer, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents findings from on-going surface and cave environmental monitoring at Yok Balum Cave in southern Belize. Drip hydrochemistry and cave atmosphere dynamics play key roles in calcite deposition, stalagmite growth, and climate proxy signal emplacement. An understanding of daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in cave hydrology and atmosphere is therefore critical information for accurately interpreting stalagmite geochemistry in terms of palaeoclimate. Ten month time series datasets of drip rates, cave air PCO2, soil air PCO2, cave air temperature and humidity, drip and surface water δ18O values, and meteorological data are presented here and initial relationships discussed. Initial cave air PCO2 datasets suggest short term (daily) cave ventilation patterns exist which may be superimposed on seasonal-scale variability driven by seasonal rainfall patterns. Rainfall apparently controls soil air PCO2 by controlling soil bioproductivity, so during the rainy season cave air PCO2 may increase in response to an increased CO2 flux into the cave via degassing and flow through micro-fissures. Eight actively growing stalagmites were monitored, indicating that drip hydrology varies spatially within the cave. Temperature and humidity are constant at 23oC and 100% respectively throughout the cave, year round, limiting potential kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during carbonate precipitation and simplifying interpretations of climate records from stalagmites from the site. Continued environmental monitoring will yield long term datasets which may relate to multi-annual climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and provide critical data for interpreting and calibrating the records obtained from Yok Balum stalagmite samples.

  7. Radon levels in Romanian caves: an occupational exposure survey.

    PubMed

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Călugăr, Monica I; Burghele, Bety D; Dumitru, Oana A; Cosma, Constantin; Onac, Bogdan P

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in seven caves located in the western half of Romania's most significant karst regions. Touristic and non-touristic caves were investigated with the aim to provide a reliable distribution of their radon levels and evaluate the occupational exposure and associated effective doses. Radon gas concentrations were measured with long-term diffusion-type detectors during two consecutive seasons (warm and cold). All investigated caves exceed the European Union reference level of radon gas at workplaces (300 Bq/m(3)). The radon concentration in these caves ranges between 53 and 2866 Bq/m(3), reflecting particular cave topography, season-related cave ventilation, and complex tectonic and geological settings surrounding each location. Relatively homogeneous high radon levels occur in all investigated touristic caves and in Tăuşoare and Vântului along their main galleries. Except for Muierii, in all the other caves radon levels are higher during the warm season, compared to the cold one. This suggests that natural cave ventilation largely controls the underground accumulation of radon. The results reported here reveal that the occupational exposure in Urşilor, Vadu Crişului, Tăuşoare, Vântului, and Muierii caves needs to be carefully monitored. The effective doses to workers vary between an average of 0.25 and 4.39 mSv/year depending on the measuring season. The highest values were recorded in show caves, ranging from 1.15 to 6.15 mSv/year, well above the European recommended limit, thus posing a potential health hazard upon cave guides, cavers, and scientists.

  8. Toxicity and Geochemistry of Missouri Cave Stream Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, C. A.; Besser, J.; Wicks, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Water and sediment quality are among the most important variables affecting the survival of stygobites. In Tumbling Creek Cave, Taney County Missouri the population of the endangered cave snail, Antrobia culveri, has declined significantly over the past decade. The cause of the population decline is unknown but could be related to the quality of streambed sediment in which the cave snail lives. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment of Tumbling Creek Cave and five other caves in Missouri. These sediments were analyzed to assess possible point sources from within the recharge areas of the caves and to provide baseline geochemical data to which Tumbling Creek Cave sediments could be compared. Standard sediment toxicity tests and ICP-MS analysis for heavy metals were conducted. Survival and reproduction of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, did not differ significantly between cave sediments and a control sediment. However the growth of amphipods differed significantly among sites and was significantly reduced in sediments from Tumbling Creek Cave relative to controls. Concentrations of several metals in sediments differed substantially among locations, with elevated levels of zinc and copper occurring in Tumbling Creek Cave. However, none of the measured metal concentrations exceeded sediment quality guidelines derived to predict probable effects on benthic organisms and correlations between sediment metal concentrations and toxicity endpoints were generally weak. While elevated metal levels may play a part in the cave snail's decline, other factors may be of equal or greater importance. Ongoing analyses of persistent organic contaminants and total organic carbon in cave sediments, along with continued water quality monitoring, may provide data that will allow us to better understand this complicated problem.

  9. BELLE STARR CAVE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Stroud, Raymond B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Belle Starr Cave Wilderness Study Area in Arkansas concluded that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources in the area. There is a probable resource potential for small quantities of natural gas. A coal bed that underlies the area contains demonstrated coal resources of about 22. 5 million tons in a bed that averages less than 28 in. thick. Despite its contained coal, this area is not shown as having a coal resource potential.

  10. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  11. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Borba, Luis A B; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida, Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior, José Valentim

    2004-06-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities.

  12. Regime switch in karstic caves atmosphere; possible consequence on annual speleothem growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourges, F.; Genthon, P.; Mangin, A.; D'Hulst, D.

    2005-12-01

    Speleothem are usually considered as records of past climate, and are supposed to present annual growth rings. Yet, they grow inside caves that benefit from very stable environment. However, Bourges et al. 2001, have shown that the atmosphere of Aven d'Orgnac (South East France), was characterized by drop of CO2 concentration and 222Rn activity at the end of autumn and presented each year the succession of a winter and a summer regime. Temperature data are now used to constrain the climate of this cave system. Our data consist in 5 years monitoring with 0.01°C accuracy, three short thermal profiling campaigns, and sparser data gathered in different French painted caves. Near the opening of Aven d'Orgnac, the Salle de Jolys room records each year at the end of autumn the onset of the winter regime that is shown to be triggered by the inverse density stratification induced by the decrease of the outside night temperature. Comparison of summer and winter vertical temperature profiles point to a thermoconvective destabilization of this room atmosphere, involving the downward flow of cold outside bearing air near the cave floor during winter nights. The winter regime propagates then stepwise inside the Aven d'Orgnac cave system. In Salle Plane, which is situated more than one kilometer away from the entrance, the winter regime has never been observed. Our thermal profiling experiment shows there low amplitude (0.03°C) temperature changes, with major daily and half daily components, that are strongly correlated with the pressure first time derivative. Comparison with temperature records from other rooms of the Aven d'Orgnac cave system and with other caves monitored by our team suggest that a strong correlation between temperature changes and the pressure first time derivative could be considered as a clue to the confined character of a given cave room. We propose therefore that the Aven d'Orgnac cave system could be divided in two parts : the open system, where the

  13. The Fire Distinguisher: a Baseline Study of Semi-Arid Karst Drip Waters in Wildman's Cave at Wombeyan, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of fire on karst systems in a semi-arid environment. There is limited knowledge of hydrological and geochemical changes that result from a fire over a karst system. Soil science literature has shown that fire can change surface properties and from this it has been hypothesized that these impacts will be mirrored in an underlying cave (see Figure). This project is the first phase of a pre/post-fire study of organic matter, drip rates, trace metal composition, and stable isotope composition changes in a semi-arid cave system. This project aims establishes the baseline hydrogeochemical processes at Wildman's cave, at Wombeyan in NSW, Australia. The Wildman's cave site has not been studied previously, so this study adds to expanding literature on cave systems. This pre-fire monitoring provides a new dataset for semiarid karst processes. We report the first 8 months of an ongoing dataset, obtained through collection of dripwater samples, with drip loggers indicating drip rates over the same period. Dripwaters were analysed for pH and EC, cation/anion content, organic matter content and stable isotope composition. Following the successful completion of this baseline study, post fire data will be obtained via a controlled burn. This will expand on current knowledge of the use of speleothems as accurate records of past climates and fire history.

  14. Evolution of multilevel caves in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) and its relation to human occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. I.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Pérez-González, A.; Martín-Merino, M. A.; Pérez-Martínez, R.; Parés, J. M.; Aramburu, A.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Bermúdez de Castro, J. M.; Carbonell, E.

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of the Torcas cave system (Sierra de Atapuerca) is analysed in order to shed light on the formation of the Atapuerca archaeological sites and human occupation in the area, critical for identifying the paths of the first human dispersal into Europe. The geomorphological analysis of the endokarst system and the regional base levels has revealed a multilevel cave system, with drainage directions from south to north, where old karst springs fed the Pico River. Using morphological and topographic evidence we have correlated the fluvial terraces situated at relative heights of + 84-80 m and + 78-70 m above the Arlanzón River (main course), with the first and second cave levels, respectively, both of Early Pleistocene age. The fluvial levels T4 (+ 60-67 m) and T5 (+ 50-54 m) are linked with the third level (Early-Middle Pleistocene), which contains fluvial deposits probably related to terrace T6 (+ 44-46 m). Progressive fluvial incision allowed humans to gain access to the cave system through several entrances from ~ 1.22 Myr until the end of the Middle Pleistocene, when these cave entrances became filled, forming the most interesting hominid-bearing deposits in Europe.

  15. Cave biosignature suites: microbes, minerals, and Mars.

    PubMed

    Boston, P J; Spilde, M N; Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Soroka, D S; Kleina, L G; Lavoie, K H; Hose, L D; Mallory, L M; Dahm, C N; Crossey, L J; Schelble, R T

    2001-01-01

    Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries--demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

  16. Cave Biosignature Suites: Microbes, Minerals, and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Melim, L. A.; Soroka, D. S.; Kleina, L. G.; Lavoie, K. H.; Hose, L. D.; Mallory, L. M.; Dahm, C. N.; Crossey, L. J.; Schelble, R. T.

    2001-03-01

    Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries - demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

  17. Legal protection for caves in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, G. N.

    1995-09-01

    This study reviews significant state and federal laws that can be used to protect karst, caves, and associated unique minerals and biota. The first state cave protection act was passed in Colorado in 1883; unfortunately it was repealed in 1971. From that modest beginning there are now a total of 22 states, Puerto Rico, and the Cherokee Nation that have specific cave protection acts. Most of these have been legislated during the last 20 years. There are a number of laws on the federal level that can be used for cave protection. The most important of these is the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, which mandates cave conservation for many federal land management agencies. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Federal Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1976 can also be of significant use in the conservation of caves on federal land. The effects of these acts are variable. One factor is how important agency officials and law enforcement officers regard caves. It has not been unusual that little was done in the way of protection or prosecution even when the perpetrators have been apprehended. This attitude is changing rapidly primarily because those involved in enforcing the laws have been educated to the uniqueness and values of caves and their contents.

  18. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  19. Survey, Representation and Analysis of a War i Complex System of Surface and Underground Fortifications in the Gresta Valley, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, I.; Vitti, A.

    2011-09-01

    This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" - APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino), a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the practical advantage of

  20. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  1. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  2. Erosion by flowing lava: Geochemical evidence in the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.A.; Kadel, S.D.; Greeley, R.; Lesher, C.M.; Clynne, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We sampled basaltic lava flows and underlying dacitic tuff deposits in or near lava tubes of the Cave Basalt, Mount St. Helens, Washington to determine whether the Cave Basalt lavas contain geochemical evidence of substrate contamination by lava erosion. The samples were analyzed using a combination of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the oldest, outer lava tube linings in direct contact with the dacitic substrate are contaminated, whereas the younger, inner lava tube linings are uncontaminated and apparently either more evolved or enriched in residual liquid. The most heavily contaminated lavas occur closer to the vent and in steeper parts of the tube system, and the amount of contamination decreases with increasing distance downstream. These results suggest that erosion by lava and contamination were limited to only the initially emplaced flows and that erosion was localized and enhanced by vigorous laminar flow over steeper slopes. After cooling, the initial Cave Basalt lava flows formed an insulating lining within the tubes that prevented further erosion by later flows. This interpretation is consistent with models of lava erosion that predict higher erosion rates closer to sources and over steeper slopes. A greater abundance of xenoliths and xenocrysts relative to xenomelts in hand samples indicates that mechanical erosion rather than thermal erosion was the dominant erosional process in the Cave Basalt, but further sampling and petrographic analyses must be performed to verify this hypothesis. ?? Springer-Verlag 2003.

  3. Two million years of river and cave aggradation in NE Brazil: Implications for speleogenesis and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureano, Fernando V.; Karmann, Ivo; Granger, Darryl E.; Auler, Augusto S.; Almeida, Renato P.; Cruz, Franciso W.; Strícks, Nicolás M.; Novello, Valdir F.

    2016-11-01

    This study characterizes and provides ages for an extensive sedimentary record occurring in Lapa Doce and Torrinha caves, NE Brazil. With > 40 km of surveyed passages, these caves integrate a distributary cave system fed by allogenic recharge from the surrounding sandstone plateaus. Sediment petrography together with descriptions of depositional facies and architectural elements shows four depositional units related to fluvial and standing water environments. These include, from bottom to top: (1) a channel unit including lateral bars deposited during an ordinary flood regime; (2) a sandy flood unit including minor channel and scour fills derived from bank-full equivalent flood events; (3) mud caps deposited in standing water that often reach the ceiling; and (4) intraclast breccias associated with collapse of the mud caps under saturated conditions. The deposits were dated using a combination of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating and U-series dating of flowstone. Cosmogenic nuclide data point to fluvial aggradation being active since 1.91 + 0.12 My and extending until 0.36 ± 0.08 My, with intensive cave and valley aggradation events between 0.78 ± 0.10 My and 0.44 ± 0.12 My. Long term alluviation of the cave system seems to be important in forming passages, determining their configuration, and setting up a general distributary pattern evident in passage morphology and sedimentary sequences. Mud caps overlapping the fluvial deposits are interpreted as the products of successive rising and lowering of the water table (static level). Radiometric ages of interstratified flowstones and speleothems show that these oscillations were active at least since 115 ky ago and finally ceased around 12 ky ago, indicated by the recurrent age obtained from uneroded capping flowstones. These long-term water table oscillations may drive paragenetic expansion of the whole cave system. Valleys, caves and other landforms in our study area are part of an ancient landscape with multiple

  4. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic.

  5. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  6. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  7. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  8. The transport of nonindigenous microorganisms into caves by human visitation: a case study at Carlsbad Caverns National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gray, Michael A.; Lyles, Michael B.; Northup, Diana E.

    2014-01-01

    A series of atmospheric investigations was conducted in Carlsbad Cavern to determine if human visitation is a possible cause for the contamination of the cave system with non-indigenous microorganisms. In 2004, site-specific culture-based data demonstrated that Staphylococcus spp. colony-forming units (CFUs) were the most prevalent members of the atmospheric community along the paved visitor trail (avg. 18.8% of CFU), while Knoellia spp. CFUs dominated off-trail locations (40.1% of CFU). Fungal culture data revealed that Penicillium and Aspergillus were prevalent in the Lunch Room where food is stored, sold, and consumed. Ubiquitous genera such as Cladosporium and Alternaria were prevalent near the Natural Entrance of the cave, and the general trend was a decrease in fungal CFUs with progression into the cave system, except for the area near the Lunch Room. Management practices such as prohibition of crumb-generating types of foods could be considered to protect cave health. In 2009, nonculture-based analyses demonstrated that Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant microbiota at sites along the descent trail and within the Lunch Room. Dominance of Enterobacteriaceae has not been previously demonstrated in caves. Either they are naturally occurring indigenous members, or their presence is a marker of anthropogenic contamination.

  9. Identifying and Describing a Seismogenic Zone in a Sublevel Caving Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazlzadeh, Yousef; Hudyma, Marty

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of caving-induced seismicity can aid in the understanding of rock mass behaviour in the different stages of the caving process. A detailed analysis of caving-induced seismicity at the Telfer sublevel caving mine was undertaken. Interpretation of seismic data in the Telfer mine showed the influence of the major geological features on cave behaviour and helped to identify the phases of cave evolution. Two geological zones with unique seismic characteristics (the M50 and M30 stiff reefs) and four key caving phases (initial undercut blasting, cave initiation, cave propagation and breakthrough) were defined through seismic data analysis. Movement of the seismogenic zone was significantly affected by the stiff reefs within the cave column. Seismic source parameter analysis was used to investigate caving mechanisms at Telfer.

  10. Genetic differentiation between cave and surface-dwelling populations of Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae) in Oman

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic similarities among cave-dwelling animals displaying troglomorphic characters (e.g. reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation) have induced a long-term discussion about the forces driving convergent evolution. Here we introduce Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, as an interesting system to study the evolution of troglomorphic characters. The only hitherto known troglomorphic population of this species lives in Al Hoota Cave (Sultanate of Oman) close to a surface population. As a first approach, we assessed the genetic differentiation between the two morphotypes of G. barreimiae to determine whether gene flow still occurs. Results We analysed the mitochondrial control region (CR). In G. barreimiae the CR starts immediately downstream of the tRNA-Thr gene, while the tRNA-Pro gene is missing at this genomic location. Interestingly, a putative tRNA-Pro sequence is found within the CR. The phylogenetic analyses of the CR sequences yielded a tree divided into three clades: Clade 1 has a high genetic distance to the other clades and contains the individuals of three populations which are separated by a watershed from all the others. Clade 2 comprises the individuals from Wadi Bani Khalid, the geographically most remote population. Clade 3 comprises all other populations investigated including that of Al Hoota Cave. The latter forms a haplogroup which also includes individuals from the adjacent surface population. Conclusions Our data indicates that the troglomorphic cave population is of quite recent origin supporting the hypothesis that selection drives the fast evolution of troglomorphic traits. In this context pleiotropic effects might play an important role as it has been shown for Astyanax. There seems to be some gene flow from the cave population into the adjacent surface populations. One blind individual, found at a surface locality geographically distinct from Al Hoota Cave, is genetically differentiated from the other blind specimens

  11. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  12. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  13. The Oldest Cave Art: An Essay on Giftedness and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Maureen; White, David A.

    1996-01-01

    This essay examines issues of giftedness and excellence, beginning with classical references to human striving toward the "good," the attraction of gifted children to quality, and the recent discovery of the oldest known cave art with its manifest excellence. Classroom activities related to cave art and language arts, social studies,…

  14. THE MID-LATITUDE BIODIVERSITY RIDGE IN TERRESTRIAL CAVE FAUNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The world's obligate cave-dwelling fauna holds considerable promise for biogeographic analysis because it represents a large number of independent evolutionary experiments in isolation in caves and adaptation to subterranean life. We focus on seven north temperate regions of at l...

  15. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Oana A; Onac, Bogdan P; Fornós, Joan J; Cosma, Constantin; Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín; Merino, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m(-3). The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves.

  16. Biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria from Canadian and Azorean volcanic caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes; Miller, Ana Z; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Brady, Sean; Mason, Cohord; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2017-01-01

    Caves are regarded as extreme habitats with appropriate conditions for the development of Actinobacteria. In comparison with other habitats, caves have not yet been the target of intensive screening for bioactive secondary metabolites produced by actinomycetes. As a primary screening strategy, we conducted a metagenomic analysis of the diversity and richness of a key gene required for non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) biosynthesis, focusing on cave-derived sediments from two Canadian caves (a lava tube and a limestone cave) to help us predict whether different types of caves may harbor drug-producing actinobacteria. Using degenerate PCR primers targeting adenylation domains (AD), a conserved domain in the core gene in NRP biosynthesis, a number of amplicons were obtained that mapped back to biomedically relevant NRP gene cluster families. This result guided our culture-dependent sampling strategy of actinomycete isolation from the volcanic caves of Canada (British Columbia) and Portugal (Azores) and subsequent characterization of their antibacterial and enzymatic activities. Multiple enzymatic and antimicrobial activities were identified from bacterial of the Arthrobacter and Streptomyces genera demonstrating that actinomycetes from volcanic caves are promising sources of antibacterial, antibiofilm compounds and industrially relevant enzymes.

  17. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  18. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving) fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in south-western Puerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species). The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo), Cueva de Malano (Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán), and Cuev...

  19. Aspergillosis of the Petrous Apex and Meckel's Cave.

    PubMed

    Ederies, Ash; Chen, Joseph; Aviv, Richard I; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Bilbao, Juan M; Thompson, Andrew L; Symons, Sean P

    2010-05-01

    Cranial cerebral aspergillosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients. Invasive disease involving the petrous apex and Meckel's cave has rarely been described. We present a case of localized invasive petrous apical and Meckel's cave disease in an immunocompetent patient who presented with hemicranial neuralgic pain.

  20. Intratentorial lipomas with Meckel's cave and cerebellopontine angle extension.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, M J; Robles, H A; Rao, K C; Armonda, R A; Ondra, S L

    1995-08-01

    An unusual case of bilateral intratentorial lipomas with extension into Meckel's caves and the cerebellopontine angle is described. Surgical and histopathologic correlation demonstrate that the lipoma encased the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's caves. The origin of the lipoma from the anteromedial margins of the tentorium is discussed and correlated with a recently proposed theory for the development of intracranial lipomas.

  1. Meckel's cave epidermoid with trigeminal neuralgia: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kapila, A; Steinbaum, S; Chakeres, D W

    1984-12-01

    An epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave was found in a middle-aged woman with trigeminal neuralgia. On CT the lesion had negative attenuation numbers of fat and extended from an expanded Meckel's cave through the porous trigeminus into the ambient and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Surgical excision provided relief of the patient's trigeminal neuralgia.

  2. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-04

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles.

  3. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  4. Adenocarcinoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, L; Arulampalam, T; Johnston, F; Symon, L

    1995-12-01

    A rare localization of adenocarcinoma in Meckel's cave is reported in a 58-year-old woman, who had a 5-month history of pain and altered sensation in the second division of the left trigeminal nerve. Removal of the lesion was achieved by a subtemporal route. Histology showed this to be an adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent investigations for a primary tumor; the investigations were all negative, and the patient was subsequently treated with a course of radiotherapy. At 4-month follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence, and she remains symptomatically well. The various mechanisms of secondary localization are discussed.

  5. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments: a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2015-06-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new for science, and most of them are indicative for either warm/cold stages or dry/wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures, and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyses the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  6. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contains species or subspecies of flora or fauna native to caves, or are sensitive to disturbance, or are found on State or Federal sensitive, threatened, or endangered species lists. (2) Cultural. The cave... humans, biota, or development of cave resources. (5) Recreational. The cave provides or could...

  7. A scoring system for risk assessment of the introduction and spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy herds in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, Camilla; Frigerio, Michela; Piccinini, Renata; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso

    2008-08-01

    To support a voluntary disease control program, this study aimed to develop an integrated scoring system for the risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy herds in Northern Italy. Sixty-two dairy herds were classified according to their BVDV serological status. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire on potential BVDV risk factors. Scores were used to define risk levels for factors related to (1) BVDV introduction (through livestock trade, attendance of animals at shows/exhibitions and grazing common pasture), (2) within-herd spread of BVDV and (3) the results of initial serological testing. The calculated odds ratios were significant for all categories, except for livestock trade. The application of the screening test, the questionnaire and the related risk assessment showed this to be a practical approach to predicting BVDV herd status.

  8. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  9. Total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province, Tunisia, Libya, Italy, and Malta; the Bou Dabbous, Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous composite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province (2048) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Pelagian Province is located mainly in eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya. Small portions of the province extend into Malta and offshore Italy. Although several petroleum systems may exist, only two ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. These total petroleum systems are called the Bou Dabbous?Tertiary and Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite, named after the source-rock intervals and reservoir-rock ages. The main source rocks include mudstone of the Eocene Bou Dabbous Formation; Cretaceous Bahloul, Lower Fahdene, and M?Cherga Formations; and Jurassic Nara Formation. Known reservoirs are in carbonate rocks and sandstone intervals throughout the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary sections. Traps for known accumulations include fault blocks, low-amplitude anticlines, high-amplitude anticlines associated with reverse faults, wrench fault structures, and stratigraphic traps. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Pelagian Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Bou Dabbous?Tertiary 667 2,746 64 Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite 403 2,280 27

  10. The Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System, southern Italy: A suggestion for a uniform model of active extension in the Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzetti, F.

    2011-10-01

    By integrating new field data, seismic lines interpretation and a critical review of the literature, this work highlights a regional array of normal faults in the southern Apennines of Italy, which have been active during the Quaternary and are referred to as the "Campania-Lucania Extensional Fault System" (CLEFS). The CLEFS consists of three main NW-SE striking alignments of normal faults, which for the first time are considered genetically linked and methodically described in their geometry, kinematics and displacement. The CROP04 seismic profile, crossing the central part of the CLEFS, was strictly constrained by detailed geological surveys and reinterpreted to define the downdip trajectory of the major normal faults. These latter have been observed to splay from an east dipping low-angle detachment surface penetrating the upper crust to depths of 12-13 km. The time-space evolution of the faults and the associated basins was defined through a review of the stratigraphic data on the syntectonic deposits. As regards the overall geometry and the associate sense of shear (top-to-east), the CLEFS sensibly differs from the extensional features described previously in this region but shows surprising affinities with the "Etrurian Fault System," an extensional megastructure of the northern Apennines. Remarkable similarities concern the extent, the surface and subsurface geometry, the timing of activity and the amount of the associated deformation. These common characters recognized over a belt nearly 600 km long lead to formulation of a low-angle normal fault-driven extension geometrical-kinematic model, which is sound for the whole active extensional belt of Italy.

  11. Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Genty, D.

    1999-04-01

    The fluorescence properties of groundwaters percolating into four cave systems have been monitored over the period 1997-1998. Fluorescence was excited between 220 and 400 nm and the emission measured from 300 to 500 nm using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Three fluorescence centres were observed; one at the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, (humic-like, probably fulvic acid), one at 265-280:300-370 nm (protein like) and a less defined region of high fluorescence at 230-280:310-420 nm (humic and/or protein like). The most consistent fluorescence intensity was observed in the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, attributed to a fulvic acid source. Subtle differences (±5%) in the fluorescence excitation and emission wavelength of this fluorescence peak in the groundwater were observed between the four sites, and the fluorescence intensity varied considerably (×60) between the four sites. Both the wavelength and the intensity variations in fluorescence are caused by the differences in the vegetation cover, soil type and humification. Data from the most intensely monitored site (Brown's Folly Mine, England; 9 sample stations, 10-20 days frequency sampling) revealed no spatial variability in the 290-340:395-430 nm (fulvic acid) fluorescence; in contrast time-series analysis suggests that the seasonal variations do occur, with a decrease in the emission wavelength correlating with the first (autumn) peak in fluorescence intensity, and a decrease in the excitation wavelength correlating with a second (winter) fluorescence intensity peak. Results demonstrate the potential of utilising fluorescence wavelength variations in sourcing karst groundwaters, and as a possible palaeoenvironmental proxy of the overlying soil conditions if trapped within the cave speleothems.

  12. The influence of light attenuation on the biogeomorphology of a marine karst cave: A case study of Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan, the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, Martin A.; La Marca, Emanuela C.; Naylor, Larissa A.; Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Sauro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Karst caves are unique biogeomorphological systems. Cave walls offer habitat for microorganisms which in-turn have a geomorphological role via their involvement in rock weathering, erosion and mineralisation. The attenuation of light with distance into caves is known to affect ecology, but the implications of this for biogeomorphological processes and forms have seldom been examined. Here we describe a semi-quantitative microscopy study comparing the extent, structure, and thickness of biocover and depth of endolithic penetration for samples of rock from the Puerto Princesa Underground River system in Palawan, the Philippines, which is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site. Organic growth at the entrance of the cave was abundant (100% occurrence) and complex, dominated by phototrophic organisms (green microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens). Thickness of this layer was 0.28 ± 0.18 mm with active endolith penetration into the limestone (mean depth = 0.13 ± 0.03 mm). In contrast, phototrophs were rare 50 m into the cave and biofilm cover was significantly thinner (0.01 ± 0.01 mm, p < 0.000) and spatially patchy (33% occurrence). Endolithic penetration here was also shallower (< 0.01 mm, p < 0.000) and non-uniform. Biofilm was found 250 m into the cave, but with a complete absence of phototrophs and no evidence of endolithic bioerosion. We attribute these findings to light-induced stress gradients, showing that the influence of light on phototroph abundance has knock-on consequences for the development of limestone morphological features. In marine caves this includes notches, which were most well-developed at the sheltered cave entrance of our study site, and for which variability in formation rates between locations is currently poorly understood.

  13. A COMPACTRIO-BASED BEAM LOSS MONITOR FOR THE SNS RF TEST CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Armstrong, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    An RF Test Cave has been built at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be able to test RF cavities without interfering the SNS accelerator operations. In addition to using thick concrete wall to minimize radiation exposure, a Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) must abort the operation within 100 usec when the integrated radiation within the cave exceeds a threshold. We choose the CompactRIO platform to implement the BLM based on its performance, cost-effectiveness, and rapid development. Each in/output module is connected through an FPGA to provide point-by-point processing. Every 10 usec the data is acquired analyzed and compared to the threshold. Data from the FPGA is transferred using DMA to the real-time controller, which communicates to a gateway PC to talk to the SNS control system. The system includes diagnostics to test the hardware and integrates the losses in real-time. In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and results

  14. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-08-01

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. μ-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  15. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-10-24

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. {mu}-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  16. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby.

  17. Gradient evolution of body colouration in surface- and cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the role of phenotype-assortative female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A M; Dröge, Janis; Wolf, Konstantin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation.

  18. Gradient Evolution of Body Colouration in Surface- and Cave-Dwelling Poecilia mexicana and the Role of Phenotype-Assortative Female Mate Choice

    PubMed Central

    Penshorn, Marina; Hamfler, Sybille; Herbert, Denise B.; Appel, Jessica; Meyer, Philipp; Slattery, Patrick; Charaf, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Völker, Johannes; Berger, Elisabeth A. M.; Dröge, Janis; Riesch, Rüdiger; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeanne R.; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation assumes reproductive isolation to be the product of ecologically based divergent selection. Beside natural selection, sexual selection via phenotype-assortative mating is thought to promote reproductive isolation. Using the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana from a system that has been described to undergo incipient ecological speciation in adjacent, but ecologically divergent habitats characterized by the presence or absence of toxic H2S and darkness in cave habitats, we demonstrate a gradual change in male body colouration along the gradient of light/darkness, including a reduction of ornaments that are under both inter- and intrasexual selection in surface populations. In dichotomous choice tests using video-animated stimuli, we found surface females to prefer males from their own population over the cave phenotype. However, female cave fish, observed on site via infrared techniques, preferred to associate with surface males rather than size-matched cave males, likely reflecting the female preference for better-nourished (in this case: surface) males. Hence, divergent selection on body colouration indeed translates into phenotype-assortative mating in the surface ecotype, by selecting against potential migrant males. Female cave fish, by contrast, do not have a preference for the resident male phenotype, identifying natural selection against migrants imposed by the cave environment as the major driver of the observed reproductive isolation. PMID:24175282

  19. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the community structure and potential energy dynamics of microbial communities, colonizing speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, a carbonate cave in semiarid, southeastern Arizona, USA. Manual inspection of a speleothem metagenome revealed a community genetically adapted to low-nutrient conditions with indications that a nitrogen-based primary production strategy is probable, including contributions from both Archaea and Bacteria. Genes for all six known CO2-fixation pathways were detected in the metagenome and RuBisCo genes representative of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle were over-represented in Kartchner speleothem metagenomes relative to bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and deep-ocean communities. Intriguingly, quantitative PCR found Archaea to be significantly more abundant in the cave communities than in soils above the cave. MEtaGenome ANalyzer (MEGAN) analysis of speleothem metagenome sequence reads found Thaumarchaeota to be the third most abundant phylum in the community, and identified taxonomic associations to this phylum for indicator genes representative of multiple CO2-fixation pathways. The results revealed that this oligotrophic subterranean environment supports a unique chemoautotrophic microbial community with potentially novel nutrient cycling strategies. These strategies may provide key insights into other ecosystems dominated by oligotrophy, including aphotic subsurface soils or aquifers and photic systems such as arid deserts. PMID:24030597

  20. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2014-02-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the community structure and potential energy dynamics of microbial communities, colonizing speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, a carbonate cave in semiarid, southeastern Arizona, USA. Manual inspection of a speleothem metagenome revealed a community genetically adapted to low-nutrient conditions with indications that a nitrogen-based primary production strategy is probable, including contributions from both Archaea and Bacteria. Genes for all six known CO2-fixation pathways were detected in the metagenome and RuBisCo genes representative of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle were over-represented in Kartchner speleothem metagenomes relative to bulk soil, rhizosphere soil and deep-ocean communities. Intriguingly, quantitative PCR found Archaea to be significantly more abundant in the cave communities than in soils above the cave. MEtaGenome ANalyzer (MEGAN) analysis of speleothem metagenome sequence reads found Thaumarchaeota to be the third most abundant phylum in the community, and identified taxonomic associations to this phylum for indicator genes representative of multiple CO2-fixation pathways. The results revealed that this oligotrophic subterranean environment supports a unique chemoautotrophic microbial community with potentially novel nutrient cycling strategies. These strategies may provide key insights into other ecosystems dominated by oligotrophy, including aphotic subsurface soils or aquifers and photic systems such as arid deserts.

  1. 13C 18O clumping in speleothems: Observations from natural caves and precipitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daëron, M.; Guo, W.; Eiler, J.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Boch, R.; Drysdale, R.; Maire, R.; Wainer, K.; Zanchetta, G.

    2011-06-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of speleothems is an important proxy of continental paleoenvironments, because of its sensitivity to variations in cave temperature and drip water δ 18O. Interpreting speleothem δ 18O records in terms of absolute paleotemperatures and δ 18O values of paleo-precipitation requires quantitative separation of the effects of these two parameters, and correcting for possible kinetic isotope fractionation associated with precipitation of calcite out of thermodynamic equilibrium. Carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry, based on measurements of Δ47 (a geochemical variable reflecting the statistical overabundance of 13C 18O bonds in CO 2 evolved from phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals), potentially provides a method for absolute speleothem paleotemperature reconstructions independent of drip water composition. Application of this new technique to karst records is currently limited by the scarcity of published clumped-isotope studies of modern speleothems. The only modern stalagmite reported so far in the literature yielded a lower Δ47 value than expected for equilibrium precipitation, possibly due to kinetic isotope fractionation. Here we report Δ47 values measured in natural speleothems from various cave settings, in carbonate produced by cave precipitation experiments, and in synthetic stalagmite analogs precipitated in controlled laboratory conditions designed to mimic natural cave processes. All samples yield lower Δ47 and heavier δ 18O values than predicted by experimental calibrations of thermodynamic equilibrium in inorganic calcite. The amplitudes of these isotopic disequilibria vary between samples, but there is clear correlation between the amount of Δ47 disequilibrium and that of δ 18O. Even pool carbonates believed to offer excellent conditions for equilibrium precipitation of calcite display out-of-equilibrium δ 18O and Δ47 values, probably inherited from prior degassing within the cave system. In addition

  2. Transport infrastructure monitoring: A ground based optical displacement monitoring system, field tests on a bridge, the Musmeci's bridge in Potenza, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The latter, the tests in Potenza, Italy, will be presented in the following. The NIODIM system has undergone some development during the last year to adopt it for use in a somewhat higher frequency domain by changing the camera sensor part. This to make it more useful for monitoring of structures with oscillation frequencies tens of Hz. The original system was intended to a large extent to monitor land slides, quick clay and rock slides and similar phenomena typically having a relatively slow time response. The system has been significantly speeded up from the original 12 Hz. Current tests have been performed at a frame rate of 64 Hz i.e., the camera part and data processing unit have been running on 64Hz. In connection with the tests in Italy the data processing has been upgraded to include sub-pixel resolution i.e., the measurement results are no longer limited by pixel borders or single pixels. The main part of the NIODIM system is a camera capable of operating at a sufficiently high frame rate. This camera will typically be mounted on firm ground and will depict and monitor a reference point, typically a light emitting diode, LED, which will be mounted on the object susceptible to move. A processing unit will acquire the images from the camera part and find the position of the LED in the image and compare that to threshold values and if required raise a warning or an alarm. The NIODIM system can either be a standalone system or be an integrated part of the overall ISTIMES system, the ISTIMES system

  3. The chemistry and isotopic composition of waters in the low-enthalpy geothermal system of Cimino-Vico Volcanic District, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battistel, Maria; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William; Barbieri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy exploration is based in part on interpretation of the chemistry, temperature, and discharge rate of thermal springs. Here we present the major element chemistry and the δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B isotopic ratio of groundwater from the low-enthalpy geothermal system near the city of Viterbo in the Cimino-Vico volcanic district of west-Central Italy. The geothermal system hosts many thermal springs and gas vents, but the resource is still unexploited. Water chemistry is controlled by mixing between low salinity,HCO3-rich fresh waters (<24.2°C) flowing in shallow volcanic rocks and SO4-rich thermal waters (25.3°C to 62.2°C) ascending from deep, high permeability Mesozoic limestones. The (equivalent) SO4/Cl (0.01–0.02), Na/Cl (2.82–5.83) and B/Cl ratios (0.02–0.38) of thermal waters differs from the ratios in other geothermal systems from Central Italy, probably implying a lack of hydraulic continuity across the region. The δ18O (−6.6‰ to −5.9‰) and δD (−40.60‰ to −36.30‰) isotopic composition of spring water suggest that the recharge area for the geothermal system is the summit region of Mount Cimino. The strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of thermal waters (0.70797–0.70805) are consistent with dissolution of the Mesozoic evaporite-carbonate units that constitute the reservoir, and the ratios of cold fresh waters mainly reflect shallow circulation through the volcanic cover and some minor admixture (<10%) of thermal water as well. The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of fresh waters (−5.00 and 6.12‰) is similar to that of the volcanic cover, but the δ11B of thermal waters (−8.37‰ to −4.12‰) is a mismatch for the Mesozoic reservoir rocks and instead reflects dissolution of secondary boron minerals during fluid ascent through flysch units that overlie the reservoir. A slow and tortuous ascent enhances extraction of boron but also promotes conductive cooling, partially masking the heat present in the

  4. The chemistry and isotopic composition of waters in the low-enthalpy geothermal system of Cimino-Vico Volcanic District, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistel, Maria; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William C.; Barbieri, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Geothermal energy exploration is based in part on interpretation of the chemistry, temperature, and discharge rate of thermal springs. Here we present the major element chemistry and the δD, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B isotopic ratio of groundwater from the low-enthalpy geothermal system near the city of Viterbo in the Cimino-Vico volcanic district of west-Central Italy. The geothermal system hosts many thermal springs and gas vents, but the resource is still unexploited. Water chemistry is controlled by mixing between low salinity,HCO3-rich fresh waters (< 24.2 °C) flowing in shallow volcanic rocks and SO4-rich thermal waters (25.3 °C to 62.2 °C) ascending from deep, high permeability Mesozoic limestones. The (equivalent) SO4/Cl (0.01-0.02), Na/Cl (2.82-5.83) and B/Cl ratios (0.02-0.38) of thermal waters differs from the ratios in other geothermal systems from Central Italy, probably implying a lack of hydraulic continuity across the region. The δ18O (- 6.6‰ to - 5.9‰) and δD (- 40.60‰ to - 36.30‰) isotopic composition of spring water suggest that the recharge area for the geothermal system is the summit region of Mount Cimino. The strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of thermal waters (0.70797-0.70805) are consistent with dissolution of the Mesozoic evaporite-carbonate units that constitute the reservoir, and the ratios of cold fresh waters mainly reflect shallow circulation through the volcanic cover and some minor admixture (< 10%) of thermal water as well. The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of fresh waters (- 5.00 and 6.12‰) is similar to that of the volcanic cover, but the δ11B of thermal waters (- 8.37‰ to - 4.12‰) is a mismatch for the Mesozoic reservoir rocks and instead reflects dissolution of secondary boron minerals during fluid ascent through flysch units that overlie the reservoir. A slow and tortuous ascent enhances extraction of boron but also promotes conductive cooling, partially masking the heat present in the reservoir

  5. Multilevel karst system evolution in relationship to palaeo-climate and palaeo-geography: hints from a 500 ky speleothem record from the Piani Eterni Karst System, Belluno Dolomites, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; Lundberg, Joyce; Columbu, Andrea; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Piani Eterni is the deepest and longest multilevel karst system of the Dolomites. The geometric distribution and stratigraphic-structural guidance of palaeo-epiphreatic levels have been studied in detail in recent times, but there are still several open questions regarding the palaeo-climatic and palaeo-geographic factors that have controlled its evolution through time. Over the last three years, several stalagmites were sampled from different palaeo-epiphreatic levels in the karst system. The relatively high concentration of uranium in the dolomitized bituminous unit hosting the cave has allowed dating with high precision of stalagmites up to more than 500 ky old using the U-Th radiometric method. All the speleothems have been collected from palaeo-epiphreatic conduits without vadose entrenchments at different altitudes (from 1650 to 860 m a.s.l.). The research has focused on speleothems that have registered different flooding events with intercalated sedimentation of silts and sands. These events could have happened only when the conduits were still very close to the epiphreatic zone and the speleothems formed directly after the formation and draining of the epiphreatic conduits. The temporal record of the speleothems and their vertical distribution in the cave, compared to the presence of fluvial terraces and glacial deposits in the nearby Mis Valley, are shown to be in agreement with the uplift rate of the region. The data obtained from the karst system and speleothem dating elucidated the geomorphic events and temporal constraints on a major fluvial capture of the Mis Valley toward the south, a hypothesis already proposed by previous authors. Stable isotope records (oxygen and carbon) in the speleothems show that the favorable conditions for calcite precipitation were related to cooling and unstable periods following the interglacial apexes of MIS11, MIS 9, MIS7, and MIS5. This is a prime example of studies of speleothems, of their palaeoclimate record and of

  6. Seismic slip history of the Aterno-Sulmona fault system in central Apennines (Italy) using in situ produced 36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, T.; Benedetti, L. C.; Bruno, P.; Visini, F.; Aumaitre, G.; Bourles, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Acquiring long records of past earthquakes on a large population of faults is a key step to understand how strain release along those fault systems varies spatially and temporally.In central Italy, NE-SW extension (~4 mm/yr) is accommodated on a wide normal fault system (50 x 100km). Benedetti et al. (2013) found that 7 of these faults, belonging to the Fucino fault system, have their seismic activity synchronized during short (less than 1 ka) paroxysmal phases of activity. 36Cl measurements and rare earth elements (REE) concentrations were used to reconstruct the seismic slip history of four major faults belonging to an adjacent 30-km-long fault system, the Aterno-Sulmona fault system, at the southeastward tip of the Paganica fault that ruptured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.The preliminary results suggest that 3-7 seismic events have occurred on each fault over the last 11 ka (from NE to SW the Roccapreturo, the Castel di Ieri, the Roccacasale and the Pizzalto faults), with 50 cm to 2 m of associated slip per event. These events appear clustered within intense period of seismic activity lasting less than 1ka (2 to 4 seismic events) separated by 2 to 3 ka periods with no seismic events. The most recent recorded paroxysmal activity occurred about 2.5 ka ago with all four studied faults rupturing in more than 15 earthquakes over a period lasting less than 1ka. These results thus suggest that, as already observed on the Fucino fault system, the seismic activity of the Aterno-Sulmona fault system is also synchronized during short periods of paroxysmal seismic activity.When clustering periods are compared, the seismic activity of the Fucino and the Aterno-Sulmona fault system, are, however, apparently unsynchronized since the most recent clustering period for the Aterno-Sulmona system corresponds to a quiescent period for the Fucino fault system.

  7. Sylvatic rabies epidemic in Italy: implementation of a data management system to assess the level of application of preventive dog vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Laura; Cobianchi, Mario; Breda, Tatiana; Favero, Laura; Ruocco, Luigi; Marangon, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    After 20 years of absence, rabies re-emerged in wild animals in north-eastern Italy in October 2008. Besides measures undertaken to fight the spread of infection in wildlife, vaccination against rabies was made compulsory for dogs living in the risk area. In the last 15 years, the veterinary authorities have focused on implementing computerized data collection systems in animal health, to serve as working tools for epidemiological surveillance activities and emergencies management. The prerequisite for implementing any data collection system is knowledge of the animal population. This also applies to the Canine Registry Data Bank, in which data on dogs and their movements, together with personal data on each owner and keeper, have been stored since 2003. The management information system has been updated and specific functions have been integrated in order to support the activity of both the veterinary services and the veterinary practitioners involved in the dog vaccination program. Vaccination became voluntary in February 2013. This paper describes implementation of the software and organization of data gathering, highlighting the benefits of computerized data compared to previously used paper-based data collection systems. The new functions, designed to centralize collection of uniform, updated vaccination data, have led to more efficient organization and better control of the vaccination plan. Automated information processing allowed vaccination operations to be supervised, incurred costs to be calculated, and vaccination coverage of the dog population to be monitored during the 3 years of compulsory vaccination.

  8. Enhancement of the CAVE computer code. [aerodynamic heating package for nose cones and scramjet engine sidewalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathjen, K. A.; Burk, H. O.

    1983-01-01

    The computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis via Eigenvalues) is a convenient and efficient computer code for predicting two dimensional temperature histories within thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles. The capabilities of CAVE were enhanced by incorporation of the following features into the code: real gas effects in the aerodynamic heating predictions, geometry and aerodynamic heating package for analyses of cone shaped bodies, input option to change from laminar to turbulent heating predictions on leading edges, modification to account for reduction in adiabatic wall temperature with increase in leading sweep, geometry package for two dimensional scramjet engine sidewall, with an option for heat transfer to external and internal surfaces, print out modification to provide tables of select temperatures for plotting and storage, and modifications to the radiation calculation procedure to eliminate temperature oscillations induced by high heating rates. These new features are described.

  9. Paleontology and paleoecology of guano deposits in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona

    2015-05-01

    Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.

  10. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadier, Benjamin; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourlès, Didier L.; Jaillet, Stéphane; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Arnold, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    Since its discovery, the Chauvet cave elaborate artwork called into question our understanding of Palaeolithic art evolution and challenged traditional chronological benchmarks [Valladas H et al. (2001) Nature 413:419-479]. Chronological approaches revealing human presences in the cavity during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian are indeed still debated on the basis of stylistic criteria [Pettitt P (2008) J Hum Evol 55:908-917]. The presented 36Cl Cosmic Ray Exposure ages demonstrate that the cliff overhanging the Chauvet cave has collapsed several times since 29 ka until the sealing of the cavity entrance prohibited access to the cave at least 21 ka ago. Remarkably agreeing with the radiocarbon dates of the human and animal occupancy, this study confirms that the Chauvet cave paintings are the oldest and the most elaborate ever discovered, challenging our current knowledge of human cognitive evolution.

  11. Further constraints on the Chauvet cave artwork elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Sadier, Benjamin; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourlès, Didier L.; Jaillet, Stéphane; Geneste, Jean-Michel; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Arnold, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery, the Chauvet cave elaborate artwork called into question our understanding of Palaeolithic art evolution and challenged traditional chronological benchmarks [Valladas H et al. (2001) Nature 413:419–479]. Chronological approaches revealing human presences in the cavity during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian are indeed still debated on the basis of stylistic criteria [Pettitt P (2008) J Hum Evol 55:908–917]. The presented 36Cl Cosmic Ray Exposure ages demonstrate that the cliff overhanging the Chauvet cave has collapsed several times since 29 ka until the sealing of the cavity entrance prohibited access to the cave at least 21 ka ago. Remarkably agreeing with the radiocarbon dates of the human and animal occupancy, this study confirms that the Chauvet cave paintings are the oldest and the most elaborate ever discovered, challenging our current knowledge of human cognitive evolution. PMID:22566649

  12. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    PubMed

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism.

  13. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  14. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering resides from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area or perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p'-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbonate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  15. Partnerships in Sustainable Transportation: Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Vickie

    2016-07-13

    This video takes a look at how the U.S. Department of Energy is helping to support a fleet of alternative fuel vehicles at Mammoth Cave National Park, reducing carbon emissions and preserving the park's natural beauty.

  16. 5. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Beaver Creek Bridge, elevation. - Beaver Creek Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  17. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  18. Partnerships in Sustainable Transportation: Mammoth Cave National Park

    ScienceCinema

    Carson, Vickie

    2016-08-12

    This video takes a look at how the U.S. Department of Energy is helping to support a fleet of alternative fuel vehicles at Mammoth Cave National Park, reducing carbon emissions and preserving the park's natural beauty.

  19. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  20. On the mechanical behaviour of a low-angle normal fault: the Alto Tiberina fault (Northern Apennines, Italy) system case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadacca, Luigi; Casarotti, Emanuele; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Cocco, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Geological and seismological observations have been used to parameterize 2-D numerical elastic models to simulate the interseismic deformation of a complex extensional fault system located in the Northern Apennines (Italy). The geological system is dominated by the presence of the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF), a large (60 km along strike) low-angle normal fault dipping 20° in the brittle crust (0-15 km). The ATF is currently characterized by a high and constant rate of microseismic activity, and no moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes have been associated with this fault in the past 1000 years. Modelling results have been compared with GPS data in order to understand the mechanical behaviour of this fault and a suite of minor syn- and antithetic normal fault segments located in the main fault hanging wall. The results of the simulations demonstrate the active role played by the Alto Tiberina fault in accommodating the ongoing tectonic extension in this sector of the chain. The GPS velocity profile constructed through the fault system cannot be explained without including the ATF's contribution to deformation, indicating that this fault, although misoriented, has to be considered tectonically active and with a creeping behaviour below 5 km depth. The low-angle normal fault also shows a high degree of tectonic coupling with its main antithetic fault (the Gubbio fault), suggesting that creeping along the ATF may control the observed strain localization and the pattern of microseismic activity.

  1. Two new cave rnicolous genera of Julidae (Diplopoda, Julida), with notes on the tribe Brachyiulini and on julid subanal hooks and anchors.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Nesrine; Stoev, Pavel; Enghoff, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Two remarkable genera and species of the millipede family Julidae, Titanophyllum spiliarumgen. n., sp. n. and Mammamia profugagen. n. sp., n., are described from caves in Greece and Italy, respectively. The presence of a flagellum and the absence of a 'pro-mesomerital forceps' on the gonopods place them in the tribe Brachyiulini Verhoeff, 1909, an unnatural grouping based on plesiomorphic characters. Both are outstanding in being the only hitherto known blind julidans having such gonopodal features. A dichotomous key to the nine valid brachyiulinine genera based on peripheral and gonopodal characters is presented. Moreover, notes on subanal hooks and anchors in Julida are provided with hypotheses on their possible function.

  2. Some