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Sample records for cavernoso cerebral gigante

  1. A case of cerebral gigantism and hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, G I; Heuser, E T; Reed, W B

    1977-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy, who had the physical and neurological characteristics of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome), developed hepatocarcinoma. This tumor is rare in children and has never, to our knowledge, been recorded in a patient with cerebral gigantism. An autopsy was performed, the first we are aware of in a patient with cerebral gigantism without increased size in ventricles.

  2. [A case of cerebral gigantism with cerebellar atrophy].

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, K; Ikeda, M; Tsukagoshi, H

    1990-05-01

    A 37-year-old housewife, who had physical characteristics of cerebral gigantism, such as the tall stature, acromegaly, macrocephalia, high arched palate and antimongoloid slant, developed cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria. Her mother, uncle and grandmother were also reported to have slowly progressive gait disturbance. Her mother was also tall. Endocrinological studies failed to show any definite abnormality. CT and MRI revealed remarkable cerebellar atrophy. Though cerebral gigantism is often associated with clumsiness and incoordination, the etiology of the ataxia is poorly understood. This case indicates that the ataxia in cerebral gigantism may be, at least partly, caused by cerebellar atrophy. PMID:2401112

  3. Gigantism

    MedlinePlus

    Gigantism; Pituitary giant; Overproduction of growth hormone; Growth hormone - excess production ... The most common cause of too much growth hormone release is a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the ...

  4. Cerebral gigantism associated with jaw cyst basal cell naevoid syndrome in two families.

    PubMed

    Cramer, H; Niederdellmann, H

    1983-01-01

    We report 9 subjects from 2 families with the syndrome of cerebral gigantism, seven of the patients also had jaw cyst basal cell naevoid syndrome. Neurological, radiological, somatic and biochemical features of this hitherto unreported association are described. Neurological symptoms included mild hydrocephalus, ventricular malformation, cerebellar syndrome, intracranial calcification, oculomotor disturbances, EEG abnormalities and rarely, mild peripheral nervous disorders. A disturbance of calcium metabolism appears to be a prominent feature of the genetically determined nonprogressive syndrome.

  5. Pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Daughaday, W H

    1992-09-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare condition whose association with McCune-Albright syndrome suggests that mutations in alpha-subunit of a Gs protein are an important cause of this condition. In addition to somatotroph adenoma, it is now recognized that somatotroph hyperplasia can also result from increased levels of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Transgenic rats with hypersomatotrophism are prone to renal and hepatic pathology. PMID:1521516

  6. [Gigantism: a mystery explained].

    PubMed

    Beckers, Alb

    2002-01-01

    Acromegaly was first described by Pierre Marie in 1886. Some years later, it became clear that acromegaly and gigantism share the same etiology: GH hypersecretion due to a pituitary adenoma, induces gigantism if already present during puberty, or an acromegalic if it appears only during the adulthood. During the XXth century, the disease has been well described and is now well controlled with several treatments. Recently, genetic alterations responsible for the disease have been elucidated. PMID:12371275

  7. Cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome). Metacarpophalangeal pattern profiles.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P F

    1985-08-01

    The metacarpophalangeal pattern (MCPP) profile in 17 out of 22 patients with Sotos' syndrome was studied throughout the growth period, from 2 weeks to 19 years of age. Two typical MCPP profiles will be described. The first type of profile was found in 13 patients. Although the form of the profile is the same throughout the years, the lengthening of the fingers is most pronounced around 2 years of age. Before and after that period there is a flattening of the curve. The metacarpals are relatively longer below the age of 3 years, above 3 years the lengthening of the proximal phalanges is more pronounced in the profile. The second type of profile was found in 4 patients. This curve is almost a mirror image of the first profile. The fingers are not as long as in the first type and the profile is less pronounced. In one of the 17 patients the transition from the first type to the second type could be demonstrated. One patient had a normal profile. PMID:2992033

  8. The Pituitary in Gigantism.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kovacs, Kalman T.; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Horvath, Eva; Kane, Laurie A.; Young, William F.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Randall, Raymond V.; Davis, Dudley H.

    1995-01-01

    To compare the pituitary pathology of gigantism to that of acromegaly, 19 surgically resected lesions were studied from 10 males and 9 females, ages 13-49 (mean, 19 yr) with excessive height (>/=95th percentile), onset of disease prior to puberty, elevated growth hormone (GH) levels despite glucose suppression, and a pathologically confirmed GH-producing pituitary mass. One patient had MEN-I. The lesions included 18 adenomas and 1 case of pure hyperplasia. The median, mean, and range of serum GH and prolactin (PRL) levels were 64, 235, 5-1000 ng/mL and 47, 146, 29-770 ng/mL, respectively. Of the 8 adenoma specimens accompanied by nontumoral pituitary (i.e., tissue wherein the presence of hyperplasia was assessable), 3 (37%) demonstrated both. Of the 18 tumors, 78% were macroadenomas and 22% were grossly invasive; their immunophenotypes included GH (5%), GH and PRL (19%), and GHPRL and a glycoprotein hormone, usually TSH and/or a-subunit (76%). Of the 10 adenoma-containing lesions subject to electron microscopy (EM), 2 consisted of GH cells alone; 2 of mammosomatotroph (MS) cells alone; 1 of GH and MS cells; 1 of GH and PRL cells; 2 of GH, PRL, and MS cells; 1 of GH, PRL, and glycoprotein cells; and 1 was a subtype 3 adenoma. Ultrastructurally, GH cells and/or MS cells predominated in these lesions. Immuno-EM of one CH and PRL cell and of one GH-PR-MS tumor showed GH and PRL to be present not only in single cells but within the same granules. Nine of 12 adenoma-associated lesions subject to combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining showed double labeling for PRL (or GH) mRNA and for GH (or PRL), respectively, features indicating MS differentiation. In the 4 lesions exhibiting hyperplasia, either alone (1) or in association with adenoma (3), EM showed MS cells in 3, and immuno-EM as well as combined immunohistochemistry and ISH showed double labeling for GH and PRL in both of the 2 cases studied. In summary, although in terms of their tinctorial

  9. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  10. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  11. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Selvan, Chitra; Chakraborty, Partha P.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Biswas, Dibakar; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory. Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg, body mass index (BMI)28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GH)values of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH), follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were normal. Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment. PMID:23565401

  12. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    PubMed

    Enderle, A

    1998-05-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. PMID:9764085

  13. Triangulation of the Gigantic Jets in 20 August 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang-Ming, P.; Hsu, R. R.; Su, H. T.; Chen, A. B. C.; Chou, J. K.; Chang, S. C.; Wu, Y. J.; Chien-Lun, H.; Yang, I. C.; Tsai, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Coordinate optical observation campaigns on TLEs near Taiwan are held since 2011 with the aim to triangulate TLEs. Currently, there are four stations with baseline varying from 100 to 400 km between them. Our optical observation systems recorded 48 various types of TLEs on the night of 20 August 2014, with eight of them being gigantic jets that were recorded by at least two stations. Due to the length of baselines and the TLE occurring locations, the earth curvature needed to be taken into account by means of spherical trigonometry method. The preliminary results shows the gigantic jets occurred over the northern Taiwan and the accuracy of geolocation is less than 1 km and the accuracy of the retrieval height on the key structures is less than 0.5 km. The triangulation results of the eight events indicate most of these gigantic jets terminated at 80-90km, but one of the gigantic jets is likely extend to 100 km. Three of the eight gigantic jets occurred consequently after previous one with time interval of 500ms to more than 100s. The previous gigantic jet is likely to influence the consequent gigantic jet for usually the consequent gigantic jet has more beads structures in high altitude and one of the streamer column of a consequent gigantic jets at 55 -60 km is identified to re-bright, which is more than 100s after the previous gigantic jet.

  14. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  15. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Horstmann, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  16. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism-very large body size-is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants) in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare) enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering.

  17. Fungal Cell Gigantism during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 µm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with γ-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20–50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens. PMID:20585557

  18. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  19. Pyodermia chronica glutealis complicated by acromegalic gigantism.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, S; Kasahara, M; Suzuki, K; Kondoh, M; Tsubura, A

    1998-04-01

    We report a case of pyodermia chronica glutealis complicated by acromegalic gigantism associated with hyperprolactinemia. The serum prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and 11-deoxycortisol levels were elevated, but the estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate levels were within normal limits. However, the testosterone level was very low. Histopathologically, we found sinus tracts and scarring in a specimen from the buttocks. We could not immunohistochemically detect clear androgen, growth hormone, or prolactin receptors at any site. The patient was a man with a height of 197 cm and weight of 140 kg, he had clinical features of active acromegaly such as excessive sweating and increased thickness of soft tissue. He was also diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Under such conditions, bacteria could easily grow and lesions might have been aggravated by the heavy pressure from his weight, a possible causes of his pyodermia chronica glutealis. PMID:9609982

  20. Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2011-01-01

    Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development. PMID:21976722

  1. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism-very large body size-is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants) in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare) enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering. PMID:26771527

  2. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism—very large body size—is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants) in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare) enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering. PMID:26771527

  3. Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia.

  4. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  5. [Cryohypophysectomy in acromegaly and gigantism by the stereotaxic method].

    PubMed

    Mempel, E; Rap, Z; Jurkiewicz, J; Kuciński, L

    1985-01-01

    The authors report results of surgical treatment of 30 patients treated by cryohypophysectomy by the stereotactic method through the nose and sphenoid sinus in the years 1967-1979. The material included 28 cases of acromegaly and 2 cases of gigantism. The pathological manifestations in acromegaly and gigantism were analysed for demonstration which of them can regress after surgical treatment. The results of hormonal determinations, particularly the levels of growth hormone, 17-KS and hydroxysteroids, as well as blood glucose curves, were compared before and after cryohypophysectomy and their normalization was observed after the operation. There was principally no need for substitutive treatment after surgical treatment with the exception of 4 cases in which this treatment was given during several postoperative months. The indications to this method of therapy include cases of acromegaly and gigantism with presence of active intrasellar adenomas. Patients should be referred for treatment early before development of skeletal deformities. PMID:3912667

  6. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  7. Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A; Manoharan, K

    2016-01-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated from other causes of localized gigantism, since these conditions differ in their course, prognosis, complications and treatment. PMID:27293271

  8. Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A; Manoharan, K

    2016-01-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated from other causes of localized gigantism, since these conditions differ in their course, prognosis, complications and treatment. PMID:27293271

  9. Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A; Manoharan, K

    2016-01-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated from other causes of localized gigantism, since these conditions differ in their course, prognosis, complications and treatment.

  10. Hypothalamic mass and gigantism in neurofibromatosis: treatment with bromocriptine.

    PubMed

    Duchowny, M S; Katz, R; Bejar, R L

    1984-03-01

    A child with neurofibromatosis exhibited gigantism and acromegaly in association with a hypothalamic mass lesion. Bromocriptine, 5 mg daily, reduced somatic growth rate and restored biochemical homeostasis but had no effect on tumor growth. Radiation therapy arrested tumor enlargement and stabilized deteriorating visual function. PMID:6426370

  11. First observations of Gigantic Jets from Monsoon Thunderstorms over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Cummer, Steven; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Bór, József; Siingh, Devendraa; Cohen, Morris; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-04-01

    Gigantic Jets are electric discharges from thunderstorm cloud tops to the bottom of the ionosphere at ~80 km altitude. After their first discovery in 2001, relatively few observations have been reported. Most of these are from satellites at large distances and a few tens from the ground at higher spatial resolution. Here we report the first Gigantic Jets observed in India from two thunderstorm systems that developed over the land surface from monsoon activity, each storm producing two Gigantic Jets. The jets were recorded by a video camera system at standard video rate (20 ms exposure) at a few hundred km distance. ELF measurements suggest that the jets are of the usual negative polarity and that they develop in less than 40 ms, which is faster than most jets reported in the past. The jets originate from the leading edge of a slowly drifting convective cloud complex close to the highest regions of the clouds and carry ~25 Coulomb of charge to the ionosphere. One jet has a markedly horizontal displacement that we suggest is caused by a combination of close-range cloud electric fields at inception, and longer-range cloud fields at larger distances during full development. The Gigantic Jets are amongst the few that have been observed over land.

  12. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7838348

  13. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-05-01

    ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose

  15. Cerebral Hypoxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page Synonym(s): Hypoxia, Anoxia Table of Contents ( ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Cerebral Hypoxia? Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which ...

  16. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the lower cretaceous of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Qingyu; Xing, Lida; Sullivan, Corwin; Hu, Dongyu; Cheng, Shuqing; Wang, Shuo

    2012-04-04

    Numerous feathered dinosaur specimens have recently been recovered from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China, but most of them represent small animals. Here we report the discovery of a gigantic new basal tyrannosauroid, Yutyrannus huali gen. et sp. nov., based on three nearly complete skeletons representing two distinct ontogenetic stages from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Y. huali shares some features, particularly of the cranium, with derived tyrannosauroids, but is similar to other basal tyrannosauroids in possessing a three-fingered manus and a typical theropod pes. Morphometric analysis suggests that Y. huali differed from tyrannosaurids in its growth strategy. Most significantly, Y. huali bears long filamentous feathers, thus providing direct evidence for the presence of extensively feathered gigantic dinosaurs and offering new insights into early feather evolution.

  17. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options. PMID:17629784

  18. Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members' battles with David and his relatives.

  19. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-04-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

  20. Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members’ battles with David and his relatives. PMID:25075136

  1. Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members' battles with David and his relatives. PMID:25075136

  2. The Oldest Recorded Case of Acromegaly and Gigantism in Iran.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Here we commemorate the character and academic authority of Prof. Zabiholah Gorban (1903-2006), the founder of Shiraz medical school. No doubt, in the scope of history of contemporary medicine, he has been efficient and effective. With respect to this fact, his article on a rare case described in Acta anatomica published in Iran in 1966, entitled (Observations on a giant skeleton) is browsed and reviewed. A case named Siah Khan with combined acromegaly and gigantism that appears to have letters to say still after nearly half a century. PMID:26443258

  3. The Oldest Recorded Case of Acromegaly and Gigantism in Iran.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Here we commemorate the character and academic authority of Prof. Zabiholah Gorban (1903-2006), the founder of Shiraz medical school. No doubt, in the scope of history of contemporary medicine, he has been efficient and effective. With respect to this fact, his article on a rare case described in Acta anatomica published in Iran in 1966, entitled (Observations on a giant skeleton) is browsed and reviewed. A case named Siah Khan with combined acromegaly and gigantism that appears to have letters to say still after nearly half a century.

  4. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Kids > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...

  5. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... movement problems a child has. What is spastic CP? Spastic means tight or stiff muscles, or muscles ...

  6. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  7. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Palsy Information Page Clinical Trials Trial of Erythropoietin Neuroprotection ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Cerebral Palsy? The term cerebral palsy refers to a group ...

  8. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Information Page Synonym(s): Aneurysm, Brain Aneurysm Condensed from ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Cerebral Aneurysms? A cerebral aneurysm is a weak or thin ...

  9. Avian-style respiration allowed gigantism in pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme

    2014-08-01

    Powered flight has evolved three times in the vertebrates: in the birds, the bats and the extinct pterosaurs. The largest bats ever known are at least an order of magnitude smaller than the largest members of the other two groups. Recently, it was argued that different scaling of wingbeat frequencies to body mass in birds and bats can help explain why the largest birds are larger than the largest bats. Here, I extend this argument in two ways. Firstly, I suggest that different respiratory physiologies are key to understanding the restriction on bat maximum size compared with birds. Secondly, I argue that a respiratory physiology similar to birds would have been a prerequisite for the gigantism seen in pterosaurs. PMID:24855669

  10. Avian-style respiration allowed gigantism in pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme

    2014-08-01

    Powered flight has evolved three times in the vertebrates: in the birds, the bats and the extinct pterosaurs. The largest bats ever known are at least an order of magnitude smaller than the largest members of the other two groups. Recently, it was argued that different scaling of wingbeat frequencies to body mass in birds and bats can help explain why the largest birds are larger than the largest bats. Here, I extend this argument in two ways. Firstly, I suggest that different respiratory physiologies are key to understanding the restriction on bat maximum size compared with birds. Secondly, I argue that a respiratory physiology similar to birds would have been a prerequisite for the gigantism seen in pterosaurs.

  11. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  12. Methodology of growing gigantic sapphire for GSLW project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgaryan, Artoush A.; Hartounian, Gomidas

    2005-09-01

    In our present world the Crystal Growth Technology does not have the necessary and sufficient conditions to manufacture large sizes; especially in the Sapphire Crystal world. We have a theoretical and methodological development for growing gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses. Our gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses have a unique optical characteristic which will be used in the Global System of Laser Weapons (GSLW); hence solving one of the crucial problems in the Relay Mirror System; where it captures the Laser beam from the earth surface, cleaning the beam in the Satellite and redirecting the laser energy to the precise desired target. Developed and solution for the temperature and heat-elasticity fields in growth systems are considered theoretical, in order to assess their effects on the optical symmetry of the growing crystal. The process is modeled using three-dimensional curvilinear coordinates to describe a closed, low-strain heat-elasticity system, with allowance made for the temperature variations of the thermal properties of the multilayer growth system, and nonlinear and unsteady-state process with arbitrary boundary conditions. The results presented as plots of the strain, stress, displacement, and temperature fields; demonstrate the potential of the method for designing new growth units and improving the existing ones and suggesting that crystals, in general, without frustration of optical symmetry can, in principle, be grown. In order to solve generalized problem for large optics. It is required to have super and correct mathematical computing calculations, and using basic fundamental laws of nature regarding optical symmetry in the crystal, and discovering the radical "new wave method" for crystal growth technology.

  13. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  14. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  15. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wimalasundera, Neil; Stevenson, Valerie L

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral palsy has always been known as a disorder of movement and posture resulting from a non-progressive injury to the developing brain; however, more recent definitions allow clinicians to appreciate more than just the movement disorder. Accurate classification of cerebral palsy into distribution, motor type and functional level has advanced research. It also facilitates appropriate targeting of interventions to functional level and more accurate prognosis prediction. The prevalence of cerebral palsy remains fairly static at 2-3 per 1000 live births but there have been some changes in trends for specific causal groups. Interventions for cerebral palsy have historically been medical and physically focused, often with limited evidence to support their efficacy. The use of more appropriate outcome measures encompassing quality of life and participation is helping to deliver treatments which are more meaningful for people with cerebral palsy and their carers.

  16. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging.

  17. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Graham, H Kerr; Rosenbaum, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Dan, Bernard; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Damiano, Diane L; Becher, Jules G; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Colver, Allan; Reddihough, Dinah S; Crompton, Kylie E; Lieber, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood-onset, lifelong physical disability in most countries, affecting about 1 in 500 neonates with an estimated prevalence of 17 million people worldwide. Cerebral palsy is not a disease entity in the traditional sense but a clinical description of children who share features of a non-progressive brain injury or lesion acquired during the antenatal, perinatal or early postnatal period. The clinical manifestations of cerebral palsy vary greatly in the type of movement disorder, the degree of functional ability and limitation and the affected parts of the body. There is currently no cure, but progress is being made in both the prevention and the amelioration of the brain injury. For example, administration of magnesium sulfate during premature labour and cooling of high-risk infants can reduce the rate and severity of cerebral palsy. Although the disorder affects individuals throughout their lifetime, most cerebral palsy research efforts and management strategies currently focus on the needs of children. Clinical management of children with cerebral palsy is directed towards maximizing function and participation in activities and minimizing the effects of the factors that can make the condition worse, such as epilepsy, feeding challenges, hip dislocation and scoliosis. These management strategies include enhancing neurological function during early development; managing medical co-morbidities, weakness and hypertonia; using rehabilitation technologies to enhance motor function; and preventing secondary musculoskeletal problems. Meeting the needs of people with cerebral palsy in resource-poor settings is particularly challenging. PMID:27188686

  18. Atmospheric oxygen and the evolution of insect gigantism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, R.

    2003-04-01

    Geophysical analyses suggest the presence of a late Paleozoic oxygen pulse beginning in the late Devonian and continuing through to the late Carboniferous. During this time, atmospheric oxygen levels increased to values potentially as high as 35% relative to the contemporary value of 21%. Widespread gigantism in late Paleozoic insects and other arthropods is consistent with enhanced oxygen flux within diffusion-limited tracheal systems, and thus with relaxation of constraints on maximum insect body size. Because total atmospheric pressure increases with increased oxygen partial pressure, concurrently hyperdense conditions would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early forms of flying insects. Hyperoxia of the late Paleozoic atmosphere may also have physiologically facilitated the initial evolution of insect flight metabolism. By the late Permian, evolution of decompositional microbial and fungal communities together with disequilibrium in rates of carbon deposition gradually reduced oxygen concentrations to values possibly as low as 15%. The disappearance of giant insects by the end of the Permian is consistent with extinction of these taxa for reasons of asphyxiation on a geological time scale. In modern selection experiments with Drosophila flies, substantial plasticity in body size can be evoked under conditions of variable oxygen. In particular, moderate hyperbaria (and thus hyperoxia) evokes a 20% increase in adult body size over merely five generations, suggesting ready capacity for evolutionary responses by insects to fluctuating atmospheric oxygen.

  19. Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Gregory M; Makovicky, Peter J; Currie, Philip J; Norell, Mark A; Yerby, Scott A; Brochu, Christopher A

    2004-08-12

    How evolutionary changes in body size are brought about by variance in developmental timing and/or growth rates (also known as heterochrony) is a topic of considerable interest in evolutionary biology. In particular, extreme size change leading to gigantism occurred within the dinosaurs on multiple occasions. Whether this change was brought about by accelerated growth, delayed maturity or a combination of both processes is unknown. A better understanding of relationships between non-avian dinosaur groups and the newfound capacity to reconstruct their growth curves make it possible to address these questions quantitatively. Here we study growth patterns within the Tyrannosauridae, the best known group of large carnivorous dinosaurs, and determine the developmental means by which Tyrannosaurus rex, weighing 5,000 kg and more, grew to be one of the most enormous terrestrial carnivorous animals ever. T. rex had a maximal growth rate of 2.1 kg d(-1), reached skeletal maturity in two decades and lived for up to 28 years. T. rex's great stature was primarily attained by accelerating growth rates beyond that of its closest relatives.

  20. [Active acromegaly and gigantism: some clinical characteristics of 50 patients].

    PubMed

    Pumarino, H; Oviedo, S; Michelsen, H; Campino, C

    1991-08-01

    50 patients with autonomous growth hormone excess (48 with adult acromegaly and 2 with gigantism) were studied between 1966 to 1986 (2.38 pts/year). Characteristic clinical presentation, an increase in growth hormone (GH) uninhibited by glucose, and/or hyperphosphemia and hyperhydroxiprolinuria were present in all patients. No cases of hypercalcemia were recorded. Phosphemia was increased in 55.8%, alkaline phosphatases in 61.7%, calciuria in 26.9% and hydroxyprolinuria in 74.2% of the patients. Basal GH was over 5 ng/ml (89.9 DS +/- 170.9) in 42 pts, and in 37 was not suppressed after glucose administration, 38% had an increased (paradoxical response) and 62% a flat response (less than 50% change of basal values). TRH test was performed in 14 patients, 8 presented an increase in GH titer. Hyperprolactinemia was seen in 4 of 12 patients in whom this hormone was measured. The size of the sella turcica was increased in 93%, and although the larger sellar size correlated to higher levels of GH, correlation was not significant. 20% of the pts had rheumatological disease, 14% goiter, 12% cardiac disease, 26.5% had diastolic hypertension and 4% renal lithiasis (hypercalciuric pts). 38% had hyperglycemia with a diabetic glucose tolerance test and 18% had non-diabetic abnormal glucose tolerance test. PMID:1844771

  1. Gigantic Surface Lifetime of an Intrinsic Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Madhab; Xu, Su-Yang; Ishida, Yukiaki; Jia, Shuang; Fregoso, Benjamin M.; Liu, Chang; Belopolski, Ilya; Bian, Guang; Alidoust, Nasser; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Galitski, Victor; Shin, Shik; Cava, Robert J.; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between light and novel two-dimensional electronic states holds promise to realize new fundamental physics and optical devices. Here, we use pump-probe photoemission spectroscopy to study the optically excited Dirac surface states in the bulk-insulating topological insulator Bi2Te2Se and reveal optical properties that are in sharp contrast to those of bulk-metallic topological insulators. We observe a gigantic optical lifetime exceeding 4 μ s (1 μ s =10-6 s ) for the surface states in Bi2Te2Se , whereas the lifetime in most topological insulators, such as Bi2Se3 , has been limited to a few picoseconds (1 ps =10-12 s ). Moreover, we discover a surface photovoltage, a shift of the chemical potential of the Dirac surface states, as large as 100 mV. Our results demonstrate a rare platform to study charge excitation and relaxation in energy and momentum space in a two-dimensional system.

  2. Cerebral palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with pain and spasticity Place feeding tubes Release joint contractures ... the hip joint Injuries from falls Pressure sores Joint ... of the people who are affected by cerebral palsy) Social stigma

  3. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a ... ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. ...

  4. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cerebral arteriosclerosis is the result of thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries in the ... cause an ischemic stroke. When the thickening and hardening is uneven, arterial walls can develop bulges (called ...

  5. Cerebral hypoxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... death. Treatment depends on the cause of the hypoxia. Basic life support is most important. Treatment involves: Breathing ... Complications of cerebral hypoxia include a prolonged vegetative ... sleep-wake cycle, and eye opening, but the person is not alert ...

  6. Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2012-06-15

    Beginning with the earliest expeditions to the poles, over 100 years ago, scientists have compiled an impressive list of polar taxa whose body sizes are unusually large. This phenomenon has become known as 'polar gigantism'. In the intervening years, biologists have proposed a multitude of hypotheses to explain polar gigantism. These hypotheses run the gamut from invoking release from physical and physiological constraints, to systematic changes in developmental trajectories, to community-level outcomes of broader ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we review polar gigantism and emphasize two main problems. The first is to determine the true strength and generality of this pattern: how prevalent is polar gigantism across taxonomic units? Despite many published descriptions of polar giants, we still have a poor grasp of whether these species are unusual outliers or represent more systematic shifts in distributions of body size. Indeed, current data indicate that some groups show gigantism at the poles whereas others show nanism. The second problem is to identify underlying mechanisms or processes that could drive taxa, or even just allow them, to evolve especially large body size. The contenders are diverse and no clear winner has yet emerged. Distinguishing among the contenders will require better sampling of taxa in both temperate and polar waters and sustained efforts by comparative physiologists and evolutionary ecologists in a strongly comparative framework.

  7. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan.

  8. Cerebral Paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-01-01

    The first case of cerebral paragonimiasis was reported by Otani in Japan in 1887. This was nine years after Kerbert's discovery of the fluke in the lungs of Bengal tigers and seven years after a human pulmonary infection by the fluke was demonstrated by Baelz and Manson. The first case was a 26-year-old man who had been suffering from cough and hemosputum for one year. The patient developed convulsive seizures with subsequent coma and died. The postmortem examination showed cystic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobes. An adult fluke was found in the occipital lesion and another was seen in a gross specimen of normal brain tissue around the affected occipital lobe. Two years after Otani's discovery, at autopsy a 29-year-old man with a history of Jacksonian seizure was reported as having cerebral paragonimiasis. Some time later, however, it was confirmed that the case was actually cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. Subsequently, cases of cerebral paragonimiasis were reported. However, the majority of these cases were not confirmed histologically. It was pointed out that some of these early cases were probably not Paragonimus infection. After World War II, reviews as well as case reports were published. Recently, investigations have been reported from Korea, with a clinicla study on 62 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis seen at the Neurology Department of the National Medical Center, Seoul, between 1958 and 1964. In 1971 Higashi described a statistical study on 105 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis that had been treated surgically in Japan. PMID:1095292

  9. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The

  10. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

    PubMed

    Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The

  11. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Print A A ... kids who are living with the condition. About Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is one of the most common ...

  12. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_palsy/cerebral_palsy. ...

  13. Slow DNA loss in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; López Arriaza, José R; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in genome size result from the combined effects of mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Insertion and deletion mutations (indels) directly impact genome size by adding or removing sequences. Most species lose more DNA through small indels (i.e., ~1-30 bp) than they gain, which can result in genome reduction over time. Because this rate of DNA loss varies across species, small indel dynamics have been suggested to contribute to genome size evolution. Species with extremely large genomes provide interesting test cases for exploring the link between small indels and genome size; however, most large genomes remain relatively unexplored. Here, we examine rates of DNA loss in the tetrapods with the largest genomes-the salamanders. We used low-coverage genomic shotgun sequence data from four salamander species to examine patterns of insertion, deletion, and substitution in neutrally evolving non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon sequences. For comparison, we estimated genome-wide DNA loss rates in non-LTR retrotransposon sequences from five other vertebrate genomes: Anolis carolinensis, Danio rerio, Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, and Xenopus tropicalis. Our results show that salamanders have significantly lower rates of DNA loss than do other vertebrates. More specifically, salamanders experience lower numbers of deletions relative to insertions, and both deletions and insertions are skewed toward smaller sizes. On the basis of these patterns, we conclude that slow DNA loss contributes to genomic gigantism in salamanders. We also identify candidate molecular mechanisms underlying these differences and suggest that natural variation in indel dynamics provides a unique opportunity to study the basis of genome stability. PMID:23175715

  14. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    PubMed

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size. PMID:24205267

  15. Gigantism and Acromegaly Due to Xq26 Microduplications and GPR101 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Trivellin, G.; Daly, A.F.; Faucz, F.R.; Yuan, B.; Rostomyan, L.; Larco, D.O.; Schernthaner-Reiter, M.H.; Szarek, E.; Leal, L.F.; Caberg, J.-H.; Castermans, E.; Villa, C.; Dimopoulos, A.; Chittiboina, P.; Xekouki, P.; Shah, N.; Metzger, D.; Lysy, P.A.; Ferrante, E.; Strebkova, N.; Mazerkina, N.; Zatelli, M.C.; Lodish, M.; Horvath, A.; de Alexandre, R. Bertollo; Manning, A.D.; Levy, I.; Keil, M.F.; de la Luz Sierra, M.; Palmeira, L.; Coppieters, W.; Georges, M.; Naves, L.A.; Jamar, M.; Bours, V.; Wu, T.J.; Choong, C.S.; Bertherat, J.; Chanson, P.; Kamenický, P.; Farrell, W.E.; Barlier, A.; Quezado, M.; Bjelobaba, I.; Stojilkovic, S.S.; Wess, J.; Costanzi, S.; Liu, P.; Lupski, J.R.; Beckers, A.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood. METHODS We performed clinical and genetic studies of samples obtained from 43 patients with gigantism and then sequenced an implicated gene in samples from 248 patients with acromegaly. RESULTS We observed microduplication on chromosome Xq26.3 in samples from 13 patients with gigantism; of these samples, 4 were obtained from members of two unrelated kindreds, and 9 were from patients with sporadic cases. All the patients had disease onset during early childhood. Of the patients with gigantism who did not carry an Xq26.3 microduplication, none presented before the age of 5 years. Genomic characterization of the Xq26.3 region suggests that the microduplications are generated during chromosome replication and that they contain four protein-coding genes. Only one of these genes, GPR101, which encodes a G-protein–coupled receptor, was overexpressed in patients’ pituitary lesions. We identified a recurrent GPR101 mutation (p.E308D) in 11 of 248 patients with acromegaly, with the mutation found mostly in tumors. When the mutation was transfected into rat GH3 cells, it led to increased release of growth hormone and proliferation of growth hormone–producing cells. CONCLUSIONS We describe a pediatric disorder (which we have termed X-linked acrogigantism [X-LAG]) that is caused by an Xq26.3 genomic duplication and is characterized by early-onset gigantism resulting from an excess of growth hormone. Duplication of GPR101 probably causes X-LAG. We also found a recurrent mutation in GPR101 in some adults with acromegaly. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.) PMID:25470569

  16. An Evolutionary Cascade Model for Sauropod Dinosaur Gigantism - Overview, Update and Tests

    PubMed Central

    Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades (“Reproduction”, “Feeding”, “Head and neck”, “Avian-style lung”, and “Metabolism”). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait “Very high body mass”. Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size. PMID:24205267

  17. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    PubMed

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  18. Cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan; Fairhurst, Charles; Pharoah, Peter O D

    2014-04-01

    The syndrome of cerebral palsy encompasses a large group of childhood movement and posture disorders. Severity, patterns of motor involvement, and associated impairments such as those of communication, intellectual ability, and epilepsy vary widely. Overall prevalence has remained stable in the past 40 years at 2-3·5 cases per 1000 livebirths, despite changes in antenatal and perinatal care. The few studies available from developing countries suggest prevalence of comparable magnitude. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder; approaches to intervention, whether at an individual or environmental level, should recognise that quality of life and social participation throughout life are what individuals with cerebral palsy seek, not improved physical function for its own sake. In the past few years, the cerebral palsy community has learned that the evidence of benefit for the numerous drugs, surgery, and therapies used over previous decades is weak. Improved understanding of the role of multiple gestation in pathogenesis, of gene environment interaction, and how to influence brain plasticity could yield significant advances in treatment of the disorder. Reduction in the prevalence of post-neonatal cerebral palsy, especially in developing countries, should be possible through improved nutrition, infection control, and accident prevention.

  19. The early ELF signals of the gigantic jets captured by the Taiwan ground observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. B. C.; Huang, P. H.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The in-cloud ignition process of gigantic jets and blue jets receives attentions and discussions in the past years. The polarity and the position of their breakdown were proposed by Krehbiel et al. [2008] but no concrete observational evidence to support it directly. ELF spectrogram is a good tool to explore the electric activities, but traditional spectrograms are generated by a Fourier transform which obtain the frequency information through an integration operation. However the integration greatly limits the lowest frequency revealed by spectrogram and buries the important transient features. In this study, we applied a new but widely-used method, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), to explore the spectrogram. Instead of the integration, HHT obtains the frequency information by differentiating on the phase angle, and become a powerful tool to reveal the fast frequency variation associated with transient luminous events. More than 100 transient luminous events including 25 gigantic jets observed by Taiwan ground optical observation network were analyzed. The results indicate that approximately 70% of gigantic jets can identify a rapid frequency variation in the interval of 300-600 milliseconds before main surge discharge, and this early feature can not find a clear corresponding amplitude variation in its sferic. Since this early signal can not be identified from the traditional Fourier spectrogram, but clear in-cloud lightning was registered correspondingly by the ground optical observation. In contrast to gigantic jets, this feature of early frequency change can be seen only in less than 30% of sprites and elves. These observational evidences are able to provide new constraints on the early discharge process of gigantic jets in clouds.

  20. Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-04-01

    This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet emissions gives a reduced E field of 400-655 Td and average electron energy of 8.5-12.3 eV. These values are higher than those in the sprites but are similar to those predicted by streamer models, which implies the existence of streamer tips in fully developed jets. The gigantic jets studied here all contained two distinct photometric peaks. The first peak is from the fully developed jet, which steadily propagates from the cloud top (˜20 km) to the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. We suggest that the second photometric peak, which occurs ˜1 ms after the first peak, is from a current wave or potential wave-enhanced emissions that originate at an altitude of ˜50 km and extend toward the cloud top. We propose that the fully developed jet serves as an extension of the local ionosphere and produces a lowered ionosphere boundary. As the attachment processes remove the charges, the boundary of the local ionosphere moves up. The current in the channel persists and its contact point with the ionosphere moves upward, which produces the upward surging trailing jets. Imager and photometer data indicate that the lightning activity associated with the gigantic jets likely is in-cloud, and thus the initiation of the gigantic jets is not directly associated with cloud-to-ground discharges.

  1. Gigantic self-confined pahoehoe inflated lava flows in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquare', G.; Bistacchi, A.

    2007-05-01

    The largest lava flows on Earth are pahoehoe basalts emplaced by inflation, a process which can change lava lobes initially a few decimetres thick into large lava sheets several metres thick. Inflation involves the initial formation of a thin, solidified, viscoelastic crust, under which liquid lava is continually added. This thermally efficient endogenous growth process explains the spread of huge volumes of lava over large, almost flat areas, as in the sheet flows which characterise the distal portions of Hawaiian volcanoes or some continental flood basalt provinces. Long, narrow, inflated pahoehoe flows have occasionally been described, either emplaced along pre-existing river channels or confined within topographic barriers. In this contribution we present previously unknown inflated pahoehoe lava flows following very long, narrow pathways over an almost flat surface, with no topographic confinement. Lava, which erupted in Late Quaternary times from the eastern tip of a 60 km long volcanic fissure in Argentina, formed several discrete flows extending as far as 180 km from the source. This fissure was characterized by a long-lasting and complex activity. Alkali-basaltic lava flows were emitted at the two extremities of the fissure system. In the intermediate section of the fissure, the Payun Matru, a great trachitic composite volcano, developed, giving rise to a large caldera which produced large pyroclastic flows. Alkali-basalts predate and postdate the trachitic activity, in fact at the end of the trachitic activity, new basaltic lava flows (mainly aa) were emitted from both ends of the fissure. We studied in details the youngest of the gigantic flows (Pampas Onduladas lava flow), which progressively develops through differing thermally-efficient flow mechanisms. The flow created a large shield volcanic structure at the eastern tip of the E-W fissure and spread to the E forming a very large and thick inflated pahoehoe sheet flow. Leaving the flanks of the

  2. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information About ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  3. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  4. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J; Kelley, Neil P; Aitchison, Jonathan C; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

  5. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

  6. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic.

  7. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J; Kelley, Neil P; Aitchison, Jonathan C; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic.

  8. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  9. Cerebral Microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Young, Bethany; Kalanuria, Atul; Kumar, Monisha; Burke, Kathryn; Balu, Ramani; Amendolia, Olivia; McNulty, Kyle; Marion, BethAnn; Beckmann, Brittany; Ciocco, Lauren; Miller, Kimberly; Schuele, Donnamarie; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Frangos, Suzanne; Wright, Danielle

    2016-03-01

    A variety of neuromonitoring techniques are available to aid in the care of neurocritically ill patients. However, traditional monitors lack the ability to measure brain biochemistry and may provide inadequate warning of potentially reversible deleterious conditions. Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is a safe, novel method of monitoring regional brain biochemistry. Analysis of CMD analytes as part of a multimodal approach may help inform clinical decision making, guide medical treatments, and aid in prognostication of patient outcome. Its use is most frequently documented in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Incorporating CMD into clinical practice is a multidisciplinary effort.

  10. The acromegaly--gigantism syndrome. Report of four cases treated surgically.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, P; Scanarini, M; Sicolo, N; Andrioli, G; Mingrino, S

    1983-12-01

    Four cases of growth-hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, with associated aspects of acromegaly and gigantism, are reported in patients aged 12-26. All of the patients had macroadenomas and were treated surgically, three by the transsphenoidal approach and one with a transfrontal craniotomy. Histologic examination revealed eosinophilic adenomas in three of the cases and a mixed eosinophilic--chromophobe adenoma in one, all with cellular irregularities (mitosis and cellular and nuclear polymorphism), local invasivity, or both. Because surgical treatment did not produce complete normalization of growth hormone levels, radiotherapy followed the operations in all four cases. In our opinion, the treatment of acromegalic gigantism poses more therapeutic problems than that of simple acromegaly, with combined treatment (surgical, radiation, and medical) often being necessary. PMID:6648790

  11. [A multicenter clinical trial of SMS 201-995 (octreotide acetate) in acromegaly and gigantism].

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, A; Imura, H; Irie, M; Nakagawa, S; Goto, Y; Shimizu, N; Takeda, R; Kato, Y; Saito, S; Ibayashi, H

    1989-07-20

    Sixty-four patients with active acromegaly and three patients with gigantism were treated with the long acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 (50-500 micrograms, sc, every 6-12 h or 150-880 micrograms daily by intermittent sc infusion, for up to 114 weeks). The fasting plasma GH levels were significantly suppressed (less than 50% of the values before treatment) in 49 patients and became normal in 18 patients. Suppression of GH secretion was associated with normalization of plasma somatomedin-C levels (14 out of 30 cases) and significant clinical improvement such as disappearance of headache and decrease of excessive sweating. Shrinkage of pituitary tumors as determined by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging studies occurred in 11 out of 40 cases. Side effects were minimal and tolerable. SMS 201-995 appears to be an effective agent for the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism. PMID:2684694

  12. Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Braddy, Simon J

    2010-04-23

    Gigantism is widespread among Palaeozoic arthropods, yet causal mechanisms, particularly the role of (abiotic) environmental factors versus (biotic) competition, remain unknown. The eurypterids (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) include the largest arthropods; gigantic predatory pterygotids (Eurypterina) during the Siluro-Devonian and bizarre sweep-feeding hibbertopterids (Stylonurina) from the Carboniferous to end-Permian. Analysis of family-level originations and extinctions among eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates show that the diversity of Eurypterina waned during the Devonian, while the Placodermi radiated, yet Stylonurina remained relatively unaffected; adopting a sweep-feeding strategy they maintained their large body size by avoiding competition, and persisted throughout the Late Palaeozoic while the predatory nektonic Eurypterina (including the giant pterygotids) declined during the Devonian, possibly out-competed by other predators including jawed vertebrates. PMID:19828493

  13. Cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Postels, Douglas G; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Malaria, the most significant parasitic disease of man, kills approximately one million people per year. Half of these deaths occur in those with cerebral malaria (CM). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines CM as an otherwise unexplained coma in a patient with malarial parasitemia. Worldwide, CM occurs primarily in African children and Asian adults, with the vast majority (greater than 90%) of cases occurring in children 5 years old or younger in sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves infected erythrocyte sequestration, cerebral inflammation, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. A recently characterized malarial retinopathy is visual evidence of Plasmodium falciparum's pathophysiological processes occurring in the affected patient. Treatment consists of supportive care and antimalarial administration. Thus far, adjuvant therapies have not been shown to improve mortality rates or neurological outcomes in children with CM. For those who survive CM, residual neurological abnormalities are common. Epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders, and gross neurological deficits which include motor, sensory, and language impairments are frequent sequelae. Primary prevention strategies, including bed nets, vaccine development, and chemoprophylaxis, are in varied states of development and implementation. Continuing efforts to find successful primary prevention options and strategies to decrease neurological sequelae are needed. PMID:23829902

  14. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.

    PubMed

    Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-10-01

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems. PMID:25143034

  15. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    PubMed

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation. PMID:26405734

  16. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    PubMed

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation.

  17. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.

    PubMed

    Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-10-01

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems.

  18. The triangulation of the gigantic jets observed by the optical observation network in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alfred B.; Huang, Chien-Fong; Peng, Kang-Ming; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron

    2015-04-01

    The optical triangulation of sprites and elves by the multiple sites has been done in the past decades, but the similar observation on gigantic jets has never been reported yet. A ground optical observation network consisting of four stations at Kimen, Penghu, Tainan, and Taitung (from west to east) has been established in Taiwan since 2012. Each station equipped with two sets of Watec low-light sensitivity cameras, and the elevation and azimuth of the observation can be fully remote controlled to point toward the on-going convection system in the vicinity of Taiwan. In summer 2014, more than 6 gigantic jets were captured by at least two stations successfully. The triangulation and ULF sferics of these interesting events provides an excellent chance to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of the jets in different phases. In this presentation, this ground observation network will be introduced, the detail evolution of the recorded gigantic jets is presented. The preliminary result implies that the jets may not pop from the cloudtop straightforwardly, and some twists occur during the propagation of the jets. A more complicated analysis of the tomography for the advanced triangulation will be mentioned, too.

  19. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (P<.05) in patients with gigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocity<1) was detected in 2 of 6 patients with gigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (P<.05) higher in patients with gigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in

  20. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (P<.05) in patients with gigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocity<1) was detected in 2 of 6 patients with gigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (P<.05) higher in patients with gigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in

  1. [Cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Malagón Valdez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The term cerebral palsy (CP), is used for a great number of clinical neurological syndromes. The syndromes are characterized by having a common cause, motor defects. It is important, because they can cause a brain damage by presenting motor defects and some associated deficiencies, such as mental deficiency, epilepsy, language and visual defects and pseudobulbar paralysis, with the non-evolving fact. Some authors prefer using terms such as "non-evolving encephalopathies". In the treatment the utility of prevention programs of early stimulation and special rehabilitation methods, and treatment of associated deficiencies such as epilepsy, mental deficiency, language, audition and visual problems, and the attention deficit improve the prognosis in an important way. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disease and the associated manifestations. PMID:18422084

  2. Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Petrossians, Patrick; Nachev, Emil; Lila, Anurag R; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Lecumberri, Beatriz; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Salvatori, Roberto; Moraitis, Andreas G; Holdaway, Ian; Kranenburg-van Klaveren, Dianne J; Chiara Zatelli, Maria; Palacios, Nuria; Nozieres, Cecile; Zacharin, Margaret; Ebeling, Tapani; Ojaniemi, Marja; Rozhinskaya, Liudmila; Verrua, Elisa; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Filipponi, Silvia; Gusakova, Daria; Pronin, Vyacheslav; Bertherat, Jerome; Belaya, Zhanna; Ilovayskaya, Irena; Sahnoun-Fathallah, Mona; Sievers, Caroline; Stalla, Gunter K; Castermans, Emilie; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Sorkina, Ekaterina; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Mittal, Sachin; Kareva, Maria; Lysy, Philippe A; Emy, Philippe; De Menis, Ernesto; Choong, Catherine S; Mantovani, Giovanna; Bours, Vincent; De Herder, Wouter; Brue, Thierry; Barlier, Anne; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Zacharieva, Sabina; Chanson, Philippe; Shah, Nalini Samir; Stratakis, Constantine A; Naves, Luciana A; Beckers, Albert

    2015-10-01

    Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; 78.4%) with growth hormone excess and a current/previous abnormal growth velocity for age or final height >2 s.d. above country normal means. The median onset of rapid growth was 13 years and occurred significantly earlier in females than in males; pituitary adenomas were diagnosed earlier in females than males (15.8 vs 21.5 years respectively). Adenomas were ≥10 mm (i.e., macroadenomas) in 84%, of which extrasellar extension occurred in 77% and invasion in 54%. GH/IGF1 control was achieved in 39% during long-term follow-up. Final height was greater in younger onset patients, with larger tumors and higher GH levels. Later disease control was associated with a greater difference from mid-parental height (r=0.23, P=0.02). AIP mutations occurred in 29%; microduplication at Xq26.3 - X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) - occurred in two familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds and in ten sporadic patients. Tumor size was not different in X-LAG, AIP mutated and genetically negative patient groups. AIP-mutated and X-LAG patients were significantly younger at onset and diagnosis, but disease control was worse in genetically negative cases. Pituitary gigantism patients are characterized by male predominance and large tumors that are difficult to control. Treatment delay increases final height and symptom burden. AIP mutations and X-LAG explain many cases, but no genetic etiology is seen in >50% of cases. PMID:26187128

  3. Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Petrossians, Patrick; Nachev, Emil; Lila, Anurag R; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Lecumberri, Beatriz; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Salvatori, Roberto; Moraitis, Andreas G; Holdaway, Ian; Kranenburg-van Klaveren, Dianne J; Chiara Zatelli, Maria; Palacios, Nuria; Nozieres, Cecile; Zacharin, Margaret; Ebeling, Tapani; Ojaniemi, Marja; Rozhinskaya, Liudmila; Verrua, Elisa; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Filipponi, Silvia; Gusakova, Daria; Pronin, Vyacheslav; Bertherat, Jerome; Belaya, Zhanna; Ilovayskaya, Irena; Sahnoun-Fathallah, Mona; Sievers, Caroline; Stalla, Gunter K; Castermans, Emilie; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Sorkina, Ekaterina; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Mittal, Sachin; Kareva, Maria; Lysy, Philippe A; Emy, Philippe; De Menis, Ernesto; Choong, Catherine S; Mantovani, Giovanna; Bours, Vincent; De Herder, Wouter; Brue, Thierry; Barlier, Anne; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Zacharieva, Sabina; Chanson, Philippe; Shah, Nalini Samir; Stratakis, Constantine A; Naves, Luciana A; Beckers, Albert

    2015-10-01

    Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; 78.4%) with growth hormone excess and a current/previous abnormal growth velocity for age or final height >2 s.d. above country normal means. The median onset of rapid growth was 13 years and occurred significantly earlier in females than in males; pituitary adenomas were diagnosed earlier in females than males (15.8 vs 21.5 years respectively). Adenomas were ≥10 mm (i.e., macroadenomas) in 84%, of which extrasellar extension occurred in 77% and invasion in 54%. GH/IGF1 control was achieved in 39% during long-term follow-up. Final height was greater in younger onset patients, with larger tumors and higher GH levels. Later disease control was associated with a greater difference from mid-parental height (r=0.23, P=0.02). AIP mutations occurred in 29%; microduplication at Xq26.3 - X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) - occurred in two familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds and in ten sporadic patients. Tumor size was not different in X-LAG, AIP mutated and genetically negative patient groups. AIP-mutated and X-LAG patients were significantly younger at onset and diagnosis, but disease control was worse in genetically negative cases. Pituitary gigantism patients are characterized by male predominance and large tumors that are difficult to control. Treatment delay increases final height and symptom burden. AIP mutations and X-LAG explain many cases, but no genetic etiology is seen in >50% of cases.

  4. Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

  5. Velocidades radiales de estrellas gigantes rojas y blue stragglers en cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan mediciones de las estrellas más brillantes en los campos de los cúmulos abiertos NGC 6530, NGC 2516, NGC 3114, Cr 223 y NGC 2437. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas se obtiene la velocidad de unas 25 gigantes rojas con el objeto de derivar la velocidad media de cada asociación. En base a los espectros obtenidos de los blue stragglers se discuten sus principales características y su probabilidad de pertenencia. Finalmente, se presentan las observaciones para cinco nuevas binarias espectroscópicas detectadas.

  6. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  7. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Additional Content Medical News Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations By James E. Wilberger, MD, Derrick A. Dupre, ... a direct, strong blow to the head. Cerebral lacerations are tears in brain tissue, caused by a ...

  8. Cerebral aneurysm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... area within the vessel wall. If a cerebral (brain) aneurysm ruptures, the escaping blood within the brain may cause severe neurologic complications or death. A person who has a ruptured cerebral aneurysm may complain of the sudden onset of "the ...

  9. United Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  10. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  11. A gigantic coronal jet ejected from a compact active region in a coronal hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Nitta, N.; Strong, K. T.; Matsumoto, R.; Yokoyama, T.; Hirayama, T.; Hudson, H.; Ogawara, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A gigantic coronal jet greater than 3 x 10(exp 5) km long (nearly half the solar radius) has been found with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the solar X-ray satellite, Yohkoh. The jet was ejected on 1992 January 11 from an 'anemone-type' active region (AR) appearing in a coronal hole and is one of the largest coronal X-ray jets observed so far by SXT. This gigantic jet is the best observed example of many other smaller X-ray jets, because the spatial structures of both the jet and the AR located at its base are more easily resolved. The range of apparent translational velocities of the bulk of the jet was between 90 and 240 km s(exp -1), with the corresponding kinetic energy estimated to be of order of 10(exp 28) ergs. A detailed analysis reveals that the jet was associated with a loop brightening (a small flare) that occurred in the active region. Several features of this observation suggest and are consistent with a magnetic reconnection mechanism for the production of such a 'jet-loop-brightening' event.

  12. Implications of an avian-style respiratory system for gigantism in sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Perry, Steven F; Christian, Andreas; Breuer, Thomas; Pajor, Nadine; Codd, Jonathan R

    2009-10-01

    In light of evidence for avian-like lungs in saurischian dinosaurs, the physiological implications of cross-current gas exchange and voluminous, highly heterogeneous lungs for sauropod gigantism are critically examined. At 12 ton the predicted body temperature and metabolic rate of a growing sauropod would be similar to that of a bird scaled to the same body weight, but would increase exponentially as body mass increases. Although avian-like lung structure would be consistent with either a tachymetabolic-endothermic or a bradymetabolic-gigantothermic model, increasing body temperature requires adjustments to avoid overheating. We suggest that a unique sauropod structure/function unit facilitated the evolution of gigantism. This unit consisted of (1) a reduction in metabolic rate below that predicted by the body temperature, akin to thermal adaptation as seen in extant squamates, (2) presence of air-filled diverticula in the long neck and in the visceral cavity, and (3) low activity of respiratory muscles coupled with the high efficiency of cross-current gas exchange.

  13. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

  14. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%. PMID:23729615

  15. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  16. GaAs-oxide interface states - Gigantic photoionization via Auger-like process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Kazior, T. E.; Gatos, H. C.; Walukiewicz, W.; Siejka, J.

    1981-01-01

    Spectral and transient responses of photostimulated current in MOS structures were employed for the study of GaAs-anodic oxide interface states. Discrete deep traps at 0.7 and 0.85 eV below the conduction band were found with concentrations of 5 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm and 7 x 10 to the 11th/sq cm, respectively. These traps coincide with interface states induced on clean GaAs surfaces by oxygen and/or metal adatoms (submonolayer coverage). In contrast to surfaces with low oxygen coverage, the GaAs-thick oxide interfaces exhibited a high density (about 10 to the 14th/sq cm) of shallow donors and acceptors. Photoexcitation of these donor-acceptor pairs led to a gigantic photoionization of deep interface states with rates 1000 times greater than direct transitions into the conduction band. The gigantic photoionization is explained on the basis of energy transfer from excited donor-acceptor pairs to deep states.

  17. [Long-term treatment of acromegaly and gigantism with octreotide (SMS 201-995)].

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, A; Imura, H; Irie, M; Nakagawa, S; Goto, Y; Shimizu, N; Takeda, R; Kato, Y; Saito, S; Ibayashi, H

    1992-02-20

    Twenty-one patients with active acromegaly and two patients with pituitary gigantism were treated with the long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide (100-600 micrograms/day, sc, two or three times daily or 300-1500 micrograms daily by intermittent sc infusion) for 9-63 months. There was rapid clinical improvement. The fasting plasma GH levels were significantly suppressed (less than 50% of the values before treatment) in 17 patients and were normalized (less than 5 ng/ml) in 6 patients (27.3%). Plasma IGF-I levels were lowered by 50% and were normalized in 7 out of 18 cases. The effect of octreotide on pituitary tumor size was evaluated in 13 patients. In 4 cases, the shrinkage of the pituitary tumor was detected by computed tomographic scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging studies. The drug was generally well tolerated. However, there were probably newly formed gallstones in two patients during the therapy. Our study suggests that octreotide is an effective and relatively safe new approach for treating active acromegaly and gigantism. PMID:1592144

  18. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

  19. Familial gigantism.

    PubMed

    Herder, Wouter W de

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  20. A gigantic, exceptionally complete titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from southern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lacovara, Kenneth J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Poole, Jason C; Schroeter, Elena R; Ullmann, Paul V; Voegele, Kristyn K; Boles, Zachary M; Carter, Aja M; Fowler, Emma K; Egerton, Victoria M; Moyer, Alison E; Coughenour, Christopher L; Schein, Jason P; Harris, Jerald D; Martínez, Rubén D; Novas, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very incomplete fossils, hindering a detailed understanding of their anatomy. Here we describe a new and gigantic titanosaur, Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Represented by approximately 70% of the postcranial skeleton, plus craniodental remains, Dreadnoughtus is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these colossal animals. Furthermore, despite its estimated mass of about 59.3 metric tons, the bone histology of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen reveals that this individual was still growing at the time of death. PMID:25186586

  1. Molecular design of TiO2 for gigantic red shift via sublattice substitution.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guosheng; Deng, Quanrong; Wan, Lin; Guo, Meilan; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2010-11-01

    The effects of 3d transition metal doping in TiO2 phases have been simulated in detail. The results of modelling indicate that Mn has the biggest potential among 3d transition metals, for the reduction of energy gap and the introduction of effective intermediate bands to allow multi-band optical absorption. On the basis of theoretical formulation, we have incorporated considerable amount of Mn in nano-crystalline TiO2 materials. Mn doped samples demonstrate significant red shift in the optical absorption edge, with a secondary absorption edge corresponding to theoretically predicted intermediate bands/states. The gigantic red shift achievable in Mn-doped TiO2 is expected to extend the useful TiO2 functionalities well beyond the UV threshold via the optical absorption of both visible and infrared photon irradiance.

  2. Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    The proposed order Megavirales comprises the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), infecting a wide range of hosts. Over time, they co-evolved with different host cells, developing various strategies to penetrate them. Mimiviruses and other giant viruses enter cells through phagocytosis, while Marseillevirus and other large viruses explore endocytosis and macropinocytosis. These differing strategies might reflect the evolution of those viruses. Various scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of these viruses, presenting one of the most enigmatic issues to surround these microorganisms. In this context, we believe that giant viruses evolved independently by massive gene/size gain, exploring the phagocytic pathway of entry into amoebas. In response to gigantism, hosts developed mechanisms to evade these parasites. PMID:27039270

  3. A gigantic, exceptionally complete titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from southern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lacovara, Kenneth J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Poole, Jason C; Schroeter, Elena R; Ullmann, Paul V; Voegele, Kristyn K; Boles, Zachary M; Carter, Aja M; Fowler, Emma K; Egerton, Victoria M; Moyer, Alison E; Coughenour, Christopher L; Schein, Jason P; Harris, Jerald D; Martínez, Rubén D; Novas, Fernando E

    2014-09-04

    Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very incomplete fossils, hindering a detailed understanding of their anatomy. Here we describe a new and gigantic titanosaur, Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Represented by approximately 70% of the postcranial skeleton, plus craniodental remains, Dreadnoughtus is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these colossal animals. Furthermore, despite its estimated mass of about 59.3 metric tons, the bone histology of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen reveals that this individual was still growing at the time of death.

  4. Early descriptions of acromegaly and gigantism and their historical evolution as clinical entities.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2010-10-01

    Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term "acromegaly" for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth" as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity. PMID:20887119

  5. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  6. Early descriptions of acromegaly and gigantism and their historical evolution as clinical entities.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2010-10-01

    Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term "acromegaly" for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth" as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity.

  7. Pituitary tumor with gigantism, acromegaly and preclinical Cushing's disease diagnosed from the 10th row.

    PubMed

    Tourtelot, John B; Vesely, David L

    2013-08-01

    A 7'3" basketball player was noted to have 2 to 3 times thicker tissue in his hands than 6'10" players by an endocrinologist sitting 10 rows above the player in a basketball arena. This led to the diagnosis of pituitary gigantism where the history revealed that he was 7'3" at 15 years of age. At age 19 when the acryl enlargement was noted, a diagnostic workup revealed elevated growth hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with a 2 × 1.3 cm pituitary tumor. His history suggested that his epiphyseal plates had closed at age 15, and because he continued to produce IGF-1, he now has acromegaly. His elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before surgery suggests that he also had preclinical Cushing's disease. After pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, all acryl enlargement in hands and ligaments disappeared. His growth hormone, IGF-1 and ACTH returned to normal 2 weeks after surgery. PMID:23462247

  8. Gigantic directional asymmetry of luminescence in multiferroic CuB 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, S.; Abe, N.; Arima, T.

    2016-05-01

    In multiferroic materials, luminescence intensities can be direction dependent, i.e., different between the opposite propagating directions of emitted light. However, the effect has not been thought to be used for technological applications, since only small directional asymmetry has been reported so far. Here we show that the effect is robust in multiferroic CuB2O4 . The luminescence intensity changes by about 70 % between the opposite directions of the emission, which is about 100 times larger than the previously reported values. We demonstrate that such a gigantic directional asymmetry of luminescence can be applied to the imaging of canted antiferromagnetic domains. The observation of the effect and its application to magnetic domain imaging are important for a deeper understanding of light-matter interactions as well as technological applications such as optical reading techniques for magnetic memory devices.

  9. ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villante, F. L.

    2015-03-01

    Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at Eν ∼ 2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

  10. Pituitary tumor with gigantism, acromegaly and preclinical Cushing's disease diagnosed from the 10th row.

    PubMed

    Tourtelot, John B; Vesely, David L

    2013-08-01

    A 7'3" basketball player was noted to have 2 to 3 times thicker tissue in his hands than 6'10" players by an endocrinologist sitting 10 rows above the player in a basketball arena. This led to the diagnosis of pituitary gigantism where the history revealed that he was 7'3" at 15 years of age. At age 19 when the acryl enlargement was noted, a diagnostic workup revealed elevated growth hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with a 2 × 1.3 cm pituitary tumor. His history suggested that his epiphyseal plates had closed at age 15, and because he continued to produce IGF-1, he now has acromegaly. His elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before surgery suggests that he also had preclinical Cushing's disease. After pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, all acryl enlargement in hands and ligaments disappeared. His growth hormone, IGF-1 and ACTH returned to normal 2 weeks after surgery.

  11. Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    The proposed order Megavirales comprises the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), infecting a wide range of hosts. Over time, they co-evolved with different host cells, developing various strategies to penetrate them. Mimiviruses and other giant viruses enter cells through phagocytosis, while Marseillevirus and other large viruses explore endocytosis and macropinocytosis. These differing strategies might reflect the evolution of those viruses. Various scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of these viruses, presenting one of the most enigmatic issues to surround these microorganisms. In this context, we believe that giant viruses evolved independently by massive gene/size gain, exploring the phagocytic pathway of entry into amoebas. In response to gigantism, hosts developed mechanisms to evade these parasites.

  12. The Early ULF Signal of the Gigantic Jets Revealed By Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po-Hsun; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    The conventional Fourier analysis on the sferics in ULF and VLF bandpasses has been done for years. Several phenomena e.g. whistler and Schumann resonance have been well studied by the Fourier spectrum comprehensively. But the Fourier analysis is computed by an integration over time, therefore, the temporal resolution is smoothed, and limited not only by the sampling rate but also the size of the integration window. The instantaneous frequency can't be obtained through this conventional approach. We introduce the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) instead of Fourier transform to analyze the sferics of TLEs recorded at Lulin observatory. The Hilbert-Huang transform decomposes a signal into so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMF), and derive instantaneous frequency data by differentiating the phase angle yielded by Hilbert transform. Our analysis of HHT on several gigantic jets recorded by ground observation surprisingly revealed an early signal of frequency-change during the phase of the leading jet, and this early signal can not be identified by Fourier analysis. In the phase of leading jet, the amplitude of the sferics remains a constant and no significant features are recognized in the recorded waveform, but an obvious frequency change about 100-200 millisecond prior to the main discharge of the full development jets (FDJs), which can be clearly recognized in the HHT spectra of all observed gigantic jets. From a further simulation, this frequency change is confirmed to come from the nature of the discharge, not an alias or a false signal generated by the analysis method. This early signal may implies an in-cloud discharge process which is suggested by Krehbiel et al. [2008

  13. Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods. PMID:21818347

  14. Statins and cerebral hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Marshall, Randolph S

    2012-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with improved stroke outcome. This observation has been attributed in part to the palliative effect of statins on cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral autoregulation (CA), which are mediated mainly through the upregulation of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Several animal studies indicate that statin pretreatment enhances cerebral blood flow after ischemic stroke, although this finding is not further supported in clinical settings. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity, however, is significantly improved after long-term statin administration in most patients with severe small vessel disease, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or impaired baseline CA. PMID:22929438

  15. Cerebral Asymmetries and Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are historical developments regarding the concepts of cerebral localization, and analyzed are implications of current research on the role of the cerebral hemispheres in reading disorders. (CL)

  16. Cerebral Palsy (CP) Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pop Quiz: Cerebral Palsy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Sandy is the parent of a child with cerebral palsy and the Board President of Gio’s Garden , a ...

  17. Hemihyperhidrosis in cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Redmond, Gemma; Ram, Pusbar; Owens, Val B; Sangster, Graeme; Barrett, James A

    2004-09-01

    Increased sweating on the hemiparetic side in cerebral infarcts is not a common clinical finding. The onset, severity and duration of symptoms can vary. The structural lesion responsible for this is a subject of conjecture. We present the case of a 66-year-old man who developed hemihyperhidrosis secondary to a cerebral infarct. PMID:15315923

  18. A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient

    PubMed Central

    Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Nadal, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is defined as a benign neoplasm of vascular phenotype. This case describes the clinical and histopathological features of a gigantic mucogingival pyogenic granuloma, in a 14-year-old healthy black boy. This exophytic gray-purple mass, related to a toothpick injury, had more than twelve-month evolution on the anterior mandible involving lingual area besides to the floor of the mouth pressing the right salivary duct. Conservative excision was performed, followed by uncomplicated healing with no recurrence in two years. The histopathological examination reported a pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary haemangioma). The authors provide a discussion of the presurgical differential diagnosis of the lesion. This case report presents an extremely uncommon location of a gigantic pyogenic granuloma, involving mucogingival complex and affecting the salivary outflow. This clinical manuscript may shed light on the controversies about possible mechanisms inducing oral pyogenic granuloma. PMID:24987485

  19. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:7787324

  20. GaAs-oxide interface states - A gigantic photoionization effect and its implications to the origin of these states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Kazior, T. E.; Gatos, H. C.; Siejka, J.

    1981-01-01

    Gigantic photoionization was discovered on GaAs-oxide interfaces leading to the discharge of deep surface states with rates exceeding 1000 times those of photoionization transitions to the conduction band. It exhibits a peak similar to acceptor-donor transitions and is explained as due to energy transfer from photo-excited donor-acceptor pairs to deep surface states. This new process indicates the presence of significant concentrations of shallow donor and acceptor levels not recognized in previous interface models.

  1. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with gigantism and huge pelvic tumor: a rare case of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kidani, Teruki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kito, Katsumi; Tanji, Nozomu; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a rare case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on endocrine hyperfunction with elevated human growth hormone and normal serum level of prolactin. There were some differential points of gender, gigantism, endocrine function, and GNAS gene from McCune-Albright syndrome. Malignant transformation was suspected in the pelvic tumor from imaging because rapid growth of the tumor by imaging was observed; however, no malignant change occurred in this case. PMID:20878436

  2. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sustained-release lanreotide (lanreotide Autogel) in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Akira; Teramoto, Akira; Hizuka, Naomi; Kitai, Kazuo; Ramis, Joaquim; Chihara, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The somatostatin analog lanreotide Autogel has proven to be efficacious for treating acromegaly in international studies and in clinical practices around the world. However, its efficacy in Japanese patients has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the dose-response relationship and long-term efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. In an open-label, parallel-group, dose-response study, 32 patients (29 with acromegaly, 3 with pituitary gigantism) received 5 injections of 60, 90, or 120 mg of lanreotide Autogel over 24 weeks. Four weeks after the first injection, 41% of patients achieved serum GH level of <2.5 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level was normalized in 31%. Values at Week 24 were 53% for GH and 44% for IGF-I. Dose-dependent decreases in serum GH and IGF-I levels were observed with dose-related changes in pharmacokinetic parameters. In an open-label, long-term study, 32 patients (30 with acromegaly, 2 with pituitary gigantism) received lanreotide Autogel once every 4 weeks for a total of 13 injections. Dosing was initiated with 90 mg and adjusted according to clinical responses at Weeks 16 and/or 32. At Week 52, 47% of patients had serum GH levels of <2.5 ng/mL and 53% had normalized IGF-I level. In both studies, acromegaly symptoms improved and treatment was generally well tolerated although gastrointestinal symptoms and injection site induration were reported. In conclusion, lanreotide Autogel provided early and sustained control of elevated GH and IGF-I levels, improved acromegaly symptoms, and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. PMID:23337477

  3. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sustained-release lanreotide (lanreotide Autogel) in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Akira; Teramoto, Akira; Hizuka, Naomi; Kitai, Kazuo; Ramis, Joaquim; Chihara, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The somatostatin analog lanreotide Autogel has proven to be efficacious for treating acromegaly in international studies and in clinical practices around the world. However, its efficacy in Japanese patients has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the dose-response relationship and long-term efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. In an open-label, parallel-group, dose-response study, 32 patients (29 with acromegaly, 3 with pituitary gigantism) received 5 injections of 60, 90, or 120 mg of lanreotide Autogel over 24 weeks. Four weeks after the first injection, 41% of patients achieved serum GH level of <2.5 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level was normalized in 31%. Values at Week 24 were 53% for GH and 44% for IGF-I. Dose-dependent decreases in serum GH and IGF-I levels were observed with dose-related changes in pharmacokinetic parameters. In an open-label, long-term study, 32 patients (30 with acromegaly, 2 with pituitary gigantism) received lanreotide Autogel once every 4 weeks for a total of 13 injections. Dosing was initiated with 90 mg and adjusted according to clinical responses at Weeks 16 and/or 32. At Week 52, 47% of patients had serum GH levels of <2.5 ng/mL and 53% had normalized IGF-I level. In both studies, acromegaly symptoms improved and treatment was generally well tolerated although gastrointestinal symptoms and injection site induration were reported. In conclusion, lanreotide Autogel provided early and sustained control of elevated GH and IGF-I levels, improved acromegaly symptoms, and was well tolerated in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

  4. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with gigantism and huge pelvic tumor: a rare case of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kidani, Teruki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kito, Katsumi; Tanji, Nozomu; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a rare case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on endocrine hyperfunction with elevated human growth hormone and normal serum level of prolactin. There were some differential points of gender, gigantism, endocrine function, and GNAS gene from McCune-Albright syndrome. Malignant transformation was suspected in the pelvic tumor from imaging because rapid growth of the tumor by imaging was observed; however, no malignant change occurred in this case.

  5. Peculiarities of the geologic structure of gigantic gas fields of the western Siberian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Belyi, N.

    1991-03-01

    The Western Siberian Oil and Gas Province is a unique one regarding the concentration of natural gas resources in Mesozoic terrigenous formations. Discovery of gigantic natural gas fields makes it possible to provide high level of gas production for future prospects. The USSR has enormous potential possibilities for discoveries of new natural gas fields onshore, as well as offshore. At present, three gigantic gas fields have been developed, namely Medvezhie, Urongoi, and Yamburg. The first one has been in operation for 18 years. In the Mesozoic section, three productive complexes can be noticed: Upper Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Jurassic. The Upper Cretaceous production complex is mostly explored, with unique gas resources containing mainly methane having been discovered. The Lower Cretaceous production complex is characterized by considerable lithofaceous uniformity of reservoirs. Gas pools of this complex contain considerable quantities of condensate quite often having oil rims. The Jurassic production complex, which is characterized by its complicated structure and considerable changeability of the filtration properties, is less studied. Study of the geological structural peculiarities of the gigantic gas fields of Western Siberia gives us the possibility to find new approval for the development and exploration of gas fields.

  6. Gravity combined with laser-scan in Grotta Gigante: a benchmark cave for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivetta, Tommaso; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Laser scanning has become one of the most important topographic techniques in the last decades, due to its ability to reconstruct complex surfaces with high resolution and precision and due to its fast acquisition time. Recently a laser-scan survey has been acquired (Fingolo et al., 2011) in the "Grotta Gigante" cave near Trieste, Italy, the biggest cave worldwide according to the Guinness Awards. In this paper this survey is used to obtain a 3D discretization of the cave with prisms. Then through this new model, with the densities derived from campaign measurements, the exact gravimetric effect of the structure was computed (Nagy et al., 2000) and compared with the gravity observation at the surface. The transition from the cloud of laser-scan points to the prism model was carried out by different computer elaborations; first of all the reduction of the data density through an averaging process that allows to pass from over 10000 points/m2 to less than 10points/m2. Then the whole dataset was filtered from the outliers by the means of a simple quadratic surface that fit the data (Turner, 1999). The reduced data points should be divided into the 2 surfaces of top and bottom, that are used to define the prisms. This step was performed using the local regression method (Loess) to calculate a surface located halfway between top and bottom points. Once the top and bottom interfaces were obtained it was possible to get the final prism representation and calculate the gravity signal. The observed Bouguer field is explained very well by our model and the residuals are used to evaluate possible secondary caves. The final prism model together with the gravity database on surface and inside the cave form a perfect benchmark to test forward and inverse potential field algorithms. References Fingolo M., Facco L., Ceccato A., Breganze C., Paganini P., Cezza M., Grotta Gigante di Trieste. Tra realtà virtuale e rilievi 3D ad alta risoluzione, Veneto Geologi, 75, pp.21-25, 2011

  7. A 12-year-old girl presenting with bilateral gigantic Burkitt's lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lingohr, Philipp; Eidt, Sebastian; Rheinwalt, Karl Peter

    2009-05-01

    The female breast rarely constitutes the primary localization for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) lies between 0.04 and 1.1% for all breast tumors and 1.7-2.2% for all extranodal NHL. Mostly it occurs during the child-bearing period, during pregnancy or lactation. In general, children between the ages of 8 and 10 years are most frequently affected by Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods for classification, detection and especially treatment of this condition continue being a subject of discussions and research. We present and evaluate the rare case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral gigantic breast tumors treated during a surgical mission with "Doctors without borders" (MSF, "médecins sans frontiers") in the zone of civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The monstrous bilateral breast hypertrophy, symmetrical, rapidly growing, consequently ulcerating and severely bleeding had to be treated by bilateral mastectomy as a salvage procedure. Examinations through histopathology was not feasible and other facilities like ultrasound, CT, MRI and further laboratory examinations were not available.. The patient died 27 days after the surgical procedure. The histological result received by later examination in Germany showed a bilateral high malignant B cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma) of the breast.

  8. Respiratory evolution facilitated the origin of pterosaur flight and aerial gigantism.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Leon P A M; O'Connor, Patrick M; Unwin, David M

    2009-01-01

    Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film) studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.

  9. Respiratory Evolution Facilitated the Origin of Pterosaur Flight and Aerial Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Claessens, Leon P. A. M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Unwin, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film) studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation. PMID:19223979

  10. Commissioning of the gigantic anaerobic sludge digesters at the wastewater treatment plant of Athens.

    PubMed

    Gikas, P

    2008-02-01

    The pre-commissioning strategy, the start-up procedure and the analytical data obtained during the commissioning period for the first of the four new anaerobic gigantic digesters, with active volume of 10,000 m3 each, are presented in this paper. The digester was initially filled up with water, and the temperature was raised to 36 +/- 1 degrees C. Then, a total amount of 1,860 m3 of digested primary sludge was transferred, in four equal daily batches, into the digester from neighbouring digesters, performing routine operation. Following this, the digester was gradually fed with fresh primary thickened sludge, up to the point that the retention time reached approximately 20 d. A number of significant operational parameters (pH, alkalinity, total and volatile solids concentration, volatile fatty acids concentration, biogas production rate and composition) were monitored several times per day, and the appropriate adjustments were performed in order to achieve stable operation. The time duration of the whole process was about two and a half months. Later on, the digester was supplied with a mixture of primary and biological sludge.

  11. Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-04-28

    The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical 'real-space' search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo(2)O(2)S(2)](2+)-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo(10)(C5)}; 2, {Mo(14)(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo(60)(C4)10}; 4, {Mo(48)(C4)6}; 5, {Mo(34)(C4)4}; 6, {Mo(18)(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

  12. Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar; Akoh, Jacob A

    2014-07-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are associated with greater morbidity than autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), but their use is indicated when AVF formation is not possible. This report adds to the literature a case of lower limb gigantism, painful varicosities, and lymphedema following long-term use of AVG in the upper thigh. The patient's past medical history included renal transplantation on the same side well before the AVG was inserted and right leg deep vein thrombosis. Suspicion of AVG thrombosis was excluded by Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated an access flow of 1700 mL/min. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of her symptoms. Whereas functional incompetence of the iliac vein valve might be responsible for the varicosities, the extent of hypertrophy in this case raises the suspicion of lymphatic blockage possibly secondary to groin dissection undertaken at the time of graft insertion, in addition to the previous dissection at the time of transplantation. This case highlights the need for minimal groin dissection during AVG insertion, particularly in patients with a history of previous abdominopelvic surgery. PMID:24467313

  13. Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations. PMID:24770632

  14. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  15. Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical 'real-space' search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo(2)O(2)S(2)](2+)-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo(10)(C5)}; 2, {Mo(14)(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo(60)(C4)10}; 4, {Mo(48)(C4)6}; 5, {Mo(34)(C4)4}; 6, {Mo(18)(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations. PMID:24770632

  16. Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Hong-Ying; de La Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

  17. The properties of a gigantic jet reflected in a simultaneous sprite: Observations interpreted by a model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Arnone, E.; Zanotti, F.; Cummer, S.; Li, J.; Füllekrug, M.; Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.

    2011-12-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets - the largest electric discharges of our planet. The properties of these “giants,” such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized by measurements. A recent observation of a giant, fortuitously illuminated by an unusual sprite discharge in the mesosphere, allows us to study their electric properties and effects on the atmosphere-ionosphere. We show from a first-principles model of the combined giant and sprite event that the observations are consistent with the nature of the giant being a leader in the stratosphere of line charge density ˜0.8 mCm-1 and of multiple streamers in the mesosphere. It is further shown that the giant modifies the free electron content of the lower ionosphere because of electric field-driven ionization, electron attachment and detachment processes. This is the first time that sprites are used for sounding the properties of the mesosphere. The results presented here will allow evaluation of theories for jet and gigantic jets and of their influence on the atmosphere and ionosphere.

  18. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    PubMed

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  19. Change in the immunophenotype of a somatotroph adenoma resulting in gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Jayesh P.; Bailey, Robert L.; Burns, Carrie M.; Lee, John Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Examining the pathologic progression of a pituitary adenoma from the point of a prepubescent child to an adult with gigantism affords us an opportunity to consider why patients may develop secretory or functioning tumors and raises questions about whether therapeutic interventions and surveillance strategies could be made to avoid irreversible phenotypic changes. Case Description: A patient underwent a sublabial transsphenoidal resection for a clinically non-functioning macroadenoma in 1999. He underwent radiation treatment and was transiently given growth hormone (GH) supplementation as an adolescent. His growth rapidly traversed several percentiles and he was found to have elevated GH levels. The patient became symptomatic and was taken for a second neurosurgical procedure. Pathology and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of somatotroph cells and dense granularity; he was diagnosed with a functional somatotroph adenoma. Conclusions: While it is likely that the described observations reflect the manifestations of a functional somatotroph adenoma in development, it is possible that pubertal growth, GH supplementation, its removal, or radiation therapy contributed to the described endocrine and pathologic changes. PMID:25396071

  20. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

    PubMed Central

    González Riga, Bernardo J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ortiz David, Leonardo D.; Calvo, Jorge O.; Coria, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods. PMID:26777391

  1. A Thermodynamic, kinematic and microphysical analysis of a jet and gigantic jet-producing Florida thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, S. M.; Splitt, M. E.; Brownlee, James; Spiva, Nicholas; Liu, Ningyu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a meteorological analysis of a storm that produced two jets, four gigantic jets (GJ), and a starter, which were observed by two radars as well as the Kennedy Space Center 4-Dimensional Lightning Surveillance System on 3 August 2013 in Central Florida. The work is the first application of dual polarization data to a jet-producing storm and is the fifth case related to a tropical disturbance. The storm environment is consistent with the moist tropical paradigm that characterizes about three quarters of the surface and aircraft observed jet and GJ events. The most unstable (MU) convective available potential energy is not unusual for Florida summer convection and is below the climatological mean for these events. An unusual speed shear layer is located near the storm equilibrium level (EL) and the storm exhibits a tilted structure with CGs displaced upshear. The turbulence, as measured by the eddy dissipation rate, is extreme near the storm top during the event window, consistent with the GJ mixing hypothesis. The individual events are collocated with, and track along, the center axis of the divergent outflow at the EL and occur within the region of the coldest GOES IR temperatures—placing the events within the overshoot. The dual polarization data indicate a deep graupel column, extending above the mixed phase layer, to a 13 km altitude.

  2. Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar; Akoh, Jacob A

    2014-07-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are associated with greater morbidity than autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), but their use is indicated when AVF formation is not possible. This report adds to the literature a case of lower limb gigantism, painful varicosities, and lymphedema following long-term use of AVG in the upper thigh. The patient's past medical history included renal transplantation on the same side well before the AVG was inserted and right leg deep vein thrombosis. Suspicion of AVG thrombosis was excluded by Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated an access flow of 1700 mL/min. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of her symptoms. Whereas functional incompetence of the iliac vein valve might be responsible for the varicosities, the extent of hypertrophy in this case raises the suspicion of lymphatic blockage possibly secondary to groin dissection undertaken at the time of graft insertion, in addition to the previous dissection at the time of transplantation. This case highlights the need for minimal groin dissection during AVG insertion, particularly in patients with a history of previous abdominopelvic surgery.

  3. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  4. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed.

  5. Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Alexander; Klok, C Jaco; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Quinlan, Michael C; Harrison, Jon F

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Paleozoic hyperoxia enabled animal gigantism, and the subsequent hypoxia drove a reduction in animal size. This evolutionary hypothesis depends on the argument that gas exchange in many invertebrates and skin-breathing vertebrates becomes compromised at large sizes because of distance effects on diffusion. In contrast to vertebrates, which use respiratory and circulatory systems in series, gas exchange in insects is almost exclusively determined by the tracheal system, providing a particularly suitable model to investigate possible limitations of oxygen delivery on size. In this study, we used synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging to visualize the tracheal system and quantify its dimensions in four species of darkling beetles varying in mass by 3 orders of magnitude. We document that, in striking contrast to the pattern observed in vertebrates, larger insects devote a greater fraction of their body to the respiratory system, as tracheal volume scaled with mass1.29. The trend is greatest in the legs; the cross-sectional area of the trachea penetrating the leg orifice scaled with mass1.02, whereas the cross-sectional area of the leg orifice scaled with mass0.77. These trends suggest the space available for tracheae within the leg may ultimately limit the maximum size of extant beetles. Because the size of the tracheal system can be reduced when oxygen supply is increased, hyperoxia, as occurred during late Carboniferous and early Permian, may have facilitated the evolution of giant insects by allowing limbs to reach larger sizes before the tracheal system became limited by spatial constraints.

  6. Optical and radio signatures of negative gigantic jets: Cases from Typhoon Lionrock (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sung-Ming; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Lee, Li-Jou; Su, Han-Tzong; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Jung-Kuang; Chang, Shu-Chun; Wu, Yen-Jung; Chen, Alfred B.

    2012-08-01

    On 31 August 2010, more than 100 transient luminous events were observed to occur over Typhoon Lionrock when it passed at ˜210 km to the southwest of the NCKU site in Taiwan. Among them, 14 negative gigantic jets (GJs) with clear recognizable morphologies and radio frequency signals are analyzed. These GJs are all found to have negative discharge polarity and thus are type I GJs. Morphologically, they are grouped into three forms: tree-like, carrot-like, and a new intermediate type called tree-carrot-like GJs. The ULF and ELF/VLF band signals of these events contain clear signatures associated with GJ development stages, including the initiating lightning, the leading jet, the fully developed jet, and the trailing jet. Though the radio waveform for each group of GJs always contains a fast descending pulse linked with the surge current upon the GJ-ionosphere contact, the detailed waveforms actually vary substantially. Cross analysis of the optical and radio frequency signals for these GJs indicates that a large surge current moment (CM) (>60 kA-km) appears to be essentially associated with the tree-like GJs. In contrast, the carrot-like and the tree-carrot-like GJs are both related to a surge CM less than 36 kA-km, and a continuing CM less than 27 kA-km further separates the carrot-like GJs from the tree-carrot-like GJs. Furthermore, on the peak CM versus charge moment change diagram for the initiating lightning, different groups of GJs seem to exhibit different trends. This feature suggests that the eventual forms of negative GJs may have been determined at the initiating lightning stage.

  7. New color images of sprites, halos and gigantic jets from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Rubanenko, L.; Mezuman, K.; Elhalel, G.; Pariente, M.; Glickman-Pariente, M.; Ziv, B.; Takahashi, Y.; Inoue, T.

    2012-12-01

    During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the "Cosmic Shore" program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Copula module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). We used the Aviation Weather Center (http://aviationweather.gov) daily significant weather forecast maps (SIGWX) to select regions with high probability for convective activity and thunderstorm such that they were within the camera FOV as deduced from the ISS trajectory and distance to the limb (2240 km). For increasing the chance for successful observations, only storms with predicted "Frequent Cb" and cloud tops above 45 Kft (~14 km) were selected. Additionally, we targeted tropical storms and hurricanes over the oceans. The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 hours of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly

  8. Similarity Analysis of the Streamer Zone of Blue Jets and Gigantic Blue Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennady, M.; Popov, N. A.; Shneider, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple observations of Blue Jets (BJ) and Gigantic Blue Jets (GBJ) show that BJ emits a fan of streamers similar to a laboratory leader. Moreover, in the exponential atmosphere those long streamers grow preferentially upward, producing a narrow cone confined by the aperture angle. Petrov and Petrova [1999] and Pasko and George [2002] noticed that BJ are similar to the streamer zone of a leader (streamer corona) and conducted modeling studies based on the streamers fractal structure. Objective of this paper is to study the fractal dimension of the bunch of streamer channels emitted by BJ, at different altitude and under the varying reduced electric field. This similarity analysis has been done in three steps: First we described the dendritic structure of streamers in corona discharge applying the fractal theory by Popov [2002]. Then using this model and the data from existing laboratory experiments we obtained that the fractal dimension of the branching streamer channels D=2. We estimated next the packing factor of the streamers using the kinetic simulations that describe development of a group of streamers that propagate in a discharge gap while interact with each other. Finally the model was used to analyze some GBJ images available from the literature. The model output includes evaluation of the total number of streamer channels in the GBJs along with estimates of the aperture angle and of the average distance between the brunches. In addition the analysis allows us to obtain the mean streamer velocity for the studied GBJs and check the velocity against the observations. V.P. Pasko and J.J. George, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1458, 2002 N.I. Petrov and G.N. Petrova, Tech Phys. Lett., 44, 472, 1999 N.A. Popov, Plasma Phys. Reports, 28, 615, 2002.

  9. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Allroggen, H.; Abbott, R.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a challenging condition because of its variability of clinical symptoms and signs. It is very often unrecognised at initial presentation. All age groups can be affected. Large sinuses such as the superior sagittal sinus are most frequently involved. Extensive collateral circulation within the cerebral venous system allows for a significant degree of compensation in the early stages of thrombus formation. Systemic inflammatory diseases and inherited as well as acquired coagulation disorders are frequent causes, although in up to 30% of cases no underlying cause can be identified. The oral contraceptive pill appears to be an important additional risk factor. The spectrum of clinical presentations ranges from headache with papilloedema to focal deficit, seizures and coma. Magnetic resonance imaging with venography is the investigation of choice; computed tomography alone will miss a significant number of cases. It has now been conclusively shown that intravenous heparin is the first-line treatment for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis because of its efficacy, safety and feasability. Local thrombolysis may be indicated in cases of deterioration, despite adequate heparinisation. This should be followed by oral anticoagulation for 3-6 months. The prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is generally favourable. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose this uncommon condition so that appropriate treatment can be initiated.


Keywords: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis PMID:10622773

  10. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis.

    PubMed

    Sood, S; Vaid, V K; Sharma, M; Bhartiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare and frequently fatal disease. We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala dermatitidis in a young immuno competent male presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur. PMID:24713913

  11. Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886).

    PubMed

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2009-01-01

    In 1886 Pierre Marie used the term "acromegaly" for the first time and gave a full description of the characteristic clinical picture. However several others had already given clear clinical descriptions before him and sometimes had given the disease other names. After 1886, it gradually became clear that pituitary enlargement (caused by a pituitary adenoma) was the cause and not the consequence of acromegaly, as initially thought. Pituitary adenomas could be found in the great majority of cases. It also became clear that acromegaly and gigantism were the same disease but occurring at different stages of life and not different diseases as initially thought. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century most information was derived from case descriptions and post-mortem examinations of patients with acromegaly or (famous) patients with gigantism. The stage was set for further research into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of acromegaly and gigantism. PMID:18683056

  12. Gigantic solitary fibrous tumour of extra-peritoneal space. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Bohdan; Mazurkiewicz, Michał; Makiewicz, Marcin; Krasnoębski, Ireneusz W

    2014-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare soft tissue tumour which belongs to fibroblastic/myofibroblastic group of tumours. The most often it appears in pleura, also in pericardium, internal organs, peritoneum and extraperitoenal space. SFT was first described as a new type of pleura's tumour by Klemperer and Rabin in 1931. The histogenesis of SFT's has been discussed for years suggesting its mesothelial origin. Recently, SFT has been classified as a mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour. We report a very rare case of 71-year old man suffering from gigantic solitary fibrous tumour of extraperitoneal space who underwent curative surgery in the Department of General, Gastroenterological and Oncologic Surgery in 2011.

  13. Neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Namura, Shobu; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Liu, Jialing; Yenari, Midori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, a focal or global insufficiency of blood flow to the brain, can arise through multiple mechanisms, including thrombosis and arterial hemorrhage. Ischemia is a major driver of stroke, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the general etiology of cerebral ischemia and stroke has been known for some time, the conditions have only recently been considered treatable. This report describes current research in this field seeking to fully understand the pathomechanisms underlying stroke; to characterize the brain’s intrinsic injury, survival, and repair mechanisms; to identify putative drug targets as well as cell-based therapies; and to optimize the delivery of therapeutic agents to the damaged cerebral tissue. PMID:23488559

  14. Unusual Cerebral Emboli.

    PubMed

    Zakhari, Nader; Castillo, Mauricio; Torres, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The heart and the carotid arteries are the most common sites of origin of embolic disease to the brain. Clots arising from these locations are the most common types of brain emboli. Less common cerebral emboli include air, fat, calcium, infected vegetations, and tumor cells as well as emboli originating in the venous system. Although infarcts can be the final result of any type of embolism, described herein are the ancillary and sometimes unique imaging features of less common types of cerebral emboli that may allow for a specific diagnosis to be made or at least suspected in many patients.

  15. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  16. Cerebral Palsy Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Sartwelle, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322

  17. Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the

  18. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznichenko, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  19. The 45-kb unit of major urinary protein gene organization is a gigantic imperfect palindrome.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J O; Selman, G G; Hickman, J; Black, L; Saunders, R D; Clark, A J

    1985-07-01

    The multigene family which codes for the mouse major urinary proteins consists of about 35 genes. Most of these are members of two distinct groups, group 1 and group 2. The group 1 and group 2 genes are organized in head-to-head pairs within 12 to 15 remarkably uniform chromosomal units or domains about 45 kilobase pairs (kb) in size. The 45-kb units are located on chromosome 4, and many of them are adjacent to each other. We propose that the 45-kb unit is a unit both of organization and of evolutionary change. In this study the homologies within the unit were observed by examining, in an electron microscope, heteroduplex and foldback structures made from cloned major urinary protein genes. These show that the 45-kb unit is a gigantic imperfect palindrome. Each arm of the palindrome contains two regions of inverted symmetry of 9.5 and 4.5 kb separated by a 3-kb nonsymmetrical region. We argue that the nonsymmetrical regions arose by a series of deletion events in the two arms of the palindrome. The center of the 45-kb unit is an 8-kb sequence without inverted symmetry flanked by the 9.5-kb regions, which contain the 4-kb genes and their immediate 5' and 3' flanking regions. The junction between adjacent 45-kb units is a 2- to 4-kb sequence without inverted symmetry flanked by the 4.5-kb regions. Some of the 45-kb units are arranged as direct tandem repeats. Others appear to be in inverted orientation with respect to a neighboring unit. Cloned major urinary protein genes show few incidences of the repetitive elements B1, B2, R, and MIF. Two elements, a B1 and an R, may be a constant feature of the 45-kb units. If so, in those cases in which the units are in tandem array, both of these elements will occur with a 45-kb periodicity. A comparison of corresponding parts of different 45-kb units shows that they differ because of a number of deletion or insertion events, particularly in the regions 3' to the genes.

  20. Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Smith, Eric E.; Eichler, Florian S.; Filley, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Lesions of the cerebral white matter (WM) result in focal neurobehavioral syndromes, neuropsychiatric phenomena, and dementia. The cerebral WM contains fiber pathways that convey axons linking cerebral cortical areas with each other and with subcortical structures, facilitating the distributed neural circuits that subserve sensorimotor function, intellect, and emotion. Recent neuroanatomical investigations reveal that these neural circuits are topographically linked by five groupings of fiber tracts emanating from every neocortical area: (1) cortico-cortical association fibers; (2) corticostriatal fibers; (3) commissural fibers; and cortico-subcortical pathways to (4) thalamus and (5) pontocerebellar system, brain stem, and/or spinal cord. Lesions of association fibers prevent communication between cortical areas engaged in different domains of behavior. Lesions of subcortical structures or projection/striatal fibers disrupt the contribution of subcortical nodes to behavior. Disconnection syndromes thus result from lesions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, and WM tracts that link the nodes that make up the distributed circuits. The nature and the severity of the clinical manifestations of WM lesions are determined, in large part, by the location of the pathology: discrete neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms result from focal WM lesions, whereas cognitive impairment across multiple domains—WM dementia—occurs in the setting of diffuse WM disease. We present a detailed review of the conditions affecting WM that produce these neurobehavioral syndromes, and consider the pathophysiology, clinical effects, and broad significance of the effects of aging and vascular compromise on cerebral WM, in an attempt to help further the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders. PMID:18990132

  1. Cerebral and Tissue Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Jochen; Hogue, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been increasingly adopted in cardiac surgery to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturation. This method takes advantage of the fact that light in the near-infrared spectrum penetrates tissue, including bone and muscle. Sensors are placed at fixed distances from a light emitter, and algorithms subtract superficial light absorption from deep absorption to provide an index of tissue oxygenation. Although the popularity of NIRS monitoring is growing, definitive data that prove outcome benefits with its use remain sparse. Therefore, widespread, routine use of NIRS as a standard-of-care monitor cannot be recommended at present. Recent investigations have focused on the use of NIRS in subgroups that may benefit from NIRS monitoring, such as pediatric patients. Furthermore, a novel application of processed NIRS information for monitoring cerebral autoregulation and tissue oxygenation (e.g., kidneys and the gut) is promising. PMID:25480772

  2. Music and cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marinoni, M; Grassi, E; Latorraca, S; Caruso, A; Sorbi, S

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies performed by positron emission tomography and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) found a different cerebral activation during musical stimuli in musicians compared to non-musicians. The aim of our study is to evaluate by means of TCD, possible different pattern of cerebral activation during the performance of different musical tasks in musicians, non-musicians and lyrical singers. Our findings show a left hemispheric activation in musicians and a right one in non-musicians. Preliminary data on lyrical singers' activation patterns need further confirmation with a larger population. These data could be related to a different approach to music listening in musicians (analytical) and non-musicians who are supposed to have an emotional approach to music. PMID:10942664

  3. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists. PMID:20183203

  4. A gigantic Bezymianny-type event at the beginning of modern volcan Popocatepetl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Claude; Boudal, Christian

    1987-03-01

    The history of volcan Popocatepetl can be divided into two main periods: the formation of a large primitive volcano — approximatively 30 km wide — on which is superimposed a modern cone (6-8 km in diameter and 1700m high). A major event of Bezymianny type marks the transition between these two dissimilar periods. The activity of the primitive volcano was essentially effusive and lasted several hundred thousands of years. The total volume of products ejected by the volcano is of the order of 500-600 km 3. Its last differentiated magmas are dacitic. A gigantic debris flow (D.F.) spread on the southern side is related to the Bezymianny-type event which destroyed the summit area of the ancient edifice. An elliptical caldera ( ⋍ 6.5 × 11 km wide) was formed by the landslide. Its deposits, with a typical hummocky surface, cover 300 km 2 for a volume of 28-30 km 3. Numerous outcrops belonging to this debris flow show "slabs" of more or less fractured and dislocated rocks that come from the primitive volcano. These deposits are compared to two studied debris flows of similar extent and volume: the Mount Shasta and Colima's D.F. This eruption takes a major place in the volcanologic and magmatic history of Popocatepetl: pyroclastic products of surge-type with "laminites" and crude layers, ashflows, and pumiceous airfall layers are directly related to this event and begin the history of the modern volcano probably less than 50,000 years ago. In addition, a second andesitic and dacitic phase rose both from the central vent — forming the basis of modern Popo — and from lateral vents. The terminal cone is characterized by long periods of construction by lava flows alternating with phases of destruction, the duration of these episodes being 1000 to 2000 years. The cone is composed of two edifices: the first, volcan El Fraile, began with effusive activity and was partly destroyed by three periods of intense explosive activity. The first period occurred prior to 10

  5. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun 13,2014 About Cerebral Aneurysms Diagnosis ... to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a weak area in a ...

  6. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema.

    PubMed

    Stokum, Jesse A; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-03-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  7. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    PubMed Central

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  8. Successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured gigantic pseudoaneurysm of the common iliac artery secondarily complicated by infection.

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Nikolopoulos, Evagelos S; Karanikas, Michael A; Mantatzis, Michalis; Lazarides, Miltos K

    2013-06-01

    We report our experience with a case of emergent endovascular treatment of a large ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the common iliac artery. A 65-year-old male was admitted to the surgical department in hypovolemic shock, due to active retroperitoneal bleeding. A computerized tomography scan with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured gigantic pseudoaneurysm of the right common iliac artery, with a maximal diameter of 7 cm and retroperitoneal hematoma. An intraoperative angiogram revealed active extravasation through the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully sealed with the placement of a stent graft (Medtronic Endurant(®))limb component. Infection of the pseudoaneurysm sac after one month was successfully treated with catheter drainage. No shortterm relapse occurred. Endovascular management should be part of the basic surgical armamentarium on emergent basis, since it provides a fast and safe solution, especially when a patient's co-morbitities preclude open management and hemodynamic and anatomical status allows endovascular treatment. PMID:22983544

  9. System of gigantic valleys northwest of Tharsis, Mars: Latent catastrophic flooding, northwest watershed, and implications for northern plains ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Baker, V.R.; Ferris, J.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Rudd, L.P.; Rice, J. W.; Casavant, R.R.; Scott, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reveals a system of gigantic valleys to the northwest of the huge martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars. These newly identified northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) potentially signify previously undocumented martian catastrophic floods and may corroborate the northern ocean hypotheses. These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, were previously obscurred in Mariner and Viking Orbiter imagery by veneers of materials, including volcanic lava flows and air fall deposits. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the NSVs were mainly carved prior to the construction of Arsia Mons and its associated Late Hesperian and Amazonian age lava flows, concurrent with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia.

  10. Cyproheptadine-mediated inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin release from pituitary adenoma cells of acromegaly and gigantism in culture.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, M; Fukushima, T; Yamaji, T

    1985-08-01

    The effect of cyproheptadine on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (Prl) secretion from cultured pituitary adenoma cells of acromegaly and pituitary gigantism was studied. When varying doses of cyproheptadine ranging from 0.01 to 1 microM were added to the incubation media, GH secretion was consistently inhibited and a dose-response relationship was observed between the cyproheptadine concentrations and the amounts of GH released into the media. In pituitary adenomas which concurrently produced and secreted Prl, cyproheptadine likewise suppressed Prl release in a dose-related manner. This effect of cyproheptadine was not blocked by coincubation with serotonin. Similarly, coincubation with a dopaminergic antagonist, haloperidol, failed to reverse the inhibitory action produced by cyproheptadine. When coincubated with dopamine, cyproheptadine further inhibited GH and Prl secretion. These results suggest that cyproheptadine possesses a direct action on human somatotroph adenoma cells to inhibit GH and Prl secretion by an unknown mechanism that is different from serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. PMID:2994332

  11. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome. PMID:26607152

  12. On the shoulders of giants: Harvey Cushing's experience with acromegaly and gigantism at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1896-1912.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Adams, Hadie; Salvatori, Roberto; Wand, Gary; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    A review of Dr. Cushing's surgical cases at Johns Hopkins Hospital revealed new information about his early operative experience with acromegaly. Although in 1912 Cushing published selective case studies regarding this work, a review of all his operations for acromegaly during his early years has never been reported. We uncovered 37 patients who Cushing treated with surgical intervention directed at the pituitary gland. Of these, nine patients who presented with symptoms of acromegaly, and one with symptoms of gigantism were selected for further review. Two patients underwent transfrontal 'omega incision' approaches, and the remaining eight underwent transsphenoidal approaches. Of the 10 patients, 6 were male. The mean age was 38.0 years. The mean hospital stay was 39.4 days. There was one inpatient death during primary interventions (10%) and three patients were deceased at the time of last follow-up (33%). The mean time to death, calculated from the date of the primary surgical intervention, and including inpatient and outpatient deaths, was 11.3 months. The mean time to last follow-up, calculated from the day of discharge, was 59.3 months. At the time of last follow-up, two patients reported resolution of headache; four patients reported continued visual deficits, and two patients reported ongoing changes in mental status. This review analyzes the outcomes for 10 patients who underwent surgical intervention for acromegaly or gigantism, and offers an explanation for Cushing's transition from the transfrontal "omega incision" to the transsphenoidal approach while practicing at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. PMID:20821269

  13. On the shoulders of giants: Harvey Cushing's experience with acromegaly and gigantism at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1896-1912.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Adams, Hadie; Salvatori, Roberto; Wand, Gary; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    A review of Dr. Cushing's surgical cases at Johns Hopkins Hospital revealed new information about his early operative experience with acromegaly. Although in 1912 Cushing published selective case studies regarding this work, a review of all his operations for acromegaly during his early years has never been reported. We uncovered 37 patients who Cushing treated with surgical intervention directed at the pituitary gland. Of these, nine patients who presented with symptoms of acromegaly, and one with symptoms of gigantism were selected for further review. Two patients underwent transfrontal 'omega incision' approaches, and the remaining eight underwent transsphenoidal approaches. Of the 10 patients, 6 were male. The mean age was 38.0 years. The mean hospital stay was 39.4 days. There was one inpatient death during primary interventions (10%) and three patients were deceased at the time of last follow-up (33%). The mean time to death, calculated from the date of the primary surgical intervention, and including inpatient and outpatient deaths, was 11.3 months. The mean time to last follow-up, calculated from the day of discharge, was 59.3 months. At the time of last follow-up, two patients reported resolution of headache; four patients reported continued visual deficits, and two patients reported ongoing changes in mental status. This review analyzes the outcomes for 10 patients who underwent surgical intervention for acromegaly or gigantism, and offers an explanation for Cushing's transition from the transfrontal "omega incision" to the transsphenoidal approach while practicing at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

  14. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  15. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  16. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uygun, M A; Ozkal, E; Acar, O; Erongun, U

    1996-01-01

    Hyponatremia following acute or chronic central nervous system injury which is due to excessive Na+ loss in the urine without an increase in the body fluid, has been described as Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS). This syndrome is often confused with dilutional hyponatremia secondary to inappropriate ADH secretion. Accurate diagnosis and management are mandatory for to improve the course of the disease. In this study a patient with CSW Syndrome is presented and the treatment and diagnosis of this syndrome are discussed in view of the literature.

  17. Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan Raul

    2009-01-01

    The initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysms are degenerative processes of the arterial wall driven by a complex interaction of biological and hemodynamic factors. Endothelial cells on the artery wall respond physiologically to blood-flow patterns. In normal conditions, these responses are associated with nonpathological tissue remodeling and adaptation. The combination of abnormal blood patterns and genetics predisposition could lead to the pathological formation of aneurysms. Here, we review recent progress on the basic mechanisms of aneurysm formation and evolution, with a focus on the role of hemodynamic patterns. PMID:19784385

  18. Cerebral blood flow velocity in two patients with neonatal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishimaki, S; Seki, K; Yokota, S

    2001-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery of two patients who exhibited unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction during the neonatal period. Doppler studies demonstrated increases in cerebral blood flow velocity but decreases in the resistance index on the affected side of the middle cerebral artery in the neonate who developed hemiplegia with cystic encephalomalacia, although the neonate with normal neurologic outcome exhibited symmetric cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance index. The asymmetry in cerebral blood flow velocity measurements of both middle cerebral arteries may be useful to evaluate the severity of brain damage and predict the neurodevelopmental prognosis of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction. PMID:11377112

  19. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics.

  20. [Noradrenaline and cerebral aging].

    PubMed

    Jouvet, M; Albarede, J L; Lubin, S; Meyrignac, C

    1991-01-01

    The central functions of norepinephrine (NE) are a recent discovery: regulation of alertness and of the wakefulness-sleep cycle, maintenance of attention, memory and learning, cerebral plasticity and neuro-protection. The anatomical, histological, biochemical and physiological properties of the central noradrenergic system: extreme capacity for ramification and arborization; slow conduction, non-myelinized axons with extrasynaptic varicosities producing and releasing NE; frequency of co-transmission phenomena, and; neuromodulation with fiber effect responsible for improvement in the signal over background noise ratio and selection of significant stimuli form a true interface between the outside world and the central nervous system, notably for the neocortex in the context of the cognitive treatment of information. This central noradrenergic system is involved in the neurophysiology and the clinical features of cerebral aging (ideation-motor and cognitive function slowing down, loss of behavioral adjustment), neuro-degenerative disorders (SDAT, Parkinson's disease), certain aspects of depression and less obvious conditions (head injuries, sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents, sub-cortical dementia). The recent development of medications improving alertness (adrafinil, modafinil) with a pure central action and specifically noradrenergic, may contribute to an improvement in these multifactorial disorders. PMID:1864252

  1. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  2. What constitutes cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Badawi, N; Watson, L; Petterson, B; Blair, E; Slee, J; Haan, E; Stanley, F

    1998-08-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term of convenience applied to a group of motor disorders of central origin defined by clinical description. It is not a diagnosis in that its application infers nothing about pathology, aetiology, or prognosis. It is an umbrella term covering a wide range of cerebral disorders which result in childhood motor impairment. The precise inclusion criteria vary with the objectives for using the term. For meaningful comparison of rates of CP, as performed by and between CP registers, it is important that the rates should be generated using the same criteria. As generally understood there must be motor impairment, and this impairment must stem from a malfunction of the brain (rather than spinal cord or muscles). Furthermore, the brain malfunction must be non-progressive and it must be manifest early in life. For the purposes of comparisons of rates across time even when the condition meets all the above criteria, it must not historically have been excluded from the category of CP. This paper addresses the problem of standardizing the inclusion criteria for selecting people included on CP registers with particular reference to this last criterion. PMID:9746004

  3. Anesthesia and cerebral apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brée, B; Gourdin, M; De Kock, M

    2008-01-01

    General anesthetics interact with targets at the cellular and molecular levels. They have the potential to induce changes in the body and the brain. Usually, these interactions are thought to be short lasting. In contrast, recent evidences suggest that alcohol, a toxic sharing many mechanisms with general anesthetics, induces long term effect at these levels. This is particularly evident in the period of synaptogenesis during which alcohol can induce excessive cerebral apoptosis (histopathologic changes) in juvenile animal models. Even if the vast majority of our patients seems to completely restore homeostasis after general anesthesia, we don't know if the changes induced at the brain level in animal models exist in human. This article intends to supply biological, pharmacological and experimental basis for a possible long term effect of general anesthetics on the human developing brain. PMID:19051443

  4. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  5. Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

  6. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

  7. Gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties of polymer-based composites using core/shell MWCNT/amorphous carbon nanohybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qikai; Xue, Qingzhong; Sun, Jin; Dong, Mingdong; Xia, Fujun; Zhang, Zhongyang

    2015-02-01

    Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/amorphous carbon (MWCNT@AC) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a simple and novel method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@AC nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based composites. It is found that the dielectric constant of the MWCNT@AC/PVDF composites can reach 5910 (the dielectric loss is ~2), which is considerably better than that of MWCNT/PVDF composites. The uniform amorphous carbon shell provides an insulative layer between adjacent MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, which not only prevents the direct contact of MWCNTs but also improves the dispersibility of the MWCNTs. Therefore, a surprising number of microcapacitors could be formed in the composites before the formation of a conductive network, leading to a gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties. Our strategy provides a new approach to fabricate excellent dielectric materials for energy storage capacitors. In addition, the design concept used in this work can be extended to other carbon materials.

  8. Expression of metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice results in disproportionate skeletal gigantism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E; Rapp, K; Brem, G

    1991-01-01

    Transgenic mice harbouring mouse metallothionein I-human growth hormone (MT-hGH) fusion genes were produced using the microinjection technique. The bones of adult MT-hGH transgenic mice, which continuously expressed high levels of hGH in their serum, and age-matched controls lacking detectable concentrations of hGH were measured microscopically. In addition to analyzing absolute skeletal dimensions, measurements were related to the cube root of the maximum body weight of the same animal. Absolute values obtained from transgenic mice were significantly higher than those obtained from controls for most of the defined measurements. However, the increase in skeletal dimensions was mostly not as pronounced as the increase in body weight and all bones were not affected to the same extent. There was no significant correlation between the serum GH concentration in individual mice and their degree of bony overgrowth. A disproportionate skeletal gigantism in MT-hGH transgenic mice may result from time differences in epiphyseal union of various bones of both sexes as well as differences in mechanical bone loading due to a drastically increased body weight. Individual concentrations of locally produced tissue insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) might also play a role. Possible effects of these factors are discussed. The results presented in this study show that MT-hGH transgenic mice provide a powerful tool for the investigation of hormonal regulation of bone growth. PMID:1938045

  9. Gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties of polymer-based composites using core/shell MWCNT/amorphous carbon nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qikai; Xue, Qingzhong; Sun, Jin; Dong, Mingdong; Xia, Fujun; Zhang, Zhongyang

    2015-02-28

    Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/amorphous carbon (MWCNT@AC) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a simple and novel method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@AC nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based composites. It is found that the dielectric constant of the MWCNT@AC/PVDF composites can reach 5910 (the dielectric loss is ∼2), which is considerably better than that of MWCNT/PVDF composites. The uniform amorphous carbon shell provides an insulative layer between adjacent MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, which not only prevents the direct contact of MWCNTs but also improves the dispersibility of the MWCNTs. Therefore, a surprising number of microcapacitors could be formed in the composites before the formation of a conductive network, leading to a gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties. Our strategy provides a new approach to fabricate excellent dielectric materials for energy storage capacitors. In addition, the design concept used in this work can be extended to other carbon materials.

  10. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  11. Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report.

    PubMed

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Sobotrke, Rolf; Schmidt, Heinrich; Rollinghoff, Marc; Siewe, Jan; Eysel, Peer

    2010-10-01

    The authors present what appears to be the first case of congenital kyphosis due to a T12 hemivertebra in a four-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism syndrome of unknown origin. Because of his overgrowth, the patient had severe medical and orthopaedic problems and was almost immobile. Prior to surgery, he experienced a rapidly progressive thoracolumbar kyphosis to 600 (T10-L2). MRI of the brain and spine showed critical protraction of the spinal cord and myelopathy from compression at T12. Single-stage posterior resection of the hemivertebra with spinal shortening and dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of T10-L2 was performed. Although the bone tissue was cartilaginous and dysplastic, 420 (30%) correction was achieved along with decompression of the spinal canal. The patient experienced no neurological impairment post-operatively. At follow-up examination 1.5 year after surgery, the patient's movement disorder had improved markedly and he was able to stand and walk. This very rare case demonstrates that single-stage posterior hemivertebra resection and transpedicular instrumentation for correction of congenital kyphosis can be a safe and effective procedure even in a very challenging case.

  12. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Olson, Storrs L; Hearty, Paul J

    2010-12-23

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  13. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure.

  14. Genetic analysis of durable resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the rice accession Gigante Vercelli identified two blast resistance loci.

    PubMed

    Urso, Simona; Desiderio, Francesca; Biselli, Chiara; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Crispino, Laura; Piffanelli, Pietro; Abbruscato, Pamela; Assenza, Federica; Guarnieri, Giada; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valè, Giampiero

    2016-02-01

    Rice cultivars exhibiting durable resistance to blast, the most important rice fungal disease provoking up to 30 % of rice losses, are very rare and searching for sources of such a resistance represents a priority for rice-breeding programs. To this aim we analyzed Gigante Vercelli (GV) and Vialone Nano (VN), two temperate japonica rice cultivars in Italy displaying contrasting response to blast, with GV showing a durable and broad-spectrum resistance, whereas VN being highly susceptible. An SSR-based genetic map developed using a GV × VN population segregating for blast resistance identified two blast resistance loci, localized to the long arm of chromosomes 1 and 4 explaining more than 78 % of the observed phenotypic variation for blast resistance. The pyramiding of two blast resistance QTLs was therefore involved in the observed durable resistance in GV. Mapping data were integrated with information obtained from RNA-seq expression profiling of all classes of resistance protein genes (resistance gene analogs, RGAs) and with the map position of known cloned or mapped blast resistance genes to search candidates for the GV resistant response. A co-localization of RGAs with the LOD peak or the marker interval of the chromosome 1 QTL was highlighted and a valuable tool for selecting the resistance gene during breeding programs was developed. Comparative analysis with known blast resistance genes revealed co-positional relationships between the chromosome 1 QTL with the Pi35/Pish blast resistance alleles and showed that the chromosome 4 QTL represents a newly identified blast resistance gene. The present genetic analysis has therefore allowed the identification of two blast resistance loci in the durable blast-resistant rice cultivar GV and tools for molecular selection of these resistance genes.

  15. What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism

    PubMed Central

    Bonnan, Matthew F.; Wilhite, D. Ray; Masters, Simon L.; Yates, Adam M.; Gardner, Christine K.; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load. PMID:24130690

  16. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  17. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load. PMID:24130690

  18. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, B.R.; Fainstat, M.

    1987-10-16

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis.

  19. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  20. A Mixed-Ligand Approach for a Gigantic and Hollow Heterometallic Cage {Ni64 RE96 } for Gas Separation and Magnetic Cooling Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Peng; Liao, Pei-Qin; Yu, Youzhu; Zheng, Zhiping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Nanosized aggregations of metal ions shielded by organic ligands possessing both exquisite structural aesthetics and intriguing properties are fundamentally interesting. Three isostructural gigantic transition-metal-rare-earth heterometallic coordination cages are reported, abbreviated as {Ni64 RE96 } (RE=Gd, Dy, and Y) and obtained by a mixed-ligand approach, each possessing a cuboidal framework made of 160 metal ions and a nanosized spherical cavity in the center. Along with the structural novelty, these hollow cages show highly selective adsorptions for CO2 over CH4 or N2 at ambient temperatures. Moreover, the gadolinium analogue exhibits large magnetocaloric effect at ultralow temperatures.

  1. A Mixed-Ligand Approach for a Gigantic and Hollow Heterometallic Cage {Ni64 RE96 } for Gas Separation and Magnetic Cooling Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Peng; Liao, Pei-Qin; Yu, Youzhu; Zheng, Zhiping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Nanosized aggregations of metal ions shielded by organic ligands possessing both exquisite structural aesthetics and intriguing properties are fundamentally interesting. Three isostructural gigantic transition-metal-rare-earth heterometallic coordination cages are reported, abbreviated as {Ni64 RE96 } (RE=Gd, Dy, and Y) and obtained by a mixed-ligand approach, each possessing a cuboidal framework made of 160 metal ions and a nanosized spherical cavity in the center. Along with the structural novelty, these hollow cages show highly selective adsorptions for CO2 over CH4 or N2 at ambient temperatures. Moreover, the gadolinium analogue exhibits large magnetocaloric effect at ultralow temperatures. PMID:27345594

  2. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

  3. Cerebral radionecrosis: is surgery necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Woo, E; Lam, K; Yu, Y L; Lee, P W; Huang, C Y

    1987-01-01

    Seven patients with cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx are presented. The clinical features included seizures and a varying degree of intellectual impairment. In spite of significant mass effect on CT scan, the patients remained alert, ambulatory and independent. We believe that some cases of cerebral necrosis following radiotherapy for extra-cranial neoplasms present in a more benign fashion than has been portrayed in the literature, and in the absence of clinical evidence of raised intracranial pressure, surgical intervention is unnecessary. The importance of careful fractionation of an optimum radiation dose as a preventive measure is emphasised. Images PMID:3694200

  4. Caffeine induced changes in cerebral circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-09-01

    While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the TTXenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differences between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values.

  5. Investigating cerebral oedema using poroelasticity.

    PubMed

    Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model).

  6. Confusional state and cerebral infarcts.

    PubMed Central

    García-Albea, E.

    1989-01-01

    Thirteen patients with confusional state and cerebral infarction were studied. Seven patients had optic pathway alterations. On computed tomographic scan, 2 patients had multiple infarctions and 10 had single infarctions, predominantly located in the temporo-occipital associative cortex. One patient had a normal scan. Reduction of 'selective attention', 'release' hallucinations, amnesic syndrome and secondary individual adjustment could explain the confusional state. PMID:2608563

  7. Neuropathology of Acquired Cerebral Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1987-01-01

    To help educators understand the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of cerebral injury, the neuropathology of traumatic brain injury and the main neuropathological features resulting from trauma-related brain damage are reviewed. A glossary with definitions of 37 neurological terms is appended. (Author/DB)

  8. Nanoscale assemblies of gigantic molecular {Mo154}-rings: (dimethyldioctadecylammonium)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70].

    PubMed

    Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Jin, Reina; Tunashima, Ryo; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Cronin, Leroy; Nakamura, Takayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Clusters based on the mixed-valence gigantic inorganic ring [Mo154O462H14(H2O)70]14- ({Mo154}-ring) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DODA) were combined to form novel molecular assemblies of an inorganic-organic hybrid molecular system as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and cast films. (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] (2) was prepared by cation exchange and was characterized by a combination of thermogravimetry, IR, UV-vis-NIR, 1H NMR, and XRD measurements. The salt 2 was soluble in common organic solvents, and the chemical stability of {Mo154}-ring encapsulated by DODA cationic surfactants in CHCl3 was found to be higher than that of the "native" sodium salt of the {Mo154}-ring in H2O. Uniform spherical vesicle-like molecular assemblies of (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] were observed in dilute THF, whose average diameter of 95 nm and a normalized variance of 5.7% were confirmed by a X-ray small-angle scattering. Deposition of 2 as a cast film showed circular domains with a typical diameter of approximately 100 nm, indicating possible similarities between solution and surface-deposited structures. The resulting LB films of salt 2 were transferred from an acidic buffer subphase with pH = 1.5 onto mica, giving a two-dimensional film surface with a unity transfer ratio. Further, the electronic absorption spectra of the LB multilayer were consistent with the classic type II mixed-valence MoV/MoVI electronic state well know for molybdenum blue {Mo154}-ring systems, and it appears that on the surface the plane of the {Mo154}-ring is approximately parallel to the substrate surface, as indicated by polarized electronic spectra, while the alkyl chains of DODA were relatively normal to the substrate surface. Therefore, the layer between the {Mo154}-rings and DODA cations was alternately stacked along the direction of film propagation. Finally, it was found that the surface morphology of the cast and LB films was determined by the molecular assembly of (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] in

  9. Cerebral autoregulation with changes in arterial and cerebral venous pressure

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, R.W.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of cerebral venous pressure (Pcv) elevation on cerebral autoregulation has been incompletely studied. The authors compared the effect of decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by elevated Pcv and decreased arterial pressure (Pa) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a canine modified bypass model. CPP of 80, 70, 60, 50, 40 and 30 mmHg were produced by decreasing Pa with intracranial pressure (ICP) and Pcv maintained at 0 mmHg (group 1, n = 5), or by elevating Pcv as Pa was maintained at 80 mmHg (group 2, n = 5. CBF was measured using radiolabeled microspheres, and CMRO/sub 2/ = CBF times arterial-sagittal sinus O/sub 2/ content difference. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) = CPP/CBF. In group 1 CBF (ml/100 gm/min) was unchanged from control (36 +/- 4) as CPP was decreased from 80 to 40 mmHg. As CPP was decreased to 30 mmHg, CBF decreased to 28 +/- 1. CVR (mmHg/ml/min/100 gm) was 2.3 +/- 0.3 and progressively decreased to 1.0 +/- 0.1 at CPP of 30 mmHg. In group 2 CBF was 34 +/- 3 and was unchanged as CPP decreased to 50 mmHg. At CPP of 40 and 30 mmHg CBF decreased to 25 +/- 3 and 22 +/- 2 respectively. Control CRV was 2.4 +/- 0.2 and progressively decreased to 1.4 +/- 0.1 as CPP decreased to 30 mmHg. CMRO/sub 2/ was unchanged from control in both groups. Thus, CBF is maintained to low CPP regardless of whether vascular transmural pressure was decreased (decrease Pa) or increased (increased Pcv) demonstrating that the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation may be unimportant in normoxic dogs.

  10. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  11. [Cerebral syndromes in premature children].

    PubMed

    Edel'shteĭn, E A; Bandarenko, E S

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral disturbances observed in premature infants are analyzed. These disturbances are a consequence of developmental slowdown and are associated with the pathological immaturity of the brain structures. On condition an active pathogenetic therapy is given these disturbances may gradually regress. On the basis of long-term observations of 600 prematurely born infants the authors describe the following clinical syndromes: muscular hypotonicity lasting up to 4-5 months and followed with a rise of the tone; the syndrome of "paretic hands" observed during the first two months of life; a hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndrome combined with a rise of the neuro-reflectory excitability; the syndrome of psychomotor development retardation followed at an age of over 1.5 to 2 years by complete recovery or minimal cerebral insufficiency with belated development of motor speech and neurosis-like reactions. PMID:6880498

  12. [Cerebral artery thrombosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25698610

  13. [Cerebral artery thrombosis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms.

  14. [Pathogenesis of infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Semenova, K A

    1980-01-01

    Some causes of the pathological activity of postural reflexes and other motor disturbances underlying the clinical picture of infantile cerebral paralysis are considered. It is shown that disturbed metabolism of corticosteroids observed in that disease, as well as impaired functional activity of T lymphocytes promote the development of both inflammatory and neuroimmune processes in the brain, mainly in large hemispheres--and this may be one of the causes of the pathological postural activity. PMID:6969015

  15. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zuurbier, Susanna M; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2010 (prospectively since July 2006). Hydrocephalus was defined as a bicaudate index larger than the 95th percentile for age, and/or a radial width of the temporal horn of ≥ 5 mm. We excluded patients in whom hydrocephalus was caused by a disease other than CVT or if it was iatrogenic. 20 out of 99 patients with CVT had hydrocephalus. 6 patients with hydrocephalus were excluded from the analysis. Patients with hydrocephalus more often had focal neurological deficits (86 vs. 49%, p = 0.02) and were more frequently comatose (43 vs. 16%, p = 0.06), as compared to patients without hydrocephalus. Deep cerebral venous thrombosis (64 vs. 9%, p < 0.001) and edema of the basal ganglia and thalami (64 vs. 4%, p < 0.001) were more common in patients with hydrocephalus. Intraventricular hemorrhage was present in 1 patient with hydrocephalus, compared to none among patients without hydrocephalus (7 vs. 0%, p = 0.15). Outcome at follow-up was worse in patients with hydrocephalus (mRS 0-1, 36 vs. 68%, p = 0.02; mortality 29 vs. 9%, p = 0.07). Hydrocephalus occurs more frequently in cerebral venous thrombosis than previously believed, especially in patients with deep cerebral venous thrombosis and edema of the basal ganglia. The presence of hydrocephalus is associated with a worse clinical outcome, but a direct causal relation is unlikely. Routine shunting procedures are not advisable.

  16. The relationship between cerebral palsy and cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Hutson, J M; Beasley, S W; Reddihough, D S

    1989-12-01

    This study examined the reported association between cerebral palsy and cryptorchidism. A comparison was made among 25 boys with cerebral palsy under the age of 2 years and 6 months, 25 boys with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years, and age-matched controls. The testes remained in the same position with age in boys with cerebral palsy, whereas in normal children the testes were slightly lower initially (P less than .005) and became lower still with growth (P less than .001). This result, taken in conjunction with previous studies, casts doubts on the theories of early damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis as the cause of maldescent in cerebral palsy. It is postulated that any apparent increase in cryptorchidism in older patients with cerebral palsy may be caused by spasticity of the cremaster muscle leading to pathologic retraction of the testis out of the scrotum.

  17. Darwin's "Gigantic Blunder."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    Darwin's attempt at unraveling the Glen Roy parallel road mystery is discussed. He admitted that Louis Agassiz's glacier theory seemed reasonable but he was reluctant to give up on his own marine theory. (DF)

  18. No More Gigantism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    The food situation in India is critical. It requires the development of both land and water resources, both of which are largely untapped. Ground water is one undeveloped resource that can help alleviate the irrigation problems facing agriculture. More efficient utilization could free millions of hectares of land for cultivation. (MA)

  19. Cerebral ischaemia: A neuroradiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Bories, J.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief clinical and pathophysiological approach, the papers presented in this book are devoted to CT and angiography. Concerning CT, a particular study has been made of cerebral arterial territories on cuts parallel to the orbito-meatal line: these are very important in making the differential diagnosis from some tumors. Also concerning CT, a paper has been devoted to cerebral ''lacunae.'' The term ''lacuna'' as far as CT imaging is concerned, should be reserved only for those hypodense areas corresponding to small cavities containing fluid, which are sequelae of infarcts in the territory of penetrating arteries. Before this sequellar state come all the evolutive states of a small deep infarct. The angiographic study specifies the indications of angiography in the study of cerebral ischemia, and the techniques to be used. It shows the main etiologic aspects. Because of the important place of vascular surgery today, it seemed necessary to show also the main post operative angiographic aspects. After CT and angiography, some pages are reserved to more modern techniques. Finally, some pages are devoted to certain particular associations and etiologies: childhood, cardiopathies, migraine, oral contraception and end with venous infarction.

  20. Bone age in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

  1. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  2. Parasympathetic tonic dilatory influences on cerebral vessels.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Nicholas C; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Talman, William T

    2009-05-11

    Parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia may participate in development of cluster headaches, in vascular responses to hypertension and in modulation of damage due to stroke. Stimulation of the nerves elicits cerebral vasodilatation, but it is not known if the nerves tonically influence cerebrovascular tone. We hypothesized that parasympathetics provide a tonic vasodilator influence and tested that hypothesis by measuring cerebral blood flow in anesthetized rats before and after removal of a pterygopalatine ganglion. Ganglion removal led to reduced cerebral blood flow without changing blood pressure. Thus, parasympathetic nerves provide tonic vasodilatory input to cerebral blood vessels. PMID:19195933

  3. Generation of "gigantic" ultra-short microwave pulses based on passive mode-locking effect in electron oscillators with saturable absorber in the feedback loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    A periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in electron oscillators with a non-linear saturable absorber installed in the feedback loop. This method of pulse formation resembles the passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Nevertheless, there is a specific feature in the mechanism of pulse amplification when consecutive energy extraction from different fractions of a stationary electron beam takes place due to pulse slippage over the beam caused by the difference between the wave group velocity and the electron axial velocity. As a result, the peak power of generated "gigantic" pulses can exceed not only the level of steady-state generation but also, in the optimal case, the power of the driving electron beam.

  4. Cerebral vascular findings in PAPA syndrome: cerebral arterial vasculopathy or vasculitis and a posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M

    2015-06-24

    A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.

  5. Hemodynamic Intervention of Cerebral Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    2005-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a pathological vascular response to hemodynamic stimuli. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms essentially alters the blood flow to stop them from continued growth and eventual rupture. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular methods are minimally invasive and hence rapidly gaining popularity. However, they are not always effective with risks of aneurysm regrowth and various complications. We aim at developing a Virtual Intervention (VI) platform that allows: patient-specific flow calculation and risk prediction as well as recommendation of tailored intervention based on quantitative analysis. This is a lofty goal requiring advancement in three areas of research: (1). Advancement of image-based CFD; (2) Understanding the biological/pathological responses of tissue to hemodynamic factors in the context of cerebral aneurysms; and (3) Capability of designing and testing patient-specific endovascular devices. We have established CFD methodologies based on anatomical geometry obtained from 3D angiographic or CT images. To study the effect of hemodynamics on aneurysm development, we have created a canine model of a vascular bifurcation anastomosis to provide the hemodynamic environment similar to those in CA. Vascular remodeling was studied using histology and compared against the flow fields obtained from CFD. It was found that an intimal pad, similar to those frequently seen clinically, developed at the flow impingement site, bordering with an area of `groove' characteristic of an early stage of aneurysm, where the micro environment exhibits an elevated wall shear stresses. To further address the molecular mechanisms of the flow-mediated aneurysm pathology, we are also developing in vitro cell culture systems to complement the in vivo study. Our current effort in endovascular device development focuses on novel stents that alters the aneurysmal flow to promote thrombotic occlusion as well as favorable remodeling. Realization of an

  6. Restenosis After Balloon Angioplasty for Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J. Chau, Y.; Popolo, M.; Gindre, S.; Rami, L.; Orban, J. C.

    2009-03-15

    Transluminal balloon dilatation for symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is effective, and clinical studies have shown that it achieves long-lasting dilatation of spastic cerebral arteries. Delayed arterial renarrowing has not been reported. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented asymptomatic and permanent restenosis after angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm.

  7. Primary cerebral alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in adult

    PubMed Central

    Pirillo, Vania; Cipriano Cecchi, Paolo; Tripodi, Massimo; Maier, Klaus; Rizzo, Paolo; Schwarz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Primary cerebral rhabdomyosarcomas are very rare and malignant tumors that occur predominantly in the posterior fossa of pediatric patients. We report a rare case of primary cerebral rhabdomyosarcoma located in the supratentorial compartment of a 51 year-old woman together with a review of the pertinent Literature especially regarding the histological diagnosis and pitfalls. PMID:21769325

  8. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  9. Sumatriptan and cerebral perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scott, A K; Grimes, S; Ng, K; Critchley, M; Breckenridge, A M; Thomson, C; Pilgrim, A J

    1992-04-01

    1. The effect of sumatriptan on regional cerebral perfusion was studied in healthy volunteers. 2. Intravenous sumatriptan (2 mg) had no detectable effect on regional cerebral perfusion as measured using a SPECT system with 99technetiumm labelled hexemethylpropyleneamineoxime. 3. Sumatriptan had no effect on pulse, blood pressure or ECG indices. 4. All six volunteers experienced minor adverse effects during the intravenous infusion.

  10. Mobility Experiences of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…

  11. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  12. [The developing profile of cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Martí-Vilalta, J L; Martí-Fábregas, J

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, which may be silently manifested as transitory ischemia attacks or cerebral infarction, is not a stable, but rather, a moving process. In cerebral infarctions the initial ischemic area may change or move in a high percentage of patients and may involve a significant volume (mean of 32%) of neuronal tissue. The negative changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce a worsening of the same may be due to the progression of the thrombus, appearance of new embolisms, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, blood reperfusion and systemias causes. These changes may determine the conversion of the shaded ischemic area into a definitive, irreversible infarction. The negative changes may also be produced some distance from the initial ischemic area, either because of microthromboembolisms or diaschisis. The positive changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce as improvement of the same, may be due to collateral circulation, lysis or fragmentation of the embolism and a decrease in cerebral edema. Clinical changes with no evident clinical manifestations may also be produced and may be diagnosed with the use of clinical scales, imaging techniques, ultrasound and hematological and biochemical markers. Acknowledgement of these cerebral ischemia changes in the acute phase may determine the salvation of a part of the brain, and thereby modify the future clinical situation of the patient.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    MedlinePlus

    ... R, Awad IA, Ginsberg MH. Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity. J Exp Med. 2010 Apr 12;207(4):881-96. doi: 10.1084/jem.20091258. Epub 2010 Mar 22. Citation on ... CCM1 and CCM2 protein interactions in cell signaling: implications for cerebral cavernous ...

  14. Cerebral oximetry: a replacement for pulse oximetry?

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A M

    2012-10-01

    Cerebral oximetry has been around for some 3 decades but has had a somewhat checkered history regarding application and reliability. More recently several monitors have been approved in the United States and elsewhere and the technique is emerging as a useful tool for assessing not only adequate cerebral oxygenation but also tissue oxygenation and perfusion in other organs.

  15. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  16. Cerebral lymphoma presenting as a leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso-Peralta, L; Orti-Pareja, M; Zurdo-Hernandez, M; Jimenez-Jimenez, F; Tejeiro-Martinez, J; Ricoy, J; de la Lama, A; Bernardo, A

    2001-01-01

    Cerebral lymphoma is infrequent in immunocompetent patients. This tumour usually appears on CT and MRI as a single lesion or as multiple lesions with mass effect and homogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. A patient is described with a cerebral lymphoma, confirmed by histopathological examination, who presented as a progressive leukoencephalopathy.

 PMID:11459903

  17. Anterior cerebral artery velocity changes in disease of the middle cerebral artery stem.

    PubMed

    Brass, L M; Duterte, D L; Mohr, J P

    1989-12-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography can map the changes in blood velocity that result from stenosis or occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. To evaluate patterns of collateral blood flow in disease of the middle cerebral artery stem, we used both cerebral angiography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to study the systolic blood velocities in both anterior cerebral arteries in 10 consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion. Five patients had no evidence of hemodynamically significant carotid disease and good-quality measurements of systolic velocity in each anterior cerebral artery. Two of the five patients had middle cerebral artery stem stenosis and the other three had occlusion. The ratios of mean blood velocity in the normal compared with the abnormal side for the five patients (mean 1.34 +/- 0.23, range 1.15-1.74) were significantly higher than ratios for 10 controls (mean 1.04 +/- 0.12, range 0.76 +/- 1.19) using an unpaired t test (t = 3.492, 0.0005 less than p less than 0.005). Our results suggest that transcranial Doppler ultrasound measurements of anterior cerebral artery blood velocity may be a useful index of collateral blood flow from the anterior cerebral artery territory into the middle cerebral artery territory. Changes in mean velocity ratio may document the evolution and adequacy of collateral blood flow over the cerebral convexity in middle cerebral artery stem disease. In addition, the changes in anterior cerebral artery blood velocity appear to be an important corroborative finding for middle cerebral artery stem occlusion. PMID:2688197

  18. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  19. Phase dynamics in cerebral autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Latka, Miroslaw; Turalska, Malgorzata; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Kolodziej, Waldemar; Latka, Dariusz; West, Bruce J

    2005-11-01

    Complex continuous wavelet transforms are used to study the dynamics of instantaneous phase difference delta phi between the fluctuations of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in a middle cerebral artery. For healthy individuals, this phase difference changes slowly over time and has an almost uniform distribution for the very low-frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) part of the spectrum. We quantify phase dynamics with the help of the synchronization index gamma = (sin delta phi)2 + (cos delta phi)2 that may vary between 0 (uniform distribution of phase differences, so the time series are statistically independent of one another) and 1 (phase locking of ABP and CBFV, so the former drives the latter). For healthy individuals, the group-averaged index gamma has two distinct peaks, one at 0.11 Hz [gamma = 0.59 +/- 0.09] and another at 0.33 Hz (gamma = 0.55 +/- 0.17). In the very low-frequency range (0.02-0.07 Hz), phase difference variability is an inherent property of an intact autoregulation system. Consequently, the average value of the synchronization parameter in this part of the spectrum is equal to 0.13 +/- 0.03. The phase difference variability sheds new light on the nature of cerebral hemodynamics, which so far has been predominantly characterized with the help of the high-pass filter model. In this intrinsically stationary approach, based on the transfer function formalism, the efficient autoregulation is associated with the positive phase shift between oscillations of CBFV and ABP. However, the method is applicable only in the part of the spectrum (0.1-0.3 Hz) where the coherence of these signals is high. We point out that synchrony analysis through the use of wavelet transforms is more general and allows us to study nonstationary aspects of cerebral hemodynamics in the very low-frequency range where the physiological significance of autoregulation is most strongly pronounced. PMID:16024579

  20. Apraxia in deep cerebral lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, E; Coletti, A; Orlando, G; Tredici, G

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 50 patients with cerebrovascular lesions (demonstrated with CT scan), seven patients had lesions located in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. All these seven patients were apractic. Ideomotor apraxia was present in all patients; five also had constructional apraxia, and one had bucco-facial apraxia. None of the patients had utilisation apraxia. These observations indicated that apraxia is not only a "high cerebral (cortical) function", but may depend also on the integrity of subcortical circuits and structures. PMID:6619888

  1. Cerebral Asymmetry in Insomnia Sufferers

    PubMed Central

    St-Jean, Geneviève; Turcotte, Isabelle; Bastien, Célyne H.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral asymmetry is used to describe the differences in electroencephalographic activity between regions of the brain. The objective of this study was to document frontal, central, and parietal asymmetry in psychophysiological (Psy-I) and paradoxical (Para-I) insomnia sufferers as well as good sleeper (GS) controls, and to compare their patterns of asymmetry to others already found in anxiety and depression. Additionally, asymmetry variations between nights were assessed. Participants were 17 Psy-I, 14 Para-I, and 19 GS (mean age = 40 years, SD = 9.4). They completed three nights of polysomnography (PSG) recordings following a clinical evaluation in a sleep laboratory. All sleep cycles of Nights 2 and 3 were retained for power spectral analysis. The absolute activity in frequency bands (0.00–125.00 Hz) was computed at multiple frontal, central, and parietal sites in rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep to provide cerebral asymmetry measures. Mixed model ANOVAs were computed to assess differences between groups and nights. Correlations were performed with asymmetry and symptoms of depression and anxiety from self-reported questionnaires. Over the course of the two nights, Para-I tended to present hypoactivation of their left frontal region but hyperactivation of their right one compared with GS. As for Psy-I, they presented increased activation of their right parietal region compared with Para-I. Asymmetry at frontal, central, and parietal region differed between nights. On a more disrupted night of sleep, Psy-I had increased activity in their right parietal region while Para-I presented a decrease in cerebral activity in the right central region on their less disrupted night of sleep. Anxious and depressive symptoms did not correlate with asymmetry at any region. Therefore, Psy-I and Para-I present unique patterns of cerebral asymmetry that do not relate to depression or anxiety, and asymmetry varies between nights, maybe as a

  2. [Cerebral oedema: new therapeutic ways].

    PubMed

    Quintard, H; Ichai, C

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral oedema (CO) after brain injury can occur from different ways. The vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema are usually described but osmotic and hydrostatic CO, respectively secondary to plasmatic hypotonia or increase in blood pressure, can also be encountered. Addition of these several mechanisms can worsen injuries. Consequences are major, leading quickly to death secondary to intracerebral hypertension and later to neuropsychic sequelae. So therapeutic care to control this phenomenon is essential and osmotherapy is actually the only way. A better understanding of physiopathological disorders, particularly energetic ways (lactate), aquaporine function, inflammation lead to new therapeutic hopes. The promising experimental results need now to be confirmed by clinical data.

  3. [Orthotic management in cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Ofluoğlu, Demet

    2009-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) may have many musculoskeletal deformities depending on the type of CP. These deformities may result from (i) lack of motor control, (ii) abnormal biomechanical alignment, (iii) impairment in timing of muscle activation, (iv) impairment in normal agonist/antagonist muscle balance, (v) lack of power generation, and (vi) balance disorder. Rehabilitation, orthopedic surgical intervention, and additional orthotic management can prevent and correct these deformities. In this review, mainly lower extremity orthoses are described, with brief explanation on upper and spinal orthotic applications. PMID:19448357

  4. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Madsen, Mette; Uldall, Peter

    2009-08-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs. The population analysed was retrieved from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, which covers the eastern part of the country and has registered about half of the Danish population of individuals with CP since 1950. For this study we analysed 2367 individuals with CP, who were born in 1930 to 2000 and were alive in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about 860,000 euro for men and about 800,000 euro for women. The largest component was social care costs, particularly during childhood. A sensitivity analysis found that alterations in social care costs had a small effect, whereas lowering the discount rate from 5 to 3 per cent markedly increased total lifetime costs. Discounting decreases the value of costs in the future compared with the present. The high social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP. PMID:19416329

  5. Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Ismail A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, once a common and deadly disease, has fortunately become rare now. Not only that the incidence has fallen significantly after the antibiotic era, the morbidity and mortality has also decreased substantially. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is by far the commonest form of septic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Due to its rare occurrence, a lot of current generation clinicians have not encountered the entity in person. Despite all the advances in diagnostic modalities, a high index of clinical suspicion remains the mainstay in prompt diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal condition. Keeping this in view, the authors have reviewed the subject including the old literature and have summarized the current approach to diagnosis and management. Septic cavernous thrombosis is a fulminant disease with dramatic presentation in most cases comprised of fever, periorbital pain and swelling, associated with systemic symptoms and signs. The preceding infection is usually in the central face or paranasal sinuses. The disease rapidly spreads to contralateral side and if remains undiagnosed and untreated can result in severe complications or even death. Prompt diagnosis using radiological imaging in suspected patient, early use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and judicial use of anticoagulation may save the life and prevent disability. Surgery is used only to treat the nidus of infection. PMID:26944152

  6. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. PMID:26776387

  7. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  8. [Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Milojević, T M; Baljozović, B V; Rakić, M Lj; Nestorović, B D; Dostanić, M M; Milaković, B D; Kojić, Z Z; Repac, N R; Cvrkota, I S

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm causes permanent neurolological deficit or death occurance in 13% of clinical cases. Peak frequency is from 8-10th day after SAH. The purpose of this study is factor analysis that may have influence on vasospasm development , as well as predictor determination. The study is prospective and analysis 192 patients treated in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The majority of patients were admitted in hospital in first four days after SAH, and 184 had GCS over 7. Univariate methods of factor analysis were used, and for significance of predictors influence testing multivariante regression analysis was used. Vasospasm occurred in 22,40% of all cases. No relationships have been found between sex, age, previous hypertension, timing of surgery, appearance of hydrocephalus and intracerebral hematoma, hypertermia or mean arterial blood pressure, with occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Factors with significantly associated with the occurance of vasospasm were: hearth disease, hypernatriemia, Hct, clinical grade on admission as well as preoperative clinical grade and Fisher CT scan grade. In the first four days after SAH, Fisher scan grade, preoperative clinical grade and Hct, appeared as predictors. After four days, clinical grade on admission and hypernatiemia, showed as poredictors. PMID:18792575

  9. Caring for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormans, John P., Ed.; Pellegrino, Louis, Ed.

    Twenty-one papers on caring for children with cerebral palsy are organized into four sections, including: (1) cerebral palsy and the interdisciplinary team approach; (2) management of impairments related to cerebral palsy; (3) preventing disability by optimizing function of the child with cerebral palsy; and (4) preventing handicap by creating…

  10. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (p<0.05) and they also showed a non-significant trend to increased peak power output. In conclusion, children with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  11. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  12. Cerebral Lactate Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome. PMID:26898683

  13. Cerebral ultrasound findings in neonatal lupus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zuppa, A A; Gallini, F; De Luca, D; Luciano, R; Frezza, S; de Turris, P L; Tortorolo, G

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study was performed enrolling 11 newborns with neonatal lupus syndrome (NLS) and 22 control newborns to investigate cerebral ultrasound (US) anomalies and their relationship with clinical neurological signs and laboratory findings. Cerebral US detected a significantly higher incidence in the study group of both subependymal pseudocysts (SEPC) and subependymal hemorrhage (SEH), neither of which correlated to autoantibody levels. All infants had completely normal neurological examinations both at birth and follow-up. The etiopathogenesis of central nervous system findings in NLS is discussed. US evaluation identified minimal anomalies compatible with favorable outcome: further studies are necessary to investigate the possible long-term sequelae, pathogenesis and spectrum of cerebral US findings.

  14. The evolution of cerebral revascularization surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Melanie G; Lee, Marco; Guzman, Raphael; Steinberg, Gary K

    2009-05-01

    Among the relatively few surgeons to be awarded the Nobel Prize was Alexis Carrel, a French surgeon and pioneer in revascularization surgery at the turn of the 20th century. The authors trace the humble beginnings of cerebral revascularization surgery through to the major developments that helped shape the modern practice of cerebral bypass surgery. They discuss the cornerstone studies in the development of this technique, including the Extracranial/Intracranial Bypass Study initiated in 1977. Recent innovations, including modern techniques to monitor cerebral blood flow, microanastomosis techniques, and ongoing trials that play an important role in the evolution of this field are also evaluated. PMID:19408995

  15. Growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics in a case of acromegalic gigantism associated with hyperprolactinemia: nonpulsatile secretion of GH may induce elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Shimatsu, A; Sakane, N; Hizuka, N; Horikawa, R; Tanaka, T

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of pituitary gigantism with low levels of growth hormone (GH), elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP-3). The patient had characteristic clinical features of gigantism and acromegaly. The basal serum GH levels ranged from 1.2-1.9 micrograms/L, which were considered to be within normal limits. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood samplings during daytime and at night showed nonpulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocryptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide and bromocryptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. GH bioactivity as measured by Nb2 cell proliferation assay was within reference range. In the present case, nonpulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and IGF-BP-3 and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:8550769

  16. Malignant cerebral swelling following cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, S; Damodaran, O; Lind, C R P; Lee, G

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years there have been a number of case reports and small cohort studies that have described so called "malignant" cerebral swelling following an uneventful cranioplasty procedure. The pathophysiology remains to be established however it has been suggested that it may be related to a combination of failure of autoregulation and the use of closed vacuum suction drainage. The current study presents three further patients who had had a decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke. If decompressive craniectomy is utilised in the management of neurological emergencies, close attention and wider reporting of this type of complication is required not only to focus attention on possible management strategies, but also to determine which patients are at most risk of this devastating complication. PMID:27189792

  17. Tumors of the cerebral aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Ho, K L

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of tumor of the cerebral aqueduct are described. Case 1 is a pilocytic astrocytoma in a 16-year-old girl with a two-year history of intermittent increase of intracranial pressure. The tumor was completely confined within the lumen of the aqueduct. Case 2 is a subependymoma of a 68-year-old man. The tumor extended beyond the aqueduct to the periaqueductal gray matter and produced signs and symptoms suggesting normal pressure hydrocephalus. The literature contains 18 other cases of tumor of the aqueduct: 13 gliomas and five vascular malformations. All, except one, produced clinical manifestations of generalized hydrocephalus lasting from 20 days to six years. The result generally did not correspond to the histologic type of the tumor. Like gliomas of the brainstem in general, those in the aqueduct tend to occur in childhood and adolescence and affect male more than female patients.

  18. Imaging findings and cerebral perfusion in arterial ischemic stroke due to transient cerebral arteriopathy in children.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves; Ellovitch, Saada Resende de Souza; Pincerato, Rita de Cassia Maciel

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old female child who developed an arterial ischemic stroke in the left middle cerebral artery territory, due to a proximal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, most probably related to transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood. Computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, perfusion magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography are presented, as well as follow-up by magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography exams. Changes in cerebral perfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch call attention. As far as we know, this is the first report of magnetic resonance perfusion findings in transient cerebral arteriopathy.

  19. Decreased light attenuation in cerebral cortex during cerebral edema detected using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carissa L. R.; Szu, Jenny I.; Eberle, Melissa M.; Wang, Yan; Hsu, Mike S.; Binder, Devin K.; Park, B. Hyle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cerebral edema develops in response to a variety of conditions, including traumatic brain injury and stroke, and contributes to the poor prognosis associated with these injuries. This study examines the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting cerebral edema in vivo. Three-dimensional imaging of an in vivo water intoxication model in mice was performed using a spectral-domain OCT system centered at 1300 nm. The change in attenuation coefficient was calculated and cerebral blood flow was analyzed using Doppler OCT techniques. We found that the average attenuation coefficient in the cerebral cortex decreased over time as edema progressed. The initial decrease began within minutes of inducing cerebral edema and a maximum decrease of 8% was observed by the end of the experiment. Additionally, cerebral blood flow slowed during late-stage edema. Analysis of local regions revealed the same trend at various locations in the brain, consistent with the global nature of the cerebral edema model used in this study. These results demonstrate that OCT is capable of detecting in vivo optical changes occurring due to cerebral edema and highlights the potential of OCT for precise spatiotemporal detection of cerebral edema. PMID:25674578

  20. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in two families with acromegaly/gigantism is independent of mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, M R; Prezant, T R; Une, K N; Glick, R P; Moskal, S F; Vaisman, M; Melmed, S; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1999-01-01

    Familial acromegaly/gigantism occurring in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acromegaly/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were affected, with ages at diagnosis of 19, 21, and 23 yr. In family B, 5 of 13 siblings exhibited the phenotype and were diagnosed at 13, 15, 17, 17, and 24 yr of age. All 8 affected patients had elevated basal GH levels associated with high insulin-like growth factor I levels and/or nonsuppressible serum GH levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. GHRH levels were normal in affected members of family A. An invasive macroadenoma was found in 6 subjects, and a microadenoma was found in 1 subject from family B. The sequence of the GHRH receptor complementary DNA in 1 tumor from family A was normal. There was no history of consanguinity in either family, and the past medical history and laboratory results excluded MEN-1 and the Carney complex in all affected and unaffected screened subjects. Five of 8 subjects have undergone pituitary surgery to date, and paraffin-embedded pituitary blocks were available for analysis. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 was studied by comparing microsatellite polymorphisms of leukocyte and tumor DNA using PYGM (centromeric) and D11S527 (telomeric), markers closely linked to the MEN-1 tumor suppressor gene. All tumors exhibited a loss of heterozygosity at both markers. Sequencing of the MEN-1 gene revealed no germline mutations in either family, nor was a somatic mutation found in tumor DNA from one subject in family A. The integrity of the MEN-1 gene in this subject was further supported by demonstration of the presence of MEN-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, as assessed by RT-PCR. These data indicate that loss of heterozygosity in these affected family

  1. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation.

  2. Cerebral oxygenation and optimal vascular brain organization

    PubMed Central

    Hadjistassou, Constantinos; Bejan, Adrian; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral vascular network has evolved in such a way so as to minimize transport time and energy expenditure. This is accomplished by a subtle combination of the optimal arrangement of arteries, arterioles and capillaries and the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Elucidating the interaction between cerebral vascular architectonics and the latter physical mechanisms can catalyse progress in treating cerebral pathologies such as stroke, brain tumours, dementia and targeted drug delivery. Here, we show that brain microvascular organization is predicated on commensurate intracapillary oxygen convection and parenchymal diffusion times. Cross-species grey matter results for the rat, cat, rabbit and human reveal very good correlation between the cerebral capillary and tissue mean axial oxygen convective and diffusion time intervals. These findings agree with the constructal principle. PMID:25972435

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  4. Cerebral malaria: gamma-interferon redux

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Nicholas H.; Ball, Helen J.; Hansen, Anna M.; Khaw, Loke T.; Guo, Jintao; Bakmiwewa, Supun; Mitchell, Andrew J.; Combes, Valéry; Grau, Georges E. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are two theories that seek to explain the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, the mechanical obstruction hypothesis and the immunopathology hypothesis. Evidence consistent with both ideas has accumulated from studies of the human disease and experimental models. Thus, some combination of these concepts seems necessary to explain the very complex pattern of changes seen in cerebral malaria. The interactions between malaria parasites, erythrocytes, the cerebral microvascular endothelium, brain parenchymal cells, platelets and microparticles need to be considered. One factor that seems able to knit together much of this complexity is the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). In this review we consider findings from the clinical disease, in vitro models and the murine counterpart of human cerebral malaria in order to evaluate the roles played by IFN-γ in the pathogenesis of this often fatal and debilitating condition. PMID:25177551

  5. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  6. Cerebral Microcirculation during Experimental Normovolaemic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bellapart, Judith; Cuthbertson, Kylie; Dunster, Kimble; Diab, Sara; Platts, David G.; Raffel, O. Christopher; Gabrielian, Levon; Barnett, Adrian; Paratz, Jenifer; Boots, Rob; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is accepted among critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anemia. Experimental studies suggest that anemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise, when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion among critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure, and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anemia does not result in short-term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain. PMID:26869986

  7. Wearable wireless cerebral oximeter (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral oximeters measure continuous cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology noninvasively. It has been involved into operating room setting to monitor oxygenation within patient's brain when surgeons are concerned that a patient's levels might drop. Recently, cerebral oxygen saturation has also been related with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency (CCVI). Patients with CCVI would be benefited if there would be a wearable system to measure their cerebral oxygen saturation in need. However, there has yet to be a wearable wireless cerebral oximeter to measure the saturation in 24 hours. So we proposed to develop the wearable wireless cerebral oximeter. The mechanism of the system follows the NIRS technology. Emitted light at wavelengths of 740nm and 860nm are sent from the light source penetrating the skull and cerebrum, and the light detector(s) receives the light not absorbed during the light pathway through the skull and cerebrum. The amount of oxygen absorbed within the brain is the difference between the amount of light sent out and received by the probe, which can be used to calculate the percentage of oxygen saturation. In the system, it has one source and four detectors. The source, located in the middle of forehead, can emit two near infrared light, 740nm and 860nm. Two detectors are arranged in one side in 2 centimeters and 3 centimeters from the source. Their measurements are used to calculate the saturation in the cerebral cortex. The system has included the rechargeable lithium battery and Bluetooth smart wireless micro-computer unit.

  8. Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic, and thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, many of whom death was attributed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathologic manifestations of fatal malaria; to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages; and to catalog comorbidities. From available patients, which included 55 patients with cerebral malaria and 45 controls, we obtained 4 cores of lung tissue for immunohistochemistry and morphological evaluation. We found that, in patients with cerebral malaria, large numbers of malaria parasites were present in pulmonary alveolar capillaries, together with extensive deposits of malaria pigment (hemozoin). The number of pulmonary macrophages in this vascular bed did not differ between patients with cerebral malaria, noncerebral malaria, and nonmalarial diagnoses. Comorbidities found in some cerebral malaria patients included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and systemic activation of coagulation. We conclude that the respiratory distress seen in patients with cerebral malaria does not appear to be anatomic in origin but that increasing malaria pigment is strongly associated with cerebral malaria at autopsy.

  9. Cerebral Microinfarcts Associated with Severe Cerebral β-Amyloid Angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Lynch, Matthew D.; Mermash, Sherin; Pomakian, Justine; Badkoobehi, Haleh; Clare, Ryan; Vinters, Harry V.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is common in elderly individuals, especially those affected with Alzheimer's disease. To investigate whether the presence of severe CAA (SCAA) in the brains of demented patients was associated with a higher burden of old microinfarcts than those with mild CAA (MCAA), 18 brains with SCAA were compared to 21 brains with MCAA. Immunohistochemistry for CD68 was employed to highlight old microinfarcts in tissue blocks from various brain regions. Old microinfarcts, manually counted by light microscopy, were present in 14 of 18 SCAA brains, and in 7 of 21 MCAA brains (P = 0.01, 2-tailed Fisher’s exact test). The average number of old microinfarcts across geographic regions in each brain ranged from 0 to 1.95 (mean rank 24.94, sum of ranks 449) in the SCAA group, and from 0 to 0.35 (mean rank 15.76, sum of ranks 331) in the MCAA group (P = 0.008, 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test). Frequent old microinfarcts in demented individuals with severe CAA may contribute a vascular component to the cognitive impairment in these patients. PMID:19725828

  10. Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; Ouyang Yong; He Xiang; Zhang Heping

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 {+-} 2.3 cm to 5.6 {+-} 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 {+-} 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL.

  11. Uplift, subsidence, and volcanism in the southern Neiva Basin, Colombia, Part 2: Influence on fluvial deposition in the Miocene Gigante Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wiel, A. M.; van den Bergh, G. D.; Hebeda, E. H.

    1992-02-01

    The fluvial and volcaniclastic deposits of the Miocene Gigante Formation of the southern Neiva Basin record the transition from fluvial deposition to a type of sedimentation strongly influenced by volcanic activity of the Central Cordillera volcanic arc. The lower part of the formation, reflecting the influence of uplift of the Central Cordillera to the south and west of the basin, consists of mixed-load sediments deposited by a braided river system. In middle Miocene times, this braided, north-flowing paleo-Magdalena River was forced eastward by coalescing volcanic aprons that probably originated along the front of a reactivated thrust fault. Sedimentation processes on these aprons were dominated by debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows as well as by unconfined sheetfloods on the more proximal parts of the aprons and by unconfined and confined sheetfloods and overbank deposition on the dstal parts of the aprons grading into the alluvial plain. Average sedimentation rates on the volcanic aprons measured between 0.36 and 0.42 mm/year. When volcanism abated, the paleo-Magdalena River returned to its former course. During this period, fluvial deposition was influenced by renewed uplift of the Garzón Massif to the east of the basin.

  12. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains. PMID:25776010

  13. Gigantism treated by pure endoscopic endonasal approach in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome with sphenoid fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Guive; Jalessi, Maryam; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon polyostotic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia in association with at least one endocrinopathy that is mostly associated with precocious puberty and hyperpigmented skin macules named café-au-lait spots. We present an atypical manifestation of McCune-Albright syndrome in a 19-year-old man with the uncommon association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and gigantism in the absence of café-au-lait spots and precocious puberty. He presented with a height increase to 202 cm in the previous 3 years, which had become more progressive in the few months prior. Physical examination revealed only a mild facial asymmetry; however, a computed tomography (CT) scan discovered vast areas of voluminous bones with ground-glass density and thickening involving the craniofacial bones and skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found a right stalk shift of the pituitary with a 20 mm pituitary adenoma. We describe the diagnostic and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for excision of the tumor. PMID:23307306

  14. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

  15. Gigantism treated by pure endoscopic endonasal approach in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome with sphenoid fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Guive; Jalessi, Maryam; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon polyostotic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia in association with at least one endocrinopathy that is mostly associated with precocious puberty and hyperpigmented skin macules named café-au-lait spots. We present an atypical manifestation of McCune-Albright syndrome in a 19-year-old man with the uncommon association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and gigantism in the absence of café-au-lait spots and precocious puberty. He presented with a height increase to 202 cm in the previous 3 years, which had become more progressive in the few months prior. Physical examination revealed only a mild facial asymmetry; however, a computed tomography (CT) scan discovered vast areas of voluminous bones with ground-glass density and thickening involving the craniofacial bones and skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found a right stalk shift of the pituitary with a 20 mm pituitary adenoma. We describe the diagnostic and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for excision of the tumor.

  16. Cerebral infarction and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Loo, K L; Ramachandran, R; Abdullah, B J; Chow, S K; Goh, E M L; Yeap, S S

    2003-09-01

    A 38-year old female with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. After an initial good response to anti-tuberculous treatment, she developed cerebral infarction and profound hyponatremia. This was due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome, which has only previously been described in 2 cases. The difficulties in diagnosis and management of this case are discussed.

  17. Correlation of CT cerebral vascular territories with function. 3. Middle cerebral artery

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.A.; Hayman, L.A.; Hinck, V.C.

    1984-05-01

    Schematic displays are presented of the cerebral territories supplied by branches of the middle cerebral artery as they would appear on axial and coronal computed tomographic (CT) scan sections. Companion diagrams of regional cortical function and a discussion of the fiber tracts are provided to simplify correlation of clinical deficits with coronal and axial CT abnormalities.

  18. Multifractality of cerebral blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.; Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz

    2003-02-01

    Scale invariance, the property relating time series across multiple scales, has provided a new perspective of physiological phenomena and their underlying control systems. The traditional “signal plus noise” paradigm of the engineer was first replaced with a model in which biological time series have a fractal structure in time (Fractal Physiology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994). This new paradigm was subsequently shown to be overly restrictive when certain physiological signals were found to be characterized by more than one scaling parameter and therefore to belong to a class of more complex processes known as multifractals (Fractals, Plenum Press, New York, 1988). Here we demonstrate that in addition to heart rate (Nature 399 (1999) 461) and human gait (Phys. Rev. E, submitted for publication), the nonlinear control system for cerebral blood flow (CBF) (Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication; Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3492) is multifractal. We also find that this multifractality is greatly reduced for subjects with “serious” migraine and we present a simple model for the underlying control process to describe this effect.

  19. The hip in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bleck, E E

    1980-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery can alleviate the hip flexion, adduction, and medial rotation deformities of the hip and improve the function and appearance of gait. To accomplish this, however, careful examination and prudence in the operative procedure to avoid overdoing and overcorrecting are important. Orthopedic surgery can prevent subluxation and dislocation of the hip before the age of seven years, and consequently repetitive radiographic examinations of the hip in children who have spastic paralysis of the hip musculature should be a routine procedure. Subluxation and dislocation of the hip, when established, can be successfully treated with orthopedic surgical procedures. Physicians must keep in mind that the spastic paralysis of cerebral palsy originates in the brain, and therefore the spasticity cannot be eliminated. The best that can be done is to weaken or remove some muscles as deforming forces and to achieve compromises for continued function. The goal should be optimal independence for the child and adolescent during development, and freedom from pain with deteriorating function due to degenerative arthritis in the adult. PMID:7360505

  20. Preemptive Medicine for Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Tomohiro; NOZAKI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Most of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) are incidentally discovered without any neurological symptoms and the risk of rupture of CAs is relatively higher in Japanese population. The goal of treatments for patients with CAs is complete exclusion of the aneurysmal rupture risk for their lives. Since two currently available major treatments, microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, have inherent incompleteness to achieve cure of CAs with some considerable treatment risks, and there is no effective surgical or medical intervention to inhibit the formation of CAs in patients with ruptured and unruptured CAs, new treatment strategies with lower risk and higher efficacy should be developed to prevent the formation, growth, and rupture of CAs. Preemptive medicine for CAs should be designed to prevent or delay the onset of symptoms from CAs found in an asymptomatic state or inhibit the de novo formation of CAs, but we have no definite methods to distinguish rupture-prone aneurysms from rupture-resistant ones. Recent advancements in the research of CAs have provided us with some clues, and one of the new treatment strategies for CAs will be developed based on the findings that several inflammatory pathways may be involved in the formation, growth, and rupture of CAs. Preemptive medicine for CAs will be established with specific biomarkers and imaging modalities which can sensor the development of CAs. PMID:27053328

  1. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo; Carrera, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Infarctions in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occur in about 5-10% of all ischemic strokes. The PCA can be divided into 'deep' (P1 and P2 segments) and 'superficial' (P3 and P4) segments. Occlusion of paramedian perforating arteries arising from P1 causes rostral midbrain infarction with or without thalamic lesion. The classical clinical triad after thalamomesencephalic infarcts is hypersomnolence, cognitive deficits and vertical oculomotor paresis. Two main arterial groups arise from P2: infarction in the territory of the thalamogeniculate arteries causes severe contralateral hypesthesia and ataxia, whereas infarction in the territory of the posterior choroidal arteries results in sectoranopia with involvement of the lateral geniculate body. After superficial PCA infarcts, visual field defects and somatosensory deficits are the most frequent signs. Additionally, disorders of reading may be seen after unilateral left infarction and disorientation for place and visual neglect after right lesion. After bilateral PCA infarcts, amnesia, cortical blindness (the patient cannot see but pretend he can) may occur. Acute thrombolysis is as useful after PCA infarctions as after anterior circulation strokes. Mortality after PCA strokes is low, but long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits are underestimated.

  2. Cerebral concussion: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina; Bost, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    No topic in sports has gathered more attention and publicity than the diagnosis, management, and long-term effects of cerebral concussion. The relevant history of concussion starts in 1905 when President Theodore Roosevelt drew attention to the football 'death harvest'. Soon after, rules started to change to reduce the amount and severity of head injuries in football. Up until 1980, the primary focus regarding concussions was to diagnose a potentially fatal intracranial hemorrhage. While aware of long-term consequences of concussions, the perception at the time was that virtually all concussions would 'clear' with time and rest. Concussion management guidelines gave way to objective neuropsychological testing in the early 1990s with the development of the ImPACT™ (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) neurocognitive test. Led by organized football, in 1994 the National Football League (NFL) formed the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee which began to investigate the cause of concussions, evaluate equipment (particularly helmets), and recommend methods for prevention. In 2005, the first case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy was described in a deceased football player, raising concerns about the long-term consequences of head injuries and concussions. Major advancements in contact sports and the military are underway to reduce the incidence of concussions and subconcussive blows to the head.

  3. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity.

  4. Effects of cerebral ischemia on neuronal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    He, Yangdong; Hua, Ya; Liu, Wenquan; Hu, Haitao; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Summary The present study examined whether or not neuronal hemoglobin (Hb) is present in rats. It then examined whether cerebral ischemia or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) affects neuronal Hb levels in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either 15 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with 24 hours of reperfusion, an IPC stimulus, or 24 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), or IPC followed three days later by 24 hours of pMCAO. In vitro, primary cultured neurons were exposed to 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation with 22 hours of reoxygenation. Results showed that Hb is widely expressed in rat cerebral neurons but not astrocytes. Hb expression was significantly upregulated in the ipsilateral caudate and the cortical core of the middle cerebral artery territory after IPC. Hb levels also increased in more penumbral cortex and the contralateral hemisphere 24 hours after pMCAO, but expression in the ipsilateral caudate and cortical core area were decreased. Ischemic preconditioning modified pMCAO-induced brain Hb changes. Neuronal Hb levels in vitro were increased by 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation and 22 hours of reoxygenation. These results indicate that Hb is synthesized in neurons and can be upregulated by ischemia. PMID:19066615

  5. Mechanisms of Astrocyte-Mediated Cerebral Edema

    PubMed Central

    Stokum, Jesse A.; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral edema formation stems from disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and occurs after injury to the CNS. Due to the restrictive skull, relatively small increases in brain volume can translate into impaired tissue perfusion and brain herniation. In excess, cerebral edema can be gravely harmful. Astrocytes are key participants in cerebral edema by virtue of their relationship with the cerebral vasculature, their unique compliment of solute and water transport proteins, and their general role in brain volume homeostasis. Following the discovery of aquaporins, passive conduits of water flow, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was identified as the predominant astrocyte water channel. Normally, AQP4 is highly enriched at perivascular endfeet, the outermost layer of the BBB, whereas after injury, AQP4 expression disseminates to the entire astrocytic plasmalemma, a phenomenon termed dysregulation. Arguably, the most important role of AQP4 is to rapidly neutralize osmotic gradients generated by ionic transporters. In pathological conditions, AQP4 is believed to be intimately involved in the formation and clearance of cerebral edema. In this review, we discuss aquaporin function and localization in the BBB during health and injury, and we examine post-injury ionic events that modulate AQP4- dependent edema formation. PMID:24996934

  6. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    De Cosmo, G; Iannace, E; Primieri, P; Valente, M R; Proietti, R; Matteis, M; Silvestrini, M

    1999-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires a series of procedures, including intraperitoneal CO2 insufflation, which can cause cardiovascular and hemogasanalytic modifications, potentially able to impair cerebral perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eighteen patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity was monitored using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Electrical bioimpedance was employed to measure cardiac output, stroke volume and to calculate derived parameters. End-tidal CO2, mean arterial blood pressure, end expiratory anesthetic concentration and O2 saturation were monitored non-invasively. Cerebral artery blood flow velocity increased significantly after CO2 insufflation (p < 0.05) and remained stable. The highest values were reached after CO2 desufflation. A significant reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output (p < 0.05) associated with increased vascular systemic resistances (p < 0.001) was observed soon after CO2 insufflation. The decrease in cardiac output and the increase in vascular systemic resistances remained significant throughout abdominal insufflation. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure remained substantially unchanged with the exception of a significant decrease (p < 0.001) before CO2 insufflation. There was no significant change in end-tidal CO2 during abdominal insufflation. These findings suggest that the cerebrovascular system can undergo adaptive changes during all phases of laparoscopic surgery. However, the extent of cardio- and cerebrovascular variation indicates the need for careful preliminary evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with vascular disorders before laparoscopic surgery. PMID:10555187

  8. Time-Varying Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Shin, Dae C.; Orme, Melissa; Zhang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, Cerebral Flow Autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 Vasomotor Reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, MCI, Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e. changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from 10 healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields “time-averaged models” of physiological and clinical utility. PMID:24184697

  9. Time-varying modeling of cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Shin, Dae C; Orme, Melissa; Rong Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The scientific and clinical importance of cerebral hemodynamics has generated considerable interest in their quantitative understanding via computational modeling. In particular, two aspects of cerebral hemodynamics, cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVR), have attracted much attention because they are implicated in many important clinical conditions and pathologies (orthostatic intolerance, syncope, hypertension, stroke, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases with cerebrovascular components). Both CFA and CVR are dynamic physiological processes by which cerebral blood flow is regulated in response to fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure and blood CO2 tension. Several modeling studies to date have analyzed beat-to-beat hemodynamic data in order to advance our quantitative understanding of CFA-CVR dynamics. A confounding factor in these studies is the fact that the dynamics of the CFA-CVR processes appear to vary with time (i.e., changes in cerebrovascular characteristics) due to neural, endocrine, and metabolic effects. This paper seeks to address this issue by tracking the changes in linear time-invariant models obtained from short successive segments of data from ten healthy human subjects. The results suggest that systemic variations exist but have stationary statistics and, therefore, the use of time-invariant modeling yields "time-averaged models" of physiological and clinical utility.

  10. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-{mu}m radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1}, and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 {plus minus} 0.23 ml O{sub 2}{center dot}100 g{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1} during normothermia (39{degree}C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35{degree}C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced.

  11. The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Einspieler, C; Cioni, G; Paolicelli, P B; Bos, A F; Dressler, A; Ferrari, F; Roversi, M F; Prechtl, H F R

    2002-04-01

    Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in newborns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed longitudinal study involving four European hospitals we identified twelve cases with the relatively rare condition of dyskinetic cerebral palsy and compared their early motor development with twelve spastic cerebral palsy cases and twelve controls. From birth to the fifth month post-term, all infants were repeatedly videoed and their spontaneous motor patterns, including general movements, were assessed. Until the second month post-term, the infants that later became dyskinetic displayed a poor repertoire of general movements, "arm movements in circles" and finger spreading. Abnormal arm and finger movements remained until at least five months and were then concurrent with a lack of arm and leg movements towards the midline. Later dyskinetic infants share with later spastic infants the absence of fidgety movements, a spontaneous movement pattern that is normally present from three to five months. Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor patterns enabled us to identify infants at high risk for dyskinetic cerebral palsy early in life. Additionally, we were able to discriminate them from those infants at high risk for later spastic cerebral palsy. This is a matter of significant clinical relevance because the two types of cerebral palsy ask for different management and early intervention.

  12. Short-term memory and cerebral ischemia: pharmacological application.

    PubMed

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, M; Grosdemouge, C; Billon, C R; Duterte, D; Pontrat, P; Lespinasse, P; Rapin, J R

    1981-01-01

    Transient ischemia results in changes in the cerebral blood flow at the level of microinfarcts, enzymatic and metabolic changes and the development of a cerebral edema; all these disorders regress in the week following ischemia. Besides, the observed functional disorders disappear as the cerebral edema regresses. The brain functional activity is protected by the use of treatments which reduce the development of the cerebral edema and/or a quicker regression of the edema. PMID:7262126

  13. Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. )

    1991-02-01

    A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

  14. Relationship between cerebral sodium-glucose transporter and hyperglycemia in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-09-14

    Post-ischemic hyperglycemia exacerbates the development of cerebral ischemia. To elucidate this exacerbation mechanism, we focused on sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) as a mediator that lead hyperglycemia to cerebral ischemia. SGLT transport glucose into the cell, together with sodium ion, using the sodium concentration gradient. We have previously reported that suppression of cerebral SGLT ameliorates cerebral ischemic neuronal damage. However, detail relationship cerebral between SGLT and post-ischemic hyperglycemia remain incompletely defined. Therefore, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT on cerebral ischemic neuronal damage with or without hyperglycemic condition. Cell survival rate of primary cultured neurons was assessed by biochemical assay. A mouse model of focal ischemia was generated using a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuronal damage was assessed with histological and behavioral analyses. Concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment exacerbated hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death. Although a SGLT family-specific inhibitor, phlorizin had no effect on developed hydrogen peroxide alone-induced cell death, it suppressed cell death induced by concomitant hydrogen peroxide/glucose treatment. α-MG induced a concentration-dependent and significant decrease in neuronal survival. PHZ administered on immediately after reperfusion had no effect, but PHZ given at 6h after reperfusion had an effect. Our in vitro study indicates that SGLT is not involved in neuronal cell death in non-hyperglycemic condition. We have already reported that post-ischemic hyperglycemia begins to develop at 6h after MCAO. Therefore, current our in vivo study show post-ischemic hyperglycemic condition may be necessary for the SGLT-mediated exacerbation of cerebral ischemic neuronal damage.

  15. [Cerebral venous thrombosis during tuberculous meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Guenifi, W; Boukhrissa, H; Gasmi, A; Rais, M; Ouyahia, A; Hachani, A; Diab, N; Mechakra, S; Lacheheb, A

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare disease characterized by its clinical polymorphism and multiplicity of risk factors. Infections represent less than 10% of etiologies. Tuberculosis is not a common etiology, only a few observations are published in the literature. Between January 2005 and March 2015, 61 patients were hospitalized for neuro-meningeal tuberculosis. Among them, three young women had presented one or more cerebral venous sinus thromboses. No clinical feature was observed in these patients; vascular localizations were varied: sagittal sinus (2 cases), lateral sinus (2 cases) and transverse sinus (1 case). With anticoagulant and antituberculosis drugs, the outcome was favorable in all cases. During neuro-meningeal tuberculosis, the existence of consciousness disorders or neurological focal signs is not always the translation of encephalitis, hydrocephalus, tuberculoma or ischemic stroke; cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be the cause and therefore should be sought. PMID:27090100

  16. [Does cerebral salt wasting syndrome exist?].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, P-E; Cheisson, G; Geeraerts, T; Tazarourte, K; Duranteau, J; Vigué, B

    2007-11-01

    Increased natriuresis is a frequent situation after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It may be responsible for hyponatremia, which can be dangerous in case of severe hypo-osmolarity or hypovolemia. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) have been incriminated for hyponatremia after SAH, but it remains difficult to distinguish between both syndromes. There are many explanations for increased natriuresis after SAH, depending on the level of blood pressure, the volemia, and the presence or not of natriuretic peptides. The cerebral insult and the treatments, which are done to fight against elevated intracranial pressure or vasospasm, can modify any of these parameters. So it appears that the word "cerebral" in CSWS is probably not a good term and it would be better to talk about appropriate or non-appropriate natriuretic response. Corticoïds or urea can be useful for controlling hypernatriuresis.

  17. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, M R

    1996-01-01

    Hyponatremia is frequently seen in neurosurgical patients and is often attributed to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. A number of studies in recent years have shown that hyponatremia in many patients with intracranial disease may actually be caused by cerebral salt wasting, in which a renal loss of sodium leads to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The appropriate treatment of cerebral salt wasting fluid and salt replacement, is opposite from the usual treatment of hyponatremia caused by inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. This review summarizes the evidence in favor of cerebral salt wasting in patients with intracranial disease, examines the possible mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, and discusses methods for diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery.

  19. [Transcranial electrostimulation in chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Voropaev, A A; Mochalov, A D

    2006-01-01

    The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TCES) has been used for treatment of 68 patients with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency, stages I and II. A treatment course included 7 daily procedures. The influence of TCES was evaluated clinically, by EEG, transcranial ultrasonic Doppler study and hemodynamic indices in arteries and veins as well as by expression of trait and state anxiety. All the parameters were compared to those of the control group which was treated using conventional methods. TCES resulted in normalization of cerebral vascular reactivity, a decrease of venous circulation disturbances, positive influence on cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters, that corresponded to global improvement of the patients' state, regress of cephalgic syndrome and reduction of trait and state anxiety. The method is simple and safety and can be recommended for wide application including outpatient setting.

  20. [Transcranial electrostimulation in chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Voropaev, A A; Mochalov, A D

    2006-01-01

    The method of transcranial electrostimulation (TCES) has been used for treatment of 68 patients with chronic cerebral vascular insufficiency, stages I and II. A treatment course included 7 daily procedures. The influence of TCES was evaluated clinically, by EEG, transcranial ultrasonic Doppler study and hemodynamic indices in arteries and veins as well as by expression of trait and state anxiety. All the parameters were compared to those of the control group which was treated using conventional methods. TCES resulted in normalization of cerebral vascular reactivity, a decrease of venous circulation disturbances, positive influence on cerebral blood flow and EEG parameters, that corresponded to global improvement of the patients' state, regress of cephalgic syndrome and reduction of trait and state anxiety. The method is simple and safety and can be recommended for wide application including outpatient setting. PMID:16768222

  1. Assessment of the hand in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Sabapathy, S. Raja

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the musculoskeletal manifestation of a nonprogressive central nervous system lesion that usually occurs due to a perinatal insult to the brain. Though the cerebral insult is static the musculoskeletal pathology is progressive. Some patients with cerebral palsy whose hands are affected can be made better by surgery. The surgical procedures as such are not very technically demanding but the assessment, decision-making, and selecting the procedures for the given patient make this field challenging. When done well, the results are rewarding not only in terms of improvement in hand function but also in appearance and personal hygiene, which leads to better self-image and permits better acceptance in the society. This article focuses on the clinical examination, patient selection, and decision-making while managing these patients. PMID:22022045

  2. Neuropsychological Effects of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Matthew; Kirshner, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a condition of the cerebral arterioles and to a lesser extent capillaries and veins, wherein beta-amyloid is deposited. In arterioles, this preferentially targets vascular smooth muscle cells and in the later stages undermines the stability of the vessel. This condition is frequently comorbid with Alzheimer's disease and its role in cognitive impairment and dementia is a topic of considerable recent research. This article reviews recent literature which confirms that CAA independently contributes to cognitive impairment by potentiating the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease, by predisposing to microhemorrhagic and microischemic injury to the brain parenchyma, and by interfering with the autoregulation of CNS blood flow. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with a focus on the neuropsychological manifestations of this vasculopathy. PMID:27357378

  3. Mental Imagery Abilities in Adolescents with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbois, Yanick; Coello, Yann; Bouchart, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Four visual imagery tasks were presented to three groups of adolescents with or without spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The first group was composed of six adolescents with cerebral palsy who had associated visual-perceptual deficits (CP-PD), the second group was composed of five adolescents with cerebral palsy and no associated visual-perceptual…

  4. Cerebral ischaemia after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Gogou, Maria; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Giannopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    A 9-year-old boy, with a history of repair of severe coarctation of the aorta through balloon angioplasty 2 weeks ago, presented in the emergency paediatric department with symptoms consistent with transient cerebral ischaemia. MRI revealed an area of cerebral infarction in the right frontal lobe. Causes of cerebral ischaemia after aortic coarctation repair are briefly discussed.

  5. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients.

  6. Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies.

  7. Functional stability of cerebral circulatory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Y. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The functional stability of the cerebral circulation system seems to be based on the active mechanisms and on those stemming from specific of the biophysical structure of the system under study. This latter parameter has some relevant criteria for its quantitative estimation. The data obtained suggest that the essential part of the mechanism for active responses of cerebral vessels which maintains the functional stability of this portion of the vascular system, consists of a neurogenic component involving central nervous structures localized, for instance, in the medulla oblongata.

  8. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  9. Regulation of cerebral blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Querido, Jordan S; Sheel, A William

    2007-01-01

    Constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) is vital to human survival. Originally thought to receive steady blood flow, the brain has shown to experience increases in blood flow during exercise. Although increases have not consistently been documented, the overwhelming evidence supporting an increase may be a result of an increase in brain metabolism. While an increase in metabolism may be the underlying causative factor for the increase in CBF during exercise, there are many modulating variables. Arterial blood gas tensions, most specifically the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strongly regulate CBF by affecting cerebral vessel diameter through changes in pH, while carbon dioxide reactivity increases from rest to exercise. Muscle mechanoreceptors may contribute to the initial increase in CBF at the onset of exercise, after which exercise-induced hyperventilation tends to decrease flow by pial vessel vasoconstriction. Although elite athletes may benefit from hyperoxia during intense exercise, cerebral tissue is well protected during exercise, and cerebral oxygenation does not appear to pose a limiting factor to exercise performance. The role of arterial blood pressure is important to the increase in CBF during exercise; however, during times of acute hypotension such as during diastole at high-intensity exercise or post-exercise hypotension, cerebral autoregulation may be impaired. The impairment of an increase in cardiac output during exercise with a large muscle mass similarly impairs the increase in CBF velocity, suggesting that cardiac output may play a key role in the CBF response to exercise. Glucose uptake and CBF do not appear to be related; however, there is growing evidence to suggest that lactate is used as a substrate when glucose levels are low. Traditionally thought to have no influence, neural innervation appears to be a protective mechanism to large increases in cardiac output. Changes in middle cerebral arterial velocity are independent of changes in

  10. Electrical Cerebral Stimulation Modifies Inhibitory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.

    2003-09-01

    Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.

  11. Role of Embolization for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jason A.; Lavine, Sean D.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex high-flow lesions that can result in devastating neurological injury when they hemorrhage. Embolization is a critical component in the management of many patients with cerebral AVMs. Embolization may be used as an independent curative therapy or more commonly in an adjuvant fashion prior to either micro- or radiosurgery. Although the treatment-related morbidity and mortality for AVMs—including that due to microsurgery, embolization, and radiosurgery—can be substantial, its natural history offers little solace. Fortunately, care by a multidisciplinary team experienced in the comprehensive management of AVMs can offer excellent results in most cases. PMID:25624978

  12. Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation and Dysautoregulation.

    PubMed

    Armstead, William M

    2016-09-01

    This article provides a review of cerebral autoregulation, particularly as it relates to the clinician scientist experienced in neuroscience in anesthesia and critical care. Topics covered are biological mechanisms; methods used for assessment of autoregulation; effects of anesthetics; role in control of cerebral hemodynamics in health and disease; and emerging areas, such as role of age and sex in contribution to dysautoregulation. Emphasis is placed on bidirectional translational research wherein the clinical informs the study design of basic science studies, which, in turn, informs the clinical to result in development of improved therapies for treatment of central nervous system conditions. PMID:27521192

  13. Progenitor genealogy in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Laguesse, Sophie; Peyre, Elise; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex is characterized by a complex histological organization that reflects the spatio-temporal stratifications of related stem and neural progenitor cells, which are responsible for the generation of distinct glial and neuronal subtypes during development. Some work has been done to shed light on the existing filiations between these progenitors as well as their respective contribution to cortical neurogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current views of progenitor hierarchy and relationship in the developing cortex and to further discuss future research directions that would help us to understand the molecular and cellular regulating mechanisms involved in cerebral corticogenesis. PMID:25141969

  14. Acute quadriplegia due to bilateral cerebral metastases.

    PubMed

    Levine, D N; Black, P M; Kleinman, G M; Ojemann, R

    1981-03-01

    A 51-year-old man developed severe quadriparesis without sensory loss after a fall on the occiput. When he was treated with corticosteroids, the weakness worsened slightly for 2 days, but he then progressively improved and ultimately walked unassisted. Two months later, postmortem examination disclosed metastatic tumors in the superior portion of each precentral gyrus. The subjacent white matter was edematous. No spinal cord abnormalities were found. The clinical, radiologic, and neuropathologic findings suggest that the quadriplegia resulted from these bilateral cerebral lesions and not from spinal cord dysfunction. The rapid development of cerebral edema, perhaps precipitated by trauma, seemed to account for the acute onset of symptoms in this case.

  15. [Spontaneous dissection of the anterior cerebral artery presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction: a case report].

    PubMed

    Miyahara, K; Sakata, K; Gondo, G; Kanno, H; Yamamoto, I

    2001-04-01

    A case is reported of anterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. A 50-year-old man presented with sudden onset of weakness of the left lower limb was admitted to our hospital. CT scan on admission showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure and CT on the 6th day demonstrated a cerebral infarction on the right medial frontal lobe. A carotid angiogram 12 hours after the onset showed no aneurysmal lesion, but, the angiogram repeated 11 days after the onset revealed an aneurysmal dilatation with distal narrowing at the right A2-A3 segment. To prevent rebleeding, we performed a wrapping procedure through the interhemispheric route on the 18th day after onset. The postoperative course was uneventful. We reviewed 27 previously reported cases with symptomatic dissecting aneurysm confined to the anterior cerebral artery.

  16. Cerebral blood flow in humans following resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Cohan, S.L.; Mun, S.K.; Petite, J.; Correia, J.; Tavelra Da Silva, A.T.; Waldhorn, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and may indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage.

  17. Cerebral infarction in patient with minimal change nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Babu, A.; Boddana, P.; Robson, S.; Ludeman, L.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 68-year-old Caucasian man who presented with cerebral infarcts secondary to arterial thrombosis associated with nephrotic syndrome. His initial presentation included edema of legs, left hemiparesis, and right-sided cerebellar signs. Investigations with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed multiple cerebral infarcts in middle cerebral and posterior cerebral artery territory. Blood and urine investigations also showed impaired renal function, hypercholesterolemia, hypoalbuminaemia, and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Cerebral infarcts were treated with antiplatelet agents and nephrotic syndrome was treated with high dose steroids. Patient responded well to the treatment and is all well till date. PMID:23580806

  18. Cerebral paragonimiasis--report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Toyonaga, S; Kurisaka, M; Mori, K; Suzuki, N

    1992-03-01

    Five cases of cerebral paragonimiasis presenting with hemianopsia, convulsion, and gait disturbance are discussed. The cases were all in the chronic stage. The intradermal paragonimiasis reaction, complement fixation, and Ouchterlony tests were not useful for diagnosis. Computed tomography demonstrated calcifications in all cases in sites consistent with the foci of symptoms. Surgical treatment in two cases failed to improve symptoms.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, Gregory S.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…

  20. Measuring Cerebral Dominance: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yachimowicz, David J.; And Others

    The psychometric properties of a paper-and-pencil instrument for assessing individual differences in cerebral dominance are explored. The instrument, Your Style of Learning and Thinking (SOLAT), contains 50 multiple-choice questions. The study subjects consisted of three groups: 235 undergraduate and graduate students, 124 undergraduate and…

  1. Junk DNA Used in Cerebral Cortical Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Thomas; Price, David J

    2016-06-15

    In this issue of Neuron, Rani et al. (2016) address important questions about the mechanisms of cerebral cortical evolution. They describe how a primate-specific long non-coding RNA titrates the levels of a microRNA that regulates an ancient signaling pathway controlling neuronal numbers. PMID:27311076

  2. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  3. Cerebral palsy: the first three years.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, M M; Koffman, M

    1980-09-01

    The orthopedic surgeion should be an integral part of a medical team for evaluation and treatment of young children with cerebral palsy. Surgical procedures in this first three years of life are usually limited to the adductor releases about the hip. Stretching and plastic splints about the ankle and knee followed by ankle-foot orthoses are frequently effective in correction of deformity.

  4. [Cognitive stimulation in children with cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Muriel, V; Garcia-Molina, A; Aparicio-Lopez, C; Ensenat, A; Roig-Rovira, T

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. La paralisis cerebral a menudo cursa con deficits cognitivos de atencion, visuopercepcion, funciones ejecutivas y memoria de trabajo. Objetivo. Analizar el efecto de un tratamiento de estimulacion cognitiva sobre las capacidades cognitivas en niños con pa­ralisis cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Muestra de 15 niños con paralisis cerebral, con una edad media de 8,80 ± 2,51 años, clasificados mediante el Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) en nivel I (n = 6), nivel II (n = 4), nivel III (n = 2) y nivel V (n = 3). Los deficits cognitivos se evaluaron mediante la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños (WISC-IV) y el Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II). Se administraron los cuestionarios para padres y profesores del Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) y las escalas de evaluacion de Conners (CPRS-48 y CTRS-28). Se realizo un programa de estimulacion cognitiva dos horas semanales durante ocho semanas. Resultados. Se observaron diferencias estadisticamente significativas tras aplicar el tratamiento de estimulacion cognitivo en el indice de razonamiento perceptivo de la WISC-IV. No se obtuvieron diferencias antes y despues del tratamiento en las puntuaciones del Conners y del BRIEF. Tampoco se hallaron diferencias en los resultados de la WISC-IV en funcion del sexo ni en el GMFCS. Conclusion. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños con paralisis cerebral mejora tras la aplicacion de un programa de rehabilitacion cognitiva.

  5. [Cerebral infarction in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D

    1995-06-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors. PMID:7638144

  6. The cerebral venous system and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Imray, Christopher H E

    2016-01-15

    Most hypobaric hypoxia studies have focused on oxygen delivery and therefore cerebral blood inflow. Few have studied venous outflow. However, the volume of blood entering and leaving the skull (∼700 ml/min) is considerably greater than cerebrospinal fluid production (0.35 ml/min) or edema formation rates and slight imbalances of in- and outflow have considerable effects on intracranial pressure. This dynamic phenomenon is not necessarily appreciated in the currently taught static "Monro-Kellie" doctrine, which forms the basis of the "Tight-Fit" hypothesis thought to underlie high altitude headache, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema. Investigating both sides of the cerebral circulation was an integral part of the 2007 Xtreme Everest Expedition. The results of the relevant studies performed as part of and subsequent to this expedition are reviewed here. The evidence from recent studies suggests a relative venous outflow insufficiency is an early step in the pathogenesis of high altitude headache. Translation of knowledge gained from high altitude studies is important. Many patients in a critical care environment develop hypoxemia akin to that of high altitude exposure. An inability to drain the hypoxemic induced increase in cerebral blood flow could be an underappreciated regulatory mechanism of intracranial pressure.

  7. Cerebral Lateralization and Its Effect on Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Yvonne A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both sides of the brain for the development of drawing skills but notes that the left brain can inhibit the action of the right brain. Provides a discussion of cerebral lateralization and child development. Suggests five drawing exercises to help develop hemispheric cooperation. (SB)

  8. Narrative Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD)…

  9. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  10. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic vasospasm after head trauma: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2009-08-01

    While patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms have been reported, the underlying pathogenesis of these events remains unclear. We encountered 2 patients with head trauma and cerebral infarction who presented with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and cerebral arterial spasms. Our findings suggested hypothalamic dysfunction due to venous congestion around the hypothalamus caused cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms.

  11. Mathematical Modelling of Cerebral Blood Circulation and Cerebral Autoregulation: Towards Preventing Intracranial Hemorrhages in Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Nikolai; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation leads to fluctuations in cerebral blood flow, which can be especially dangerous for immature brain of preterm newborns. In this paper, two mathematical models of cerebral autoregulation are discussed. The first one is an enhancement of a vascular model proposed by Piechnik et al. We extend this model by adding a polynomial dependence of the vascular radius on the arterial blood pressure and adjusting the polynomial coefficients to experimental data to gain the autoregulation behavior. Moreover, the inclusion of a Preisach hysteresis operator, simulating a hysteretic dependence of the cerebral blood flow on the arterial pressure, is tested. The second model couples the blood vessel system model by Piechnik et al. with an ordinary differential equation model of cerebral autoregulation by Ursino and Lodi. An optimal control setting is proposed for a simplified variant of this coupled model. The objective of the control is the maintenance of the autoregulatory function for a wider range of the arterial pressure. The control can be interpreted as the effect of a medicament changing the cerebral blood flow by, for example, dilation of blood vessels. Advanced numerical methods developed by the authors are applied for the numerical treatment of the control problem. PMID:25126111

  12. Mathematical modelling of cerebral blood circulation and cerebral autoregulation: towards preventing intracranial hemorrhages in preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Renée; Botkin, Nikolai; Turova, Varvara; Blumenstein, Tobias; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation leads to fluctuations in cerebral blood flow, which can be especially dangerous for immature brain of preterm newborns. In this paper, two mathematical models of cerebral autoregulation are discussed. The first one is an enhancement of a vascular model proposed by Piechnik et al. We extend this model by adding a polynomial dependence of the vascular radius on the arterial blood pressure and adjusting the polynomial coefficients to experimental data to gain the autoregulation behavior. Moreover, the inclusion of a Preisach hysteresis operator, simulating a hysteretic dependence of the cerebral blood flow on the arterial pressure, is tested. The second model couples the blood vessel system model by Piechnik et al. with an ordinary differential equation model of cerebral autoregulation by Ursino and Lodi. An optimal control setting is proposed for a simplified variant of this coupled model. The objective of the control is the maintenance of the autoregulatory function for a wider range of the arterial pressure. The control can be interpreted as the effect of a medicament changing the cerebral blood flow by, for example, dilation of blood vessels. Advanced numerical methods developed by the authors are applied for the numerical treatment of the control problem.

  13. Cerebral infarction due to Aspergillus arteritis following glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Gurusinghe, N T; Lynch, P G

    1992-01-01

    Cerebral infarction due to fungal arteritis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical operations and adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy, including long-term steroids. If unrecognized, the neurological deterioration which ensues may be mistreated by increasing the dose of steroids. A case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who had no obvious immune deficiency or fungal infection prior to a craniotomy for cerebral tumour is described in whom perioperative aspergillus infection resulted in cerebral arteritis and extensive cerebral infarction with a fatal outcome. Long-term steroid therapy used in the management of cerebral tumours may carry an increased risk of systemic or cerebral fungal infection. The possibility of cerebral mycosis (arteritis) and dangers of its non-recognition are highlighted.

  14. The history of cerebral PET scanning

    PubMed Central

    Portnow, Leah H.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the discoveries underpinning the introduction of cerebral PET scanning and highlight its modern applications. Background: Important discoveries in neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and radiotracer development in the post–World War II period provided the necessary infrastructure for the first cerebral PET scan. Methods: A complete review of the literature was undertaken to search for primary and secondary sources on the history of PET imaging. Searches were performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and select individual journal Web sites. Written autobiographies were obtained through the Society for Neuroscience Web site at www.sfn.org. A reference book on the history of radiology, Naked to the Bone, was reviewed to corroborate facts and to locate references. The references listed in all the articles and books obtained were reviewed. Results: The neurophysiologic sciences required to build cerebral PET imaging date back to 1878. The last 60 years have produced an evolution of technological advancements in brain metabolism and radiotracer development. These advancements facilitated the development of modern cerebral PET imaging. Several key scientists were involved in critical discoveries and among them were Angelo Mosso, Charles Roy, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, Seymour Kety, Louis Sokoloff, David E. Kuhl, Gordon L. Brownell, Michael Ter-Pogossian, Michael Phelps, and Edward Hoffman. Conclusions: Neurophysiology, metabolism, and radiotracer development in the postwar era synergized the development of the technology necessary for cerebral PET scanning. Continued use of PET in clinical trials and current developments in PET-CT/MRI hybrids has led to advancement in diagnosis, management, and treatment of neurologic disorders. PMID:23460618

  15. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  16. Cerebral hemodynamics during graded Valsalva maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Blake G.; Cotter, James D.; Mejuto, Gaizka; Mündel, Toby; Lucas, Samuel J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Valsalva maneuver (VM) produces large and abrupt changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) that challenge cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. We examined the effect of VM intensity on middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and cortical oxygenation responses during (phases I–III) and following (phase IV) a VM. Healthy participants (n = 20 mean ± SD: 27 ± 7 years) completed 30 and 90% of their maximal VM mouth pressure for 10 s (order randomized) whilst standing. Beat-to-beat MCAv, cerebral oxygenation (NIRS) and MAP across the different phases of the VM are reported as the difference from standing baseline. There were significant interaction (phase * intensity) effects for MCAv, total oxygenation index (TOI) and MAP (all P < 0.01). MCAv decreased during phases II and III (P < 0.01), with the greatest decrease during phase III (−5 ± 8 and −19 ± 15 cm·s−1 for 30 and 90% VM, respectively). This pattern was also evident in TOI (phase III: −1 ± 1 and −5 ± 4%, both P < 0.05). Phase IV increased MCAv (22 ± 15 and 34 ± 23 cm·s−1), MAP (15 ± 14 and 24 ± 17 mm Hg) and TOI (5 ± 6 and 7 ± 5%) relative to baseline (all P < 0.05). Cerebral autoregulation, indexed, as the %MCAv/%MAP ratio, showed a phase effect only (P < 0.001), with the least regulation during phase IV (2.4 ± 3.0 and 3.2 ± 2.9). These data illustrate that an intense VM profoundly affects cerebral hemodynamics, with a reactive hyperemia occurring during phase IV following modest ischemia during phases II and III. PMID:25309449

  17. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of cerebral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, R; Tyler, J L; Mohr, G; Meyer, E; Diksic, M; Yamamoto, L; Taylor, L; Gauthier, S; Hakim, A

    1987-04-01

    Pre- and postoperative positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in six patients undergoing extracranial to intracranial bypass procedures for the treatment of symptomatic extracranial carotid occlusion. The six patients were all men, aged 52 to 68 years. Their symptoms included transient ischemic attacks (five cases), amaurosis fugax (two cases), and completed stroke with good recovery (one case). Positron emission tomography was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and between 3 to 6 months postoperatively, using oxygen-15-labeled CO, O2, and CO2 and fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRGlu), and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured in both hemispheres. Preoperatively, compared to five elderly control subjects, patients had increased CBV, a decreased CBF/CBV ratio, and decreased CMRO2, indicating reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and depressed oxygen metabolism. The CBF was decreased in only one patient who had bilateral carotid occlusions; the OEF, CMRGlu, and CMRO2/CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratios were not significantly different from control measurements. All bypasses were patent and all patients were asymptomatic following surgery. Postoperative PET revealed decreased CBV and an increased CBF/CBV ratio, indicating improved hemodynamic function and oxygen hypometabolism. This was associated with increased CMRO2 in two patients in whom the postoperative OEF was also increased. The CMRGlu and CMRGlu/CBF ratio were increased in five patients. Changes in CBF and the CMRO2/CMRGlu ratio were variable. One patient with preoperative progressive mental deterioration, documented by serial neuropsychological testing and decreasing CBF and CMRO2, had improved postoperative CBF and CMRO2 concomitant with improved neuropsychological functioning. It is concluded that symptomatic carotid occlusion is associated with altered

  18. Noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Wynne, Karon E.; Petrov, Yuriy; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Richardson, C. Joan; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral ischemia after birth and during labor is a major cause of death and severe complications such as cerebral palsy. In the USA alone, cerebral palsy results in permanent disability of 10,000 newborns per year and approximately 500,000 of the total population. Currently, no technology is capable of direct monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. This study proposes the use of an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral ischemia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral ischemia in newborns with normal weight (NBW), low birth-weight (LBW, 1500 - 2499 g) and very low birth-weight (VLBW, < 1500 g). The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as through the skull. We tested the system in NBW, LBW, and VLBW newborns (weight range: from 675 g to 3,000 g) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. We performed single and continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation. The data acquisition, processing and analysis software developed by our group provided real-time, absolute SSS blood oxygenation measurements. The SSS blood oxygenation ranged from 60% to 80%. Optoacoustic monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation provides valuable information because adequate cerebral oxygenation would suggest that no therapy was necessary; conversely, evidence of cerebral ischemia would prompt therapy to increase cerebral blood flow.

  19. Middle cerebral-anterior cerebral-radial artery interposition graft bypass for proximal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kazumata, Ken; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Yuka; Osanai, Toshiya; Sugiyama, Taku; Itamoto, Kouji

    2011-01-01

    A 74-year-old man underwent pterional craniotomy to treat a left proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. The orifice of the aneurysm was located at the origin of the proximal segment of the ACA, and the right A(1) segment of ACA was hypoplastic. After failed attempts at neck plasty with fenestrated clips, trapping and bypass were performed. Superficial temporal to left frontopolar artery bypass was performed to secure minimal blood supply. The radial artery (RA) was then harvested, and middle cerebral artery (MCA) to A(1) segment of the ACA bypass was performed using the RA interposition graft. Trapping of the aneurysm was successfully achieved without ischemic event. Intracranial-intracranial bypass has been employed in the treatment of complex cerebral aneurysm in an increasing number of selected patients. The present case shows that MCA-ACA-RA interposition graft bypass is an effective procedure to provide blood supply to the ACA territory if a proximal A(1) lesion requires trapping with incompetent contralateral A(1).

  20. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow in human cerebral ischemic infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, G.L.; Frackowiak, R.S.; Jones, T.

    1982-09-01

    Fifteen patients with acute cerebral hemispheric infarcts have been studied with positron emission tomography and the /sup 15/O steady-state inhalation technique. Thirteen follow-up studies were also performed. The values of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO/sub 2/), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction ration (OER) have been calculated for the infarcted regions, their borders, the symmetrical regions in contralateral cerebral hemispheres, and the cerebellar hemispheres. This study demonstrates that in the completed stroke there are thresholds for regional CMRO/sub 2/ and regional CBF below which the general clinical outcome of the patients is usually poor. The ischaemic lesions invariably produce an uncoupling between the greatly decreased metabolic demand and the less affected blood supply, with very frequent instances of relative hyperperfusion. Remote effects of the hemispheric infarcts have been demonstrated, such as crossed cerebellar diaschisis and contralateral transhemispheric depression. The level of consciousness correlates with oxygen uptake and blood flow both in the posterior fossa and in the contralateral cerebral hemispheres. The follow-up studies of individual patients underline the high variability of metabolism-to-flow balance during the acute phase of the illness, and stress the need for more studies focused on repeated assessments of homogeneous patient populations.

  1. Characteristics of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in cerebral small vessel disease: Diffuse and sustained.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Yingqi; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Hongyin; Liu, Jia; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a major cause of stroke and vascular dementia; however, the pathogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the impairment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in lacunar infarction patients. Seventy-one lacunar infarction patients were enrolled in the study, including 46 unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory stroke patients and 25 unilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory stroke patients. Each group of patients was randomly divided into two subgroups. Group 1 underwent dCA assessments in the bilateral MCAs, and Group 2 underwent dCA assessments in the bilateral PCAs. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Transfer function analysis was applied to derive the autoregulatory parameters of gain and phase difference. In the unilateral MCA territory stroke patients, impairments of dCA were observed in both the MCAs and PCAs, and the same results were observed in the unilateral PCA territory stroke patients. These impairments remained unchanged during the 6-month follow-up. In lacunar infarction, which is most prevalent type of cerebral small vessel disease, though patients with unilateral MCA territory/PCA territory stroke, the impairments of dCA were global and sustained. This finding suggests that the physiological changes associated with lacunar infarction were diffuse.

  2. Acute headache at emergency department: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome complicated by subarachnoid haemorrhage and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Zavanone, C; Abdennour, L; Koubaa, W; Clarençon, F; Dupont, S; Samson, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is becoming widely accepted as a rare cause of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke and should be evocated in case of thunderclap headaches associated with stroke. We present the case of a patient with ischemic stroke associated with cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) and reversible diffuse arteries narrowing, leading to the diagnosis of reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Case Report. A 48-year-old woman came to the emergency department because of an unusual thunderclap headache. The computed tomography of the brain completed by CT-angiography was unremarkable. Eleven days later, she was readmitted because of a left hemianopsia. One day after her admission, she developed a sudden left hemiparesis. The brain MRI showed ischemic lesions in the right frontal and occipital lobe and diffuse cSAH. The angiography showed vasoconstriction of the right anterior cerebral artery and stenosis of both middle cerebral arteries. Nimodipine treatment was initiated and vasoconstriction completely regressed on day 16 after the first headache. Conclusion. Our case shows a severe reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome where both haemorrhagic and ischemic complications were present at the same time. The history we reported shows that reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is still underrecognized, in particular in general emergency departments.

  3. Characteristics of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in cerebral small vessel disease: Diffuse and sustained

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Yingqi; Wang, Shuang; Ma, Hongyin; Liu, Jia; Yang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is a major cause of stroke and vascular dementia; however, the pathogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the impairment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in lacunar infarction patients. Seventy-one lacunar infarction patients were enrolled in the study, including 46 unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory stroke patients and 25 unilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory stroke patients. Each group of patients was randomly divided into two subgroups. Group 1 underwent dCA assessments in the bilateral MCAs, and Group 2 underwent dCA assessments in the bilateral PCAs. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Transfer function analysis was applied to derive the autoregulatory parameters of gain and phase difference. In the unilateral MCA territory stroke patients, impairments of dCA were observed in both the MCAs and PCAs, and the same results were observed in the unilateral PCA territory stroke patients. These impairments remained unchanged during the 6-month follow-up. In lacunar infarction, which is most prevalent type of cerebral small vessel disease, though patients with unilateral MCA territory/PCA territory stroke, the impairments of dCA were global and sustained. This finding suggests that the physiological changes associated with lacunar infarction were diffuse. PMID:26469343

  4. Cerebral Whipple's disease. Diagnosis by brain biopsy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Diamond, I

    1980-10-01

    Whipple's disease, a multisystem chronic granulomatous disease treatable by antibiotics, usually presents clinically with gastrointestinal or joint symptoms. Usually, the diagnosis is substantiated by small intestinal biopsy. This shows diastase-resistant periodic-acid-Schiff-(PAS)-positive inclusions in the cytoplasm of macrophages within the lamina propria. By electron microscopy, this PAS-positive material consists of 1.5 X 0.2-mum bacilli and fine fibrillar material within macrophage phagolysosomes. Rarely, Whipple's disease presents clinically as a primary neurologic disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. Because untreated cerebral Whipple's disease usually progresses rapidly to death, it is imperative to establish the diagnosis promptly. This report describes a case of cerebral Whipple's disease without gastrointestinal symptoms that was diagnosed early by light-and electron-microscopic study of brain biopsy material. PMID:6158859

  5. The cerebral hemispheres and bilateral neural nets.

    PubMed

    Cook, N D; Beech, A R

    1990-06-01

    A high-level cognitive dichotomy ("language and context") is reviewed in relation to empirical findings concerning the functions of the human cerebral hemispheres. We argue that the right hemisphere's involvement in the generation of connotative and contextual information in parallel with the denotative and literal language functions of the left hemisphere provides an important insight into the organization of viable cognitive systems. The role of the corpus callosum in producing the dichotomy is discussed. Finally, the generation of asymmetrical activity in structurally symmetrical, bilateral neural nets is described. The model demonstrates how complementary memory states can be generated in bilateral nets without assuming different modes of information processing, provided that the nets have inhibitory, homotopic connections. Unlike excitatory connections, inhibitory connections are sufficient to generate asymmetric hemispheric activity without postulating intrinsic differences between the cerebral hemispheres.

  6. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.

  7. Developmental control of cortico-cerebral astrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mallamaci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable body of research over the last 15 years has been aimed at disentangling the cellular and molecular mechanisms which regulate murine cortico-cerebral astrogenesis. This research effort has allowed the reconstruction of the actual sizing of this process, as well as a better definition of its temporal, spatial and clonal articulation. Moreover, these investigations have shed substantial light on the cardinal molecular mechanisms governing the transition from pallial neuronogenesis to astrogenesis, as well as subsequent progress of the latter. It has turned out that proper temporal articulation of astrogenesis relies on a plethora of tightly interlaced mechanisms, which synergistically dampen astrogenesis prior to birth and promote it during peri- and postnatal life. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and organic synthesis of these mechanisms, as well as a critical evaluation of their specific relevance to proper articulation of cerebral cortex astrogenesis in time and space.

  8. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hegde, R M

    1999-06-01

    A case of hyponatraemia associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage is presented. The provisional diagnosis of an inappropriate antidiuresis was made and treatment with fluid restriction was instituted. However the patient continued to deteriorate as the diuresis continued and the hyponatraemia worsened, resulting in hypovolaema. The salt wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed and saline and fludrocortisone (0.2 mg/day) was initiated, reducing the renal salt loss, increasing the plasma sodium and improving the neurological status of the patient. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is an important and under-recognised cause of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is essential to differentiate it from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to avoid complications of hypovolaemia and reduced cerebral perfusion as illustrated by this case. Brain natriuretic peptide may be responsible for this syndrome although this requires further investigation.

  9. Cutis marmorata and cerebral arterial gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Peter T

    2015-12-01

    Dr Kemper and colleagues reported that, when air was injected into the cerebral circulation of pigs, they developed a rash that looked very similar to cutis marmorata of cutaneous decompression illness (DCI) and to livido reticularis. They postulated that cutaneous DCI in divers may be centrally mediated as a result of cerebral gas embolism. It would be helpful if Kemper et al. described the distribution of the rash in their pigs. In divers, cutaneous DCI is generally confined to parts of the body with significant amounts of subcutaneous fat, such as the trunk and thighs, and the rash often crosses the midline. Colleagues and I have reported that cutaneous DCI is commonly associated with significant right-to-left shunts and particularly persistent foramen ovale (PFO). We postulated that the manifestations of shunt-related DCI, whether neurological or cutaneous, are in large part determined by peripheral amplification of embolic bubbles in those tissues that are most supersaturated with dissolved nitrogen (or other inert gas) at the time that emboli arrive. Hence we postulated that cutaneous DCI is the result of amplification of gas emboli that invade cutaneous capillaries. Dr Kemper has kindly sent me a number of the publications from his department on which their report of this skin rash in pigs is based. The aim of their experiments was to produce significant brain injury by means of cerebral air embolism. Their pigs had no tissues supersaturated with inert gas. They were ventilated with a FiO₂ of 0.4 and anaesthetised with ketamine and midazolam. They were also given pancuronium and atropine, before air was injected into their cerebral circulation. If their findings in pigs and the resulting hypothesis were applicable to man, it would mean that one could get cutaneous DCI without decompression: one would only need cerebral gas embolism. During contrast echocardiography, I have produced arterial gas embolism in many hundreds of patients with right

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental cerebral oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D; McDonald, W I; Tofts, P S; Johnson, G; Landon, D N

    1986-01-01

    Triethyl tin(TET)-induced cerebral oedema has been studied in cats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the findings correlated with the histology and fine structure of the cerebrum following perfusion-fixation. MRI is a sensitive technique for detecting cerebral oedema, and the distribution and severity of the changes correlate closely with the morphological abnormalities. The relaxation times, T1 and T2 increase progressively as the oedema develops, and the proportional increase in T2 is approximately twice that in T1. Analysis of the magnetisation decay curves reveals slowly-relaxing and rapidly-relaxing components which probably correspond to oedema fluid and intracellular water respectively. The image appearances taken in conjunction with relaxation data provide a basis for determining the nature of the oedema in vivo. Images PMID:3806109

  11. Cerebral rheumatoid vasculitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system involvement in rheumatoid arthritis is infrequent. The most frequent neurological manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are peripheral neuropathy and cervical spinal cord compression due to subluxation of the cervical vertebrae. Cerebral rheumatoid vasculitis is an uncommon and serious complication which can be life-threatening. Case presentation A 52-year-old North African Tunisian Caucasian woman presented with a six-week history of headache. She had suffered seropositive and destructive rheumatoid arthritis for nine years without any extra-articular complications. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with the T2 sequence showed high-intensity signal images at the frontal and parietal cortico-subcortical junction suggesting hemispheric vasculitis. Conclusions Cerebral vasculitis is an infrequent complication in rheumatoid arthritis which is associated with high morbidity and in some cases can be life-threatening. Early assessment and a high index of suspicion to recognize such complications are essential in managing these patients. PMID:22974191

  12. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  13. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  14. Pediatric neuroradiology: Cerebral and cranial diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Diebler, C.; Dulac, O.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, a neuroradiologist and a neuropediatrician have combined forces to provide the widest possible knowledge in investigating cranial and cerebral disorders in infancy and childhood. Based on more than 20,000 pediatric CT examinations, with a follow-up time often exceeding ten years, the book aims to bridge interdisciplinary gaps and help radiologists, pediatricians and neurosurgeons solve the various problems of pediatric neuroradiology that frequently confront them. For each disease, the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathological lesions and radiological presentations are discussed, supported by extensive illustrations. Malformative, vascular, traumatic, tumoral, infectious and metabolic diseases are reviewed. Miscellaneous conditions presenting particular symptoms or syndromes are also studied, such as hydrocephalus and neurological complications of leukemia. Contents: Cerebral and cranial malformations; neurocutaneous syndromes; inherited metabolic diseases; infectious diseases - vascular disorders; intracranial tumors; cranial trauma - miscellaneous and subject index.

  15. Clinical management of infectious cerebral vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of infections (virus, bacteria, parasite and fungi) may cause cerebral vasculitides. Headache, seizures, encephalopathy and stroke are common forms of presentation. Infection and inflammation of intracranial vessels may cause pathological vascular remodelling, vascular occlusion and ischemia. Vasculitis in chronic meningitis may cause ischemic infarctions, and is associated with poor outcome. Appropriate neuroimaging (CT-angiography, MR-angiography, conventional 4-vessel angiography) and laboratory testing (specific antibodies in blood and CSF, CSF culture and microscopy) and even brain biopsy are needed to quickly establish the aetiology. Enhancement of contrast, wall thickening and lumen narrowing are radiological signs pointing to an infectious vasculitis origin. Although corticosteroids and prophylactic antiplatelet therapy have been used in infectious cerebral vasculitis, there are no randomized clinical trials that have evaluated their efficacy and safety. Stable mycotic aneurysms can be treated with specific antimicrobial therapy. Endovascular therapy and intracranial surgery are reserved for ruptured aneurysms or enlarging unruptured aneurysms. PMID:26689107

  16. Neural perspectives of cerebral correlates of giftedness.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C; Buckley, K C

    1988-07-01

    Giftedness is defined as some special endowment or propensity for creativity, skill, and eminent achievement, found in relatively few individuals among the population. A high order of mental power (IQ), creativity, and motivation (task commitment) appear to be the most universally recognized attributes of the gifted. This report summarizes current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of intelligence and creativity, including physiological measures of EEG, cortical power spectrum, brain evoked potentials, and positron emission tomography. Controversy, debates, contentions, formal hypotheses, and research issues are considered. We are especially interested in the formulation of the deterministic function of EEG-brain dynamics. A CHAOS modeling on hierarchy of cognitive organization and cerebral processing in the gifted is suggested.

  17. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  18. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  19. [Cerebral hemorrhage associated with the use phenylpropanolamine].

    PubMed

    Barinagarrementería, F; Méndez, A; Vega, F

    1990-10-01

    Phenylpropanolamine is a sympatheticomimetic agent which is widely used in pharmacologic preparations to treat nasal congestion, and to produce and anorexigenic or stimulant action. In the last years complications affecting the nervous system or the general condition have been reported. There is still controversy with regard to the safety of this pharmacologic agent. In this study we report two cases of parenchymal cerebral hemorrhage secondary to phenylpropanolamine administration. In the second case we observed angiographic findings of a reversible vasculopathy.

  20. The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.; Lent, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in the size of the cerebral cortex, a columnar structure, often occur through the addition or subtraction of columnar modules with the same number of neurons underneath a unit area of cortical surface. This view is based on the work of Rockel et al. [Rockel AJ, Hiorns RW, Powell TP (1980) The basic uniformity in structure of the neocortex. Brain 103:221–244], who found a steady number of approximately 110 neurons underneath a surface area of 750 μm2 (147,000 underneath 1 mm2) of the cerebral cortex of five species from different mammalian orders. These results have since been either corroborated or disputed by different groups. Here, we show that the number of neurons underneath 1 mm2 of the cerebral cortical surface of nine primate species and the closely related Tupaia sp. is not constant and varies by three times across species. We found that cortical thickness is not inversely proportional to neuronal density across species and that total cortical surface area increases more slowly than, rather than linearly with, the number of neurons underneath it. The number of neurons beneath a unit area of cortical surface varies linearly with neuronal density, a parameter that is neither related to cortical size nor total number of neurons. Our finding of a variable number of neurons underneath a unit area of the cerebral cortex across primate species indicates that models of cortical organization cannot assume that cortical columns in different primates consist of invariant numbers of neurons. PMID:18689685

  1. Cerebral SPECT imaging: Impact on clinical management

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M.; Jacobs, S.; Pozniakof, T.

    1994-05-01

    Although cerebral SPECT has been reported to be of value in a variety of neurologic disorders, there is limited data available on the value of SPECT relative to clinical management decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cerebral SPECT imaging on patient management. A total of 94 consecutive patients referred for clinical evaluation with brain SPECT were included in this study. Patients were assigned to one of nine groups depending on the clinical indication for the study. These groups included transient ischemia (16), stroke (20), dementia (18), seizures (5), hemorrhage (13), head trauma (6), arteriovenous malformations (6), encephalopathy (6) and a miscellaneous (4) group. All patients were injected with 99mTc HMPAO in doses ranging from 15 mCi to 22 mCi (555 MBq to 814 MBq) and scanned on a triple headed SPECT gamma camera. Two weeks after completion of the study, a standardized interview was conducted between the nuclear and referring physicians to determine if the SPECT findings contributed to an alteration in patient management. Overall, patient management was significantly altered in 47% of the cases referred. The greatest impact on patient management occurred in the group evaluated for transient ischemia, where a total of 13/16 (81%) of patients had their clinical management altered as a result of the cerebral SPECT findings. Clinical management was altered in 61% of patients referred for evaluation of dementia, 67% of patients evaluated for arteriovenous malformations, and 50% of patients with head trauma. In the remainder of the patients, alteration in clinical management ranged from 17% to 50% of patients. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of cerebral SPECT imaging since in a significant number of cases clinical management was altered as a result of the examination. Long term follow up will be necessary to determine patient outcome.

  2. Brain endothelial dysfunction in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-11-01

    See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy. PMID:26377633

  3. [CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis].

    PubMed

    Li, H Z; Xie, F W; Sun, S C

    1992-01-01

    There are few reports on CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis. We have experienced four cases of "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis examined by CT scan. Three patients were children aged 7, 9, and 14 years, and one was an adult aged 25 years. Three patients were examined by CT scan 2 to 6 months after the onset of high grade fever, convulsion and focal deficit signs, and a patient was examined one month after his progressive visual disturbance. The unique CT findings are multilocular cystic lesions in temporo-occipital or in temporo-parietal lobes with extensive brain edema. Two cases were also associated with "soap-bubble" calcifications. The cysts were more dense than CSF and enhanced by contrast media. The histopathological specimen showed that the eggs of paragonimus were in the abscess cavity, of which the wall was composed with highly vascular gliomesenchymal capsule and numerous cell infiltration. Three patients underwent craniotomy for removal of abscess and decompression. Bitionol were administered and all patients recovered well. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of cerebral parasitic granulomas.

  4. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  5. Cerebral Microbleeds: Detection, Associations and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Vigorous investigations for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been made since the late 1990s. CMBs on paramagnetic-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences correspond pathologically to clusters of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and have emerged as an important new imaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prevalence of CMBs varies according to the specific disease settings (stroke subtypes and dementing disorders) and is highest (60%) in ICH patients. The associations of CMBs with aging, hypertension and apolipoprotein E genotype are consistent with the two major underlying pathogeneses of CMBs: hypertensive arteriopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The distributional patterns of CMBs might help us to understand the predominant small vessel disease pathogenesis in the brain; the strictly lobar type of CMBs often reflects the presence of advanced CAA, while the other types of CMBs, such as 'deep or infratentorial CMBs', including the mixed type, are strongly associated with hypertension. CMBs might be associated with cognitive function (especially executive function), gait performance, and cerebrovascular events (spontaneous, antithrombotic drug-related or post-thrombolysis ICH). In the field of CAA, an understanding of CAA-related CMBs might help to guide decision making with regard to new therapeutic approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibodies against vascular amyloid. These concepts of CMBs might allow us to advance research on ICH as well as for dementia. PMID:26587900

  6. Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Kumari, V; Williams, S C R; Zelaya, F O; Connor, S E J; Alsop, D C; Gray, J A

    2006-06-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a neurobiological basis of personality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological bases of the major dimensions of Eysenck's and Cloninger's models of personality using a noninvasive magnetic resonance perfusion imaging technique in 30 young, healthy subjects. An unbiased voxel-based analysis was used to identify regions where the regional perfusion demonstrated significant correlation with any of the personality dimensions. Highly significant positive correlations emerged between extraversion and perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum and between novelty seeking and perfusion in the cerebellum, cuneus and thalamus. Strong negative correlations emerged between psychoticism and perfusion in the basal ganglia and thalamus and between harm avoidance and perfusion in the cerebellar vermis, cuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. These observations suggest that personality traits are strongly associated with resting cerebral perfusion in a variety of cortical and subcortical regions and provide further evidence for the hypothesized neurobiological basis of personality. These results may also have important implications for functional neuroimaging studies, which typically rely on the modulation of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of task-induced activation since personality effects may influence the intersubject variability for both task-related activity and resting cerebral perfusion. This technique also offers a novel approach for the exploration of the neurobiological correlates of human personality.

  7. Opiates and cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional response to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.

  8. Brain endothelial dysfunction in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-11-01

    See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy.

  9. Ocular tuberculosis with multiple cerebral abscesses.

    PubMed

    Nor-Masniwati, Saidin; Zunaina, Embong; Azhany, Yaakub

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old Malay man presented with headache for one-month duration. It was associated with painless blurring of vision of the right eye. He had loss of appetite and reduced weight but no night sweats or hemoptysis. His visual acuity on the right eye was 6/45 and improved to 6/15 with pinhole. Right fundus examination revealed a choroidal tuberculoma located at one disc diameter away from optic disc superiorly with mild vitritis. Systemic examinations revealed no significant finding. Mantoux test reading was 22 mm with erythrocyte sedimentation rate that was 14 mm/h. Other blood investigations were negative with normal chest radiography. The computerized tomography scan of the brain revealed multiple cerebral abscesses. A clinical diagnosis of right ocular tuberculosis with multiple cerebral abscesses was made. He was treated with antituberculosis chemotherapy for one year which divided into intensive phase for three months and maintenance phase for nine months. Cerebral abscesses resolved after three months of antituberculosis drugs and at one-year follow-up, and the choroidal tuberculoma resolved completely with scar formation and significant macular striae.

  10. Clinical Analysis of Traumatic Cerebral Pseudoaneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Tae Hun; Kim, Sung Han; Huh, Seung Kon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Traumatic pseudoaneurysms are rare but life-threatening lesions. We investigated the patients with these lesions to clarify their clinical characteristics and therapeutic strategies and we also reviewed the literatures on the treatment principles, possible options, and outcomes. Methods There were a total of 8 patients who were treated with traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms between April 1980 and January 2009. Medical charts and the imaging studies were reviewed for analysis. The outcome was measured with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 6 months after treatment. Results All 8 patients were male and the mean age was 25 years old. Six of those were located at the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the other 2 was located at the M2 segment of middle cerebral artery. The causes of trauma were car accidents in 6, penetrating injury through the orbit in 1, and slip down injury in 1 patient. Massive epistaxis or hematemesis occurred in all patients with a pseudoaneurysm at the cavernous and ophthalmic segment of the ICA. All 6 patients of the cavernous and ophthalmic ICA group showed favorable outcome of mRS 0 to 1. The outcome of patients with middle cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm was mRS 2 to 3. Conclusion Upon prompt diagnosis and proper treatment planning, it is possible to achieve favorable outcome in these patients. Lesions located at the cavernous segment of the ICA favored endovascular treatment while those at the middle cerebral artery favored surgical treatment. PMID:27169077

  11. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  12. The Cerebral Palsy Demonstration Project: a multidimensional research approach to cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Scherer, Stephen W; Yager, Jerome Y; Fehlings, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical impairment in pediatrics. As a heterogeneous disorder in all its disparate aspects it defies a simplistic research approach that seeks to further our understanding of its mechanisms, outcomes and treatments. Within NeuroDevNet, with its focus on abnormal brain development, cerebral palsy was selected as one of the three neurodevelopmental disabilities to be the focus of a dedicated demonstration project. The Cerebral Palsy Demonstration Project will feature a multi-dimensional approach utilizing epidemiologic, imaging, genetics, animal models and stem cell modalities that will at all times emphasize clinical relevance, translation into practice, and potential synergies between investigators now segregated by both academic disciplines and geographic distance. The objective is to create a national platform of varied complementary and inter-digitated efforts. The specific research plan to enable this will be outlined in detail.

  13. Pituitary gigantism causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Alvi, N S; Kirk, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although growth hormone excess (acromegaly) in association with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus is well documented in adult medicine, it is much less common in the paediatric age group. We report the case of a 13 year-old boy who presented with tall stature secondary to a large growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland. Random growth hormone was 630 mIU/l and did not suppress during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following debulking of the tumour, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin treatment, but after further surgery glucose handling returned to normal. He has been started on testosterone to arrest further increase in height. PMID:10614552

  14. Patterns of human local cerebral glucose metabolism during epileptic seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-10-01

    Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with /sup 18/F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy.

  15. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in the foetus and newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J S

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been derived for the measurement of global cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, its response to changing arterial carbon dioxide tension and mixed cerebral venous saturation in the human newborn undergoing intensive care. Normal ranges have been established and significant disturbances of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion have been demonstrated in a variety of pathological conditions. Recently, absolute cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration has been obtained in the newborn using second differential spectroscopy. When combined with the measurement of total cerebral haemoglobin concentration, the mean saturation of cerebral blood (SmcO2) may be obtained, allowing global cerebral oxygenation to be determined continuously in the intensive care unit. Marked changes in the concentrations of cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin have been observed in foetuses undergoing labour. Measurements of SmcO2 from the foetal brain prior to delivery have shown the expected close correlation with acid-base status at birth. Although movement artefact remains a theoretical risk during uterine contractions, preliminary measurements of optical path length by intensity-modulated spectroscopy have demonstrated only small fluctuations. In future the clinical application of time, phase and spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to improve both the quantitative accuracy and the regional specificity of physiological measurements in the foetal and neonatal brain. PMID:9232857

  16. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in the foetus and newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, J S

    1997-06-29

    Quantitative techniques have been derived for the measurement of global cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, its response to changing arterial carbon dioxide tension and mixed cerebral venous saturation in the human newborn undergoing intensive care. Normal ranges have been established and significant disturbances of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion have been demonstrated in a variety of pathological conditions. Recently, absolute cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration has been obtained in the newborn using second differential spectroscopy. When combined with the measurement of total cerebral haemoglobin concentration, the mean saturation of cerebral blood (SmcO2) may be obtained, allowing global cerebral oxygenation to be determined continuously in the intensive care unit. Marked changes in the concentrations of cerebral oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin have been observed in foetuses undergoing labour. Measurements of SmcO2 from the foetal brain prior to delivery have shown the expected close correlation with acid-base status at birth. Although movement artefact remains a theoretical risk during uterine contractions, preliminary measurements of optical path length by intensity-modulated spectroscopy have demonstrated only small fluctuations. In future the clinical application of time, phase and spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to improve both the quantitative accuracy and the regional specificity of physiological measurements in the foetal and neonatal brain. PMID:9232857

  17. Induced hypertension for the treatment of cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Direct effect on cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Muizelaar, J.P.; Becker, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    The best treatment for symptomatic cerebral ischemia from presumed vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains a matter of controversy. A direct effect of any treatment modality on regional cerebral blood flow has never been documented. In a series of 43 patients operated on for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms, five patients (11.6%) developed clinical signs of cerebral ischemia postoperatively. In four of those patients, the diagnosis of vasospasm was made with measurements of cerebral blood flow (133Xe inhalation or intravenous injection, 10-16 detectors, cerebral blood flow infinity). Treatment with induced arterial hypertension with phenylephrine was instituted. Hemodilution was instituted in one patient; the other three patients already had hematocrits in the range of 33. Within 1 hour, the cerebral blood flow measurement was repeated to document the effect of treatment. The average pretreatment hemispherical blood flow on the operated side was 18.8 mL/100 g per minute, on the contralateral side 21.0 mL/100 g per minute. With treatment these flows increased to 30.8 and 35.8 mL/100 g per minute, respectively. There was also an immediate and obvious positive clinical effect in all patients. The role of measurement of cerebral blood flow in the clinical management of vasospasm is discussed. We stress the theoretical and practical advances of measurements of cerebral blood flow over cerebral angiography, especially in comatose patients.

  18. Effects of ischemic stroke on dynamics of cerebral autoregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Hu, Kun; Stanley, Eugene; Novak, Vera

    2004-03-01

    Cerebral vasoregulation involves several complex mechanisms adapting blood flow to fluctuations of systemic blood pressure (BP). Autonomic BP and metabolic vasoregulation are impaired after stroke and cerebral blood flow depends on systemic BP. To probe the mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation we study levels of nonlinear synchronization between cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and peripheral BP. We quantify the instantaneous phase of each signal employing analytic signal approach and Hilbert transform. As a marker of synchronization, we introduce a measure of cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of the BFV and BP signals at different time lags. We have studied 12 subjects with minor chronic ischemic stroke and 11 matched normotensive controls (age<65years). BFV and BP of these subjects are continuously recorded during supine baseline, head-up tilt, hyperventilation and CO2 rebreathing. For control subjects we find significant synchronization between cerebral BFV and peripheral BP only for short time lags of up to 5-6 seconds, suggesting a rapid return to a steady cerebral blood flow after initial blood pressure perturbations. In contrast, for stroke subjects BFV/BP we find enhanced synchronization over longer time lags of up to 20 seconds, suggesting entrainment of cerebral blood flow velocity by slow vasomotor rhythms. These findings suggest that cerebral vasoregulation is impaired and cerebral blood flow follows the fluctuations of systemic BP in a synchronous manner. Our analysis shows that cerebral autoregulation is impaired in 10 out of the 12 stroke subjects, which is typically difficult to diagnose with conventional methods. Thus, our novel synchronization approach offers a new tool sensitive for evaluation of changes in the dynamics of cerebral autoregulation under stroke.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of systemic cerebral endothelial cell transplantation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol; Choi, Kang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Kil; Min, Jung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC)/D3 cells, which are from a stable clonal cell line of human immortalized cerebral endothelial cells, were intra-arterially transplanted through the common carotid artery in a rat model of photochemical-induced cerebral ischemia. Their therapeutic effects on infarct size, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and outcome were examined. The hCMEC/D3 cells were genetically modified with the firefly luciferase gene for in vivo imaging post-transplantation. Transplanted hCMEC/D3 cells were identified in the infarcted brain by bioluminescence imaging at 1 day after transplantation. Compared with the control group, the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group showed reduced infarct size on day 3, reduced Evans blue dye leakage on day 1 indicating decreased BBB breakdown, and early recovery from Rotarod test neurological deficits. The hCMEC/D3-transplanted group also showed decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which were inversely correlated with TIMP-1 levels on post-transplantation days 1 and 3. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly diminished in the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group compared with controls. The systemically transplanted cells selectively migrated and integrated into the ischemically lesioned area, which accelerated neurological recovery. This new cerebral endothelial cell-based therapy may hold promise for clinical trials in patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:27347342

  20. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hazama, Shiro; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Nobuhiro

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N- isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21 +/- 7.65 to 56.24 +/- 13.69 (p equals 0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p equals 0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p equals 0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total- Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26 +/- 9.82% to 72.98 +/- 8.09% (p equals 0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r equals 0.758, p equals 0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r equals 0.740, p equals 0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of systemic cerebral endothelial cell transplantation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol; Choi, Kang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Kil; Min, Jung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jong-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC)/D3 cells, which are from a stable clonal cell line of human immortalized cerebral endothelial cells, were intra-arterially transplanted through the common carotid artery in a rat model of photochemical-induced cerebral ischemia. Their therapeutic effects on infarct size, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and outcome were examined. The hCMEC/D3 cells were genetically modified with the firefly luciferase gene for in vivo imaging post-transplantation. Transplanted hCMEC/D3 cells were identified in the infarcted brain by bioluminescence imaging at 1 day after transplantation. Compared with the control group, the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group showed reduced infarct size on day 3, reduced Evans blue dye leakage on day 1 indicating decreased BBB breakdown, and early recovery from Rotarod test neurological deficits. The hCMEC/D3-transplanted group also showed decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which were inversely correlated with TIMP-1 levels on post-transplantation days 1 and 3. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly diminished in the hCMEC/D3-transplanted group compared with controls. The systemically transplanted cells selectively migrated and integrated into the ischemically lesioned area, which accelerated neurological recovery. This new cerebral endothelial cell-based therapy may hold promise for clinical trials in patients with ischemic stroke.

  2. Case study of a 15-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome combined with pituitary gigantism: effect of octreotide-long acting release (LAR) and cabergoline therapy.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Tsubaki, Junko; Ishizu, Katsura; Jo, Wakako; Ishi, Nobuaki; Fujieda, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline therapy has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly; however, the experience in pediatric patients has rarely been reported. We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism. At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital. He also had multiple fibrous dysplasia, so that he was diagnosed as having MAS. The tumor was partially resected, and GNAS1 gene mutation (R201C) was identified in affected tissues. We introduced octreotide to suppress GH secretion (100 mug 2/day s.c). During therapy with octreotide, IGF-1 and GH levels could not be suppressed and the patient frequently complained of nausea from octreotide treatment. Therefore, the therapy was changed to monthly injections of octreotide-LAR at the age of 12.3 years and was partially effective. However, as defect of left visual field worsened due to progressive left optic canal stenosis, he underwent second neurological decompression of the left optic nerve at 13.4 years of age. After surgery, in addition to octreotide-LAR, cabergoline (0.25 mg twice a month) was started. This regimen normalized serum levels of GH and IGF-1; however, he showed impaired glucose tolerance and gallstones at 15.7 years of age. Therefore, the dose of octreotide-LAR was reduced to 10 mg and the dose of cabergoline increased. This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS. The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline should be considered even in pediatric patients; however, adverse events due to octreotide-LAR must be carefully examined. PMID:18445999

  3. Multiple fusiform cerebral aneurysms – case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Joanna; Kuśmierska, Małgorzata; Kuniej, Tomasz; Jaźwiec, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: A true aneurysym is a dilation of arterial lumen as a consequence of congenital or acquired abnormalities leading to a reduction of mechanical resistance of vascular wall, most commonly caused by its defected structure in the form of absence or weakening of the muscular and/or elastic layer. From the pathophysiological point of view, cerebral aneurysms can be classified as ‘saccular’ – most commonly occurring, and ‘other types’, including fusiform/dolichoectatic, dissecting, serpentine, posttraumatic, mycotic and giant aneurysms with or without intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. Case Report: We present a rare case of a patient with multiple fusiform dilations of cerebral vessels and giant fusiform aneurysm in supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. The patient presented to hospital because of sudden, severe vertigo with nausea, impaired balance and disturbed vision. Vascular anomalies were detected on CT scanning without contrast. The diagnostic work-up was complemented by CT angiography, MRI and cerebral angiography. Conclusions: Aneurysm located within the intracranial arteries is one of the most common vascular defects of the brain. The number, size and location of aneurysms are highly variable. Aneurysms can have either supra- or infratentorial location, affecting a single or multiple arteries within one or both brain hemispheres. There is often a correlation between the location of the aneurysm and its etiology, as in case of so-called mirror-image aneurysms. Symmetrically located aneurysms may indicate a defect in vascular structure. Asymmetric location, as in the patient described above, is more likely due to acquired causes, mainly atherosclerosis, but also septic emboli or blood disorders. PMID:22802866

  4. [Cerebral amyloid angiopathy presenting as a brain tumor: case report].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gustavo Cardoso de; Silveira, Roberto Leal; Pinheiro, Nilson; Rocha, Eckstânio Marcos Melo; Pittella, José Eymard Homem

    2006-03-01

    We describe the unusual case of a 45-year-old male patient harboring an intracranial mass due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy whose clinical and radiological features were those of a low grade glioma. Biopsy revealed cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The clinical, radiological and pathological findings are discussed as we review the available literature.

  5. Ontogeny of cerebral oxidative metabolism in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Gonya-Magee, T; Vannucci, R C

    1982-05-01

    The low cerebral energy requirements of most mammals at birth reflect an immaturity of the central nervous system, and it has been suggested that energy demands in fetuses are even less well developed than in newborns. Furthermore, fetal cerebral energy requirements are presumed to be met predominantly or exclusively by anaerobic glycolysis. To clarify these issues, we investigated cerebral oxidative metabolism in 9-, 14-, 16-, and 19-day-old chick embryos and in newly hatched peeps. Animals were decapitated and quick-frozen in liquid Freon 0--5 min post-mortem. Forebrain extracts were prepared and assayed for ATP, phosphocreatine, glucose, and lactate. Alterations in these metabolites post-decapitation were used to calculate cerebral metabolic rates (delta similar to P) and rates of maximal anaerobic glycolysis (delta lactate). Rates of lactate accumulation during cerebral ischemia increased progressively from embryonic day 9 through hatching. Cerebral metabolic rates were not different in 9-, 14-, and 15-day-old embryos, but increased steadily thereafter. The extent to which total cerebral energy utilization could be derived from anaerobic glycolysis (delta lactate/delta similar to P) increased from a low at day 9 (0.29) to a maximum at day 16 (0.78). The data suggest that, despite the low cerebral metabolic activity of the chick embryo, at no time during development is anaerobic glycolysis capable of entirely supporting the energy needs of the developing brain.

  6. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  7. Influence of Hypoxia on Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Steinback, Craig D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a vital organ that relies on a constant and adequate supply of blood to match oxygen and glucose delivery with the local metabolic demands of active neurones. It is well established that cerebral blood flow is altered in response to both neural activity and humoral stimuli. Thus, augmented neural activation (e.g. visual stimulation) leads to locally increased cerebral blood flow via functional hyperaemia, whereas humoral stimuli (i.e. alterations in arterial PO2 and PCO2) produce global increases in cerebral blood flow. Perhaps not surprisingly, cerebrovascular responses to neural activity and humoral stimuli may not be highly correlated because they reflect different physiological mechanisms for vasodilation. Exquisite regulation of cerebral blood flow is particularly important under hypoxic conditions when cerebral PO2 can be reduced substantially. Indeed, cerebrovascular reactivity to hypoxia determines the capacity of cerebral vessels to respond and compensate for a reduced oxygen supply. This reactivity is dynamic, changing with prolonged exposure to hypoxic environments, and in patients and healthy individuals exposed to chronic intermittent periods of hypoxia. More recently, a number of animal studies have provided evidence that glial cells (i.e. astrocytes) play an important role in regulating cerebral blood flow under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This review aims to summarize our current understanding of cerebral blood flow control during hypoxia in humans and put into context the underlying neurovascular mechanisms that may contribute to this regulation. PMID:27343093

  8. Quality of Arithmetic Education for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  10. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by

  11. Transcranial laser stimulation improves human cerebral oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fenghua; Hase, Snehal N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Transcranial laser stimulation of the brain with near‐infrared light is a novel form of non‐invasive photobiomodulation or low‐level laser therapy (LLLT) that has shown therapeutic potential in a variety of neurological and psychological conditions. Understanding of its neurophysiological effects is essential for mechanistic study and treatment evaluation. This study investigated how transcranial laser stimulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the human brain in vivo using functional near‐infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Materials and Methods Two separate experiments were conducted in which 1,064‐nm laser stimulation was administered at (1) the center and (2) the right side of the forehead, respectively. The laser emitted at a power of 3.4 W and in an area of 13.6 cm2, corresponding to 0.25 W/cm2 irradiance. Stimulation duration was 10 minutes. Nine healthy male and female human participants of any ethnic background, in an age range of 18–40 years old were included in each experiment. Results In both experiments, transcranial laser stimulation induced an increase of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) and a decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) in both cerebral hemispheres. Improvements in cerebral oxygenation were indicated by a significant increase of differential hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbD] = Δ[HbO2] − Δ[Hb]). These effects increased in a dose‐dependent manner over time during laser stimulation (10 minutes) and persisted after laser stimulation (6 minutes). The total hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbT] = Δ[HbO2] + Δ[Hb]) remained nearly unchanged in most cases. Conclusion Near‐infrared laser stimulation applied to the forehead can transcranially improve cerebral oxygenation in healthy humans. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:343–349, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26817446

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, W R; Beckman, J H; Calne, D B; Adam, M J; Harrop, R; Rogers, J G; Ruth, T J; Sayre, C I; Pate, B D

    1984-02-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using 18F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra.

  13. [Cerebral circulation pathophisiology into pneumocephalus craniocerebral dispoportion].

    PubMed

    Kulchikov, A E; Grinenko, E A; Emelyanov, V K; Morozov, S G

    2015-01-01

    We included 19 patients with a different intensity postoperative pneumocephalus and an inadequate postoperative awakening. Intracranial CT excluded postoperative complications (oedema, haematoma, hidrocephalus) and diagnosed a pneumocephalus (above the frontal and temporal lobes and in the cerebral ventricular system). In two hours after operation we found systolic linear blood flow velocity (BFV syst.) decrease in the extracranial part of internal carotic artery (ICA) (p < 0.001) in patients with pneumocephalus and inadequate postoperative awakening. But in 24-48 hours after operation we diagnosed BFV syst. elevation in the ICA extracranial part (p < 0.001) and preumocephalus diminution in patients with a recovered consciousness.

  14. Modeling human brain development with cerebral organoids.

    PubMed

    Muzio, Luca; Consalez, G Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new three-dimensional culture system for the derivation of cerebral organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells provides developmental neurobiologists with the first example of a three-dimensional framework for the study of human brain development. This innovative approach permits the in vitro assembly of a human embryonic brain rudiment that recapitulates the developing human cerebrum. Organoids contain progenitor populations that develop to yield mature cortical neuron subtypes, potentially allowing investigators to study complex brain diseases that lack appropriate animal models. PMID:24367992

  15. Pseudotumoral form of cerebral Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fr; Zanini, Ma; Ducati, Lg; Gabarra, Rc; Haddad, Gr; de Souza, V

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of 36-year-old woman presented with epileptic seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an enhancing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. Stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. Praziquantel was started (60mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose), followed by Prednisone (80mg/day) for seven days to treat the cerebral edema. The patient's symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MRI yielded normal findings.

  16. Pseudotumoral form of cerebral Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Romero, FR; Zanini, MA; Ducati, LG; Gabarra, RC; Haddad, GR; de Souza, V

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of 36-year-old woman presented with epileptic seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an enhancing lesion with surrounding edema and mild mass effect in the left frontal lobe. Stereotactic brain biopsy demonstrated intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding S. mansoni eggs. Praziquantel was started (60mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose), followed by Prednisone (80mg/day) for seven days to treat the cerebral edema. The patient’s symptoms resolved following medical treatment and the follow-up MRI yielded normal findings. PMID:24960795

  17. Dynamic touch is affected in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ocarino, Juliana M; Fonseca, Sergio T; Silva, Paula L P; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C

    2014-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy have limited opportunities for effortful interactions with objects and tools. The goal of the study was to investigate whether children with cerebral palsy have deficits in their ability to perceive object length by dynamic touch when compared to typically developing children. Fourteen children with typical development and 12 children with cerebral palsy were asked to report the length of hand-held rods after wielding them out of sight. Multilevel regression models indicated that I1 (maximum principal moment of inertia) was a significant predictor of perceived length - LP (p<.0001). The effect of I1 on LP was significantly different among children (p=.001) and the presence of cerebral palsy (group factor) partially explained such variance (p=.002). In addition, accuracy and reliability of the length judgments made by children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower than the typically developing children (p<.05). Theoretical and clinical implications of these results were identified and discussed.

  18. Automated measurements of cerebral atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hageleit, U; Will, C H; Seidel, D

    1987-01-01

    An automated method of measuring cerebral atrophy is introduced. Using this method we studied patients with multiple sclerosis and a control group showing premature cerebral atrophy in multiple sclerosis (P = 1,32 x 10(-8) for male and P = 3,6 x 10(-14) for female). There was only a weak correlation between cerebral atrophy and psychological deficits. Multivariate analysis did not show any significant correlation between cerebral atrophy, duration of disease, clinical manifestations and progression of disease. We conclude that our method to measure cerebral atrophy is more accurate and less time-consuming than the use of linear indices. It might be appropriate for further investigations in evaluating atrophic processes in cerebro-vascular, degenerative and exogen-toxic disease of brain.

  19. Retinal vascular changes are a marker for cerebral vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    The retinal circulation is a potential marker of cerebral vascular disease because it shares origin and drainage with the intracranial circulation and because it can be directly visualized using ophthalmoscopy. Cross sectional and cohort studies have demonstrated associations between chronic retinal and cerebral vascular disease, acute retinal and cerebral vascular disease and chronic retinal vascular disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. In particular, certain qualitative features of retinopathy, retinal artery occlusion and increased retinal vein caliber are associated with concurrent and future cerebrovascular events. These associations persist after accounting for confounding variables known to be disease-causing in both circulations, which supports the potential use of retinal vasculature findings to stratify individuals with regards to cerebral vascular disease risk. PMID:26008809

  20. A schizophrenic patient with cerebral infarctions after hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ohara, Keiichiro; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the fourth case of cerebral infarction, concomitant with hemorrhagic shock, in English literature. A 33-year-old male, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and given a prescription for Olanzapine, was discovered with multiple self-inflicted bleeding cuts on his wrist. On arrival, he was in hemorrhagic shock without verbal responsiveness, but his vital signs were normalized following infusion of Lactate Ringer's solution. The neuroradiological studies revealed multiple cerebral ischemic lesions without any vascular abnormality. He was diagnosed with speech apraxia, motor aphasia, and dysgraphia, due to multiple cerebral infarctions. As there was no obvious causative factor with regard to the occurrence of cerebral infarction in the patient, the hypoperfusion due to hemorrhagic shock, and the thromboembolic tendency due to Olanzapine, might have acted together to lead to the patient's cerebral ischemia. PMID:23493336

  1. Cerebral Vascular Control and Metabolism in Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony R; Nybo, Lars; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-07-01

    This review provides an in-depth update on the impact of heat stress on cerebrovascular functioning. The regulation of cerebral temperature, blood flow, and metabolism are discussed. We further provide an overview of vascular permeability, the neurocognitive changes, and the key clinical implications and pathologies known to confound cerebral functioning during hyperthermia. A reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), derived primarily from a respiratory-induced alkalosis, underscores the cerebrovascular changes to hyperthermia. Arterial pressures may also become compromised because of reduced peripheral resistance secondary to skin vasodilatation. Therefore, when hyperthermia is combined with conditions that increase cardiovascular strain, for example, orthostasis or dehydration, the inability to preserve cerebral perfusion pressure further reduces CBF. A reduced cerebral perfusion pressure is in turn the primary mechanism for impaired tolerance to orthostatic challenges. Any reduction in CBF attenuates the brain's convective heat loss, while the hyperthermic-induced increase in metabolic rate increases the cerebral heat gain. This paradoxical uncoupling of CBF to metabolism increases brain temperature, and potentiates a condition whereby cerebral oxygenation may be compromised. With levels of experimentally viable passive hyperthermia (up to 39.5-40.0 °C core temperature), the associated reduction in CBF (∼ 30%) and increase in cerebral metabolic demand (∼ 10%) is likely compensated by increases in cerebral oxygen extraction. However, severe increases in whole-body and brain temperature may increase blood-brain barrier permeability, potentially leading to cerebral vasogenic edema. The cerebrovascular challenges associated with hyperthermia are of paramount importance for populations with compromised thermoregulatory control--for example, spinal cord injury, elderly, and those with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26140721

  2. Transfer function analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation: A white paper from the International Cerebral Autoregulation Research Network.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; Simpson, David M; Panerai, Ronney B

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is the intrinsic ability of the brain to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion in the presence of blood pressure changes. A large number of methods to assess the quality of cerebral autoregulation have been proposed over the last 30 years. However, no single method has been universally accepted as a gold standard. Therefore, the choice of which method to employ to quantify cerebral autoregulation remains a matter of personal choice. Nevertheless, given the concept that cerebral autoregulation represents the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (stimulus or input) and cerebral blood flow (response or output), transfer function analysis became the most popular approach adopted in studies based on spontaneous fluctuations of blood pressure. Despite its sound theoretical background, the literature shows considerable variation in implementation of transfer function analysis in practice, which has limited comparisons between studies and hindered progress towards clinical application. Therefore, the purpose of the present white paper is to improve standardisation of parameters and settings adopted for application of transfer function analysis in studies of dynamic cerebral autoregulation. The development of these recommendations was initiated by (but not confined to) theCerebral Autoregulation Research Network(CARNet -www.car-net.org).

  3. Cerebral Palsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 2 = La Paralisis Cerebral: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is offered in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic, athetoid,…

  4. Pediatric granulomatous cerebral amebiasis: a delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Galarza, Marcelo; Cuccia, Vicente; Sosa, Fidel P; Monges, Jorge A

    2002-02-01

    We present four cases of cerebral amebae infection treated at our neurosurgical department. Patient 1 was a 12-year-old male with skin lesions of 2 years' progression involving the midface. He received a corticosteroid course, and, after that, he presented a right body hemiparesis. Patient 2 was a 5-year-old male, with a past surgical history of fibula fracture and osteomyelitis of 1-year evolution, associated with lesions of the surrounding skin that presented with partial seizures. Patient 3 was a 3-year-old female who presented with a stroke-like episode and with partial seizures. Patient 4 was a 6-year-old male who had ulcerative lesions in the face of 1-year evolution. After a corticosteroid course, he presented with right-body hemiparesis. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus-negative and died 1 month or less after surgery because of progressive evolution of the disease. Histopathology revealed granulomatous amebic encephalitis. All patients revealed infection from Balamuthia mandrillaris (Leptomyxiidae). Treatment consisting of pentamidine, clarithromycin, fluconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was ineffective. Although extremely uncommon, granulomatous amebic encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions while nonspecific, associated granulomatous skin lesions support the diagnosis of amebiasis. PMID:11897483

  5. Cerebral Toxocariasis: Silent Progression to Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Celia V.; Loxton, Karen; Barghouth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxocara canis and T. cati are highly prevalent nematode infections of the intestines of dogs and cats. In paratenic hosts, larvae do not mature in the intestine but instead migrate through the somatic tissues and organs of the body. The presence of these migrating larvae can contribute to pathology. Toxocara larvae can invade the brains of humans, and while case descriptions of cerebral toxocariasis are historically rare, improved diagnosis and greater awareness have contributed to increased detection. Despite this, cerebral or neurological toxocariasis (NT) remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, our understanding of cognitive deficits due to toxocariasis in human populations remains particularly deficient. Recent data describe an enhanced expression of biomarkers associated with brain injury, such as GFAP, AβPP, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), NF-L, S100B, tTG, and p-tau, in mice receiving even low doses of Toxocara ova. Finally, this review outlines a hypothesis to explore the relationship between the presence of T. canis larvae in the brain and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to enhanced AD-associated neurodegenerative biomarker expression. PMID:26062575

  6. Oxytocin mediates social neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Karelina, Kate; Stuller, Kathleen A.; Jarrett, Brant; Zhang, Ning; Wells, Jackie; Norman, Greg J.; DeVries, A. Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose The reduced incidence, morbidity and mortality of stroke among humans with strong social support have been well-documented; however, the mechanisms underlying this socially mediated phenomenon remain unknown, but may involve oxytocin (OT), a hormone that modulates some aspects of social behavior in humans and other animals. Methods In the present study, adult male mice were socially isolated (housed individually) or socially paired (housed with an ovariectomized female); social pairing increased hypothalamic OT gene expression. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between increased OT and improved stroke outcome, mice were treated with exogenous OT or OT receptor antagonist (OTA) beginning one week prior to induction of experimental stroke via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Results Relative to social isolation, social housing attenuated infarct size, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress following experimental stroke; the neuroprotective effect of social housing was eliminated by OTA treatment. In contrast, administration of OT to socially isolated mice reproduced the neuroprotection conferred by social housing. We further report evidence for a direct suppressive action of OT on cultured microglia, which is a key instigator in the development of neuroinflammation after cerebral ischemia. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that OT mediates the neuroprotective effect of social interaction on stroke outcome. PMID:21960564

  7. Dysbaric cerebral air embolism in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kizer, K W

    1987-05-01

    Cerebral air embolism is a major cause of death and disability among sport scuba divers. To better define the epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of this infrequently encountered disorder, the records of all recompression treatments in Hawaii from 1976 through 1979 were reviewed. Forty-two cases of dysbaric air embolism (DAE) were identified on the basis of clinical criteria, accounting for 18% of the patients undergoing recompression treatment for diving-related disorders during this four-year period. In 22 patients (52%), DAE was part of a dysbarism syndrome that involved one or more forms of decompression sickness and/or in which DAE could not be differentiated from neurologic decompression sickness. The presenting signs and symptoms varied, with asymmetric multiplegia being the most common finding. Two patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 5% for those who survived until reaching the recompression chamber. Overall, 78% of the cases manifested either complete (61%) or substantial (17%) recovery with recompression and adjunctive medical measures. Traditional concepts of dysbaric cerebral air embolism are not adequate to explain the spectrum of clinical manifestations encountered in this condition.

  8. Photodynamic therapy of recurrent cerebral glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shu-Gan; Wu, Si-En; Chen, Zong-Qian; Sun, Wei

    1993-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed on 11 cases of recurrent cerebral glioma, including 3 cases of recurrent glioblastoma, 7 of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 recurrent ependymoma. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 - 7 mg/kg 5 - 24 hours before the operation. All patients underwent a craniotomy with a nearly radical excision of the tumor following which the tumor bed was irradiated with 630 nm laser light emitting either an argon pumped dye laser or frequency double YAG pumped dye laser for 30 to 80 minutes with a total dose of 50 J/cm2 (n equals 1), 100 J/cm2 (n equals 2), 200 J/cm2 (n equals 7), and 300 J/cm2 (n equals 1). The temperature was kept below 37 degree(s)C by irrigation. Two patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of increased cerebral edema, and no other toxicity by the therapy. All patients were discharged from the hospital within 15 days after surgery. We conclude that PDT using 4 - 7 mg/kg of HPD and 630 nm light with a dose of up to 300 J/cm2 can be used as an adjuvant therapy with no additional complications. Adjuvant PDT in the treatment of recurrent glioma is better than simple surgery.

  9. Scoliosis in the institutionalized cerebral palsy population.

    PubMed

    Madigan, R R; Wallace, S L

    1981-01-01

    A prospective review of 272 institutionalized cerebral palsy residents was undertaken in order to determine the incidence and characteristics of neuromuscular scoliosis in this population. The types of cerebral palsy in the group consisted of 75% spastic, 8% dyskinetic, 4% ataxic, 8% mixed, and 5% undefined. There was a 64% incidence of roentgenographic scoliosis greater than 10 degrees. Two distinct curve patterns were determined with equal frequency, single and multiple. The significance of the curve patterns could not be determined. Scoliosis was most common in the spastic group with the highest incidence in the spastic quadriplegics. The incidence directly paralleled the severity of the neurologic deficit but also appeared to be aggravated by the effects of gravity when the individuals were artificially placed in the sitting position. There was a definite inverse relationship between the level of ambulation and scoliosis: the higher the level of ambulation the lower the incidence of scoliosis. Hip stability per se could not be correlated with the incidence of scoliosis. The most important factors in predicting scoliosis in this population are the presence of spasticity and the severity of the neurologic deficit.

  10. Cerebral aneurysms following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.J.; Sung, J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Three patients, two males and one female aged 21, 14, and 31 years, respectively, developed cerebral saccular aneurysms several years after undergoing radiotherapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at 2, 5, and 14 years of age, respectively. Following surgery, all three received combined cobalt-60 irradiation and intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) therapy, and died from rupture of the aneurysm 19, 9, and 17 years after the radiotherapy, respectively. Autopsy examination revealed no recurrence of the medulloblastoma, but widespread radiation-induced vasculopathy was found at the base of the brain and in the spinal cord, and saccular aneurysms arose from the posterior cerebral arteries at the basal cistern or choroidal fissure. The aneurysms differed from the ordinary saccular aneurysms of congenital type in their location and histological features. Their locations corresponded to the areas where intrathecally administered colloidal /sup 198/Au is likely to pool, and they originated directly from a segment of the artery rather than from a branching site as in congenital saccular aneurysms. It is, therefore, concluded that the aneurysms in these three patients were most likely radiation-induced.

  11. The evolution and genetics of cerebral asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Handedness and cerebral asymmetry are commonly assumed to be uniquely human, and even defining characteristics of our species. This is increasingly refuted by the evidence of behavioural asymmetries in non-human species. Although complex manual skill and language are indeed unique to our species and are represented asymmetrically in the brain, some non-human asymmetries appear to be precursors, and others are shared between humans and non-humans. In all behavioural and cerebral asymmetries so far investigated, a minority of individuals reverse or negate the dominant asymmetry, suggesting that such asymmetries are best understood in the context of the overriding bilateral symmetry of the brain and body, and a trade-off between the relative advantages and disadvantages of symmetry and asymmetry. Genetic models of handedness, for example, typically postulate a gene with two alleles, one disposing towards right-handedness and the other imposing no directional influence. There is as yet no convincing evidence as to the location of this putative gene, suggesting that several genes may be involved, or that the gene may be monomorphic with variations due to environmental or epigenetic influences. Nevertheless, it is suggested that, in behavioural, neurological and evolutionary terms, it may be more profitable to examine the degree rather than the direction of asymmetry. PMID:19064358

  12. Clipping techniques in cerebral aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Acciarri, Nicola; Toniato, Giovanni; Raabe, Andreas; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The history of cerebral aneurysm surgery owes a great tribute to the tenacity of pioneering neurosurgeons who designed and developed the clips used to close the aneurysms neck. However, until the beginning of the past century, surgery of complex and challenging aneurysms was impossible due to the lack of surgical microscope and commercially available sophisticated clips. The modern era of the spring clips began in the second half of last century. Until then, only malleable metal clips and other non-metallic materials were available for intracranial aneurysms. Indeed, the earliest clips were hazardous and difficult to handle. Several neurosurgeons put their effort in developing new clip models, based on their personal experience in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Finally, the introduction of the surgical microscope, together with the availability of more sophisticated clips, has allowed the treatment of complex and challenging aneurysms. However, today none of the new instruments or tools for surgical therapy of aneurysms could be used safely and effectively without keeping in mind the lessons on innovative surgical techniques provided by great neurovascular surgeons. Thanks to their legacy, we can now treat many types of aneurysms that had always been considered inoperable. In this article, we review the basic principles of surgical clipping and illustrate some more advanced techniques to be used for complex aneurysms. PMID:26657306

  13. Milk and dairy consumption correlates with cerebral cortical as well as cerebral white matter volume in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Horváth, Réka; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Altbäcker, Anna; Janszky, József; Clemens, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between habitual milk and dairy consumption and brain morphology as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations in 119 young healthy university students. MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system while FreeSurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Dietary habits related to milk and dairy consumption were assessed by a structured questionnaire. Total cerebral cortex, total cerebral white matter, and total cerebral parenchyma were significantly related with cottage cheese and total protein intake from milk and dairy also when controlled for age and gender in the multivariate model. Our results indicate that dietary habits related with milk and dairy are proportionally associated with volumes of both cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter. PMID:26436708

  14. Coupling between arterial pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and cerebral tissue oxygenation with spontaneous and forced oscillations.

    PubMed

    Rickards, Caroline A; Sprick, Justin D; Colby, Hannah B; Kay, Victoria L; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that transmission of arterial pressure to brain tissue oxygenation is low under conditions of arterial pressure instability. Two experimental models of hemodynamic instability were used in healthy human volunteers; (1) oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) (N = 8; 5 male, 3 female), and; (2) maximal LBNP to presyncope (N = 21; 13 male, 8 female). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ScO2) were measured non-invasively. For the OLBNP protocol, between 0 and -60 mmHg negative pressure was applied for 20 cycles at 0.05 Hz, then 20 cycles at 0.1 Hz. For the maximal LBNP protocol, progressive 5 min stages of chamber decompression were applied until the onset of presyncope. Spectral power of MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 were calculated within the VLF (0.04-0.07 Hz), and LF (0.07-0.2 Hz) ranges, and cross-spectral coherence was calculated for MAP-mean MCAv, MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 at baseline, during each OLBNP protocol, and at the level prior to pre-syncope during maximal LBNP (sub-max). The key findings are (1) both 0.1 Hz OLBNP and sub-max LBNP elicited increases in LF power for MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 (p ≤ 0.08); (2) 0.05 Hz OLBNP increased VLF power in MAP and ScO2 only (p ≤ 0.06); (3) coherence between MAP-mean MCAv was consistently higher (≥0.71) compared with MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 (≤0.43) during both OLBNP protocols, and sub-max LBNP (p ≤ 0.04). These data indicate high linearity between pressure and cerebral blood flow variations, but reduced linearity between cerebral tissue oxygenation and both arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Measuring arterial pressure variability may not always provide adequate information about the downstream effects on cerebral tissue oxygenation, the key end-point of interest for neuronal viability.

  15. An Evidence-Based Review of Related Metabolites and Metabolic Network Research on Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Tang, Liying; Liu, Xin; Fang, Jing; Zhan, Hao; Wu, Hongwei; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, metabolomics analyses have been widely applied to cerebral ischemia research. This paper introduces the latest proceedings of metabolomics research on cerebral ischemia. The main techniques, models, animals, and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia will be discussed. With analysis help from the MBRole website and the KEGG database, the altered metabolites in rat cerebral ischemia were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Our results identify the main metabolic pathways that are related to cerebral ischemia and further construct a metabolic network. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, as well as the discovery of cerebral ischemia biomarkers. PMID:27274780

  16. Perioperative management of patients with lung carcinoma and cerebral metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghita, Eva; Pruna, Viorel Mihai; Neagoe, Luminita; Bucur, Cristina; Cristescu, Catioara; Gorgan, Mircea Radu

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The present study proposes to present the importance of perioperative therapeutic management in survival prolongation and the quality of life for patients that have undergone surgery for cerebral metastases secondary to pulmonary tumors. Method: During 2001-2009, 40 patients with ages between 43-74 years have been diagnosed in our clinic with pulmonary tumor and cerebral metastases. The patients presented single cerebral lesion (excepting one patient with 2 cerebral metastases) and pulmonary tumor. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was high in all cases. All patients have undergone operation with general anesthesia. Results:For all patients the reduction of ICP and keeping an optimal CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure) was pursued. In 38 cases, general anesthesia was performed with Sevoflurane and opioids (fentanyl, remifentanyl, sufentanyl) and in 2 cases the TIVA (total intravenous anesthesia) technique was used with propofol and remifentanyl. 14 of the patients required intraoperative depletive treatment through administering mannitol 20%. 37 patients (92%) have been discharged with improved neurological condition without showing signs of intracranial hypertension, convulsive seizures and with partially or totally remitted hemiparesis and one patient had worse postoperative neurological status. Conclusion:Pulmonary tumor with cerebral metastases represent an important cause for death rate. To solve secondary cerebral lesions, the perioperative management must include assesment and choosing an anesthesia technique with a proper intraoperative management. PMID:21977115

  17. [Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome associated with stroke: three case reports].

    PubMed

    Ishi, Yukitomo; Sugiyama, Taku; Echizenya, Sumire; Yokoyama, Yuka; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Itamoto, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome(RCVS)is characterized by severe headache and diffuse segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously within a few months. Although manifestations of stroke are not included in diagnostic criteria of RCVS, it is known that some cases may be associated with stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or cerebral infarction. We present three cases of RCVS associated with various types of stroke, and then review the literature. Case 1:A 49-year-old woman presented with a headache followed by left hemiparesis and dysarthria. One month before the onset, she was transfused for severe anemia caused by uterus myoma. CT images revealed intracerebral hemorrhages in the right putamen and right occipital lobe. Angiography revealed multiple segmental constrictions of the cerebral arteries. One month after the onset, these vasoconstrictions improved spontaneously. Case 2:A postpartum 38-year-old woman who had a history of migraine presented with thunderclap headache. Imaging revealed a focal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right postcentral sulcus and segmental vasoconstriction of the right middle cerebral artery. One week after the onset, this vasoconstriction improved spontaneously. Case 3:A 32-year-old woman who had a history of migraine presented with headache followed by left homonymous hemianopsia. Imaging revealed a cerebral infarction of the right occipital lobe and multiple constrictions of the right posterior cerebral artery. These vasoconstrictions gradually improved spontaneously.

  18. Closed-Loop Dynamic Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, V. Z.; Shin, D. C.; Orme, M. E.; Zhang, R.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of cerebral hemodynamics have been studied extensively because of their fundamental physiological and clinical importance. In particular, the dynamic processes of cerebral flow autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity have attracted broad attention because of their involvement in a host of pathologies and clinical conditions (e.g. hypertension, syncope, stroke, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment etc.). This raises the prospect of useful diagnostic methods being developed on the basis of quantitative models of cerebral hemodynamics, if cerebral vascular dysfunction can be quantified reliably from data collected within practical clinical constraints. This paper presents a modeling method that utilizes beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2 (collected non-invasively under resting conditions) to quantify the dynamics of cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR). The unique and novel aspect of this dynamic model is that it is nonlinear and operates in a closed-loop configuration. PMID:23292615

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    SciTech Connect

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F. )

    1989-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation.

  20. Modelling the effects of cerebral microvasculature morphology on oxygen transport

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating

  1. Prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Oshino, Satoru; Nishino, Akio; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Arita, Hideyuki; Tateishi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Shimokawa, Toshio; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Saitoh, Youichi

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was retrospectively investigated in 208 patients with acromegaly relative to the rate of cerebral aneurysm in a group of control subjects. Neuroradiological examinations of the cerebral vascular system were conducted in 208 acromegaly patients (101 men; mean age, 48.8 years). The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in the acromegaly patients was compared to that in a control group consisting of 7,390 subjects who underwent "brain checkup" between 2006 and 2008 (mean age, 51.6 years). In the acromegaly group, cerebral aneurysm was detected in 4.3 % of patients. By sex, the prevalence was 6.9 % in males, a significantly proportion than that in the control group with an odds ratio of 4.40. The prevalence in females did not differ between the two groups. In the acromegaly group, the rate of hypertension was significantly higher in the patients with aneurysm compared to those without aneurysm. Multiple logistic regression identified acromegaly as a significant factor related to the prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in all male subjects; other factors, such as age, hypertension and smoking, were not found to be significant. A significantly higher prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was detected in male patients with acromegaly. This finding indicates that excess growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor 1 affects the cerebral vascular wall, resulting in aneurysm formation. In addition to known systematic complications in the cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other systems, the risk of cerebral aneurysm should be considered in the management of acromegaly.

  2. Modelling the effects of cerebral microvasculature morphology on oxygen transport.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating

  3. Impaired fasting glucose is associated with increased regional cerebral amyloid.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Wilkins, Heather M; Archer, Ashley E; Burns, Nicole C; Karcher, Rainer T; Graves, Rasinio S; Swerdlow, Russell H; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-08-01

    The Alzheimer's disease risk gene apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) is associated with increased cerebral amyloid. Although impaired glucose metabolism is linked to Alzheimer's disease risk, the relationship between impaired glycemia and cerebral amyloid is unclear. To investigate the independent effects of APOE ε4 and impaired glycemia on cerebral amyloid, we stratified nondemented subjects (n = 73) into 4 groups: normal glucose, APOE ε4 noncarrier (control [CNT]; n = 31), normal glucose, APOE ε4 carrier (E4 only; n = 14) impaired glycemia, APOE ε4 noncarrier (IG only; n = 18), and impaired glycemia, APOE ε4 carrier (IG+E4; n = 10). Cerebral amyloid differed both globally (p = 0.023) and regionally; precuneus (p = 0.007), posterior cingulate (PCC; p = 0.020), superior parietal cortex (SPC; p = 0.029), anterior cingulate (p = 0.027), and frontal cortex (p = 0.018). Post hoc analyses revealed that E4 only subjects had increased cerebral amyloid versus CNT globally and regionally in the precuneus, PCC, SPC, anterior cingulate, and frontal cortex. In IG only subjects, increased cerebral amyloid compared with CNT was restricted to precuneus, PCC, and SPC. IG+E4 subjects exhibited higher cerebral amyloid only in the precuneus relative to CNT. These results indicate that impaired glycemia and APOE ε4 genotype are independent risk factors for regional cerebral amyloid deposition. However, APOE ε4 and impaired glycemia did not have an additive effect on cerebral amyloid. PMID:27318141

  4. Pathology of the vessels in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Liberski, P P; Barcikowska, M

    1995-01-01

    We review here current data on congophilic amyloid angiopathy (congophilic angiopathy) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy in both transmissible and non-transmissible cerebral amyloidoses. A beta peptide is the amyloid in congophilic angiopathy of Alzheimer's disease, and in majority of cases of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. A variant of Cystatin C is the amyloid in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Icelandic type. The only exception is a curious GSS-like family from Japan characterized by 145 stop codon at the PRNP gene. Both molecular pathology and neuropathology are covered by this review.

  5. Autoregulation of cerebral blood circulation under orthostatic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayevyy, M. D.; Maltsev, V. G.; Pogorelyy, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (ACBF) under orthostatic tests (OT) was estimated in acute experiments on rabbits and cats under local anesthesia according to changes of perfusion pressure (PP) in carotid arteries, cerebral blood flow, pressure in the venous system of the brain, and resistance of cerebral vessels. The OT were conducted by turning a special table with the animal fastened to it from a horizontal to a vertical (head up or head down) position at 40 to 80 deg. In most experiments ACBF correlated with the changes of PP. Different variations of ACBF and its possible mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and cerebral blood flow and O2 uptake during dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T; Schmidt, J F; Secher, N H; Wildschiødtz, G; Holm, S; Lassen, N A

    1993-01-01

    Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions. To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P < 0.0001) increase in MCA Vmean was observed. Hence, the exercise-induced increase in MCA Vmean is not a reflection of a proportional increase in CBF.

  7. A case of iatrogenic cerebral infarction demonstrated by postmortem cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yutaka; Takagi, Rie; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Kuwayama, Naoya

    2007-11-01

    A 37-year-old man with a meningioma compressing the right frontal lobe underwent preoperative embolization of the feeding vessels from the right meningeal artery. Although the first challenge was apparently successful, an excess amount of embolization agent was accidentally injected during the next procedure. X-ray monitoring demonstrated flow of contrast medium into the right internal carotid, anterior and middle cerebral arteries, and then the patient suddenly developed left hemiparesis, nausea, and deep coma. He died 48 days after the embolization treatment without improvement of the coma. A medicolegal autopsy was performed to determine whether malpractice had occurred during the embolization procedure. An internal examination demonstrated massive necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres and lobar pneumonia with abscess in the lungs. Due to the extensive brain necrosis, it was impossible to carry out ordinary macroscopic examination to identify the precise site of the craniocerebral vessel occlusion. Postmortem angiography was therefore performed, and this successfully revealed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. In this case, postmortem angiography played a key role in identification of the intracranial vascular lesion that was responsible for the iatrogenic cerebral infarction.

  8. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  9. The relationship between cardiac output, cerebral electrical activity, cerebral fractional oxygen extraction and peripheral blood flow in premature newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Victor, Suresh; Appleton, Richard E; Beirne, Margaret; Marson, Anthony G; Weindling, A Michael

    2006-10-01

    Cardiac output is a determinant of systemic blood flow and its measurement may therefore be a useful indicator of abnormal hemodynamics and tissue oxygen delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate in very premature newborn infants the relationships between cardiac output (left and right ventricular outputs), systemic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow (PBF) and two indicators of cerebral oxygen delivery (cerebral electrical activity and cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (CFOE)). This was a prospective observational study performed on 40 infants of less than 30 wk gestation. Digital electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for one hour every day during the first four days after birth and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Left and right ventricular outputs, mean blood pressure (MBP), CFOE, PBF and arterial blood gases were measured at the same time. Within the ranges studied, there was no apparent relationship between left or right ventricular output (RVO), PBF and indicators of cerebral perfusion (cerebral electrical activity and CFOE). The EEG was normal in infants with low left and right ventricular outputs (<150 mL/kg/min) and MBP > 30 mm Hg. Infants with low cardiac output and normal MBP seem able to maintain cerebral perfusion, possibly through vasodilatation of the cerebral microvasculature. PMID:16940235

  10. Effect of fasudil hydrochloride, a protein kinase inhibitor, on cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemic symptoms after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jizong; Zhou, Dingbiao; Guo, Jing; Ren, Zyuan; Zhou, Liangfu; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Bainan; Wang, Renzhi

    2006-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of fasudil hydrochloride, a novel protein kinase inhibitor, were evaluated for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm and associated cerebral ischemic symptoms in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This randomized open trial with nimodipine as the control included 72 patients who underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm of Hunt and Hess grades I to IV. For 14 days following surgery, patients were administered either 30 mg of fasudil hydrochloride by intravenous injection over a period of 30 minutes three times a day or 1 mg/hr of nimodipine by continuous intravenous infusion. Fasudil hydrochloride and nimodipine both showed inhibitory effects on cerebral vasospasm. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was five of 33 patients in the fasudil group and nine of 32 patients in the nimodipine group. Good recovery evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale was achieved by 23 of 33 patients in the fasudil group and 19 of 34 patients in the nimodipine group. Both drugs significantly improved consciousness levels and neurological deficits such as aphasia. However, fasudil hydrochloride improved motor disturbance more than nimodipine. Adverse reactions occurred in 13 of 37 patients receiving fasudil hydrochloride and 15 of 35 patients receiving nimodipine. There were no serious adverse events in the fasudil group. The results of this clinical trial indicate that fasudil hydrochloride is a safe and efficient agent for suppressing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  11. Reciprocal organization of the cerebral hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    McGilchrist, Iain

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres are anatomically and neurophysiologically asymmetrical. The evolutionary basis for these differences remains uncertain. There are, however, highly consistent differences between the hemispheres, evident in reptiles, birds, and mammals, as well as in humans, in the nature of the attention each applies to the environment. This permits the simultaneous application of precisely focused, but narrow, attention, needed for grasping food or prey, with broad, open, and uncommitted attention, needed to watch out for predators and to interpret the intentions of conspecifics. These different modes of attention can account for a very wide range of repeated observations relating to hemisphere specialization, and suggest that hemisphere differences lie not in discrete functional domains as such, but distinct modes of functioning within any one domain. These modes of attention are mutually incompatible, and their application depends on inhibitory transmission in the corpus callosum. There is also an asymmetry of interaction between the hemispheres at the phenomenological level. PMID:21319495

  12. Prototyping of cerebral vasculature physical models

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imad S.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Singer, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prototyping of cerebral vasculature models through stereolithographic methods have the ability to accurately depict the 3D structures of complicated aneurysms with high accuracy. We describe the method to manufacture such a model and review some of its uses in the context of treatment planning, research, and surgical training. Methods: We prospectively used the data from the rotational angiography of a 40-year-old female who presented with an unruptured right paraclinoid aneurysm. The 3D virtual model was then converted to a physical life-sized model. Results: The model constructed was shown to be a very accurate depiction of the aneurysm and its associated vasculature. It was found to be useful, among other things, for surgical training and as a patient education tool. Conclusion: With improving and more widespread printing options, these models have the potential to become an important part of research and training modalities. PMID:24678427

  13. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i) the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii) the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii) the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv) the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development. PMID:27034844

  14. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i) the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii) the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii) the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv) the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  15. Early GABAergic circuitry in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Sinning, Anne; Kilb, Werner

    2014-06-01

    In the cerebral cortex GABAergic signaling plays an important role in regulating early developmental processes, for example, neurogenesis, migration and differentiation. Transient cell populations, namely Cajal-Retzius in the marginal zone and thalamic input receiving subplate neurons, are integrated as active elements in transitory GABAergic circuits. Although immature pyramidal neurons receive GABAergic synaptic inputs already at fetal stages, they are integrated into functional GABAergic circuits only several days later. In consequence, GABAergic synaptic transmission has only a minor influence on spontaneous network activity during early corticogenesis. Concurrent with the gradual developmental shift of GABA action from excitatory to inhibitory and the maturation of cortical synaptic connections, GABA becomes more important in synchronizing neuronal network activity.

  16. Simultaneous presentation of two cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kazuto; Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman experienced sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hematoma in the right frontal lobe. Digital subtraction angiography revealed three aneurysms in the anterior communicating artery (AcomA), the right posterior communicating artery (PcomA), and the right middle cerebral artery. The AcomA aneurysm was treated with endovascular coiling. However, her oculomotor nerve palsy was aggravated after the procedure. Embolization of the right PcomA aneurysm was conducted immediately and her oculomotor nerve palsy recovered completely 3 months later. Simultaneous presentation of multiple aneurysms with separate symptoms is rare. We speculate that the progressive oculomotor nerve palsy was caused by tiny enlargement or morphological change of the aneurysm caused by elevated blood pressure and pulsatile effect after SAH.

  17. Laser Speckle Imaging of Cerebral Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Jiang, Chao; Li, Pengcheng; Cheng, Haiying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Tuchin, Valery V.

    Monitoring the spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial for studying the normal and pathophysiologic conditions of brain metabolism. By illuminating the cortex with laser light and imaging the resulting speckle pattern, relative CBF images with tens of microns spatial and millisecond temporal resolution can be obtained. In this chapter, a laser speckle imaging (LSI) method for monitoring dynamic, high-resolution CBF is introduced. To improve the spatial resolution of current LSI, a modified LSI method is proposed. To accelerate the speed of data processing, three LSI data processing frameworks based on graphics processing unit (GPU), digital signal processor (DSP), and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) are also presented. Applications for detecting the changes in local CBF induced by sensory stimulation and thermal stimulation, the influence of a chemical agent on CBF, and the influence of acute hyperglycemia following cortical spreading depression on CBF are given.

  18. A case of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis westermani.

    PubMed

    Kang, S Y; Kim, T K; Kim, T Y; Ha, Y I; Choi, S W; Hong, S J

    2000-09-01

    We report a chronic cerebral paragonimiasis from a 41-year-old Korean man who complains a headache and weakness of left motor neuron components. Magnetic resonance images of the brain revealed conglomerates of multiple ring-like enhancements in temporo-occipital and frontal lobes of the right hemisphere. An intradermal test for paragonimiasis westermani was positive. The patient was born near an endemic area of paragonimiasis and used to eat boiled or grilled freshwater crayfish in his childhood. Nodules in the brain were resected through craniotomies. The eggs of P. westermani were identified pathologically and parasitologically in the calcified necrotic lesions. Examinations on sputum and fecal specimens for the eggs of P. westermani were shown to be negative and a chest radiograph was normal. It is presumed that the brain lesions were formed by P. westermani approximately 30 years ago.

  19. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  20. Hyponatremia—What Is Cerebral Salt Wasting?

    PubMed Central

    Momi, Jasminder; Tang, Christopher M; Abcar, Antoine C; Kujubu, Dean A; Sim, John J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and with uncertain volume status. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is frequently diagnosed in this clinical setting, but cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an important diagnosis to consider. Objective: We wanted to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and history of CSW to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia. Conclusion: CSW is a process of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in sodium transport. Two postulated mechanisms for CSW are the excess secretion of natriuretic peptides and the loss of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Making the distinction between CSW and SIADH is important because the treatment for the two conditions is very different. PMID:20740122

  1. A histological study of cerebral aqueduct.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Gordana; Nikolić, Valentina; Puskas, Laslo; Filipović, Branislav; Stojsić-Dzunja, Ljubica; Krivokuća, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral (sylvian) aqueduct is a narrow channel in the mesencephalon. It lies between the tectum and the tegmentum of the mesencephalon and is surrounded by the periaqueductal gray matter. The aim of this study was to determine the shape of the aqueduct of sylvius and the structure of its walls in a series of transverse histological sections. Serial transverse sections of the mesencephalon were examined in twenty adult brains of both sexes. Six sections were stained by the hematoxylin-eosin method. The rostral part of the the aqueduct has a triangular shape with dorsal concavity caused by retrocommissural fossae. In the middle, its shape is oval to irregular, the rostral part has a T shape due to isthmic recess on the floor. Walls of the aqueduct are coated with a layer of prismatic cells. Determination of the morphological and histological features of the mesencephalic aqueduct is important for differentiation between physiological and pathological processes in this region.

  2. [Cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack].

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Okada, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2015 was published. Here, we describe several points revised from the 2009 edition about "Cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack (TIA)". The revision points are as follows; 1. Extension of possible time window of intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator treatment (from within 3 hours to within 4.5 hours); 2. Antiplatelet therapy in acute stage (dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA); 3. Endovascular recanalization therapy in acute stage; 4. Antiplatelet therapy in chronic stage (Cilostazol is recommended similar to aspirin or clopidogrel); 5. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) stroke or TIA patients; 6. Management of TIA. We explain the revised points of the guideline in the text.

  3. Infrared laser hemotherapy in cerebral ischemia modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musienko, Julia I.; Nechipurenko, Natalia I.

    2003-10-01

    Use of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) is considered to be the most effective method of laser therapy and its application is expedient pathogenetically in the ischemic disturbances. The aim of this study is to investigate ILIB influence with infrared laser (IL) with 860 nm wavelength on hemostasis, acid-base status (ABS) of blood in normal rabbits and after modeling of local ischemia of brain (LIB). Experimental cerebral ischemia is characterized by development of hypercoagulation syndrom and metabolic acidosis. ILIB with infrared radiation of 2.0 mW power provokes hypocoagulation in intact animals. Application of ILIB in rabbits after LIB contributes for hemostasis and acid-base status normalizing compared to operated animals. IL radiation with 8,5 mW power results in marked hemostatic activation in all animals. Therefore, beneficial effect of low power laser radiation (LPLR) manifests in narrow power diapason in experimental brain ischemia.

  4. [Pasteurella multocida meningitis with cerebral abscesses].

    PubMed

    Nguefack, S; Moifo, B; Chiabi, A; Mah, E; Bogne, J-B; Fossi, M; Fru, F; Mbonda, E; Djientcheu, V-P

    2014-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida is classically responsible for local soft tissue infections secondary to dog bites or cat scratches. It can be responsible for meningitis in infants and elderly persons. We report the case history of a 5-year-old male child admitted to our pediatric unit for meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an infection with P. multocida. The suspected mode of contamination was either from the saliva of a pet dog or through an unnoticed skull fracture sustained after an accident 1 year prior to the occurrence of meningitis. In spite of the neurologic complication (cerebral abscess), the progression was favorable after drainage of the abscess, 5 weeks of parenteral treatment, and 3 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy. Meningitis due to Pasteurella sp. is rare and can lead to neurologic complications. The notion of bites or scratches can be absent and the mode of contamination is sometimes difficult to unveil. PMID:24457110

  5. Electrophysiological measures of acute cerebral ischaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferree, T. C.; Hwa, R. C.

    2005-09-01

    A method of EEG analysis is described which provides new insights into EEG pathology in cerebral ischaemia. The method is based on a variant of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which reduces short (10 s) segments of spontaneous EEG time series to two dimensionless scaling exponents. The spatial variability of each exponent is expressed in terms of its statistical moments across EEG channels. Linear discriminant analysis combines the moments into concise indices, which distinguish normal and stroke groups remarkably well. On average over the scalp, stroke patients have larger fluctuations on the longest time scales. This is consistent with the notion of EEG slowing, but extends that notion to a wider range of time scales. The higher moments show that stroke patients have markedly reduced variability over the scalp. This contradicts the notion of a purely focal EEG scalp topography and argues instead for a highly distributed effect. In these indices, subacute patients appear further from normal than acute patients.

  6. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Leat, S J

    1996-09-01

    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  7. [An epileptic syndrome in infantile cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Sumerkina, M L

    1997-01-01

    The results of examination of 102 patients with infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP) with epileptic syndrome (ES) at the age from 3 months to 14 years are presented. Epileptic fits predominated in patients with hemiparetic form of ICP (40.8%) and spastic diplegia (32.4%). ES manifestations were observed in ICP during the first 3 years of life (more than 80% of cases). The peculiarities of ES clinical course were revealed. There were determined the main types of seizures in patients with ICP which depended on age of their manifestation, as well as their further transformation and prognosis. Computer tomographic and EEG-correlations were established in different forms of ICP. They permitted to revealed pathogenetic mechanisms of ES development in patients with ICP and to determine therapeutic policy and prognosis of the disease. PMID:9163254

  8. [Cerebral arachnoiditis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Gushchin, A N

    1994-01-01

    The examination and treatment of 66 patients with rhinosinusogenic cerebral arachnoiditis (RCA) were performed using otorhinolaryngological and neurological tests with special emphasis on pneumoencephalography to provide objective assessment of the brain layers and ventricles. It is shown that RCA occurs most frequently in subjects suffering from chronic purulent axillary sinusitis or recurrent polysinusitis. RCA manifestations depend on the duration of rhinosinusitis and its recurrence rate. RCA onset is usually not acute and takes place at the time of rhinosinusitis exacerbation. There are also mild frontal headaches, pathological changes in the coats of the anterior cranial fossa. The above abnormalities were most pronounced at the side of rhinosinusitis or most affected sinus. The treatment should be first of all oriented on elimination of maxillary infection in line with pathogenetic treatment of RCA. An individual approach to treatment policy is advocated.

  9. How a Cerebral Hemorrhage Altered My Art

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    “How a Cerebral Hemorrhage Altered My Art” examines how a massive stroke affected my art practice. The paralysis that ensued forced me to switch hands and become a left-handed painter. It was postulated by several neuroscientists that the “interpreter” in my brain was severely damaged during my CVA. This has had a profoundly liberating effect on my work. Whereas my pre-stroke period had the tendency to be over-intellectualized and forced, my post-stroke art is less self-conscious, more urgent and expressive. The primary subject matter of both periods is the brain. In my practice as an artist, my stroke is a challenge and an opportunity rather than a loss. PMID:22493572

  10. [Cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack].

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Okada, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2015 was published. Here, we describe several points revised from the 2009 edition about "Cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack (TIA)". The revision points are as follows; 1. Extension of possible time window of intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator treatment (from within 3 hours to within 4.5 hours); 2. Antiplatelet therapy in acute stage (dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA); 3. Endovascular recanalization therapy in acute stage; 4. Antiplatelet therapy in chronic stage (Cilostazol is recommended similar to aspirin or clopidogrel); 5. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) stroke or TIA patients; 6. Management of TIA. We explain the revised points of the guideline in the text. PMID:27333757

  11. Pathogenesis of diabetic cerebral vascular disease complication

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most potent independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). Many evidences suggested that hyperglycemia caused excess free fatty acids, the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, insulin resistance, the prothrombotic state, endothelial dysfunction, the abnormal release of endothelial vasoactivators, vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the downregulation of miRs participated in vessel generation and recovery as well as the balance of endotheliocytes. In turn, these abnormalities, mainly via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C activation, and increased generation of advanced glycosylation end products pathway, play an important role in inducing diabetic CVD complication. A deeper comprehension of pathogenesis producing diabetic CVD could offer base for developing new therapeutic ways preventing diabetic CVD complications, therefore, in the paper we mainly reviewed present information about the possible pathogenesis of diabetic CVD complication. PMID:25685278

  12. Illustrating cerebral function: the iconography of arrows.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D

    2000-01-01

    For over a century the arrow has appeared in illustrations of cerebral function, yet the implications of using such symbols have not been previously considered. This review seeks to outline the nature, evolution, applications and limitations of this deceptively simple graphic device when it is used to picture functions of the brain. The arrow is found to have been used in several different ways: as a means of endowing anatomical structures with functional properties; as a method of displaying neural function either in free-standing form or in a structural or spatial framework; as a device for correlating functional data with underlying brain topography; and as a technique for linking functions of the brain with the world outside and with various philosophical concepts. For many of these uses the essential feature of the arrow is its directional characteristic. In contrast to the line, it is direction that enables the arrow to display information about time, which in turn can be exploited to depict functional rather than structural data. However, the use of the arrow is fraught with difficulties. It is often unclear whether an arrow has been used to illustrate fact, hypothesis, impression or possibility, or merely to provide a decorative flourish. Furthermore, the powerful symbolic nature of the arrow can so easily confer a spurious validity on the conjectural. Increasingly now there are insuperable difficulties when attempting to illustrate complex mechanisms of brain function. In the iconography of cerebral function, therefore, arrows with all their ambiguities may in certain circumstances become superseded by more non-representational symbols such as the abstract devices of the computational neuroscientist. PMID:11205341

  13. Time evolution and hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Cebral, Juan

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a leading cause of hemorrhagic strokes. Because they are being more frequently diagnosed before rupture and the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor, clinicians are often required to judge which aneurysms are prone to progression and rupture. Unfortunately, the processes of aneurysm initiation, growth and rupture are not well understood. Multiple factors associated to these processes have been identified. Our goal is to investigate two of them, arterial hemodynamics (using computational fluid dynamics) and the peri-aneurysmal environment, by studying a group of growing cerebral aneurysms that are followed longitudinally in time. Six patients with unruptured untreated brain aneurysms which exhibited growth during the observation period were selected for the study. Vascular models of each aneurysm at each observation time were constructed from the corresponding computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Subsequently, models were aligned, and geometrical differences quantified. Blood flow was modeled with the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid, and wall shear stress distribution and flow patterns were calculated and visualized. Analysis of the simulations and changes in geometry revealed asymmetric growth patterns and suggests that areas subject to vigorous flows, i.e. relative high wall shear stress and concentrated streamlines patterns; correspond to regions of aneurysm growth. Furthermore, in some cases the geometrical evolution of aneurysms is clearly affected by contacts with bone structures and calcifications in the wall, and as a consequence the hemodynamics is greatly modified. Thus, in these cases the peri-aneurysmal environment must be considered when analyzing aneurysm evolution.

  14. Cerebral cortex structure in prodromal Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Nopoulos, Peggy C; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Ross, Christopher A; Johnson, Hans J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Juhl, Andrew R; Pierson, Ronald K; Mills, James; Langbehn, Douglas R; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of subjects who are gene-expanded for Huntington Disease, but not yet diagnosed (termed prodromal HD), report that the cortex is "spared," despite the decrement in striatal and cerebral white-matter volume. Measurement of whole-cortex volume can mask more subtle, but potentially clinically relevant regional changes in volume, thinning, or surface area. The current study addressed this limitation by evaluating cortical morphology of 523 prodromal HD subjects. Participants included 693 individuals enrolled in the PREDICT-HD protocol. Of these participants, 523 carried the HD gene mutation (prodromal HD group); the remaining 170 were non gene-expanded and served as the comparison group. Based on age and CAG repeat length, gene-expanded subjects were categorized as "Far from onset," "Midway to onset," "Near onset," and "already diagnosed." MRI scans were processed using FreeSurfer. Cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were not significantly different between the Far from onset group and controls. However, beginning in the Midway to onset group, the cortex showed significant volume decrement, affecting most the posterior and superior cerebral regions. This pattern progressed when evaluating the groups further into the disease process. Areas that remained mostly unaffected included ventral and medial regions of the frontal and temporal cortex. Morphologic changes were mostly in thinning as surface area did not substantially change in most regions. Early in the course of HD, the cortex shows changes that are manifest as cortical thinning and are most robust in the posterior and superior regions of the cerebrum. PMID:20688164

  15. Cerebral specialization. [greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes by one cerebral hemisphere over another

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robin D.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes in one cerebral hemisphere rather than the other is referred to as 'cerebral lateralization'. The experimental paradigm for lateralization research involves the study of patients with one damaged hemisphere, which prevents their performance of a certain task or function; this approach, however, presents many difficulties in extrapolating to brain function in normal patients. Attention is presently given to gender differences in lateralization, cerebral asymmetries in other species, and the evolutionary bases of hemispheric specialization.

  16. Pediatric Cerebral Palsy in Africa: Where Are We?

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten A; Kakooza, Angelina M; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Samia, Pauline; Babakir, Haydar; Bearden, David; Majnemer, Annette; Fehlings, Darcy; Shevell, Michael; Chugani, Harry; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide. However, little is reported on this condition in the African context. Doctors from 22 countries in Africa, and representatives from a further 5 countries outside Africa, met to discuss the challenges in the evaluation and management of children with cerebral palsy in Africa and to propose service needs and further research. Basic care is limited by the poor availability of diagnostic facilities or medical personnel with experience and expertise in managing cerebral palsy, exacerbated by lack of available interventions such as medications, surgical procedures, or even regular therapy input. Relevant guidelines are lacking. In order to guide services for children with existing disabilities, to effectively target the main etiologies and to develop preventive strategies for the continent, research priorities must include multicenter collaborative studies looking at the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of cerebral palsy.

  17. Stem cell therapy: a novel treatment option for cerebral malaria?

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qian, Hui; Cao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria, a severe form of the disease, is one of the most severe complications of infection with Plasmodium parasites and a leading cause of malaria mortality. Currently available antimalarial therapy has proven insufficient to prevent neurological complications and death in all cases of cerebral malaria. Souza and colleagues observed that transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) increased survival, reduced parasitemia, decreased malaria pigment accumulation in the spleen, liver and kidney, elevated Kupffer cell count in liver, alleviated renal injury and lung inflammation, and improved lung mechanics in an experimental mouse model of cerebral malaria. Although plenty of challenges lie ahead, their findings show the promise of BM-MSC therapy for the treatment of cerebral malaria. PMID:26253514

  18. Experimental Models of Microvascular Immunopathology: The Example of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    El-Assaad, Fatima; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges ER

    2015-01-01

    Human cerebral malaria is a severe and often lethal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Complex host and parasite interactions should the precise mechanisms involved in the onset of this neuropathology. Adhesion of parasitised red blood cells and host cells to endothelial cells lead to profound endothelial alterations that trigger immunopathological changes, varying degrees of brain oedema and can compromise cerebral blood flow, cause cranial nerve dysfunction and hypoxia. Study of the cerebral pathology in human patients is limited to clinical and genetic field studies in endemic areas, thus cerebral malaria (CM) research relies heavily on experimental models. The availability of malaria models allows study from the inoculation of Plasmodium to the onset of disease and permit invasive experiments. Here, we discuss some aspects of our current understanding of CM, the experimental models available and some important recent findings extrapolated from these models. PMID:26430675

  19. Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Wu, J; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2003-01-01

    Thrombin contributes to edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent studies suggest that thrombin may also play a role in ischemic brain damage. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded using the suture method. We found that brain thrombin activity was elevated after permanent MCA occlusion as was prothrombin messenger RNA expression. Intracerebral injection of a thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, reduced neurological deficits following cerebral ischemia. In contrast, intracerebral administration of exogenous thrombin (at a dose that is non-toxic to normal brain), markedly exacerbated brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that extravascular thrombin inhibition may be a new therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  20. CEREBRAL VENOUS THROMBOSIS AND TURNER SYNDROME: A RARE REPORTED ASSOCIATION.

    PubMed

    Guler, A; Alpaydin, S; Bademkiran, F; Sirin, H; Celebisoy, N

    2015-01-01

    Turner Syndrome is the only known viable chromosomal monosomy, characterised by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome. It's the most common chromosomal abnormality in females. Apart from the well known dysmorphic features of the syndrome, it has been associated with a number of vascular pathologies; mainly involving the cardiovascular, renovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular system. It seems striking that thromboembolism is not considered as a feature of the syndrome. Most of the thromboembolism cases are related to the arterial vascular system; except for some rare reported portal venous thrombosis cases, peripheral venous thrombosis cases and to the best of our knowledge a single case of cerebral venous thrombosis with Dandy Walker malformation and polymicrogyria. We herein report a cerebral venous thrombosis case with Turner Syndrome. With no other found underlying etiology, we want to highlight that Turner Syndrome, itself, may have a relationship not only with the cerebral arterial vascular system pathologies but also with the cerebral venous thrombosis.

  1. Acute cerebral paragonimiasis presenting as hemorrhagic stroke in a child.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang; Lin, Jiangkai; Wu, Nan; Feng, Hua

    2008-08-01

    A hemorrhagic stroke in children is rarely secondary to cerebral paragonimiasis. We describe a 9-year-old boy in whom an intracerebral hemorrhage was the leading clinical indication of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. He was hospitalized because of a sudden onset of headache, right hemiparesis, and dysarthria. A computed tomography scan revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance angiography did not confirm any vascular abnormalities at the location of the hematoma. Four weeks later, he presented with right hemiparesis again, and fever. A diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis was based on repeated magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for paragonimiasis. The patient gradually recovered with praziquantel treatment. Cerebral paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic strokes in children in areas where paragonimiasis is epidemic.

  2. A case of cerebral paragonimiasis in Denmark. Case report.

    PubMed

    Møller, A; Settnes, O P; Jensen, N O; Kruse-Larsen, C

    1995-01-01

    A case of cerebral paragonimiasis with severe neurological symptoms is presented. The patient, a 45-year-old woman, recovered completely after resection of a large cyst at the C3 level. The pathogenesis is discussed.

  3. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  4. Noninvasive method of estimating human newborn regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.; Obrist, W.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1982-12-01

    A noninvasive method of estimating regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in premature and full-term babies has been developed. Based on a modification of the /sup 133/Xe inhalation rCBF technique, this method uses eight extracranial NaI scintillation detectors and an i.v. bolus injection of /sup 133/Xe (approximately 0.5 mCi/kg). Arterial xenon concentration was estimated with an external chest detector. Cerebral blood flow was measured in 15 healthy, neurologically normal premature infants. Using Obrist's method of two-compartment analysis, normal values were calculated for flow in both compartments, relative weight and fractional flow in the first compartment (gray matter), initial slope of gray matter blood flow, mean cerebral blood flow, and initial slope index of mean cerebral blood flow. The application of this technique to newborns, its relative advantages, and its potential uses are discussed.

  5. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, B; Mangala; Prakash, G K; Shetty, K J; Ballal, H S

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of a 65 year male with meningitis who had polyuria, severe hyponatremia, volume depletion and very high urinary sodium excretion. He was diagnosed to have cerebral salt wasting syndrome based on clinical and laboratory parameters.

  6. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  7. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Désirée B; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-08-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, on the basis of the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic, and muscle-strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition.

  8. [Cerebral venous thrombosis and hereditary protein C deficiency].

    PubMed

    Massons, J; Arboix, A; Oliveres, M; Besses, C; Muñoz, C; Titus, F

    1992-01-01

    Protein C together with its plasmatic cofactor protein S and antithrombin III probably represent the most important plasmatic inhibitor in coagulation. Protein C deficiency constitutes a high risk factor for venous thrombosis. Cerebral venous thrombosis is a manifestation which is scarcely referred to in protein C deficiency. The case of a 32 year old patient with protein C deficiency is presented. The patient was admitted for an endocraneal hypertension syndrome. CT and MR demonstrated multiple hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions. Arteriography confirmed vertebral venous thrombosis. Only six cases sufficiently documenting cerebral venous thrombosis due to protein C deficiency were found in the literature. In most cases coadjuvant factors exist predisposing thromboembolic disease. The present clinical case demonstrates the importance of considering protein C deficiency in the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in young adults.

  9. Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica are used as a medicinal herb in China, Japan and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. This article presents an overview of the effects of Sophora japonica on cerebral infarction based on literature searched from Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies found that Sophora japonica reduced the size of cerebral infarction and neurological deficits and reduced microglial activation, interleukin-1β release and number of apoptotic cells in ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats. Further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and the effects of Sophora japonica on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function. PMID:20875105

  10. Lame from birth: early concepts of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Deformations have been attributed to supernatural causes since antiquity. Cerebral palsy was associated with God's wrath, witchcraft, the evil eye, or maternal imagination. Greek scholars recommended prevention by tight swaddling, a custom that persisted into modern times. In the Middle Ages, the midwife's negligence was held responsible as was difficult teething. Morgagni described in 1769 that the neonatal brain can liquefy, and Bednar described leukomalacia in 1850 as a distinct disorder of the newborn. In 1861, Little associated cerebral palsies with difficult or protracted labor and neonatal asphyxia, but he was challenged by Freud, who in 1897 declared that most cases are prenatal in origin. In 1868, Virchow demonstrated inflammatory changes, a view recently confirmed by Leviton and Nelson. Although a causal relationship of cerebral palsy to the birth never has been established, the habit to put the blame for cerebral palsy on someone remained a frequent attitude.

  11. Cerebral air embolism caused by a bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Frigerio, Susanna; Mattle, Heinrich P; Hess, Christian W

    2010-06-01

    An unusual case is presented of a tourist who developed fatal cerebral air embolism, pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium while ascending from low altitude to Europe's highest railway station. Presumably the air embolism originated from rupture of the unsuspected bronchogenic cyst as a result of pressure changes during the ascent. Cerebral air embolism has been observed during surgery, in scuba diving accidents, submarine escapes and less frequently during exposure to very high altitude. People with known bronchogenic cysts should be informed about the risk of cerebral air embolism and surgical removal should be considered. Cerebral air embolism is a rare cause of coma and stroke in all activities with rapid air pressure changes, including alpine tourism, as our unfortunate tourist illustrates.

  12. Speech Performance, Dysphagia and Oral Reflexes in Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Russell J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of biting, sucking, swallowing, and chewing as well as the presence or absence of nine infantile oral reflexes were assessed in 60 cerebral palsied individuals (ages 3 to 23). (Author/PHR)

  13. Giant serpentine aneurysm of the distal anterior cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Senbokuya, Nobuo; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Horikoshi, Toru

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old man with a giant serpentine aneurysm arising from the distal anterior cerebral artery. This aneurysm grew from a fusiform aneurysm to a huge aneurysm within 5 months before manifesting as a mass lesion. The aneurysm was largely filled with thrombus, and 4 distal branches arose from the aneurysm dome. Selective balloon test occlusion of the distal anterior cerebral artery using an intravascular technique was performed to confirm the tolerance of the brain tissue. The balloon test occlusion elicited adequate leptomeningeal collateral circulation and no neurologic symptoms; thus, the aneurysm was treated with trapping and resection. The patient had no ischemic complications after the surgery and returned to his job 1 month later. No ischemia developed in the 2 years after surgery. Selective balloon test occlusion of the distal cerebral artery using an intravascular technique can be a very useful tool in planning the therapeutic strategy for a complicated distal cerebral aneurysm.

  14. Vesicular antioxidants: role in age-related cerebral oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sibani; Mandal, Ardhendu Kumar; Das, Nirmalendu

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, is a major factor in cerebral ischemic damage and changes the activities of antioxidant enzymes and substantially influences the aging process. Free chemical antioxidant is almost ineffective to treat brain ischemia as blood-brain barrier exists in between blood and brain interstitial fluid, limiting component to pass from the circulation into cerebral region. Different compounds have been tested in vivo in different vesiculated forms to prevent cerebral ischemia. Nanoparticle-encapsulated drug treatment resulted in a significant protection of the antioxidant enzymes in both young and old rats. Nanocapsulated drug treatment causes a substantial protection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage to all parts of brain specifically hippocampal regions of all age groups of rat brain. PMID:23740123

  15. Primary Cerebral Alveolar Echinococcosis: Mycology to the Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Goehringer, François; Umhang, Gérald; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Hénard, Sandrine; Boué, Franck; May, Thierry; Machouart, Marie

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary cerebral alveolar echinococcosis with a favorable outcome is reported. A universal fungal PCR enabled this diagnosis, while the initial serological analysis remained noncontributive. PMID:24478516

  16. Cerebral folate deficiency: life-changing supplementation with folinic acid.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Flemming Juul; Blau, Nenad

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency is characterized by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and a broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms. A patient with progressive spasticity, gait disturbance, speech difficulties, initially diagnosed as a recessive spastic paraplegia recovered on folinic acid (15-30 mg/day) and her 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in CSF normalized. This report demonstrates the importance of CSF investigation in the diagnosis of cerebral folate deficiency and efficiency of folinic acid (5-formyltetrahydrofolate) supplementation. PMID:15781200

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique in 26 healthy volunteers before and 60 minutes after the oral administration of ethyl alcohol or placebo on a double-blind basis. The cerebral blood flow values, corrected for test-retest differences in carbon dioxide showed a significant bilateral increase after ethanol administration. Blood levels of ethanol, estimated with a breath analyser, did not correlate with the CBF changes.

  18. Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Delivery after Previous Severe Postpartum Cerebral Angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rémi, Jan; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Fesl, Gunther; Rogenhofer, Nina; Straube, Andreas; Klein, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes. PMID:22114582

  19. Uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery after previous severe postpartum cerebral angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Rémi, Jan; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Fesl, Gunther; Rogenhofer, Nina; Straube, Andreas; Klein, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes.

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (58). Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Kaw, G J; Sitoh, Y Y

    2001-02-01

    A 36-year-old Korean man presented with a history of epilepsy. MR imaging of the brain revealed multiple conglomerated round nodules that were hypointense on both T1-and-T2 weighted images. These were located at the left temporal and occipital lobes and had surrounding encephalomalacia. CT scan confirmed the presence of large calcified nodules in the corresponding regions. These imaging findings were typical of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. The clinical, CT and MR features of cerebral paragonimiasis are reviewed.